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📷 | Junichi Watanabe Lecture on July 7, Fukushima City Photo Exhibition "23 billion Light Years Space Journey"


Mr. Junichi Watanabe giving a lecture

Lecture by Junichi Watanabe on July 7, in line with Fukushima City Photo Exhibition "23 billion Light Years Space Journey"

 
If you write the contents roughly
Images of "Wester Lund 25" released to commemorate the 2th anniversary of the Hubble Space Telescope launch are lined up.
 

Junichi Watanabe (Aizuwakamatsu City ...), Senior Professor of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, who supervises the photo exhibition "138 billion light-years of space travel" held in Fukushima City. → Continue reading

 Fukushima private press


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Hubble Space Telescope

Hubble Space Telescope(Hubble Space Telescope,British: Hubble space telescope, Abbreviation:HST) IsGreat of the Bathory PlanOrbited about 1990km above the ground, launched on April 4, 24 as part ofSpace telescopeIs.The name discovered the expansion of the universeAstronomerEdwin HubbleIn connection with.It is a cylinder with a length of 13.1 meters and a weight of 11 tons, and it reflects inside.telescopeThe primary mirror is 2.4 meters in diameter.High accuracy that is difficult from the ground because it is not affected by the earth's atmosphere and weatherAstronomical observationCan.

The original plan was to operate it for about 15 years,[4]Due to the size of the results, it has been in operation for more than 30 years.

Overview

The Hubble Space Telescope地球 OfOrbitWas placed ontelescopeAmong them, it is said to be the most successful.

Most of the observations made by the Hubble Space Telescope are visible wavelengths of light (visible light)use.Therefore, the biggest advantage of placing the telescope in the thin part of the earth's atmosphere isSeeingIt is not distorted by.At the same time as clarifying the celestial bodies to be observed in detail, it is possible to observe even dark celestial bodies by collecting light in a narrow range.On the contrary, the disadvantages of deploying in outer space are that various cosmic rays are exposed without being attenuated by the atmosphere, and it takes a lot of time and cost to deal with failures.Its orbital altitude isInternational Space StationBecause it is more than 100km outside and the orbital inclination angle is also very different.space shuttleHas never been directly accessed since he retired.Since the on-board equipment is basically not replaced except for failure, the basis of space observation equipment is the technology in 1990 at the time of launch.[Annotation 1].

If you compare the size of a telescopebusIt will be about.So farspace shuttleDocked with this telescope five times, including installation, and corrected the optical axis deviation found in the test operation after the launch by the astronaut, repaired the observation device, and used a new camera.SpectroscopeI have installed[5]..Access by unmanned aerial vehicles has not been implemented, and there are no plans to do so in the future.

While orbiting the earth, it is controlled so that its posture can be directed to the whole sky, and the posture control isReaction wheelTo use.Power supplies were installed on both sides of the primary mirrorSolar panelIs generated using.

Observation equipment

宇宙望遠鏡撮像分光器Faint Object Spectrograph掃天観測用高性能カメラFaint Object Camera宇宙起源分光器球面収差修正装置High Speed Photometer近赤外線カメラ・多天体分光器Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph広視野カメラ3広域惑星カメラ2広域惑星カメラ

Used for telescope aiming in addition to 5 observation instrumentsAttitude controlAnd accurateAstrometric observationAlso used for(English editionIt is equipped with.These equipments have been replaced by maintenance on the Space Shuttle, and all initial equipment has been replaced.

Since the last service mission in 2009, ACS, COS, STIS, and WFC3 have been in operation, with the rest of NICMOS hibernating but potentially operational in the event of a WFC3 failure.

Current equipment
Old equipment
  • Faint Object Camera (FOC; 1990–2002)
  • Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS; 1990–1997)
  • Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS / HRS, 1990–1997)
  • High Speed ​​Photometer (HSP, 1990–1993)
  • Spherical aberration corrector (COSTAR, 1993–2009)
  • Wide field and planetary camera(WFPC; 1990–1993)
  • Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2(WFPC2; 1993–2009)
COSTAR, FOS, WFPC2 are in the United StatesNational Air and Space MuseumIt is exhibited at. HSPUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonIt is in. The WFPC was dismantled and some components were reused in WFC3. FOC is the German ConfederationFriedrichshafenSuburbs(English editionIt is exhibited at.

Result

  • Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 JupiterI clearly captured the situation of collision with (1994).
  • Outside the solar systemstarAround惑星I got the proof that there is for the first time.
  • GalaxySurroundingDark matterRevealed the existence of (dark matter).
  • The current expansion rate of the universe is acceleratingSpace modelWas obtained from the observations of the Hubble Space Telescope.
  • manyGalaxyIn the center ofBlack HoleThe theory that there is is supported by many observations of the Hubble Space Telescope.
  • 1995December 12-18,Ursa MajorObserving the area with almost no stars with the naked eye in the vicinity for XNUMX days, "Hubble Deep FieldI photographed 1500-2000 galaxies in the distance.Following this, in the southern skyTucanaWe made a "Hubble Deep Field-South" observation in the vicinity.Both observations are very similar, revealing that the universe is uniform over a large scale and that the Earth occupies a typical place in the universe.
  • In December 2011, the number of papers submitted to scientific journals reached 12 in 21 years.[6].

Optical system malfunction / repair

1990Tospace shuttle-DiscoveryThe issue overcame several postponements of the launch and was fully launched.However, it was discovered that the edge of the mirror that collects the light of the celestial body was distorted 0.002 mm flat from the design by the adjustment immediately after the launch.Due to this errorresolutionWas 5% of what was planned (although even 5% had much higher resolution than a telescope on the ground).

This distortion made the primary mirrorPerkinElmerThe cause was that the null correction device that detects the distortion of the mirror surface was not installed correctly at the factory of the company (currently Goodrich Optical Space Systems Division due to the sale of the optical business).This device, which was originally used to detect distortion in small mirrors, was forcibly attached to correct for large 2.4m mirrors, which resulted in distortion.

Make the most of the 15% light coming into focus to fix this problemsoftwareWas developed.This restores performance to 58%.Further repairs had to go directly to space and repair Hubble.

Originally, Hubble was scheduled to receive repairs from the Space Shuttle several times during the 15-year operation period (initially planned), soNASAHastily decided to include an optical system device to correct the error of the mirror in this repair.With this repairExtravehicular activityTherefore, astronauts will be trained for a total of 400 hours for more than a year.Thanks to this training, this major repair was a success.As a result, Hubble gained far more performance than originally planned.Astronomy historyMany precious things that remain inAstrophotographyIs captured.Many very beautiful artistic astrophotography have also been released.These photos may not always be real colors.Light in areas invisible to the naked eye (Infrared,UVWhen shooting), it is called pseudo-color, and it is colored for each wavelength so that it is easy to understand.

History

  • 19904/24 : space shuttle Launched by the Discovery (STS-31)。
  • 199312: First Service Mission (SM1) (STS-61).COSTAR (Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement), which is an optical system for correcting spherical aberration, is installed.This has made it possible to obtain clear images. WFPC2 (Wide Field Planetary Camera 2) is installed instead of WF / PC.We also replaced the solar panels.
  • 19972: Second service mission (SM2) (STS-82). NICMOS (Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer) instead of FOS (Faint Object Spectrograph) and STIS (Space Telescope Imaging Spectrometer) instead of GHRS (Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph) was installed.
  • 【malfunction】199911/25: For attitude control with 6 unitsGyroscopeThe fourth of them failed and became unobservable.
  • 199912: Third Service Mission (SM3A) (STS-103).Replace all 6 gyroscopes, replace the main computer, etc.
  • 20023: 4th Service Mission (SM3B) (STS-109).New main camera ACS (High-performance camera for sweeping: Installation of Advanced Camera for Surveys (replaced with FOC (Faint Object Camera)),Solar panelReplaced with a new one, installation of NICMOS cooling device, etc.
  • 20041/16 : US Aerospace Agency (NASA) announced that it will no longer repair the Hubble Space Telescope.The scheduled fifth service mission (SM5) has been cancelled.
  • 【malfunction】20066/25: The new main camera ACS is out of order.Restored on June 6, the same year.
  • 【malfunction】20069/23: ACS fails again.Restored on October 10, the same year.
  • 200610/31: Change policy, perform 5th service mission,2013NASA has announced that it will carry out repairs to continue operation.
  • 【malfunction】 20071/23: ACS fails again.Although some functions were successfully restored on February 2, the same year, the restoration of major functions is hopeless. Older devices such as WFPC19 continue to operate, so although they are inferior in function, they can be substituted.
  • 20095/11: Last Service Mission (SM4) (STS-125). We will replace WFPC2 with WFC3 (Wide Field Camera 3), repair failed ACS and STIS, install COS (Cosmic Origins Spectrograph), and replace gyro and battery.Hubble will be "the best performance ever" (NASA) and will extend its lifespan at least until 2014.The mission was successfully completed and resumed after a four-month test period.
WFPC125 and COSTAR recovered to the ground in this STS-2 mission will be available from April 2014.Smithsonian MuseumStarted the exhibition at[7].
  • 20097/24: Before full-scale operation, but to JupiterImpactSince the trace was found, the collision trace was taken with the newly installed WFC3, and the image after SM4 was released for the first time.
  • 【malfunction】201810/5: SM4 for a total of 3 units, 3 old and 6 improvedGyroscopeWas installed. HST uses three gyros to control attitude, but by October 3, two old models had already failed, and of the remaining four, one old model and two improved models were in operation. ..On this day, HST automatically failed because the last of the three old-fashioned gyros that was in operation failed.Safe modeMigrated to[8][9]..This failure was already expected, and a spare gyro was to be operated when the failure occurred.However, HST continued in safe mode because HST's autonomous diagnosis revealed that it could not perform as expected when the spare improved unit was powered on.[8][9].
    • October 10: Of the gyros that failed in the past, the ones that were in good condition were corrected and the three gyro system was restored.[10][11].
  • 【malfunction】20216/13, The "live confirmation" signal between the payload computer and the main computer could not be received, and it was considered that there was a problem with the memory module.The main computer put all scientific equipment into safe mode and restarted the payload computer, but it stopped on the 14th. On June 6th, switching to one of the other three backup memory modules also failed. On June 18rd and 3th, I switched to a backup of the payload computer, but it failed with a similar error. On June 6, the cause of the error will be expanded beyond memory modules.[12][13]..Payload computers are used to control the telescopes and scientific instruments on board, so if they cannot be restarted, they will not be able to perform any further activities.[14][15].
  • [Recovery] The problematic part was identified on July 7. It turned out that the unit that powers the hardware of the payload computer called the PCU (Power Control Unit) detected a value outside the allowable voltage range and stopped.I thought that the power supply detection circuit had deteriorated or there was a problem with the power supply, so I switched the power supply unit in question to backup for each SI C & DH unit, and restarted on July 14th and succeeded.[16].

Gallery

New Space Telescope Project

James webb space telescope

As a successor to the Hubble Space TelescopeJames webb space telescope (JWST) was launched on December 2021, 12[17]..The aperture of the primary mirror, which is a combination of 18 hexagonal mirrors, is about 6.5m, which is significantly higher than that of the Hubble Space Telescope.However, the observation wavelength range is only near-infrared rays and infrared rays, and it does not have the ability to observe near-ultraviolet rays and visible light.Of the earth and the sunLagrange point (L2) By being located near the earthdustIt avoids the influence of the above and enables more accurate observation.originally2011Was scheduled to be launched, but it was often postponed.

Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope

August 2012, 6,NRAUS media reported that NASA will be provided with two ground reserves of a reconnaissance satellite presumed to be KH-11 from the (National Reconnaissance Office).[18]..The primary mirror of this reconnaissance satellite has a diameter of 2.4 m, which is the same as the Hubble Space Telescope, but is more high-tech and lighter.The field of view is 100 times wider than the Hubble Space Telescope, and the focal length is shorter.The plan is to convert this telescope for ground photography into a telescope for space observation and launch it in 2025.[19].

NASA managers and university astronomers inspected the optical system and found it to be superior to that of the Hubble Space Telescope.This allows you to take pictures of planets outside the solar system,Dark energyIt is thought that it can be useful for confirming the existence of (dark energy).The secondary mirror of this telescope can be moved by controlling from the ground or by controlling the onboard equipment.This secondary mirror is fixed by 2 columns, and a servo motor is installed at the bottom of each column, which allows fine adjustment of the focus.The NRO satellites donated do not include key parts such as solar cell arrays, computers, attitude control systems, and observation equipment.

NASA was planning to spend $ 15 billion to develop the former name WFIRST (wide-field near-infrared survey space telescope) with a diameter of 1.5 m.Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope It will be used for the development of, and the caliber has also been changed to 2.4 m[20][21].

Large ultraviolet visible near infrared space telescope

NASA is in the early stages of planning a future flagship in 2021Large ultraviolet visible near infrared space telescope(LUVOIR[22])[23]Is considered to be one of the successors[24]..It is expected to be launched in 15 with the concept of a compound mirror with a diameter of 8 m (LUVOIR-A) and he is 2039 m (LUVOIR-B).[22][24][23].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Image and information analysis technology on the ground is improving.

Source

  1. ^ HST Program Office (2003) (.PDF). Hubble Facts: HST Orbit Decay and Shuttle Re-boostGoddard Space Flight Center. http://hubble.nasa.gov/a_pdf/news/facts/sm3b/fact_sheet_reboost.pdf April 2009, 5Browse.. 
  2. ^ Amiko Kauderer (March 2009, 3). “Space Shuttle Mission Overview --STS-125: The Final Visit”. NASA. April 2009, 5Browse.
  3. ^ SYNPHOT User's Guide, version 5.0, Space Telescope Science Institute, p. 27
  4. ^ "What is the Hubble Space Telescope?-Kotobank". April 2022, 6Browse.
  5. ^ Latest Astronomical Encyclopedia Science that connects the universe, planets, and life HORIZONS Exploring the Universe p104 ISBN 978-4-621-08278-2
  6. ^ “NHubble Space Telescope Passes Major Science Milestone”. Space.com. (March 2011, 12). http://www.space.com/13858-hubble-space-telescope-10000-science-papers.html April 2012, 6Browse. 
  7. ^ “Hubble Space Telescope instruments star in new Smithsonian exhibit”. collectSPACE.com. (April 2014, 4). http://www.collectspace.com/news/news-042414a-repairing-hubble-smithsonian-exhibit.html April 2014, 4Browse. 
  8. ^ a b Loff, Sarah (February 2018, 10). “Hubble in Safe Mode as Gyro Issues are Diagnosed" (English). NASA. April 2018, 10Browse.
  9. ^ a b Paul Rincon (October 2018, 10). “Hubble telescope hit by mechanical failure”. with the BBC. https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-45788412 April 2018, 10Browse. 
  10. ^ "Hubble Space Telescope resumes scientific observations-Astro Arts". www.astroarts.co.jp (September 2018, 10). April 2018, 11Browse.
  11. ^ Rincon, Paul (October 2018, 10). “Nasa'fixes' Hubble malfunction”. https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-45955602 April 2018, 11Browse. 
  12. ^ "NASA Continues Work on Hubble Space Telescope – Backup Computer Turned On, but It Fails With the Same Error" (English). ScienceDaily (September 2021, 6). April 2021, 6Browse.
  13. ^ No quick fix for Hubble Space Telescope's computer glitch, NASA says space.com, 2021-06-28]
  14. ^ Dunn, Marcia (June 2021, 6). “Computer trouble hits Hubble Space Telescope, science halted". AP NEWS. April 2021, 6Browse.
  15. ^ Jenner, Lynn (2021 June 6). “Operations Underway to Restore Payload Computer on NASA's Hubble". NASA. April 2021, 6Browse.
  16. ^ Operations Underway to Restore Payload Computer on NASA's Hubble Space Telescope NASA Updated: Jul 17, 2021, Reference Date: Jul 18, 2021
  17. ^ "James Webb Space Telescope successfully launched.Solar panels are also available-Engadget Japanese version". Engadget JP.As of August 2021, 12original[Broken link]More archives.April 2021, 12Browse.
  18. ^ “NASA gets two military spy telescopes for astronomy”. The Washington Post. (September 2012, 6). http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/nasa-gets-two-military-spy-telescopes-for-astronomy/2012/06/04/gJQAsT6UDV_story.html?hpid=z6 April 2012, 6Browse. 
  19. ^ "The Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope". www.jpl.nasa.gov. April 2020, 10Browse.
  20. ^ “Top Secret KH-11 Spysat Design Revealed By NRO's Twin Telescope Gift to NASA”. America Space. (June 2012, 6). http://www.americaspace.org/?p=20825 April 2012, 6Browse. 
  21. ^ “WFIRST HP”.NASA GSFC. http://wfirst.gsfc.nasa.gov/ April 2014, 5Browse. 
  22. ^ a b "LUVOIR Space Telescope | Large Ultraviolet Optical Infrared Telescope" (English). LUVOIR Telescope. April 2021, 12Browse.
  23. ^ a b "Plan title: NASA Participation in the Large Ultraviolet Infrared Space Telescope LUVOIR". April 2021, 12Browse.
  24. ^ a b "How much longer will the Hubble Space Telescope last?" (English). MIT Technology Review. April 2021, 12Browse.

References

  • "The Wonderful Space Seen with the Hubble Space Telescope" Gijutsu-Hyoronsha <3D Stereoscopic Photo Studio>, March 2004.ISBN 4-7741-1958-X. 
  • "The Endless Space Journey Followed by the Hubble Space Telescope" Gijutsu-Hyoronsha <3D Stereoscopic Photo Studio 3>, July 2006.ISBN 4-7741-2800-7. 
  • "Hubble Space Telescope to the other side of 150 billion light-years", Translated by Chikuma Shobo, January 1999.ISBN 4-480-86050-9. 
  • Yoshiaki Taniguchi "The Truth of the 137 Billion Year Universe as Seen by the Hubble & Subaru Telescope, where a galaxy is born in the dark universe" Softbank Creative <Science Eye New Book SIS-41>, November 2007.ISBN 978-4-7973-4193-5. 
  • "One year of carefully selected celestial bodies captured by the telescopes of the world of space images Hubble, Spitzer, Chandra, Subaru, VLT…. 1"Motohide TamuraSupervised by Newton Press <Newton Mook Newton Separate Volume>, February 2009.ISBN 978-4-315-51851-1. 
  • ,Robert W. Smith Translated into "The Universe Seen by the Visual Hubble Telescope", Nikkei National Geographic, April 2009.ISBN 978-4-86313-067-8. 
  • "Deep space The mystery of the universe seen by the Hubble Space Telescope", photo commentary, Shogakukan, November 1997.ISBN 4-09-681041-X. 
  • "The Hubble Space Telescope 15 Years of New Astronomy, A Dramatic Advance in Astronomy" Newton Press <Newton Mook>, July 2006.ISBN 4-315-51778-X. 
  • Haruyo Nomoto, Co-authored "The Space Color Version Seen by the Hubble Telescope" Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho>, April 1997.ISBN 4-00-430499-7. 
  • Haruyo Nomoto "Space color version seen by the Hubble Telescope" continued, Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho>, September 2000.ISBN 4-00-430691-4. 
  • Haruyo Nomoto "Hubble Space Telescope Space Heritage Color Edition" Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho>, October 2004.ISBN 4-00-430918-2. 
  • Haruyo Nomoto "Hubble Space Telescope Color Edition that Challenges the Mystery of the Universe" Kodansha <Kodansha's New Book 2011>, August 2009.ISBN 978-4-06-288011-4. 
  • Shigemi Numazawa, Co-authored "The Universe Captured by the HST Hubble Space Telescope" Seibundo Shinkosha, September 1997.ISBN 4-416-29707-6. 
  • Shigemi Numazawa, Co-author, "The Universe Captured by the HST Hubble Space Telescope," Volume 2, Seibundo Shinkosha, July 1999.ISBN 4-416-29909-5. 
  • Shigemi Numazawa, Co-author, "A Mysterious Astronomical Object Floating in the Galactic Universe, the Amazing Universe Captured by the Hubble Space Telescope," Seibundo Shinkosha, June 2008.ISBN 978-4-416-20811-3. 
  • , "The wonders of the universe seen with the Hubble Telescope Completely cover the great achievements with digital images and masterpiece photographs DVD-ROM & Illustrated"Junichi WatanabeSupervised by Kodansha <Blue Bucks B-1645>, July 2009.ISBN 978-4-06-257645-1. 
  • , "Hubble Space Telescope New Window to Space", Springer Fairlark Tokyo, December 1996.ISBN 4-431-70712-3. 
  • ,Gifu University "About the collision of galaxies in a distant cluster of galaxies with the Hatsuburu Space Telescope" 1997. 
  • Written, ... edited by "HUBBLE Hubble Space Telescope Space-Time Journey"Hidehiko AgataJapanese translation, translation, Inforest, May 2010.ISBN 978-4-86190-843-9. 

CD-ROM

VHS video

  • "The cutting edge of astronomy research" 2nd Hubble Space TelescopeOUJ AcademyProduced and written by The Society for the Promotion of Education, The Open University of Japan <Maruzen audiovisual library>, 1998.  --ReleaseMaruzenPublishing Division.

DVD

  • "Latest Report Hubble Telescope / In Search of the End of the Universe" Geneon Entertainment / Gpara.com <NHK Video Space Digital Picture Book (12)>, March 2001. 
  • "Hubble Space Telescope-Approaching the Mystery of the Universe-" Kadokawa Shoten <Kadokawa DVD Discovery channel>, February 2007. 

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