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👍 | [Weekly Trehan] "Slowly Zakoshi" This is the hidden treasure from June 2022th to July 6nd, 29!


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[Weekly Trehan] "Slowly Zakoshi" This is the hidden treasure from June 2022th to July 6nd, 29!

 
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"Open Dyslexic" is a font designed to reduce reading mistakes caused by dyslexia.
 

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Dyslexia

Dyslexia(English: dyslexia,DyslexiaTomo) has significant difficulty in reading and writing characters, even though there are no particular abnormalities in intellectual ability and general comprehension ability.ObstacleAndLearning disabilityMay be a factor.Dyslexia,Dyslexia,Literacy,(Specific) dyslexia,Literacy, Also translated[1][2][3][4]..Developmental dyslexia (DRDMoreAlso known as Developmental reading disorder)[5]. In 1884GermanyOphthalmologist(German versionReported and named by[6]..For support methods, see "Dyslexia #SupportSee.

Overview

In the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic Criteria (DSM-IV) revised in 2013, dyslexia is an alternative term for the type of localized learning disability (so-called learning disability) that is limited to reading. It was decided that you could use[7]..In Japan, it is difficult to write because it is difficult to read.Developmental dyslexiaSometimes called[7].

Notable examples are the numbers "7" and "sevenThere are various examples, such as the fact that "" cannot be understood as the same thing, or that the characters are flipped over and memorized so that they cannot be remembered accurately.The cause is said to be genetic and environmental factors.[8] .

Treatment is by adopting an educational method that is tailored to the needs of the patient, not the problem.[9]It is said that handicap can be reduced[10]..Ineffective treatment for eyesight[11].

Dyslexia is the most common learning disability and has been identified in all parts of the world.[8][12], Although found in about 3-7% of the population[8][13], It is about 20% that is handy[14]..Males have a higher diagnosis rate[8], Is said to be equally confirmed by men and women[12]..Some argue that dyslexia should be seen as a different learning process that has both strengths and weaknesses.[15][16].

symptom

The literacy process involves "phonological processing" (mainly phonological processing) that analyzes letters and words by linking them to the sounds that make up them.Phonetic characters), "Orthographic processing" to understand the meaning directly from the word or sentence itself (IdeographThere are several stages up to (including).Cases of dyslexia at these various stages have been reported.[17][18][2][19]For example, you cannot tell the difference between two letters, it takes a long time to understand the letters and words, the letters appear distorted, and the letters themselves look double.You can read but not write (such as "rose" can be read as "rose" and "melancholy / depression" can be read as "yuutsu" but cannot be written). Some people may remember it as an experience.However, whether this is a type of learning disability is a question.JapaneseOpinions are divided in.

Cause

By research, people with dyslexiabrainIt is becoming clear that the method of information processing in Japan is different from that of ordinary people.The general public automatically processes characters in the area that integrates information in the brain, but people with dyslexia do not perform this character processing smoothly, and it is said that the brain works differently than usual.It is said that human beings started using letters about 5 years ago, and there is no central area for reading and writing letters in the brain, and they read and write letters using other alternative functions.People with dyslexia use different areas of the brain than most people who can read, and it is believed that they cannot read and write smoothly.[20][21][22].

Heredity

This disorder may be familial and is considered hereditary[23][24]..For example, if parents have symptoms, it has been reported that 23-65% of children have similar symptoms.[25].SwedenkingCarl XVI GustafIs dyslexia, but her eldest daughterヴ ィ ク ト リ アThe crown prince and the eldest sonCarl PhilipThe prince has a similar disability (in 1997, the King and his children had dyslexia.Queen SilviaOfficially admitted in an interview on a television show).Of the writerJohn IrvingAnd financiers(English edition[26], NPO corporate edge[27]Todo Eiko[28]Has turned out to be the same since the child was diagnosed with dyslexia.

Epidemiology

The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated to be found in as low as 5% and as high as 17% in the population.[29]..Men are often seen more often[8]On the other hand, it is said that the male-female ratio is equal.

Dyslexia言语It is suggested that the appearance differs depending on the type.ItalianIn English or in (characters are spelled almost exactly as they are pronounced)FrenchIt has been pointed out that it may be more difficult to manifest (there is a complicated relationship between spelling and pronunciation).[30].

In particularEnglishIt is a problem in the sphere, and it is said that about 1% of the population in the United States has dyslexia to some extent.[31]..Studies have shown that nearly 2% of people in the United States have some form of dyslexia-related symptom.[32][Note 1][Note 2][33].

At present, research on dyslexia has not progressed much in Japan, and social fact-finding and understanding of the actual situation have not been made, and no method for determining adult dyslexia has been established.[34].

There is also a view that many dyslexia in Japanese is a different type from dyslexia related to such phonology.[2][35]..An example of a person studying abroad being diagnosed with dyslexia for the first time[31][36][37]There is alsoEnglish educationThere is a possibility that it will become apparent in the future due to the spread of.

support

To support people with these disabilities, the letters themselvesvoiceIngenuity is being made to make it understandable[Note 3]..For note-taking and testingInformation technologyAttempts to utilize (ICT) are also in progress[38]..For example, text (characters) on the screen of a computerArtificial voiceCan be read aloud with[39]..At that time, depending on the software to be read aloud, the read aloud part can be highlighted, which is also effective as a reading aid.Training using a smartphone[40],Nintendo SwitchTraining with[41]There are also efforts that can be done at home.

(Textbook Barrier Free Law)Japanese copyright lawWith the revision of, it is also possible to read out the digitized textbook as it is.

In addition, although there are individual differences, at medical institutionsSpeech therapistBy undergoing rehabilitation (training) through such means, it is possible to remember the sounds and meanings of letters, and there have been reports of cases of returning to work.[42].

English-speaking countriesThen it's expensiveVisibilityreadabilityEasy to read even for dyslexic peoplefontHas also been developed,(English: Dyslexia[43],(English: Open Dyslexic[44]and so on.Even in JapaneseUD fontHas been developed and used[45][46].

Various to assist in reading and writingTechnologyBy actively utilizing, you can alleviate the difficulty of the person.[47].Rational considerationFrom this point of view, it is necessary to create an environment where such technologies can be accessed without barriers.[47]..This kind of environment improvement not only reduces the burden of learning, but also helps maintain motivation for learning.[48].

Social situation

People with this disability, such as collegesHigher educationIt is not uncommon to receive.On the contrary, some people do great things without realizing it.[Note 4]..However, it is undeniable that the restrictions are significant because most modern higher education relies on means of exchanging information through text media.Nowadays, due to the development of advanced technology, it is easy to read aloud a paper if it is a text file.fontIt can be read by changing to.In addition, writing is much easier to express by using a personal computer or the like.University entrance examination center examinationHowever, from 2011, it will be possible to give consideration to people with developmental disabilities, such as extending the test time.Because of these cases, which are not noticeable to others, they are often subject to unexpected discrimination, contempt, and obstruction in society.Therefore, organizations that defend their rights are active both domestically and internationally.[27][49].

In JapanAkihiko Nagumo[50], Eiko Todo[51],Yanagiya flower green [52]There are many people who profess themselves to be dyslexia and are actively trying to support those who are socially unfairly treated by dyslexia.[53].

In an entertainerMitsu MangroveIt is said that it is a type of learning disability that cannot memorize print.

Dyslexic celebrity

Among the great figures in history,Thomas edison[54],Leonardo da Vinci[54],Albert Einstein[54],George Patton[55]2nd generationEarl of IveaRupert Guinnesswas said to be dyslexia.

Hollywood starIsTom cruisedeclared themselves dyslexic[56]ByRecognitionHas increased.Besides Tom CruiseKeanu Reeves,John de lancieEtc. also reveal that they are dyslexia[57].Jennifer AnistonAlso announced in 20 that he was diagnosed with dyslexia in his early twenties.[58].

Orlando BloomWas troubled by dyslexia in his childhood,BibleIt is now being improved by reading aloud.[Note 5]. Also,Keira KnightleyIs learning by recording reading, or wearing colored glasses to prevent the characters in the text from being mixed and reading.

Proving that dinosaurs were creatures close to birds, the movie "Jurassic ParkThe paleontologist who also became the model for Dr. DinosaurJack hornerIs also considered one of the dyslexia[31].Jack Horner's reading and writing ability is about the third grade of elementary school, and he usually types documents into the computer once,Reading softwareI am reading in the form of listening using.

The director of "Jurassic Park",Stephen SpielbergHe also confessed that he had been diagnosed with dyslexia.She says she was actually two years late in graduating from school because of her dyslexia, and it was painful to experience bullying and go to school.She says that she still takes twice as long to read screenplays as people do.[59].

2008, 2014-2015 and 2017-2018 F1 World Championship winning F1 driverLewis Hamiltonis a German newspaper that receives questions from children(German versionIn an interview with him, he was asked about his school life and commented, "I was dyslexic, so it was difficult."

ActressWhoopi GoldbergIs dyslexia with the symptom of writing letters upside down.

Billy's boot campBilly Captain, who is familiar withBilly BlanksReveals that he has dyslexia that is difficult to read and write.[60].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ (English editionIn (USA), reading tests are being conducted over the years. According to a 2012 survey, 5-2% of 200-year-olds do not reach level 9, which is the second from the bottom, and about 2% of 3-year-olds do not reach level 3, which is the third from the bottom. Not changed.In addition, differences by race and gender are on the decline.http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/subject/publications/main2012/pdf/2013456.pdf
  2. ^ National Research CouncilIn 1998, "Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children", how difficult is it to read?How should I define it?Various discussions are introduced about.http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=6023&page=87
  3. ^ Daisy (digital accessible information system: DAISY) Is normalPrinted matterAn accessible information system for people who have difficulty reading, developed and maintained by the Daisy Consortium.Visually impaired, Dyslexia,People with learning disabilities,Intellectually Handicapped Individual,Mentally handicapped individualIt is internationally recognized that it is effective for. http://www.dinf.ne.jp/doc/daisy/ (Japan Rehabilitation Society for Persons with Disabilities Information Center)
  4. ^ For example,Pulitzer PrizeThe award-winning poet Philip Schultz wrote "My Dyslexia" (Tokyo Books), He recalls that he first learned of dyslexia when he was 58 years old when he was diagnosed by his son.During his childhood, he struggled to read, had no understanding except his mother, and continued to feel alienated from school teachers and classmates.
  5. ^ Orlando BloomRockefeller UniversityHe participated in a program called "The 6th Annual Adam Jeffery Katz Memorial Lecture Series" held in Tokyo to raise awareness of learning disabilities and talked about his childhood when it was difficult to keep up with school lessons. June 2010, 6.This remark can be viewed on YouTube. "Orlando Bloom offers advice to kids who have dyslexia".http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WDBVsghh4z0

Source

  1. ^ Todo 2009, p. 26.
  2. ^ a b c Uno et al. 2006, p. 1.
  3. ^ Research Team on Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment Guidelines for Specific Developmental Disorders 2010, §1.B ..
  4. ^ Hornsby 1995, Recommended words.
  5. ^ Koto bank
  6. ^ Shawitz 2006, §2.
  7. ^ a b Dyslexia | Childhood IllnessNational Center for Child Health and Development
  8. ^ a b c d e Peterson, RL; Pennington, BF (26 May 2012). “Developmental dyslexia.”. Lancet 379 (9830): 1997–2007. two:10.1016 / s0140-6736 (12) 60198-6. PMID 22513218. originalArchived as of October 2015, 4.. https://web.archive.org/web/20150402095747/http://pediatrics.uchicago.edu/chiefs/DBP/documents/reading%20pdf/Dyslexia.Peterson.pdf. 
  9. ^ "NINDS Dyslexia Information Page". National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. National Institutes of Health (September 2015, 9). 2016/7/27Browse.
  10. ^ "What are common treatments for reading disorders?”. National Institutes of Health. 2015/3/15Browse.
  11. ^ Handler, SM; Fierson, WM; Section on, Ophthalmology; Council on Children with, Disabilities; American Academy of, Ophthalmology; American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and, Strabismus; American Association of Certified, Orthoptists (March 2011). dyslexia, and vision. ”. Pediatrics 127 (3): e818–56. two:10.1542 / peds.2010-3670. PMID 21357342. 
  12. ^ a b Darcy Ann Umphred; Rolando T. Lazaro; Margaret Roller; Gordon Burton (2013). Neurological Rehabilitation. Elsevier Health Sciences. P. 383. ISBN 978-0-323-26649-9. https://books.google.com/books?id=lVJPAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA383 
  13. ^ Kooij, JJ Sandra (2013). Adult ADHD diagnostic assessment and treatment (3rd ed.). London: Springer. P. 83. ISBN 9781447141389. https://books.google.com/books?id=JM_awX-mSPoC&pg=PA83 
  14. ^ "How many people are affected by / at risk for reading disorders?”. National Institutes of Health. 2015/3/15Browse.
  15. ^ Venton, Danielle (September 2011). “The Unappreciated Benefits of Dyslexia". Wired.com.Wired. 2016/8/10Browse.
  16. ^ Mathew, Schneps (August 2014). “The Advantages of Dyslexia". ScientificAmerican.com. Scientific American. 2016/8/10Browse.
  17. ^ Shawitz 2006, §4-6.
  18. ^ Todo 2009, §1.
  19. ^ Kita, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya et al. (2013), “Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children” ,, Brain first published online, two:10.1093 / brain / awt248 
  20. ^ Shawitz 2006, §6.
  21. ^ Research Team on Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment Guidelines for Specific Developmental Disorders 2010, §1.C.1. §1.C.3..
  22. ^ Hornsby 1995, §9.
  23. ^ Research Team on Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment Guidelines for Specific Developmental Disorders 2010, §1.C.2..
  24. ^ Hornsby 1995, p. 11.
  25. ^ Shaywitz SE, et al. Translated by Keiko Oishi (2008), “Science of Reading and Dyslexia”, LD research 17: 218-230 
  26. ^ Shawitz 2006, p. 115.
  27. ^ a b NPO corporation edgeAn NPO that disseminates correct recognition of dyslexia and provides accreditation and educational support. / /
  28. ^ Todo 2009, p. 133.
  29. ^ Tasman, Allan; Kay, Jerald; Lieberman, Jeffrey A .; First, Michael B .; Riba, Michelle (2015-01-29). Psychiatry, 2 Volume Set. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118845493. https://books.google.com/books?id=6Rp0BgAAQBAJ 
  30. ^ Research Team on Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment Guidelines for Specific Developmental Disorders 2010, §1.D.1..
  31. ^ a b c NHK Special "Origin of Disease Vol. 4 Dyslexia-Disease Caused by Letters-" Archived August 2008, 11, at the Wayback Machine.
  32. ^ Shawitz 2006, p. 37.
  33. ^ Hornsby 1995, pp. 8–9.
  34. ^ Uno et al. 2006, pp. 1–2.
  35. ^ Akiko Kaizu, "Reading Assessment and Guidance Package: Multi-layered Guidance Model MIM: From Stumble Readings to Fluent Readings," Gakken, 2010, pp. 18-19.OCLC 836379196. 
  36. ^ Todo 2009, p. 10.
  37. ^ http://dxnahibi.com/ Movie DX days In the case of Min-chan
  38. ^ Practical examples of ICT utilization for children with learning difficultiesMicrosoft
  39. ^ text to speech(TTS)
  40. ^ "Dyslexia reading instruction app single tone direct sound integrated version" on the App Store(App store,Tottori University, Retrieved April 2021, 4AndroidThere is also a version)
  41. ^ Read Tre GO https://www.yomutore.net/ (Something Good Corporation)
  42. ^ Ariko Tsuchimoto "Pure misreading: I can write but I can't read" Miwa Bookstore, 2002.ISBN 978 – 4895901826. 
  43. ^ Dyslexie font .com
  44. ^ Open Dyslexic
  45. ^ "Evidence (Scientific Basis) | UD Font Plans for Public Organizations | Font Products | Products / Solutions”(Japanese). Morisawa Inc.. 2021/9/8Browse.
  46. ^ INC, SANKEI DIGITAL (January 2019, 4). “Dyslexia that is difficult to recognize When using UD fonts”(Japanese). Sankei News. 2021/9/8Browse.
  47. ^ a b Yoshiori Nishizawa (2016). “Dyslexia and Technology: Current Situation and Challenges in British Education”. Japanese Language Education Practical Research 3: 67-77. 
  48. ^ Makio Oka (2021). “Developmental learning disorder”. Psychiatric therapy 36: 18-19. 
  49. ^ International Dyslexia Association (IDA) An organization for dyslexia, its families and supporters.http://www.interdys.org/
  50. ^ Hiroshi Kosuga "I can't read.Akihiko Nagumo's 24 Years of Fighting Dyslexia, Shueisha International, 2009.ISBN 978-4-7976-7193-3.OCLC 435377980. 
  51. ^ Todo 2009, p. 94.
  52. ^ Karoku Yanagiya's past confession of "developmental disability" "Thanks to you now" https://www.nikkansports.com/entertainment/news/1859047.html
  53. ^ Shinagawa 2003.
  54. ^ a b c Hornsby 1995, p. 5.
  55. ^ Hornsby 1995, p. 7.
  56. ^ ""Tom Cruise: My Struggle to Read"”. People (October 2003, 7). 2015/8/18Browse.
  57. ^ "Director Spielberg "The mystery has been solved"!Confessing learning disability "dyslexia"". Jay Cast (September 2012, 10). 2015/2/13Browse.
  58. ^ "Jennifer Aniston blames dyslexia!". Yahoo! (September 2015, 1). 2015/1/22Browse.
  59. ^ Cinema Today "Spielberg confesses learning disability 5 years ago ... I didn't understand when I was a kid, and I was bullied" (September 2012, 9)(Retrieved September 2012, 10)
  60. ^ https://sp.mbga.jp/_news_item?id=5113744&gid=1&pid=52&sublayout=acctop&_fr=mbt_h07

References

  • Research Team on Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment Guidelines for Specific Developmental Disorders, edited by Masumi Inagaki, "Practical Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Specific Developmental Disorders-Easy-to-understand Diagnostic Procedures and Support Practices-" Research Team on Treatment Guidelines, Diagnosis and Treatment Company, 2010.ISBN 978-4-7878-1781-5.OCLC 744114060. 
  • Akira Uno; Noriko Haru; Makoto Kaneko; Wydell, Taeko N "Reading and Writing Screening Tests for Elementary School Students-For Detection of Developmental Dyslexia-" Interna Publishing, 2006.ISBN 978-4-900637-25-2.OCLC 676539266. 
  • Yuka Shinagawa "I'm not lazy!Dyslexia-Children of LD who have difficulty reading, writing and remembering, 2003.ISBN 978-4-265-80126-8. 
  • Written by Shaywitz, Sally, translated by Akiyo Fujita, "All about dyslexia, I'm smart, but I can't read books."PHP Institute, 2006.ISBN 4-569-64859-2.OCLC 76918088. 
  • Eiko Todo "Dislexia is okay! 』\ Gudosha, 2009.ISBN 978-4-89240-199-2.OCLC 675875984. 
  • Hornsby, Beve, Translated by Naoyuki Osaka, Mariko Osaka, Hisako Fujiwara, "Introduction to Dislexia, Overcoming Reading and Writing Disorders," Kyodo Medical Book Publishing Co., Ltd., 1995.ISBN 4-7639-4004-X.OCLC 673515121. 
  • Hiroshi Kosuga "I can't read.Akihiko Nagumo's 24 Years of Fighting Dyslexia, Shueisha International, 2009.ISBN 978 – 4797671933.OCLC 675002348. 
  • Kazuhiko Ueno "LD (Learning Disorder) and Dislexia (Reading and Writing Disorder)-Children's" Learning "and" Individuality "" Kodansha <Kodansha + α Shinsho>, 2006.ISBN 4-06-272412-X.OCLC 675079554. 

Related item

support
  • Screen reader --Software, applications, etc. that read out characters on the screen of electronic devices
  • Audio book --A voice book that reads aloud a book

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