Portal field news

Portal field news

in ,

👍 | Dave Spector praises Tsubakuro's appearance record and talks about his own "some achievements"


写真 

Dave Spector praises Tsubakuro's appearance record and talks about his own "some achievements"

 
If you write the contents roughly
Related article: Dave questions politicians involved with religious cults: 'Why are you defiant?
 

[Dave Spector praises Tsubakuro's 2000 appearances.He also conveyed his own achievements, and received many reactions from fans. … → Continue reading

 Sirabee

"Making'tell'intelligible" The news site "Sirabee" is a medium that combines survey data with news to convey information in an easy-to-understand manner.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Related article: Dave

    cult

    cult(Buddha: sect,British: cult) Was originally a religious term with no critical nuance, meaning "ritual / ritual".[1],CurrentlyAntisocialThe secular and unusual image of a group or organization has almost taken root.[2][3],Religious FaithUsingcriminal behaviorUsed to refer to antisocial groups and organizations that do[4][5].

    EuropeNow, let ’s talk about groups derived from general religions.Sect"[6][Page number required], Treated as synonymous with cult[7][Page number required].

    Etymology

    "worship","worshipMeansLatin cultusIs a word derived from[1].French(Buddha: worship) Means different religions, and as an academic term, refers to a small group of enthusiastic believers centered on charismatic leaders.[4].. "Usage for small and ardent followers" (positive meaning such as cult movies)#Examples in subcultureSee section.

    History

    Origin

    Catholic churchDue tosaintVeneration (CULT OF SAINTS, In the denominations that worship Christian saints with the revered CultWorship / worship Adoration is distinguished), at the end of the 19th centuryMelanesiaHappened in various placesCargo cult(cult charge), But there are no negative or critical nuances.

    Early 20th century

    Max Weber(German sociologist),Ernst Troelt(Germany OfProtestanttheologyIn "The Social Teaching of the Christian Churches" (German version 1912, English translation 1931), presented a "church-sect typology" and cult (a cult).GermanSect:sect) Was proposed as follows. (See also the figure on the right) "Cult" refers to the initial form of a religious group, and at this stage it is persecuted from the surroundings, but the persecution decreases as it gains citizenship, and it is gradually recognized as a formal social group. become.Therefore, it is a term that refers to religious groups that have not yet obtained citizenship.

    The United States of AmericaIn, from around 1920, it originated in the United StatesChristian scienceSo-called, which does not belong to major religious traditions such asNew religionAs religious sociology,Esoteric"Cult" has come to be used as a concept to describe a cult with a cult of teaching, ardent worship of charismatic leaders, and a loose group of believers.

    In the 1930s,MaintenanceChristian priestheresyStart using by pointing to a Christian organization that you consider[8].

    Mid 20th century

    In the 1960shippieOriental, etc.キ リ ス ト 教Refers to religions other than[9].. 1970年代の宗教学者らは、意図的に宗教集団の類型として使用したReligious scholars in the XNUMXs deliberately used it as a type of religious group[8].

    (English edition(American sociologist)1950Review the "Church-Sect typology" and have a non-Christian styleNew religionWas included in the sect as a new type, and this was claimed as a "cult".Also,Psychic,astrologyIt is a group of believers such as, and is characterized by a small and loose organizational structure.

    (English edition(American sociologist)(English editionAccording to (American sociologists), a "cult" is a "loose union by individuals seeking individualistic forgetfulness and mental and physical healing, and has teachings that deviate from existing religious traditions and therefore the surrounding community. Will be suspicious. "

    (English edition(AmericaSociology of religionPerson) and(English edition Made the "sect" a "group separated from the Mother Church with the aim of reestablishing faith" and the "cult" a "group formed under new teachings that deviate from existing traditions."In addition, the following three subtypes were set according to the degree of achievement of cult organization.

    • "Audience cult" ("Audience cult")
      Members who are interested in knowing information about new mysterious things through the media.
    • "Person-centered cult" ("Client cult")
      People visit the charismatic central figure of the group, become a visitor (client), and participate in seminars and therapies.
      The relationship between the organizer and the visitors is closer than that of the "audience cult" ("audience cult").
    • "Cult movement"
      In "audience cult" and "person-centered cult"EntertainmentAlthough only temporary and pragmatic effects such as healing of illness and illness are required, it is inevitable to organize to continuously guarantee things that cannot be confirmed immediately such as "salvation of the soul".The human organization that supplies this guarantee is the "religion."

    (English edition(AmericaSociology of religionIn 1971, in the "Cult Life Cycle Theory", from the birth to the dismantling of a new organization that corresponds to a cult or sect.Product life cycleProposed to go through the following five stages[10].

    1. Sprouting organization-against the background of social unrestcharismaSexualleaderAppears, and groups (cults, sects) appear.
    2. Formal organization-Group goals are codified and differences from outsiders are emphasized.
    3. Maximum efficiency stage-a rational organization will lead the group.By this time, the contempt from outsiders to the group has decreased, and conversely, the hostility from the group to outsiders has disappeared.
    4. Institutional Stage-Organizational operations become bureaucratic and aim to retain their privileges.Worship will become more formal, and the criteria for qualification to become a member of a group will be relaxed.
    5. Demolition stage-Corruption is widespread in the organization, and the bureaucratic mechanism of organization management is a memberneedsSince it is not possible to respond to, the number of withdrawals will increase.If some leaders and members launch a successful religious revival movement (revival movement), a new cycle begins, otherwise the group heads for dismantling.

    Since the late 1970s

    1978, From usaガイアナMoved toPeople's templeAs many as 900 followersMass suicideIn the United States社会 問題The mass media will use it in the press to refer to religious groups that are considered socially dangerous.これを機にTaking this opportunity 1979, Congress and state hearings were held[11]..In the same year, the International Cult Study Group (ICSA)[Note 1], Old: AFF[Note 2]) Was established[Note 3].

    the 1970sLatter half - the 1980sOverAmericaAs a result of the debate centered on, "It is targeted by an anti-cult group consisting of lawyers, case workers, former believers, and relatives of believers who support the recapture and withdrawal of believers, rather than the religious and sociological cult type. It is a generic derogatory term for a group of people who have been cultivated.LabelIt has been concluded that it tends to be used as a "paste"[12][13][14]..Religious scholars use this wordSociology of religionIt is not used as a classification of religious groups based on academics such as[13].

    Psychiatrist OfRobert J. LiftonIt is,1981In a dissertation contributed to Harvard Mental Health Letter, the cult was "spread all over the world."ideologyThe existence of a charismatic leader to be worshiped as a characteristic of the cult, defined as "a uniform aspect of the plague of totalitarianism or fundamentalism"Forced persuasionThinking reform, Economic, sexual and psychological of general members by leadersexploitationListed three[15].

    Michael Shermer(Science writer) Is his own book and claims the following characteristics[16].

    Worship of group leaders,saintOr praise that is no different from being directed to the deity, conviction that you will never make a mistake.また、指導者はAlso, the leaderInfallibility(View PlazaHe is sexual and has a wide range of knowledge from philosophical matters to everyday trifles.Missionary means vary from generous to intimidating in order to attract new believers and reinforce the current religious beliefs.The group has absolute truth and morality, the true purpose and plan of the faith is ambiguous, and it is not explicitly presented to new believers or the general public.Believers and congregations are not informed of everything about the leaders and the core of the group, and incidents or situations that could lead to major confusion, deficiencies or troubles are concealed, monetary and Persuaded to offer other assets.Leaders are allowed to have sexual relations with one or more believers and have a blind belief in the standards of good and evil about the ultimate knowledge, thoughts and actions found by the leader or group.集団の道徳の基準にきちんと従えば、組織の一員としていられるが、そうでない者はIf you follow the moral standards of the group properly, you can be a member of the organization, but those who are notExcommunicationBe done or punished.[Page number required]

    Status of each country

    The United States of America

    The unified view of the anti-cult camp was summarized in 1985.Cultism: A conference for scholars and policy makersThere is a document that says.また、アメリカの宗教団体の脱会者が、絶対的服従やAlso, the withdrawals of American religious groups are absolutely obedient.Mind control, Begin to refer to antisocial groups committing criminal acts as "destructive cults"[17].

    Latin America

    BelemAroundAmazonDistributed in rural areas(Portuguese version,BahiaDistributed aroundCandomblé,Sao PauloIs spreading all over the countryUmbandaAfrican religions such as the Afro-Brazilian cult are commonly referred to as[18]..アフロ・ブラジリアン・カルトは16世紀以来、アフリカから労働力として導入された奴隷によって持ち込まれた伝統的宗教とローマ・カトリックが融合した宗教であり、先住民The Afro Brazilian Cult is a fusion of Roman Catholic religion and traditional religions brought in by slaves introduced from Africa as a labor force since the XNUMXth century and is indigenous.Indio OfshamanismThe influence of is also seen.In the Afro-Brazilian cult, "cult" is used to mean "school."

    European countries

    "Sect" and "cult" are sometimes treated as synonymous.

    In addition, FranceThen.Anti-sect methodA law commonly known as is enacted, but the target group here is "a group that tends to cause conflict with society according to the regulations of the French government", and it is considered whether it is a religious group or not. Not.

    Chugoku

    ChineseThen,CultAlthough it is called, it is a different concept from the "evil religion" in Japan.

    There is a group designated as "evil" by the Chinese authorities.

    South Korea

    Japanese religious groups were recognized by the Korean government, which had an anti-Japanese policy, as a "religious religion" meaning a cult, and their mission and activities were prohibited.1998,Kim Dae JungWith the lifting of the ban on accepting Japanese culture, religious groups have also been lifted from the "Kaiiro Religion" certification and can now spread Japanese religions in Korea.[Source required].

    Japan

    JapanIn1990From around the timeUnification ChurchFor the purpose of regaining and withdrawing believersLawyerUsed by an anti-cult group of people and disseminated by the media[13].

    1995 OfAum Shinrikyo IncidentSince then, it has been socially recognized by referring to antisocial groups that commit criminal acts in the mass media.[4][17].. 1995-1996年に、マスコミがオウム真理教事件を連日報道する際に、この語を用いたセンセーショナルな記事や単行本が相次いで出版されIn XNUMX-XNUMX, sensational articles and books using this term were published one after another when the media reported the Aum truth religion case every day.[19][Page number required], Use illegal drugs for training ・ Plan and carry out indiscriminate mass murder with poisonous gas ・ Own and manufacture a large amount of weapons[20]As a term that refers to an antisocial religious group that commits criminal acts such as[4], Spread rapidly[21]..オウム真理教事件以後は、反社会的行為を行うPerform antisocial behavior after the case of Aum ShinrikyoscamOfviolenceBy calling a group of religious groups, the image of "a religious group pursuing self-interest (taking antisocial behavior)" has become established.[17][7][Page number required].

    Therefore, in modern times, it is a popular term that refers to a group that acts destructively to society.[21]..日本では、国家機関によるカルトの集団についての定義は一切存在しないが、裁判の判決理由において、オウム真理教を指して使用した例が確認できるIn Japan, there is no definition of a cult group by a national institution, but you can see an example of using it to refer to Aleph in the reason for the decision of the court.[22][23].

    As a modern Japanese religious policy, "Law on the regulation of groups that committed indiscriminate mass murderBy the disposal to whichAum Shinrikyo(CurrentAleph,Hikari no Otowa,Yamada group) But in the long runOn-site inspectionIs receiving(2015As of March, it was announced that inspections would be conducted at a total of 3 locations (19 real numbers) in 608 prefectures, and it was confirmed that many photographs of Asahara and the teaching materials of Asahara and Joyu were stored.[24][25]. )

    Recently, the words "cult" and "cult cult" have been introduced.New religionOften used as a derogatory term for the general[26].

    Occurred in Nara Prefecture in July 2022Shinzo Abe shooting and killing caseThen, as a motive for the crime from the arrested suspect, "Unification Churchresentment for the family's bankruptcy due to donations to ," and the cult in Japan was once again in the spotlight.

    Counterargument

    Currently, the term does not always refer to religious affairs, and besides religious scholars and theologians,Clinical psychology,社会 心理学From the perspective of sociology, etc., various theoretical definitions have been attempted in the process of indoctrination from the acceptance of antisocial groups, which is called the "cult controversy."The cult controversy is still inconclusive, partly because the preconditions and models of each discipline are different.

    Religious scholar

    • Do cult theory researchReligious scholar OfYoshihide SakuraiIs negative to the cult theory consumed by the mass media.反カルト集団により「カルトによりBy the anti-cult group "By the cultMind controlThe claim that "was done"commercialClaims to be a dogma used by anti-cult groups as a court strategy, similar to cults.[12]..また、言葉自体がAlso, the words themselvesUnification ChurchBy an anti-cult group consisting of lawyers for the purpose of regaining and withdrawing believers, as a generic derogatory term orLabelTo say that a specific group is a "cult", which is a concept introduced to Japan with the intention of pasting it, is more serious harm to the general public than one group that constitutes religious diversity. Since it is an organization that adds cults, it is equivalent to claiming that some action is necessary.[27]..反カルト集団により、裁判戦術の「対抗的"Countermeasures" of court tactics by anti-cult groupsdogmaWhen used as, it's as if it's the latestPsychologyOrtheologyIt is said that it was introduced to the media as if it was the result of the research of[12].
    • Christian scholarAshina Sadamichi"In general, Japanese people cannot say that they" independently believe in a particular established religion, "but rather, even if they participate in some religious ritual (for example, a ceremonial occasion), they say," Many people think that it is! "Therefore, rather than a direct experience, "Impression composed mainly of indirect information through the media (Imprint(Impact of the phenomenon) ”[28]In his own book.The information provided by the media is often thought to be "the content of the report is inappropriate!" From the perspective of the relevant religious group because of its characteristic of "to gain audience rating" in Japan. It gives rise to a great negative image of religious images in general.日本では『カルト』の用法が、『マスコミのセンセーショナルなイメージ』と共に広まったが、メディアは事件報道が主体であり、良いニュースはあまり流さないため、反社会的な団体ではない新宗教へのマイナスイメージが形成されたという指摘もあるIn Japan, the usage of "cult" became widespread along with "sensational image of the media", but since the media mainly reports on cases and does not give much good news, it is a minus to new religions that are not antisocial groups. Some point out that the image was formed[29].
    • Religious scholarSusumu ShimajimaIt is,Kazuhiro Yonemoto"A cult is a value shared by modern society that places absolute value on the teachings of a person or organization-basic human rights such as property, education, marriage, and the right to know, and morals such as family trust. He criticized the definition of "a religion that denies" as inappropriate, and pointed out the danger of naming an innocent group a "cult."[30].. (However, after that, Yonemoto changed his mind and began to consider the activities of the anti-cult camp as a problem.)
    • This phrase has an ambiguous meaning, but when used against religions or religious groups, it violates the freedom and dignity of individuals and causes serious social (human relations with others) harm. It means a group of people, that is, an antisocial group.個人的な自らの考えや価値観と異なる思想をもつ団体を排他したり蔑む目的で、教義や儀礼(儀式)が奇異に思えるなどの評価を指すために使うべき用語ではないとする見解もあるThere is also a view that it is not a term that should be used to refer to evaluations such as strange doctrines and rituals for the purpose of excluding or despising groups that have ideas that differ from their own personal thoughts and values.[21].

    Religious group

    Unification Church

    The Unification Church has protested that believers have been abducted and detained for the purpose of withdrawal, which is a violation of human rights.反カルト側の問題として、「親族による拉致監禁」により強制的な脱会カウンセリング受講As a problem on the anti-cult side, attending compulsory withdrawal counseling due to "abduction and confinement by relatives"[33],abductionImprisonmentAccused of human rights violations when "compulsory persuading" to leave the Unification Church[34]), harmful effects of deprogramming (development of PTSD when leaving the Unification Church)[19][Page number required]), Persecution of religious freedom (insults on the grounds of faith in the Unification Church,Power harassment,Akahara[35][36][37][38]), And there are several cases in which the congregation won the case.

    Hikari no Otowa

    Successor organization of AlephAlephBranched fromHikari no OtowaClaims that Aleph is a cult of Asahara worship, but Hikari no Wa is different, and insists on distinguishing between the two groups.[39].

    Jehovah's Witnesses

    Jehovah's WitnessesDefined that "praising and idolizing human leaders is a major feature of today's cults," and "this is why it is not seen among Jehovah's Witnesses." It is because they adhere to the teachings of the Bible. Jehovah's Witnesses reject the idea of ​​distinguishing between priests and lay people. "[40].

    Subculture examples

    Have a small number of ardent followersmovies,literature,MusicThe word cult is often used for works such as.Cult movieAnd cult music are examples.特定分野のIn a specific fieldmaniacA quiz show with various questionsCalt Q] OrUtchan NanchanThe movie work "Seven geeks cult seven(Cult Seven"and so on.

    Related person

    footnote

    [How to use footnotes]

    注 釈

    1. ^ international Cultic Studies Association
    2. ^ America family foundation
    3. ^ The "International Cult Study Group" is a public hearing that anyone who wishes, such as related believers, former believers, family members, scholars, and writers, can participate.It is not a national institution or academic organization.

    Source

    1. ^ a b Yoshihide Sakurai. "Cult sect problem”. Cult Problem Research Project. As of March 2016, 3originalMore archives.April 2015, 9Browse.
    2. ^ Hiromi Shimada "10 New Religions in Japan"Gentosha, August 2007, 11.ISBN 978 – 4344980600. [Page number required]
    3. ^ Encyclopedia Nipponica "Cult"
    4. ^ a b c d "Chiezou 2007, Asahi Shimbun Publishing, 2007.
    5. ^ "Current status and issues of cult measures at universities"Keisen Jogakuen University.
    6. ^ Takeshita 1999, p. Unknown.
    7. ^ a b Ishii 2010, p. Unknown.
    8. ^ a b Hoshino et al. 2010, p. 296.
    9. ^ Susumu Shimazono 2006, p. 83.
    10. ^ "Development process of new religious movement" (Kiyomi Morioka, 1989,Sobunsha) P11-12
    11. ^ Daini Tokyo Bar Association Consumer Problem Countermeasures Committee, "Controversy / Religious Corporation Law Amendment"Green wind publishing, August 1995, 9.ISBN 978 – 4846195977. [Page number required]
    12. ^ a b c Yoshihide Sakurai 1997, pp. 114–115.
    13. ^ a b c Yoshihide Sakurai 1997, p. 114.
    14. ^ Susumu Shimazono 2006, p. 81.
    15. ^ Arthur Goldwag "Cult, Conspiracy, Secret Society Encyclopedia" Translated by Susumu Sumitomo Kawade Shobo Shinsha 2010,ISBN 978-4-309-24528-7 pp. 22-29.
    16. ^ Written by Michael Shermer, Translated "Why People Believe in Fake Science UFOs, Cults, Spirits, Lies of Superpowers"Hayakawa Publishing, February 1999.ISBN 4-15-208212-7. [Page number required]
    17. ^ a b c "Glossary of Ethics", Yamakawa Shuppansha, 2009.
    18. ^ Yoshiaki Furuya, "Focusing Sound, Diffusing Sound: Afro Brazilian Cult Possession Rite", "Environment and Music", Tokyo Shoseki, 1991, ISBN 4487752574. pp. 169-176.
    19. ^ a b Sakurai 2006, p. Unknown.
    20. ^ "New Religious Church / Character Encyclopedia"Hirobundo, August 2006, 1. 
    21. ^ a b c Takashi Onuki,Hisao Miyamoto,Momose Fumiaki "Iwanami Christian Dictionary"Iwanami Shoten, August 2002, 6.ISBN 978 – 4000802024. 
    22. ^ Tokyo High Court 1st Civil Affairs Department Judgment,13 (Ne) 3067, "Case of claiming damages". p.5
    23. ^ Supreme Court First Small Court Decision,21 (A) 360, "Defamation Defendant Case". p.1
    24. ^ "About the result of on-site inspection”. Public Security Intelligence Agency (March 2015, 3). April 2015, 3Browse.
    25. ^ "About the result of on-site inspection”. Public Security Intelligence Agency (March 2015, 2). April 2015, 3Browse.
    26. ^ Hiromichi Serikawa, "Modern People and the Religious World," Kitaki Publishing, June 2011, p. 6. 
    27. ^ Yoshihide Sakurai "Thinking about "cult problems on campus" ① (PDF) "French Open" No. 615, All Japan Buddhist Church, December 2015, pp. 12-4,April 2019, 4Browse.
    28. ^ Ashina Sadamichi "Essence of Religious Studies"Kitaki Publishing, August 1993, 10.ISBN 978 – 4893843241. [Page number required]
    29. ^ Kenji Ishii"Japanese Religious Behavior" "Religion and the Future of Humans",Hakubasha, 2001, pp. 34-37.
    30. ^ Shimazono 2001, pp. 1–9.
    31. ^ "Review and outlook of domestic and foreign situation (January 17)”. Public Security Intelligence Agency. April 2019, 4Browse.
    32. ^ "Review and outlook of domestic and foreign situation (January 18)”. Public Security Intelligence Agency. April 2019, 4Browse.
    33. ^ “Unification Church members win a case against relatives, damages proceeding”. Asahi Shimbun(July 2014, 1) 
    34. ^ Kazuhiro Yonemoto"The fear and tragedy of the unwritten'religious confinement'" "modern』, Kodansha, 2003.
    35. ^ “Saga University and former students appeal”. Asahi Shimbun(July 2014, 5) 
    36. ^ "Saga University filed for suspension of compulsory execution of damages". Yomiuri Shimbun(July 2014, 5) 
    37. ^ "Insulting the Unification Church, ordering compensation to Saga University Fukuoka High Court". Saga newspaper(July 2014, 4) 
    38. ^ "University Religious Persecution" Nisshin Hodo, January 2012, 1.ISBN 9784817407368. [Page number required]
    39. ^ "The big difference between Hikari no Wa and Aleph”. Hikari no Wa. April 2019, 4Browse.
    40. ^ "Are Jehovah's Witnesses a Cult?". Watchtower Online LibraryWatch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. April 2019, 4Browse.
    41. ^ Steven Hassan (1998). Combatting Cult Mind ControlPark Street Press. ISBN 0-89281-243-5 [Page number required]
    42. ^ By Steven Hassan,Sadao Asami Translated "Fear of Mind Control", 1993.ISBN 4765230716. [Page number required]

    References

    Related item

    外部 リンク


     

    Back to Top
    Fermer