Dave Spector praises Tsubakuro's appearance record and talks about his own "some achievements"
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cult(Buddha: sect,British: cult) Was originally a religious term with no critical nuance, meaning "ritual / ritual".,CurrentlyAntisocialThe secular and unusual image of a group or organization has almost taken root.,Religious FaithUsingcriminal behaviorUsed to refer to antisocial groups and organizations that do.
"worship","worshipMeansLatin cultusIs a word derived from.French(Buddha: worship) Means different religions, and as an academic term, refers to a small group of enthusiastic believers centered on charismatic leaders... "Usage for small and ardent followers" (positive meaning such as cult movies)#Examples in subcultureSee section.
Catholic churchDue tosaintVeneration (CULT OF SAINTS, In the denominations that worship Christian saints with the revered CultWorship / worship Adoration is distinguished), at the end of the 19th centuryMelanesiaHappened in various placesCargo cult(cult charge), But there are no negative or critical nuances.
Early 20th century
Max Weber(German sociologist),Ernst Troelt(Germany OfProtestanttheologyIn "The Social Teaching of the Christian Churches" (German version 1912, English translation 1931), presented a "church-sect typology" and cult (a cult).GermanSect:sect) Was proposed as follows. (See also the figure on the right) "Cult" refers to the initial form of a religious group, and at this stage it is persecuted from the surroundings, but the persecution decreases as it gains citizenship, and it is gradually recognized as a formal social group. become.Therefore, it is a term that refers to religious groups that have not yet obtained citizenship.
The United States of AmericaIn, from around 1920, it originated in the United StatesChristian scienceSo-called, which does not belong to major religious traditions such asNew religionAs religious sociology,Esoteric"Cult" has come to be used as a concept to describe a cult with a cult of teaching, ardent worship of charismatic leaders, and a loose group of believers.
Mid 20th century
(American sociologist)1950Review the "Church-Sect typology" and have a non-Christian styleNew religionWas included in the sect as a new type, and this was claimed as a "cult".Also,Psychic,astrologyIt is a group of believers such as, and is characterized by a small and loose organizational structure.
(American sociologist)According to (American sociologists), a "cult" is a "loose union by individuals seeking individualistic forgetfulness and mental and physical healing, and has teachings that deviate from existing religious traditions and therefore the surrounding community. Will be suspicious. "
(AmericaSociology of religionPerson) and Made the "sect" a "group separated from the Mother Church with the aim of reestablishing faith" and the "cult" a "group formed under new teachings that deviate from existing traditions."In addition, the following three subtypes were set according to the degree of achievement of cult organization.
- "Audience cult" ("Audience cult")
- Members who are interested in knowing information about new mysterious things through the media.
- "Person-centered cult" ("Client cult")
- People visit the charismatic central figure of the group, become a visitor (client), and participate in seminars and therapies.
- The relationship between the organizer and the visitors is closer than that of the "audience cult" ("audience cult").
- "Cult movement"
- In "audience cult" and "person-centered cult"EntertainmentAlthough only temporary and pragmatic effects such as healing of illness and illness are required, it is inevitable to organize to continuously guarantee things that cannot be confirmed immediately such as "salvation of the soul".The human organization that supplies this guarantee is the "religion."
(AmericaSociology of religionIn 1971, in the "Cult Life Cycle Theory", from the birth to the dismantling of a new organization that corresponds to a cult or sect.Product life cycleProposed to go through the following five stages.
- Sprouting organization-against the background of social unrestcharismaSexualleaderAppears, and groups (cults, sects) appear.
- Formal organization-Group goals are codified and differences from outsiders are emphasized.
- Maximum efficiency stage-a rational organization will lead the group.By this time, the contempt from outsiders to the group has decreased, and conversely, the hostility from the group to outsiders has disappeared.
- Institutional Stage-Organizational operations become bureaucratic and aim to retain their privileges.Worship will become more formal, and the criteria for qualification to become a member of a group will be relaxed.
- Demolition stage-Corruption is widespread in the organization, and the bureaucratic mechanism of organization management is a memberneedsSince it is not possible to respond to, the number of withdrawals will increase.If some leaders and members launch a successful religious revival movement (revival movement), a new cycle begins, otherwise the group heads for dismantling.
Since the late 1970s
1978, From usaガイアナMoved toPeople's templeAs many as 900 followersMass suicideIn the United States社会 問題The mass media will use it in the press to refer to religious groups that are considered socially dangerous.これを機にTaking this opportunity 1979, Congress and state hearings were held..In the same year, the International Cult Study Group (ICSA)[Note 1], Old: AFF[Note 2]) Was established[Note 3].
the 1970sLatter half - the 1980sOverAmericaAs a result of the debate centered on, "It is targeted by an anti-cult group consisting of lawyers, case workers, former believers, and relatives of believers who support the recapture and withdrawal of believers, rather than the religious and sociological cult type. It is a generic derogatory term for a group of people who have been cultivated.LabelIt has been concluded that it tends to be used as a "paste"..Religious scholars use this wordSociology of religionIt is not used as a classification of religious groups based on academics such as.
Psychiatrist OfRobert J. LiftonIt is,1981In a dissertation contributed to Harvard Mental Health Letter, the cult was "spread all over the world."ideologyThe existence of a charismatic leader to be worshiped as a characteristic of the cult, defined as "a uniform aspect of the plague of totalitarianism or fundamentalism"Forced persuasionとThinking reform, Economic, sexual and psychological of general members by leadersexploitationListed three.
Worship of group leaders,saintOr praise that is no different from being directed to the deity, conviction that you will never make a mistake.また、指導者はAlso, the leader
Infallibility(）He is sexual and has a wide range of knowledge from philosophical matters to everyday trifles.Missionary means vary from generous to intimidating in order to attract new believers and reinforce the current religious beliefs.The group has absolute truth and morality, the true purpose and plan of the faith is ambiguous, and it is not explicitly presented to new believers or the general public.Believers and congregations are not informed of everything about the leaders and the core of the group, and incidents or situations that could lead to major confusion, deficiencies or troubles are concealed, monetary and Persuaded to offer other assets.Leaders are allowed to have sexual relations with one or more believers and have a blind belief in the standards of good and evil about the ultimate knowledge, thoughts and actions found by the leader or group.集団の道徳の基準にきちんと従えば、組織の一員としていられるが、そうでない者はIf you follow the moral standards of the group properly, you can be a member of the organization, but those who are notExcommunicationBe done or punished.[Page number required]
Status of each country
The United States of America
The unified view of the anti-cult camp was summarized in 1985.Cultism: A conference for scholars and policy makersThere is a document that says.また、アメリカの宗教団体の脱会者が、絶対的服従やAlso, the withdrawals of American religious groups are absolutely obedient.Mind control, Begin to refer to antisocial groups committing criminal acts as "destructive cults".
BelemAroundAmazonDistributed in rural areas,BahiaDistributed aroundCandomblé,Sao PauloIs spreading all over the countryUmbandaAfrican religions such as the Afro-Brazilian cult are commonly referred to as..アフロ・ブラジリアン・カルトは16世紀以来、アフリカから労働力として導入された奴隷によって持ち込まれた伝統的宗教とローマ・カトリックが融合した宗教であり、先住民The Afro Brazilian Cult is a fusion of Roman Catholic religion and traditional religions brought in by slaves introduced from Africa as a labor force since the XNUMXth century and is indigenous.Indio OfshamanismThe influence of is also seen.In the Afro-Brazilian cult, "cult" is used to mean "school."
"Sect" and "cult" are sometimes treated as synonymous.
In addition, FranceThen.Anti-sect methodA law commonly known as is enacted, but the target group here is "a group that tends to cause conflict with society according to the regulations of the French government", and it is considered whether it is a religious group or not. Not.
There is a group designated as "evil" by the Chinese authorities.
Japanese religious groups were recognized by the Korean government, which had an anti-Japanese policy, as a "religious religion" meaning a cult, and their mission and activities were prohibited.1998,Kim Dae JungWith the lifting of the ban on accepting Japanese culture, religious groups have also been lifted from the "Kaiiro Religion" certification and can now spread Japanese religions in Korea.[Source required].
1995 OfAum Shinrikyo IncidentSince then, it has been socially recognized by referring to antisocial groups that commit criminal acts in the mass media... 1995-1996年に、マスコミがオウム真理教事件を連日報道する際に、この語を用いたセンセーショナルな記事や単行本が相次いで出版されIn XNUMX-XNUMX, sensational articles and books using this term were published one after another when the media reported the Aum truth religion case every day.[Page number required], Use illegal drugs for training ・ Plan and carry out indiscriminate mass murder with poisonous gas ・ Own and manufacture a large amount of weaponsAs a term that refers to an antisocial religious group that commits criminal acts such as, Spread rapidly..オウム真理教事件以後は、反社会的行為を行うPerform antisocial behavior after the case of Aum ShinrikyoscamOfviolenceBy calling a group of religious groups, the image of "a religious group pursuing self-interest (taking antisocial behavior)" has become established.[Page number required].
Therefore, in modern times, it is a popular term that refers to a group that acts destructively to society...日本では、国家機関によるカルトの集団についての定義は一切存在しないが、裁判の判決理由において、オウム真理教を指して使用した例が確認できるIn Japan, there is no definition of a cult group by a national institution, but you can see an example of using it to refer to Aleph in the reason for the decision of the court..
As a modern Japanese religious policy, "Law on the regulation of groups that committed indiscriminate mass murderBy the disposal to whichAum Shinrikyo(CurrentAleph,Hikari no Otowa,Yamada group) But in the long runOn-site inspectionIs receiving(2015As of March, it was announced that inspections would be conducted at a total of 3 locations (19 real numbers) in 608 prefectures, and it was confirmed that many photographs of Asahara and the teaching materials of Asahara and Joyu were stored.. )
Occurred in Nara Prefecture in July 2022Shinzo Abe shooting and killing caseThen, as a motive for the crime from the arrested suspect, "Unification Churchresentment for the family's bankruptcy due to donations to ," and the cult in Japan was once again in the spotlight.
Currently, the term does not always refer to religious affairs, and besides religious scholars and theologians,Clinical psychology,社会 心理学From the perspective of sociology, etc., various theoretical definitions have been attempted in the process of indoctrination from the acceptance of antisocial groups, which is called the "cult controversy."The cult controversy is still inconclusive, partly because the preconditions and models of each discipline are different.
- Do cult theory researchReligious scholar OfYoshihide SakuraiIs negative to the cult theory consumed by the mass media.反カルト集団により「カルトによりBy the anti-cult group "By the cultMind controlThe claim that "was done"commercialClaims to be a dogma used by anti-cult groups as a court strategy, similar to cults...また、言葉自体がAlso, the words themselvesUnification ChurchBy an anti-cult group consisting of lawyers for the purpose of regaining and withdrawing believers, as a generic derogatory term orLabelTo say that a specific group is a "cult", which is a concept introduced to Japan with the intention of pasting it, is more serious harm to the general public than one group that constitutes religious diversity. Since it is an organization that adds cults, it is equivalent to claiming that some action is necessary...反カルト集団により、裁判戦術の「対抗的"Countermeasures" of court tactics by anti-cult groupsdogmaWhen used as, it's as if it's the latestPsychologyOrtheologyIt is said that it was introduced to the media as if it was the result of the research of.
- Christian scholarAshina Sadamichi"In general, Japanese people cannot say that they" independently believe in a particular established religion, "but rather, even if they participate in some religious ritual (for example, a ceremonial occasion), they say," Many people think that it is! "Therefore, rather than a direct experience, "Impression composed mainly of indirect information through the media (Imprint(Impact of the phenomenon) ”In his own book.The information provided by the media is often thought to be "the content of the report is inappropriate!" From the perspective of the relevant religious group because of its characteristic of "to gain audience rating" in Japan. It gives rise to a great negative image of religious images in general.日本では『カルト』の用法が、『マスコミのセンセーショナルなイメージ』と共に広まったが、メディアは事件報道が主体であり、良いニュースはあまり流さないため、反社会的な団体ではない新宗教へのマイナスイメージが形成されたという指摘もあるIn Japan, the usage of "cult" became widespread along with "sensational image of the media", but since the media mainly reports on cases and does not give much good news, it is a minus to new religions that are not antisocial groups. Some point out that the image was formed.
- Religious scholarSadao Asami(Old Testament scholar,Tohoku Gakuin UniversityHonorary professor) Says, "'Cult' is abandoned as a strict academic term." "Cult issues are different from religious issues.社会 問題It is. "[Source required]
- Religious scholarSusumu ShimajimaIt is,Kazuhiro Yonemoto"A cult is a value shared by modern society that places absolute value on the teachings of a person or organization-basic human rights such as property, education, marriage, and the right to know, and morals such as family trust. He criticized the definition of "a religion that denies" as inappropriate, and pointed out the danger of naming an innocent group a "cult.".. (However, after that, Yonemoto changed his mind and began to consider the activities of the anti-cult camp as a problem.)
- This phrase has an ambiguous meaning, but when used against religions or religious groups, it violates the freedom and dignity of individuals and causes serious social (human relations with others) harm. It means a group of people, that is, an antisocial group.個人的な自らの考えや価値観と異なる思想をもつ団体を排他したり蔑む目的で、教義や儀礼（儀式）が奇異に思えるなどの評価を指すために使うべき用語ではないとする見解もあるThere is also a view that it is not a term that should be used to refer to evaluations such as strange doctrines and rituals for the purpose of excluding or despising groups that have ideas that differ from their own personal thoughts and values..
- 2009 - 2010ToPublic Security Intelligence AgencyHowever, other than the former Alephism, religious groups that have peculiar activities far from the conventional wisdom were positioned as "unique groups" and information was collected..
The Unification Church has protested that believers have been abducted and detained for the purpose of withdrawal, which is a violation of human rights.反カルト側の問題として、「親族による拉致監禁」により強制的な脱会カウンセリング受講As a problem on the anti-cult side, attending compulsory withdrawal counseling due to "abduction and confinement by relatives",abductionImprisonmentAccused of human rights violations when "compulsory persuading" to leave the Unification Church), harmful effects of deprogramming (development of PTSD when leaving the Unification Church)[Page number required]), Persecution of religious freedom (insults on the grounds of faith in the Unification Church,Power harassment,Akahara), And there are several cases in which the congregation won the case.
Hikari no Otowa
Successor organization of AlephAlephBranched fromHikari no OtowaClaims that Aleph is a cult of Asahara worship, but Hikari no Wa is different, and insists on distinguishing between the two groups..
Jehovah's WitnessesDefined that "praising and idolizing human leaders is a major feature of today's cults," and "this is why it is not seen among Jehovah's Witnesses." It is because they adhere to the teachings of the Bible. Jehovah's Witnesses reject the idea of distinguishing between priests and lay people. ".
Have a small number of ardent followersmovies,literature,MusicThe word cult is often used for works such as.Cult movieAnd cult music are examples.特定分野のIn a specific fieldmaniacA quiz show with various questionsCalt Q] OrUtchan NanchanThe movie work "Seven geeks
- Steven Hassan -YuanUnification ChurchExecutives.アメリカのAmerica's..The terms used in my own work based on experience,Sadao AsamiTranslates as "destructive cult".
- ^ international Cultic Studies Association
- ^ America family foundation
- ^ The "International Cult Study Group" is a public hearing that anyone who wishes, such as related believers, former believers, family members, scholars, and writers, can participate.It is not a national institution or academic organization.
- ^ a b Yoshihide Sakurai. "Cult sect problem”. Cult Problem Research Project. As of March 2016, 3originalMore archives.April 2015, 9Browse.
- ^ Hiromi Shimada "10 New Religions in Japan"Gentosha, August 2007, 11.ISBN 978 – 4344980600. [Page number required]
- ^ Encyclopedia Nipponica "Cult"
- ^ a b c d "Chiezou 2007, Asahi Shimbun Publishing, 2007.
- ^ "Current status and issues of cult measures at universities"Keisen Jogakuen University.
- ^ Takeshita 1999, p. Unknown.
- ^ a b Ishii 2010, p. Unknown.
- ^ a b Hoshino et al. 2010, p. 296.
- ^ Susumu Shimazono 2006, p. 83.
- ^ "Development process of new religious movement" (Kiyomi Morioka, 1989,Sobunsha) P11-12
- ^ Daini Tokyo Bar Association Consumer Problem Countermeasures Committee, "Controversy / Religious Corporation Law Amendment"Green wind publishing, August 1995, 9.ISBN 978 – 4846195977. [Page number required]
- ^ a b c Yoshihide Sakurai 1997, pp. 114–115.
- ^ a b c Yoshihide Sakurai 1997, p. 114.
- ^ Susumu Shimazono 2006, p. 81.
- ^ Arthur Goldwag "Cult, Conspiracy, Secret Society Encyclopedia" Translated by Susumu Sumitomo Kawade Shobo Shinsha 2010,ISBN 978-4-309-24528-7 pp. 22-29.
- ^ Written by Michael Shermer, Translated "Why People Believe in Fake Science UFOs, Cults, Spirits, Lies of Superpowers"Hayakawa Publishing, February 1999.ISBN 4-15-208212-7. [Page number required]
- ^ a b c "Glossary of Ethics", Yamakawa Shuppansha, 2009.
- ^ Yoshiaki Furuya, "Focusing Sound, Diffusing Sound: Afro Brazilian Cult Possession Rite", "Environment and Music", Tokyo Shoseki, 1991, ISBN 4487752574. pp. 169-176.
- ^ a b Sakurai 2006, p. Unknown.
- ^ "New Religious Church / Character Encyclopedia"Hirobundo, August 2006, 1.
- ^ a b c Takashi Onuki,Hisao Miyamoto,Momose Fumiaki "Iwanami Christian Dictionary"Iwanami Shoten, August 2002, 6.ISBN 978 – 4000802024.
- ^ Tokyo High Court 1st Civil Affairs Department Judgment,13 (Ne) 3067, "Case of claiming damages". p.5
- ^ Supreme Court First Small Court Decision,21 (A) 360, "Defamation Defendant Case". p.1
- ^ "About the result of on-site inspection”. Public Security Intelligence Agency (March 2015, 3). April 2015, 3Browse.
- ^ "About the result of on-site inspection”. Public Security Intelligence Agency (March 2015, 2). April 2015, 3Browse.
- ^ Hiromichi Serikawa, "Modern People and the Religious World," Kitaki Publishing, June 2011, p. 6.
- ^ Yoshihide Sakurai "(PDF) "French Open" No. 615, All Japan Buddhist Church, December 2015, pp. 12-4,April 2019, 4Browse.
- ^ Ashina Sadamichi "Essence of Religious Studies"Kitaki Publishing, August 1993, 10.ISBN 978 – 4893843241. [Page number required]
- ^ Kenji Ishii"Japanese Religious Behavior" "Religion and the Future of Humans",Hakubasha, 2001, pp. 34-37.
- ^ Shimazono 2001, pp. 1–9.
- ^ "Review and outlook of domestic and foreign situation (January 17)”. Public Security Intelligence Agency. April 2019, 4Browse.
- ^ "Review and outlook of domestic and foreign situation (January 18)”. Public Security Intelligence Agency. April 2019, 4Browse.
- ^ “Unification Church members win a case against relatives, damages proceeding”. Asahi Shimbun(July 2014, 1)
- ^ Kazuhiro Yonemoto"The fear and tragedy of the unwritten'religious confinement'" "modern』, Kodansha, 2003.
- ^ “Saga University and former students appeal”. Asahi Shimbun(July 2014, 5)
- ^ "Saga University filed for suspension of compulsory execution of damages". Yomiuri Shimbun(July 2014, 5)
- ^ "Insulting the Unification Church, ordering compensation to Saga University Fukuoka High Court". Saga newspaper(July 2014, 4)
- ^ "University Religious Persecution" Nisshin Hodo, January 2012, 1.ISBN 9784817407368. [Page number required]
- ^ "The big difference between Hikari no Wa and Aleph”. Hikari no Wa. April 2019, 4Browse.
- ^ "Are Jehovah's Witnesses a Cult?". Watchtower Online LibraryWatch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. April 2019, 4Browse.
- ^ Steven Hassan (1998). Combatting Cult Mind ControlPark Street Press. ISBN 0-89281-243-5 [Page number required]
- ^ By Steven Hassan,Sadao Asami Translated "Fear of Mind Control", 1993.ISBN 4765230716. [Page number required]
- Kenji Ishii "Pre-step Religious Studies" Kobundo <Pre-step>, 2010.ISBN 9784335000782.
- Yoshihide Sakurai "Formation of new religions and social change: Reexamination of new religion research in modern and contemporary JapanBulletin of Faculty of Letters, Hokkaido University, Vol. 46, No. 1, Faculty of Literature, Hokkaido University, September 1997, pp. 9-111, ISSN 04376668, NOT 120000952538.
- Yoshihide Sakurai "Re-questioning the" cult ""Central public opinion new company, August 2006, 1.ISBN 9784121502018.
- Susumu Shimajima "Postmodern New Religions"Tokyodo Publishing, August 2001, 9.ISBN 978 – 4490204476.
- Susumu Shimajima Written by Susumu Shimazono, Susumu, Kasai, Kenta; Fukushima, Shinkichi et al., "Religious Keywords"Yuhikaku<Yuhikaku Sosho>, 2006.ISBN 9784641058835.
- Setsuko Takeshita "Cult or religion"文藝 春秋, February 1999.ISBN 978 – 4166600731.
- Hoshino, Eiki,Ikegami, Yoshimasa,Keta, Masako Other edition "Religious Studies Dictionary"Maruzen Publishing, 2010.ISBN 9784621082553.
- Sadao AsamiWritten by "Why is a cult religion born?" (Japanese ChristiansPublishing Office March 1997) ISBN-978 4818402577
- Bryan R. WilsonAuthor,Akira IkedaTranslation "Sect-The Sociology of Religion (World University Selection 035)" (平凡 社 1972 years) ISBN 978-4-582-82135-2
- Kimiaki NishidaAuthor "What is Mind Control?" (Kinokuniya Bookstore December 1995) ISBN-978 4314007139
- Leon Festinger, HW Leeken & Stanley SchacterWritten by Hirosuke Mizuno (Translation) "When the prophecy goes wrong-Understanding a modern group that predicted the ruin of this world" (Keiso Shobo December 1995) ISBN-978 4326101061
- Michael sharmaWritten by (Translation) "Why do people believe in fake science? <1> When strange logic prevails" (Hayakawa Publishing December 2003) ISBN 978-4-15-050280-5
- By Steven Hassan,Sadao Asami(Translation) "Fear of Mind Control" (Tsuneyu Publishing, June 1993) ISBN-978 4765230711
- Tomohide KureAuthor "Dangerous Thinker" (Media Works, 1998,Futaba Bunko, October 2000) ISBN-978 4575711776
- List of organizations classified as sects by government documents
- brainwashing/Mind control
- Religious terrorism
- antisocial forces
- New religion
- Camouflage circle