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📱 | End the problem of having children have / do not have smartphones!


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Put an end to the problem of having / not having a smartphone for children!

 
If you write the contents roughly
I couldn't imagine this information society in an era when I didn't even have a mobile phone.
 

Shuji Nakamura, the planner who wrote the most proposals in Fukuoka, answered the reader's worries. → Continue reading

 Fukuripa

■ Fukuripa-Fukuoka's present and future-
Information WEB media of the leap forward city Fukuoka.
FUKUOKA = Abbreviation for "FUKUOKA leap up".
The new values ​​and creative thinking gained here will give you hints to enrich your life.
You will be the power to leap forward.
We are aiming for such a site.


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Mobile phone

Mobile phone(cell phone,British: mobile phone) IsWireless communicationMade it possible to carryTelephoneIs[1]. Also,TelephoneIn the form of carryingMobile communicationsystem,Telecommunication services.TerminalThe携 帯OrMobile phone(In this case, it often refers to a feature phone instead of a smartphone).

Mobile phonewireless deviceBecause it is a kind ofRadio ActIs regulated by.A mark indicating that mobile phones that are generally distributed in Japan comply with the technical standards stipulated by the Radio Law (Technique mark) Is engraved.

Although not explained in this paper, portable terminals used in railway equipment and premises are called "mobile phones".Technically, it has exactly the same structure as a landline phone, and connects to a modular jack or rosette in the facility to make a call.

Definition

As a category of "mobile phone" in the narrow sense of the world,iDENSuch asSecond generation mobile phoneUses the following standardsDigital MCA radioSuch asMobile communicationMobile devices,Wireless licenseUnlicensed Personal Communications Services (UPCS) AndPHS,DECTSo calledLow power radio stationThere are mobile terminals, etc.

History

Concept time

The idea of ​​the mobile phone existed from the time when the phone was invented. It was a dream that people could communicate wirelessly using radio waves and that humans could talk to each other by voice.Morse codeThe wireless telegraph that uses is a base technology for mobile phones, but it was not considered at this time that it would explosively spread even if it was put into practical use.

In addition, although concrete research to develop a mobile phone has been conducted for a long time,noiseProblems andbatteryIt was difficult to realize because the telephone becomes very large due to many problems such as (XNUMX) and communication speed.

Car transceiver from transceiver

The predecessor of mobile phones isSecond World WarinsideU.S. ForcesUsed byMotorolaMade oftransceiver"Walkie Talkie"(SCR-536).

In 1946 after the war, in the United StatesBell system(AT&TIs a wireless telephone line service(English editionStarted. This is a walkie talkieWireless phone, While using a dedicated wireless line, by using a public telephone line, wireless communication has been extended to the general service. In this way, mobile communication services have become available in addition to fixed communications in the private sector. However, at that time, a telephone that could be carried by a person on a daily basis was not technically put into practical use, and what could be installed as an in-vehicle telephone was the limit of miniaturization. Following the United States, similar services have started one after another in European countries. This wireless telephone line service will later be compared with the newer mobile telephone line service (1G-5G),0GCame to be called (Retro Nim).

Fully automated wireless telephone line service in Sweden(English editionThe service was started in 1956. Although these services were difficult to reach the general public in terms of practicality, they were launched in Finland in 1971.(English editionThe 0G serviceMobile communication networkIt became the first successful example that was widely used by users, because it could be used throughout the country for seamless coverage of radio waves.

1960s-1970s: Efforts toward terminal miniaturization

Before that, it could be installed in cars, motorcycles, and other vehicles, but it was impractical for people to carry.the 1960sThen, it became possible to make it small enough to hold a conversation with both hands, but it was heavy enough to get tired even for a short time.the 1970sIn that case, I reduced the size to a size that I could hold with one hand if I worked hard.

1970ToOsakaHeld atJapan World ExpositionThen,Wireless phoneThe cordless phone, which I will call later in the year, was exhibited.[2].. This is a device that allows radio waves to travel only a few meters and allows terminals to talk with each other in the venue, and is strictly different from a telephone that uses a public telephone line.[3].

1973April 4rd, Motorola engineerMartin cooperDemonstrated the prototype of the world's first handheld mobile phone that can be connected to an actual wireless telephone line to make a call. At this time, he was in charge of mobile phone development rival Bell Systemen: Joel S. EngelI called to[4].. The phone is cordless, weighs 1.1 kg, measures 23 x 13 x 4.5 cm, and could talk for 30 minutes on a single charge, but it took 10 hours to recharge.[5].

Late 1970s-early 1980s: Practical era (car phone)

1979IsJapanIn1rd generation mobile communication systemThe service that adopted (1G) was put into practical use for the first time in the world.This was a new technology with improved speed and coverage over the 0G mentioned above.However, this used an in-vehicle phone like 0GCar phoneAs a service, mobile phones for people to carry have not yet been realized.1981ToバーレーンScandinavianServices have also started in the region.

Incidentally,The United States of AmericaThen.1978ToAT&TMotorolaAlthough permission was given for the 1G practical application experiment, it was not immediately realized.The country that lags behind is Motorola's thenRonald ReaganPresidentThe direct appeal to was also successful, and it was put into practical use in 1981.

It started as a business around 1980, and someDeveloped countryThe sale and service of mobile phones as in-vehicle phones (car phones) has started. Back thenFixed-line phoneBoth the introduction price and communication cost are several tens of times compared to the machine, and the communication area was limited to the urban area, so only a limited number of users introduced it.

Around the mid-1980s: era of practical use (portable type)

Not in-vehicleportableAs a type, it was released by Motorola in 1983.Motorola DynaTACIs the world's first handheld mobile phone.

in Japan,1985NTTShoulder phoneHas been released. It is carried around the shoulder and weighs 3 kg.[6]was. The so-called mobile phone was released by NTT in 1987 and has a volume of 500cc and a weight of 900 grams.[7][8]was.

1990s: Digitalization/multifunctionalization

the 1990sThe spread of terminals has becomeLiquid crystal displayStarted to be installed. Also, starting in Finland in 1991, in Japan from the mid-1990s2rd generation mobile communication system(2G) service has begun and the communication method isanalogからデ ジ タ ルIt moved to. As a communication standard,GSMAnd the AmericanCDMAwas there. by this,着 信 音You can set your favorite musicRingtone melodyAndPagerSolidarized withMessage serviceIs now available.

In 1999i-modeStarted in Japan,インターネットYou can connect to the network, improve communication speed,JavaIt was usedGameIt became possible to use such as.

Since 2001: 3G era (fusion with the Internet)

the 2000sWhen you enter3rd generation mobile phone(3G) will appear.2001First in the world, 3G (W-CDMA) commercial service started in Japan.VideophoneHas become possible,computerIt became possible to perform high-speed data communication by connecting with. Also,Last one mileBecause the problem of is easy to solveDeveloping countryHowever, it began to spread explosively, and according to the announcement by the British research company “Informa Telecoms & Media” on November 2007, 11 (UK time), the penetration rate reached 29% worldwide.[9].. thingAfricaIn Japan, the fixed infrastructure was stagnant while the penetration rate of mobile phones andPotential marketIs expected to be huge, and the rapid growth of the market is attracting attention[10]But on the other handelectricityIn areas where infrastructure development has not caught up, it is essential to use mobile phones.电源AsAutomobile OfbatteryKarayaHuman power generationA business like a "charger" is also emerging.

In the history of its development, mobile phones were initially focused on miniaturization and weight reduction.However, by this time, a shape that was easy to some extent was realized, and multifunctionalization was promoted in regions such as East Asia.In these areasカメラOr browsing the internet,Mobile paymentAdditional features such as waterproofing, solar charging, and radio / TV tuners have become product differentiators (for details, seeMobile phone # terminal in JapanSee also).

As competition in the mobile phone industry intensified, manufacturers were competing with each other in developing terminal designs and functions, which would be a great attraction to users.However, hold it in your handNumeric keypadDifferentiating it is not easy under the common conditions of maintaining the function of making a phone call.Touch panel,Gyro sensorWe used the latest modern technology such as the adoption of.This movement toward multifunctionality was later inherited by smartphones and became popular worldwide.

Feature phones can be roughly divided into three types: "straight type", "folding type", and "sliding type".Although not mainstream, there were also "flip type", "3-axis hinge type" and "rotary type".

Straight type
The basic form of a mobile phone.The operation unit and the display screen are in the shape of a bar.Since the display screen is exposed to the outside as it is, it is easily damaged.In addition, it is becoming bloated as the display screen becomes larger, and it is difficult to make it compact.
Foldable
The display screen becomes larger as the mobile phone becomes more multifunctional, and the flat type tends to be larger in the straight type, and from the viewpoint of protecting the operation unit and the display screen when not in use, a hinge is provided in the middle of the main body. It is designed so that it can be folded in half. It tended to be thicker than the straight type, but later technological innovation introduced a very thin product even in two folds.
The foldable type can protect the screen and operation part, but the cable that exchanges information between the two at the hinge and the fulcrum of folding is subject to stress, so it is easy to break, and there is a possibility of breaking if bent too much beyond the movable range of folding. Also, if it is closed, you cannot check the caller at a glance when you receive a call or mail, you cannot start the operation quickly because the opening/closing operation is required, and opening/closing is annoying if you use it frequently for a short time. There are drawbacks.
In order to improve these drawbacks, models with a sub-display on the back and models with a mechanism that opens the liquid crystal by the force of a spring when the button on the side is pressed without opening the liquid crystal with both hands have appeared. ..
Sliding
Opening and closing system that slides horizontally horizontally by rails. The main body is divided into two layers, an upper layer liquid crystal part and a lower layer operation part, and the operation keys inside the operation part are exposed by sliding the liquid crystal part. Unlike the foldable type, the display is exposed on the surface, and many of the basic functions can be used without sliding.
It has the advantages that the display part can be designed larger than the straight type and foldable type, it can be made compact, and it can be easily opened and closed with one hand unlike the foldable type. On the other hand, like the straight type, the display is easily scratched, and the buttons on the lower layer are often smaller due to the space of the slide mechanism. In addition, a button may be pressed when sliding, causing an unintended operation.
On some models, the cross key/menu key, etc. are mounted on the liquid crystal part, and the numeric keypad is installed separately on the operating part.
The former has the advantage that it can be used as a key with the same size as a foldable type, which allows basic operations even when it is closed. On the other hand, it tends to cause unintended movements when sliding. The latter has the advantage that the cross-shaped key/menu key and the numeric keypad can be made thinner, and the fingers can easily move back and forth between the cross-shaped key and the numeric keypad. On the other hand, since the area of ​​the operating portion is small by the amount of the slide mechanism, the keys are small and there is a drawback that accurate key operation is required.
Although it is a very small number, it is horizontally long and the short side slides up and down, making it more suitable for entering characters than the numeric keypad.QWERTY arrayThere is also a model equipped with a button, which targets heavy users such as Internet browsing and email.
Flip type
As a derivative of the straight type, there is also a type called "flip type" in which only the operation key part is covered with a foldable cover and the cover is opened when in use, but since the spread of the foldable type, there are few such products.Up to the second generationMitsubishi ElectricIt was often found in made terminals.
2-axis hinge type
As a foldable derivative type, the "2-axis hinge type" is a type that has two rotating shafts and can rotate not only vertically but also horizontally. The ability to rotate the screen sideways is aimed at achieving comfort when watching 2Seg or video and operability like a digital camera when shooting with the camera. You can select the vertical, horizontal, and opening method suitable for the usage scene.
Rotary
Slide in the horizontal plane as in the slide system. Instead of a vertical slide like the slide type, the "rotary type" rotates horizontally around the axis above the numeric keypad.SO505i(Docomo, SONY) andA5305k(Au, Kyocera) and so on. It was called “180° style (one-eight style)” by SONY and “revolver style” by Kyocera.
Slide + rotation type
As a more minor shape than the rotary type, there was also a system that combines vertical linear slide and horizontal rotation. docomo F-09AHas been adopted by.

Since 2007: smartphone era

From 2007Mobile information terminal(PDA) has evolved further, and the only difference from the personal computer is the difference in processing capacity.SmartphoneIs widespread.

Since around 1999, there have been several extended products that combine the functions of mobile terminals with PDAs that have certain processing functions.[11]..And it was released in 2007iPhoneIn the wake of this, smartphones attracted attention (in Japan)2008On saleiPhone 3GIs the first).

after that,IPhone-iOS OfApple,GoogleandOpen Handset AllianceDeveloped byAndroidSmartphone makers,MicrosoftTo developWindows Mobile-Windows PhoneSmartphone makers adopt their own OSNokiaEtc. are temporarily mixed up.Initial smartphones tended to cost more and had poor battery life,[12], Improvement progressed,the 2010sFrom the beginning, Android has expanded its global market share at once, and smartphones have spread rapidly all over the world.

In the 2010s, it became even faster with the development of 3G4rd generation mobile phone(4G) Service has begun.WiMAXThe method is AmericanLTEThe scheme was first available in Scandinavia.

From 2018 to 2019,5rd generation mobile phone(5G) Service operation has started locally.

Mobile phone

TerminalIn general society and everyday life, the main body is simply携 帯Often referred to as "(keitai)", the word "mobile" is used as a general term for mobile phone terminals and is completely established.On the other hand, it is also a mobile terminalPager,PHS,PDAWas often distinguished from "mobile".

Also known as "Mobile phone""MobileIt is often written as ".NTT DoCoMoOr "Denden FamilyIn the technical document produced byMobileIt is often written as (palpitations).In the smartphone erasmartphoneThe opportunity to be called has also increased.

Components

As a common part from the beginning to the smartphone,antenna,speaker,MicrophoneAnd control theseElectronic circuitAnd there is a power supply.

On many terminals since the 2000sdisplayIs equipped withliquid crystal,Inorganic EL,Organic EL,Light emitting diodeVarious materials are used. The antennas were mostly exposed in the early model products, but the number of models with built-in antennas increased in the middle of the 2000s, and most of the current antennas are built-in type (One SegCompatible models have a TV antenna, but many models use only this antenna from the main unit).In the feature phone era, each company's original design was characteristic, and the number of unique functions tended to increase one after another.In the early days of the smartphone era, many were strongly influenced by the iPhone, but with technological innovation, various styles are reappearing.

电源

The power supply is initiallyPrimary batteryWas used,Secondary batteryBy the development ofNicad batteryandNickel/hydrogen storage batteryBut since the 2000sLithium ion batteryIs the mainstream. The mobile phone bodyChargerIt also serves as a secondary battery charging circuit.A device generally called a "charger" of a mobile phone is, to be exact, an external power source that supplies power to the charger built into the mobile phone.AC adapterIs.Therefore, by connecting an external power supply, charging is possible without removing the battery from the main body.Depending on the model, a dedicated charging simple stand is attached.

As an external power supplyAC adapterbyDC power supply, USB power supply,QiEtc. are used.With direct power supply, household power supply is used as the power source, 3.7-5VIt is supplied with the voltage reduced to the extent.

Arithmetic/storage device

With the digitization of terminals, computerization has advanced using a baseband LSI that controls communication processing.Flash memoryThe non-volatile memory device has an auxiliary storage area. This made it possible to add variations to the ringtone.

On a mobile phoneMobile browserMoving images, music,マ ル チ メ デ ィ アWhen it came to handling data, it became independent of the baseband LSI.CPUCame to be installed. The need for auxiliary storage increased further, and the capacity of the built-in auxiliary storage was insufficient. Therefore, in the 2000s,memory card OfslotIt is also possible to record to an external memory. In the beginningSD card,Memory stickWas used, but because the volume occupied by the terminal was large,miniSD card,microSD card,Memory Stick DuoMemory cards specialized for mobile phones such as these have been developed.As technology evolved to enable large-capacity communications, the means of storing in cloud storage also appeared.

Features

With normal call functionSMSThere are various products, from classic models with only a single function to high-performance smartphones comparable to personal computers.The price of the terminal is proportional to the function due to the separation of the line contract and the terminal,contentSince high-performance terminals are not required unless services are required, inexpensive and basic-function terminals are also very popular.In Japan, even high-performance (expensive) modelsIncentiveSince the business model of distributing at low cost was adopted by (sales incentive), high-performance feature phone models became widespread.Also South KoreaMobile phones are also known for their high-performance models.

Mobile phone with cameraAppeared,カメラBy the image analysis function using the functionQR code,JAN codeCan be read. In particular, QR codes have become popular because they can store a large amount of character data (reference:Mobile device).

operating system

Dedicated OS

Often used in the 2000soperating system(OS),Symbian OS(Symbian),REX OS/BREW/ ((Qualcomm),ITRON/T-Engine(TRON Project) Other than that,OS-9,Nucleus RTOS, China MobileSoft, MIZI, SavaJe.LinuxThere is also an OS (,) based on the kernel.

OS-9, Nucleus RTOS, iTRON etc.RTOSFrom Symbian OS, Linux, etc.General-purpose OS for mobile phonesAdoption of 3G is due to the arrival of XNUMXG and its developmentcostIs rising. Since the functions of terminals are becoming more sophisticated and the scale of software is becoming huge, RTOS that assumes embedded applications that operate with limited hardware has many cost disadvantages such as development environment and middleware procurement. Is coming. There is also a hybrid OS implementation that "RTOS takes charge of communication control, and general-purpose OS is responsible for operation of user interface and application", but it is difficult to operate two OSs in cooperation, and it is a general-purpose OS that improves real-time performance. It tends to be integrated into the OS.

NTT Docomo is a platform that shares the OS and middleware above it with terminal makers.MOAP,Operator packWas developed. The OS part uses Symbian OS or Linux. Until then, each terminal maker has developed its own mobile phone interface, middleware, etc. However, the common platform can reduce development costs and improve development speed.

Similarly, KDDI uses Qualcomm's REX OS, BREW, and Brew MP as their bases.KCP(2005 summer model-until spring 2015 model),KCP +(2007 winter model-until 2011 summer model),KCP3.x(2010 summer model-2014 winter model) has developed a common platform.

OS for smartphone

SmartphoneOS foriOS,Android,BlackBerry,Windows Mobileand so on.

In particularGoogleWith androidAppleIOS accounts for 98% of the market share (as of 2019, according to IDC research).

software

While a mobile phone has a limited memory space, it is a high-performance electronic device equipped with many functions, and therefore has dedicated software.Windows,MacOSThere are cases where a subset of PC OS such as is installed, but since the PC application did not work as it is,chromebookThere is also a move to aim for compatibility with personal computers.

Manufacturer

Mobile phone production (XNUMX units)
Country199820002005Ratio (%)
People's Republic of China1,0264,10026,68735.0
South Korea1,9405,75019,86026.0
Japan3,4085,5354,7036.2
Taiwan53504,5606.0
Malaysia1904802,2362.9
Singapore1605,5001,6002.1
World total17,637.542,31576,286100.0

Global smartphone and mobile phone sales in 2019 were 16 units.Of these, smartphone sales amounted to 8,721 units, accounting for 5,000% of mobile phone sales (US research company).GartnerResearch).

The following companies supply terminals internationally. The country name is the location of the head office,2019Are sorted by the number of devices sold byGartnerResearch). The top 10 companies have a share of about 87%.

Mobile phone market share
ManufacturerShare (%)
Samsung electronics27.92
Apple26.42
Xiaomi11.38
Huawei7.91
OPPO5.61
VIVO4.58
Realme2.83
Motorola2.78
LG2.69
OnePlus2.00
Other13.42

Services

Due to the development of base stations, stable calls and communications can be used even when moving outdoors at high speed in a wide service area.XNUMXrd generation mobile phoneIs fastPacket communicationIt features high frequency utilization efficiency. It should be noted thatWireless accessHowever, depending on the type of usage, it may be expensive to charge, and this phenomenon is commonly used.Pake deathCalled. In addition, the percentage of the total traffic (data volume) of telephone calls and communications by a single telephone terminal tends to be high. In addition, multi-functionalization as a digital tool is also involved.

Call

Initially, the voice transmission method for mobile phones wasanalogWe have adopted the method and from the middleDigital methodWas switched to.The analog communication at the time when the service was initially started isCipherSince it was transmitted as it was without being converted, it had the drawbacks that it was easy to pick up noise and that it was possible to easily intercept it. Therefore, digitization that enables strong encryption was performed.

In some countries at that time,Fixed-line phoneThe network is analog to digital (ISDN) Was progressing, but the digital system of the fixed telephone networkPulse code modulation(PCM), the mobile phone network has higher compressionCodec(MainlyAMR Format) is used. In the case of mutual connection calls between both telephone networks, codec conversion is required in the network gateway switch, although it is simple between analog systems, but in digital system (including the time when analog and digital coexist).

In addition, since the voice codec system differs depending on the mobile phone carrier and service type, it is also necessary to convert the voice codec between carriers and systems. For this reason, depending on the combination of codecs, the quality of voice may deteriorate due to conversion loss. Basically, there is no loss due to conversion in calls between mobile phones of the same carrier and the same method, so the original call quality can be exhibited.

communication

Initially, mobile phones had only a call function,Voice callThe whole terminal is digitized by the digitization ofPacket communicationHas made it possible to connect to digital networks. Even among digital networks, connection to the world widespread Internet has been made early on, and it has become possible to access the Internet network with mobile phones.clientIt is becoming.

This targeted mobile phonesWeb pageFrom the mobile operatorOfficial WebsiteWas established as a privately owned or targeted mobile phone on the InternetSelfish siteThe site called will be opened. Furthermore, due to the high-speed communication of mobile phones, the communication function is used to manage money on mobile phones.Mobile banking,Online tradeNot only is it possible to doMovieIt became possible to browse the content.

Traditionally, mobile phones are simpleHTMLI was able to display only the web page byブ ラ ウ ザA terminal equipped with was also realized, and it became possible to browse content created for PCs.

Communication standard

The mobile phone communication standards (methods) in each region are roughly as follows.

Region1G2G3G3.9G4G5G
JapanTACS,HiCAPPDC,cdmaOneCDMA2000,W-CDMALTE,Mobile WiMAX,AXGPLTE-Advanced,WiMAX 2.1, AXGP(CA)NR (5G NR)
South KoreacdmaOneCDMA2000, W-CDMALTE etc.NR
North AmericaAMPSGSM (850/1900MHz), cdmaOne,D-AMPS,CDMA2000, W-CDMALTE etc.
OtherTACSGSM (900/1800MHz), cdmaOne, D-AMPS, iDENCDMA2000, W-CDMALTE etc.

First generation mobile phone(1G) is an analog method. MotorolaTACS,NTT OfHiCAPand so on.

Second generation mobile phone(2G below), the GSM method has become the mainstream worldwide. GSM has not been adopted in Japan, South Korea and North Korea. in Japan PDCThe original method called “Personal Digital Cellular” was the mainstream, so while original terminals and services were popularized, the entry of overseas terminal manufacturers and internationalroamingService does not progressIsolationI was in a good state. In Korea, in the United StatesQualcomm(Qualcomm)cdmaOne(IS-95) system is adopted,Samsung electronics,LG ElectronicsEtc. became the basis for an international leap. North AmericaEUUnlike, the government did not force mobile operators to choose technology, but left it to their choice. As a result, the current situation is that GSM and cdmaOne are almost in competition.

XNUMXrd generation mobile phone(3G) is a standard for third-generation mobile phones, based on the reflection that 2G adopts its own system and different frequencies in each country and region, and the same system could not be used all over the world.IMT-2000In its decision, an index was set up to make mobile phones globally available. However, in the process of standard development,W-CDMACDMA2000Became a form of parallel adoption, and the GSM campW-CDMATo the cdmaOne campCDMA2000It was decided to move to (North and South AmericaAsiaPart of the region).ChugokuThe government has its ownTD-SCDMAIs about to be introduced. Also of 3G technologyPatentRegarding the generation,licenseQualcomm and the phone vendor (sales company), saying that the price is too high,ChipsetSeveral vendors are currently in dispute.

in JapanNTT DoCoMo,Softbank mobileHas adopted W-CDMA, and international roaming and entry into overseas manufacturers are being promoted.KDDI(au) Has adopted the CDMA2 system for 2000G cdmaOne system. However, Japanese cdmaOne andCDMA2000It is,UHFWith tv broadcast waveinterferenceUp and down to avoidfrequencyHas been reversed from other countries. For this reasonGlobal passportInternational roaming is not possible except for CDMA terminals.

Most developed nations and most cdmaOne camps have already introduced 3G, but the GSM camp hasn't made the transition to costly W-CDMA because users tend to prefer cheaper GSM handsets. Inexpensive GSM terminals are more popular than expensive W-CDMA terminals. Even for expensive GSM terminals such as smartphones, there are terminals that do not support 2000G such as W-CDMA and CDMA3, which consume a lot of power to reduce the battery weight. Also in GSMEDGE,EDGE EvolutionIt can be used for high-speed data communication comparable to 3G.

Therefore, as of 2008, there are no GSM operators that have set a deadline for GSM service suspension.

In developing countries, the introduction of 2000G networks by using CDMA400 technology in the 3MHz band was implemented from the beginning in order to complement the lack of fixed telephone networks and expand the area by incorporating data communication networks at low prices. There is.

In 2006, GSM accounted for less than 7% of global mobile phone sales, CDMA (cdmaOne + CDMA2000) accounted for more than 2%, and W-CDMA accounted for less than 1%.

3.9rd generation mobile communication systemThen, all four companies in JapanLTEAdopt the method.

Charge form

It is internationally common that the charge is calculated based on the call time for voice calls and the communication time or amount of data for data communications.pre-paid(Prepayment), do not own the networkVirtual mobile operatorThere is also a service by (MVNO).

In the case of prepaid, there is no basic charge, but the expiration date is determined by the number of days that have passed since the last deposit, so it is necessary to deposit regularly even if the usage frequency is low. EU generally has a high prepaid ratio.

In the United States and other countries, voice calls are generally fixed until a certain time. Also, many contracts are free for calls after 9 pm and on weekends. On the other hand, generally, not only the calling party but also the receiving party incurs a call charge.

business model

Technically,SIM cardIt is possible to change the telecommunications carrier by exchanging. For this reason, it is the mainstream for handset manufacturers to first develop a global model and customize it for small-scale specific businesses only when necessary.

Overseas, there are two types of products, the "standard version", which has only the industry-standard functions provided by the manufacturer, even with one model, and the one that adds carrier-specific services. The former does not have a SIM lock, so it can be used anywhere in the world if the communication method is the same. The latter is sold with a SIM lock under the incentive system. The circumstances around here are the same as in Japan, but the amount of incentives in Japan is by far the largest.

The huge market-scale mobile phones have gained enormous shipments due to price competition through mass sales on a global scale.

Usage troubles and countermeasures

Water resistance
Mobile phones that do not have a waterproof function will break down even if exposed to a slight amount of water, so users will complain that "this is the case for defective products to break down."National Life CenterHave been sent to. At the National Center for Living, users are cautioned not to let the non-waterproof model get wet with water, and people who use it get wet should buy a waterproof model. It is requested that the mobile phone company be well-informed to consumers and that they do not give a unilateral burden to consumers when making improvements and repairs so that they will not break down due to daily slight water wetting.[13].
Abnormal overheating
There are also cases where the lithium-ion battery built into the device may explode due to abnormal overheating, resulting in injury or fire.[14].
Impact on health
WHOBe part of (World Health Organization)IARC(International Cancer Research Institute) May 2011, 5IARC Carcinogenic Risk List), "Use of mobile phone" was added to the category of Group5B, which is the third from the top among the five stages (Group3B is a group suspected of being carcinogenic to humans).[15][16].
Impact on electronic devices
  • Heart pacemakerThe effects of malfunctions caused by electromagnetic waves emitted from mobile phones and smartphones on users are warned.
Communication blocking area
Use in hospitals and airplanes is restricted.
Disruption of fee structure
Pake death
filtering
Criminal use
There was the use of encrypted chat apps, both of which have been caught by law enforcement agencies and have become large-scale arrests.EncroChat,YEAR

Other uses

Research is underway to utilize the multi-functionality of mobile phones for applications other than communication. Application as a portable diagnostic device is promoted in areas where satisfactory medical care cannot be received[17][18][19][20].

Mobile phones in countries/regions

Mobile phone culture

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

Source

  1. ^ Japanese Language Dictionary, World Encyclopedia Reference, ASCII jp Digital Glossary, Digital Daijisen, Encyclopedia Mypedia, Dictionary that understands IT terms, World Encyclopedia XNUMXnd Edition, Daijibayashi XNUMXrd Edition, Britannica International Encyclopedia Small Item Encyclopedia, Complete Book of Japanese Encyclopedia (Nipponica), Selected Edition. “What is a mobile phone?”(Japanese). Koto bank. 2020/10/6Browse.
  2. ^ NTT History Museum Wireless Phone
  3. ^ Kakehodai, a mobile phone 40 years ago
  4. ^ A chat with the man behind mobiles
  5. ^ "Martin Cooper-The Inventor of the Cell Phone". 2012/3/23Browse.
  6. ^ http://history-s.nttdocomo.co.jp/list_shoulder.html
  7. ^ http://history-s.nttdocomo.co.jp/list_mobile.html
  8. ^ "Showa 55 Photographer Life" (2017, Diapress) p108
  9. ^ Asia-Pacific Mobile Phone Market Will Over 2008 Million in 4-IDC Survey("Nikkei BP'ITpro (Retrieved November 2007, 11)
  10. ^ Africa (1) Rapidly growing African mobile phone market(WirelessWire News (Retrieved November 2017, 10)
  11. ^ "Evolution of Smartphones" Gallery WIRED2010.11.2
  12. ^ [Yuichi Kogure's mobile watch] The 75th keyword is “region”!? Whereabouts of “Garaho” newly announced by DOCOMO and au RBB TODAY May 2015, 5
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  16. ^ Cell phones are as carcinogenic as coffee Journal of Carcinogenesis Gopala Kovvali
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Information society

Globalized society(GlobalOrGlobal society(Global ShakaiIs情报Has the same value as various resources and functions around them社会That thing.Also, to change into such a societyGlobalization(GlobalThat is.In a narrow sense, a society that is changing to such a society may be defined as an information society, and such a society may be defined as an information society to distinguish it.In this case, the one that developed the information societyHighly globalized society(Kodogurobarukashakai,Advanced global society(Kodoguro Baru ShakaiSometimes called.

Overview

There is no uniform standard among experts who use the term information society as to what kind of activity is prominent in what sense, but a common argument is as follows. There is something.

  • Information-related industries and related technologies show remarkable growth compared to other economic and technical sectors
  • For the economic prosperity of workers, businesses and nationsInformation technologyIs becoming an important key
  • Information technology permeates various situations such as politics, culture, education, and daily life, and brings about major changes.

In addition, a society in which various activities dealing with information are remarkable is called an information society, and a society in which the speed of transition to such a society is remarkable (a society in which informationization is remarkable) is referred to as an information society. You can also see how to use it.

the 1990sAfter the middleインターネット,Mobile phoneWith the spread of information society, the words and concepts of the information society and the information society have come to be widely used, but the idea isthe 1960sIt is usually said to go back to the first half.Basically, it is a term often used by critics, futurists, bureaucrats, sociologists, and others who think about the changing times and large-scale social changes.Those that predict the ideal state of the information society and those that advocate the ideal form are generally called "information society theory".

The concept of information society and information society may be used to predict or propose as a future social image, and may be regarded as a feature of modern society.By the way, it is very rare to argue that informatization has already been completed or that the retrograde phenomenon of informatization (a situation that should be called deinformatization) is in progress.As introduced below, the concept of information society has received a lot of criticism, but such a theory also denies the possibility of informatization and that informatization is inappropriate as a concept that characterizes society. Although it sounds a warning that informatization is dangerous and cannot be a rosy future, deinformatization is progressing, informatization is already a thing of the past, etc. Not a discussion.

Characteristics of the information society

Most typicallyHunting and gathering society,Agricultural society,Livestocksociety,Industrial societyIn that case, it has a strong meaning as one of the development stages of society.A series of events that triggered the establishment of an industrial societyIndustrial revolutionIn response to this, the progress of the information societyInformation revolutionIt may also be called.

There are various synonyms in the information society.Synonyms are usually accompanied by words related to "information", such as multimedia society, digital society, knowledge society, network society, advanced information society, information network society, and global network society.Some of them have replaced the word "society" with "era."In addition, what is recognized as a coined word by a specific theorist is the intellectual society (Taichi Sakaiya), Information civilization (Shunpei Kumon), Complex network society (Osamu Sudo),and so on.

In addition, "information", "network","MediaDoes not include words such as ""Post-industrial society, "Postmodernity" (demodernity), "post-Fordism", "late capitalism" and other concepts and terms are often recognized as relevant in content.These concepts are sometimes used to refer to the qualitative transformation of society and the economy triggered by information and information technology, or the dramatic development.However, the social effects of information and information technology are not always emphasized, and they are one of the many factors that bring about social change, or when measuring results rather than causes, or social changes. Some are positioned as indicators.

There are various opinions when it comes to what will be informatized, but the first conspicuous discussion wasEconomyIt is the computerization of.

In general, when informatization is seen only in the economy, there are cases where it is called the information economy and does not matter to society in general.However, such research on the information economy is often cited and interpreted in the context of information society theory, and treated as one basis to support the arrival of the information society.In general, information society theory is argued as including information economic theory (conversely, information society theory may be incorporated into information economic theory).

More specifically, a society is considered to be an information society or an information economy on the following grounds.

  • Mainly manufacturing, processing and distribution of informationindustry(Information industry) and similar industriesGross national productA large proportion of
  • A large proportion of the labor force engaged in occupations that mainly handle information
  • The rapid growth of the information industryeconomic growth rateHigh degree of contribution to
  • Increasing proportion of the workforce engaged in occupations that mainly handle information
  • Provided by the information industryInformation serviceHowever, it has a high degree of contribution to increasing productivity and competitiveness in other sectors.
  • Consumer goodsThe informational aspect of the product has a greater influence on the value of the product than the other aspects.The informational aspect isAdsVarious definitions such as product image, brand image, product design (as opposed to practical functions), etc. added by
  • Information goodsIncreased consumption.The rise of consumption in pursuit of spiritual affluence instead of consumption in pursuit of material affluence
  • With the development of information infrastructure, the location of companies will become more free, and it will be easier to expand functions such as paperwork and production globally.In addition, there is a possibility that the power relations in international competition and inter-regional competition will be altered or altered.
  • In an economy where information goods are the mainstream, the conventional principle of competition based on scarcity cannot be established, and a shift to a shared and co-creative economy is required.
  • Changes in corporate management style, labor-management relations, labor style, etc. due to the use of information technology

In addition, various theories have been proposed regarding various aspects such as politics, culture, and life, but what is characteristic of research on informatization in the economic field is a strong interest in measuring the degree of informatization. Is.There are many discussions about whether informatization is really a change that is happening, and what kind of index can be used to best grasp it, and there are many statistics comparing the degree of informatization in each country.

In politics, for exampleE-government,Electronic voting, The research that measures and observes the utilization of the Internet by political parties and talks about the computerization of politics with it is not so active.Instead, there is much debate about how politics will change as such informatization progresses.It, on the one hand, has been the subject of empirical case studies and survey studies, and has been validated as an ongoing informatization.However, there are few cases where the main purpose of such surveys is to make a diagnosis of the kind that the information society has been realized, that it is about to be realized, and that information technology has just begun.

On the other hand, there is a theory that uses terms such as e-democracy and cyber politics to describe the radical transformation of politics.Many consider case studies and prominent cases as pioneering cases and develop relatively bold discussions (some are not).The political systems of the information-oriented society depicted include anarchism, direct democracy, global democracy, civil society rehabilitation, grassroots democracy, and community rehabilitation.However, some of the early information society theories and those assuming mainframe computers predict the large-scale accumulation of knowledge and the dramatic development of planning and prediction technology that utilizes it.In addition, there are many theories that generally warn of the rise of technocracy in the information society and the increase in government management and monitoring capabilities.

Origin as a theory

Some of the most frequently mentioned studies and works are listed below as influential editorials that initially advocated the concept of the information society.

Generally, in the context of information society theory and information society theory in Japan, Tadao Umesao is said to be the first, and there seems to be no theory that goes back to that time.In addition, it was Yujiro Hayashi who proposed the term "information society" in Japan.In the English-speaking world, sociologist Daniel Bell and critic Alvin Toffler are mentioned very often, and Machlup is rarely mentioned, but there seems to be little dating back to Machlup.Other researchers and works tend to be included or not included depending on the introducer.

The achievements of Machlup and Umesao in the early 1960s are usually considered to be independent of each other in Japan.Umesao's achievements are not well known in the English-speaking world, but rather Yoneji Masuda is prominent as an information society theory originating in Japan.

Yoneji Masuda's theory of information society was touted at that time.Futures studiesHowever, the issue of how the development of information media transcends the economic field and promotes value transformation across society and culture, and how individuals can independently create value in it. It can be said that it stands out among the early researchers in terms of its attention.

Looking at this alone, it seems that there was pioneering research in the 1960s, and full-scale research and writing began to be published around 1970.However, although Bell did not actually publish in the form of an independent book, he has been discussing post-industrial society since the early 1960s, the earliest being the title of a seminar held in Boston in 1962. It goes back to (Bell, 1973; Ito, 1980).By the way, it is generally believed that Touraine's work in France, using the same term post-industrialization, was independent of Bell's.

In Japan, from early onAdministrationHas paid attention to the concept of information society and information society.It is rarely cited among researchers, but the earliest is probably the Economic Planning Council Information Research Committee.1969It will be "Japanese Information Society: Its Vision and Challenges" edited in.There are two types of books, one is a book published by Diamond and the other is a pamphlet. For the latter, Saeda (2) has the background and analysis of the time.

Main criticism

A number of criticisms have been presented against such information society theory and information society theory.

  1. "Technical determinismBeing like that.
    That is, the criticism is that they tend to focus on information technology and think that it is the key to predicting social change, and that other factors—culture, politics, economy, etc.—are not fully considered.
  2. Information revolutionCriticism that the situation called is never actually coming.
    20st centuryEven in the second half ...Cable TVThere are some technologies that are thought to bring about major changes in society, and are discussed as such, but they do not actually end up being widely used or become widespread but do not bring about major social change. It's over.Some argue that the theory that heralds the arrival of the information society tends to downplay or ignore such past examples.In general,MediaIt is pointed out that the idea of ​​changing society is very common, and that it ends up being irrelevant.
    Furthermore, it has been pointed out that the argument that the penetration of media, new information, and communication technology will greatly change society exists far back in the birth of the "information society."Telegrams and newspapers have been thought to bring about social change, and the content of social change discussed there contains issues that are very similar to those prevailing in the information society theory today.
  3. There is no qualitative change in the information itself or a drastic change in the social structure.
    Related to the above-mentioned skeptical view of the arrival of the information society, recent developments in information technology may cause quantitative changes in information, but not qualitative changes in the transmitted information. Criticism that.It is said that information technology has brought about the speed, amount, and means of transmitting information, and that they have not brought about drastic changes in the mechanism by which society moves.
  4. Industrial societyIt's just an extension of.
    It is related to the criticism that the above-mentioned drastic change in social structure will not occur, but informatizationindustryIt may bring efficiency and express delivery to the system, but it is criticized that the underlying structure has not changed from the industrial society.
  5. The debate that heralds the arrival of the information society wants to market technologyInformation industryIt functions as an advertisement for the information technology, or aims to become an information technology nation.CountryCriticism that he is responsible for one side of the.
    It may be pointed out that research in the information society is often funded by such companies and governments.This is not necessarily a criticism in the form of "such predictions are wrong."Rather, it has implications such as being manipulated by the speculation of companies and nations, neglecting to look at things critically, and forgetting to seriously think about what is really desirable for society. In many cases.
  6. Through revolutionary changeユ ー ト ピ アThose who disagree with the tone that is realized.This type of criticism does not necessarily deny the arrival of something that could be called an information society, but warns that it is far from an ideal society and will cause various harms.The negative visions of the information society drawn by many researchers are as follows.
    • Database,Surveillance cameraSurveillance and management technology represented byPoliciesWas infringedFreedom of speech,Freedom of thoughtIs a threatened society.In fact, the British government has extensively introduced surveillance cameras (CCTVs), primarily to reduce crime, and is controversial.
    • By a few companiesNews agency Monopoly(Oroligopoly) And a healthy distribution of diverse speechDemocracyIs threatened, minority opinions, companies and資本主義An anti-democratic society in which opinions that criticize
    • The result of a small number of companies monopolizing (or oligopolizing) the cultural industry, causing consumers to lose sound morals and judgment, misunderstand "", and lose cultural diversity and creativity. Born, poor, empty society
    • Information technologyDeep understanding ofInformation processingA society where the gap between rich and poor is widening between some elites and others, who are capable and have access to information, and a stronger structure of exploitation is established.
    • crimeAnyone can easily touch the related technology to executeSecurityIs a society that is dramatically deteriorating.The number of crimes that actually abuse the Internet is increasing rapidly.
  7. Due to the excess of information, it becomes impossible to obtain the information that should be obtained, andFalse informationThe meaning of the information itself is impaired due to the flooding of information.In other words, there are criticisms that "the information society is a society in which information turns into garbage."
  8. Individuals lose control of their information.In order to start shopping and live, personal information is required to be provided everywhere in society, and the provided information will be used not only at the primary destination but also everywhere.However, informants will not be able to grasp or manage it.[1].

footnote

  1. ^ "Introduction to data mining without using mathematical formulas"Yushi Okajima

References

  • Tadao Umesao (1963). "Information Industry Theory" Broadcast Asahi January Issue p.1-4
  • Shunpei Kumon (1998). "The Great Pioneers of Information Society",[1](Retrieved September 2003, 7)
  • Economic Council Information Research Committee (1969). "Japanese Information Society: Its Vision and Challenges" Diamond
  • Saburo Saeda "Information Society in Japan-The Past 30 Years, The Next 30 Years" "Soken Review" Mitsui Knowledge Industry v.26 pp.8-18.,[2](Retrieved September 2003, 7)
  • Information Industry Office, Heavy Industries Bureau, Ministry of International Trade and Industry (1969). Toward an Information Society: -Our Challenges- Report of the Information Industry Subcommittee of the Industrial Structure Council Computer Age
  • Ministry of International Trade and Industry Industrial Structure Council (1969). Report on measures for the development of information processing and information industry
  • Japan Information Processing Development Corporation (1972). "Plan for Information Society-National Goal Aiming for 2000 AD"
  • Yujiro Hayashi (1969). "Information Society" Kodansha's New Book
  • Yutaka Fukuda (1996). "Topology of Informatization" Ochanomizu Shobo
  • Hiroko Kano (2007) "Information Society: The Composition of a Super-Efficient Society" Kitaooji Shobo
  • Hideo Fukunaga (2008). "Advanced Information and Contemporary Civilization-On the Decline of" Participation "" Tadao Umesao, Supervised "Civilization in the Earth Era" Kyoto Tsushinsha
  • Bell, Daniel (1973). The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting. New York: Basic Books.
    (Japanese translation: Daniel Bell, "The Arrival of a Post-Industrial Society: An Attempt to Predict Society", translated by Tadao Uchiyama et al.
  • Beniger, James R. (1986). The control revolution: technological and economic origins of the information society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Drucker, Peter F. (1969). The Age of Discontinuity.
    (Japanese translation Peter Drucker, Age of Discontinuity, translated by Yujiro Hayashi, Diamond, 1980)
  • Harvey, D. (1989). The condition of postmodernity: an enquiry into the origins of cultural change. New York: Blackwell.
    (Japanese translation David Harvey, "Postmodernity Conditions", translated by Naoki Yoshihara, Aoki Shoten, 1999)
  • Ito, Yoichi (1980). The'Johoka Shakai' approach to the study of communication in Japan. Keio Communication Review 1 (March, 1980).
  • Kumar, Krishan (1995). From Post-Industrial to Post-Modern Society: New theories of the contemporary world.
  • McLuhan, Marshall (1967). Understanding Media --The Extentions of Man.
    (Japanese translation Marshall McLuhan, Media Theory: Aspects of Human Expansion, Translated by Yutaka Kurihara et al., Misuzu Shobo, 1987)
  • Machlup, Fritz (1962). The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    (Japanese translation Fritz Machlup "Knowledge Industry" translated by Takeo Takahashi et al., Industrial Efficiency Junior College Publishing Department, 1969)
  • Masuda, Yoneji (1981). The information society as postindustrial society, Bethesda, MD: World Futures Society. (1981 Institute for the Information Society, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Naisbitt. J. Megatrends: ten new directions transforming our lives. Macdonald, 1984.
    (Japanese translation John Naisbitt "Mega Trend" translated by Kenichi Takemura, Mikasa Shobo, 1982)
  • Porat, Marc Uri (1977). The Information Economy: Definition and measurement. (V.1 --v.5) Washington DC: United States Department of Commerce.
    (Japanese translation Mark Polato "Introduction to Information Economy", translated by Seisuke Komatsuzaki, Computer Age, 1982)
  • Roszak, T. Where the Wasteland Ends: Politics and Transcendence in Postindustrial Society. London: 1973.
  • Touraine, Alan. (1971). The Post-Industrial Society: Tomorrow's social history: classes, conflict and culture in the programmed society, New York: Random House.
    (Original work Alain Touraine, La Société postindustrielle, Paris, Denoel, 1969)
    (Japanese translation Alain Touraine "Post-industrial society" translated by Juri Aikawa and Jun Nishikawa, Kawade Shobo Shinsha, 1970)
  • Webster, Frank (1995). Theories of the information society. London: Routridge.
    (Japanese translation Frank Webster "Reading" Information Society ""Akeo TabataTranslated by Seitosha, 2001)

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