Photo Manga scene [Image provided by Hatsumaru Ugebeso (@ugebes0)]
Approximately 5 people burst out laughing at the cartoon of Mr. Tori who went to the fitness club "Blowing"
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Q. All of the birds in your illustrations are realistic, yet very cute.
Hatsumaru Ugebeso (@ugebes0) is good at drawing birds that are very realistic but have cute expressions. … → Continue reading
"Hint-Pot" is a place where women living in the present can feel a little positive-a place to create such an opportunity.
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Morphological and biological functions of the child
EthologyPerson ofKonrad LorenzIt is,1943Published a paper entitled "Innate forms of possible experience (there is a natural form of what you can experience)"...In this paper, the morphological characteristics unique to babies are described as "for adults.CuteIt was said that it stimulated the feeling of "" and encouraged child-rearing behavior...What are baby-specific morphological features?"The head is larger than the body" "The skull is larger than the face" "The eyes are big and round" "The eyes, nose and mouth are located lower than the whole head" "Short limbs"And so on..The physical characteristics of these young animals are ""(Infant diagram, Kindchenschema).Also this isScientific methodWas the starting point for "cute" research based on.
Attachment and mother-child interaction
The baby schema itself has not evolved for communication.Certainly the baby schema has the emotions to raise a baby.GuardianHowever, it is only a product of primary physical function development, and the sensitivity that the adult who receives it feels "pretty" is.It has been equipped in the process of evolutionIs explained.
Comparative ethologyPerson ofNobuo MasatakaSays that extending the theory of baby schema alone cannot explain an adult's nurturing response to a baby's vocalizations and movements.for example"PointingEven when a baby behaves like an adult, he tends to love it.Human capital OfpsychologicalIs said to be..PediatricianT. Berry BrazelltonAccording to the report, the more the parents talk, the more often the baby speaks, and when he looks at it with a smile, he smiles back with a smile.Such interactions are instinctively equipped, and even babies who are only a few hours old have a habit of faithfully imitating their parents' facial expressions and vocalizations... like thisReflectionThe habit is "Primitive imitation"It is called..At this time, the guardian gives "pleasant feelings" such as comforting the crying baby, and the baby also sends various care signals to the guardian..
Yoko Ishino, who is studying the development of motherhood, says that the behavior of infants who increase affection between mother and childShy".For example, babies become shy in the second half of their life and show discomfort such as crying when people who do not usually come in contact with them approach.However, when the guardian comes into view, the baby stops crying and shows a sweet gesture such as hugging.Parents also encourage positive parenting behavior, "I have to raise this child," and spoil the baby.The intimate and emotional relationship between mother and child is "AttachmentThe process of fostering a relationship of trust between mother and childDevelopmental psychologyThen "Is called.
Osaka UniversityGraduate SchoolsGraduate School of Human SciencesThe professor'sTakeo DoiBy ""Amae" structure』(Hirobundo, 1971)Spoiled"When"Cute"JapanesePoints out the similarities between the two emotions.For example, in the idea assumed by the baby schema, the "prettiness" transmitted by the protected side is accepted by the guardian.Key stimulus= It's just a clueOne-way relationshipHowever, by incorporating the viewpoint of "sweetness" to gain the affection of others on the protected side, the relationship between the sender and the receiver of "prettiness" can be understood.BidirectionalCan be interpreted as.
Desmond Collins of the University of London"What makes human adolescence longer?NeotenyPart of..Of a physical anthropologistBarry Bogin"The child's growth pattern intentionally lengthens the duration of prettiness," he said.According to Bogin, the human brain will grow to adult size at the next time..
- When the body is only 40% complete
- When tooth maturity is only 58% complete
- When reproductive maturity is only 10% complete
like thisAllometry(Relative growth, the relative growth of each part of the body to the whole body)mammalianIt is said that it can maintain a superficially "infant-like appearance" such as "large skull", "small face", "small body", and "sexually underdeveloped" for longer than that.Bogin also states that this pretty appearance causes a reaction of "nurturing" and "care-grilling" to "older individuals"..
The way a baby feels cute is influenced by the baby's gender and behavior.According to a study by Koyama et al. (2006), female infants are more physically attractive than male infants... A study by Karraker (1990) also demonstrated that the protection of male infants may only be aroused by awareness of the child's happiness and physical attractiveness..
In addition, the "gender of the observer" has a great influence on the perception of cuteness. A study by Sprengelmeyer et al. (2009) found that women were more sensitive to "subtle differences in cuteness" than men of the same age.female hormoneSuggested that the work of is important in determining "cuteness".
Baby schema is the originalBiologyIt has a tremendous effect not only in the field of design but also in the fields of design and industry, and a particularly famous example is Japan.Comic,AnimeSuch asPop culture(Otaku culture).for examplecharacterOften to direct and emphasize the "innocence", "obedience" and "youngness" of
- Large head and small nose compared to the body
- Large eyes located slightly below the center of the face
- Sticking out amount
- Short and fluffy limbs
- Soft body surface
- Rounded cheeks
- Rounded body shape
- Awkward movement
Features of baby schemaIs often used (suchnaturalSomething that doesn't exist in but causes a big reaction to the viewerSupernormal stimulus").like thisSupernormal stimulusTo evokeCharacter Design Thesub cultureNot justYuru Chara,Moe characterIt is an aesthetic sense that is spreading in all fields of Japanese society, such as "Cute""Moe""preciousSuch asJapaneseIt is described and expressed in.
Impact on Otaku Culture and Lolicon Manga
"Cuteness" is the main axis in male cultureMoeThe original work ofthe 1980sFirst halfLolicon boomAppeared in the period.Until then commonErotic comics for menIs a real touchThird-class graphic novelHowever, it was in 1979 that this trend was decisively changed.Comic marketJapan's first lolicon manga douujinshi distributed in 11Cyber』(Lethargy professional).This douujinshi is "Osamu Tezuka,Shotaro Ishinomori"Sex can be drawn even with a round symbolic pattern like"CuteEroticLegendary by discovering and revolutionizing.
After that, it has the characteristics of baby schema.Lolicon cartoonWas widely accepted by adolescents.Moreover"NerdCoupled with the appearance ofNijikon complexAlong with creating a cultural phenomenon, what we now call "Moe character”Releases sexual desire, but floods.Especially in the early days of lolicon manga, sexual stimulation (=) while maintaining the "infant form" of Tezuka manga and anime paintings.Supernormal stimulusThe point that brought about) is epoch-making, and the erotic comics critic'sKaoru Nagayama"In erotic comicsNeoteny(Mature neoteny) ”..And, "moe erotic" and "cute erotic", which are still inherited as continuous cotton, are against macho-like things.FragilityA kind of expression movement that took place as a rehabilitation ofCounter culture().
Targets and structures that evoke "prettiness"
What makes you feel "cuteness" and evokes the asylum of adults is masculinity (machismo) Can be said to be the opposite.Art critic OfMatsui MidoriRegarding the manifestation of the feeling of "cute", "the other party is" weak "and" immature "against rude and unproductive behavior, that is, behavior that deviates from the norms of" adult society "that aims at rationality and efficiency. It comes from the perspective of compassion for forgiveness and protection. ".
Cuteness type and structure
- color: Highly saturated and bright colors, orpastel colourColors with low brightness, orMacaron,candySuch asWestern confectionery(=Everyday cute）
- Baby schema : children,Plush Doll,hamster,sleeping face,dialect, An innate category recognized by young people such as women with round faces (=)Or weak cute）
- Fancy : Fairy taleThings,Lolita fashion,dolls,Pink colorCultural category recognized in women's culture (=Unique cute）
- Creepy : Lizard,bear,牛,Goldfish,蝶 OfSpecimen,mushroomPicture book,Human body modelな どNegativeThings that tend to be evaluated by (=)Kimo cute）
According to Miyazaki, the factors that evoke prettiness tend to be the same for both men and women, and it is thought that the same classification can be applied uniformly without distinguishing between men and women..
"Cute" and "poor"
- Small / young / weak
- Light / immature / incomplete
- Delicate and timid
- Distorted / sick
In addition to these, from the worldDeviation()do,Objects that have lost harmony with society(Example:Radio system・ ・natural-Chunichi disease-Menhera-Shadow-Communication disorder-Cat ear-evildoer-A priestess) May also be considered "cute".
Kenji Miyamoto"Cute" is the reason why Japan's unique aesthetic sense, which is attracted to imperfect and immature things, has attracted attention all over the world.In a nutshell, it's20st centuryFor the economic development of societyantithesisIt can be said. "Kawaii" is an aesthetic sense that denies growth and maturity."When,moratoriumSummarized in the context of.
as a side note"Cute"JapaneseIs a superiorIs derived from feelings of pity, mercy, and consolation, such as "pity," "mercy," and "sorry."..A derivative word that inherits this meaning is "There is.
Anyway, why <Cute> And <> may be synonymous.In this book, I have a study room surrounded by "cute" things and a girl's miscellaneous goods store.Autistic space isolated from the outside worldI have repeatedly pointed out that.In other words, "cute" meansThe role of a barrier to protect girls from reality or the outside worldThat is. <Cute> I can only live in a <cute> space.In other words, "I" is an existence that is "painful and unbearable to see." Since "cute" is a keyword that expresses the self-image of a girl, it was rather natural that "poor" was integrated there. "Cute", a resident of the microcosm, "I" is very "poor".that is"BonobonoIt ’s a world, and the media has cut it off.Emperor ShowaIt can be said that it really meant. — Eiji Otsuka"Girls' Ethnology-The Descendants of the Priestess, The Myths of the End of the Century"Kobunsha Publishing Co., Ltd. Excerpt from pp.246-247 1989
Here OtsukaEmperor ShowaWhen I lie down, I have a sympathyBookkeepingI took up the seemingly very strange phenomenon that "girls in uniforms lined up" as an example.As it says, "Girls are among the old men (= cute grandpa) <Innocent or weak>, A "homogeneous image that overlaps with ourselves" (Girl's self-image) Was found. "In addition, Otsuka is a similar example to "Emperor Showa", "Poor Cimaris-kun" (Mikio Igarashi OfComic"BonobonoThe popularity of "Ijimeru?", Which appears in "Ijimeru?".
About the behavior to love and protect the other party as an immature petYi-Fu TuanIs the book "Love and Domination Museum-Pet's Royal Palace / Atypical Garden" (Workshop, 1988), pointing out that by emphasizing the other person's dependence on oneself, it is directly linked to the "desire of control" of wanting to control others..
In this regardMeisei UniversityFaculty of EducationProfessor'sMika Nishimura The"Desire for control (or asylum)" "Convenient political terminology" "Commercial umami"The three elements are the current "CuteIt is pointed out that it is included in the word "", and the word "cute" has"Domination-dominated relationship"Regarding, he states as follows.
For example, it's cute because it's pitiful, or it's cute because it's unpleasant and it's not dealt with by everyone.Dominant emotions from aboveAppears and disappears there. (Omitted)It even puts the object under your control like a possession and even looks down from above...And "cute" is what was said, while reading the gaze from above and the emotions that looked down (sometimes stupid)."Cute" is essentially a complimentTherefore, even if it is said that it feels uncomfortable, it is not enough to get angry if it is insulting.Although I feel bitter, I can't help but pull back.This situation is a very Japanese way of thinking that fits the Japanese people's desire to facilitate relationships, sometimes confusing and roundabout, who do not want to be black and white clearly. If you say "cute", the place will be manageable for the time being. By bringing out "cuteness", you can relax the place.By being said to be "cute," you can position yourself as a small and vulnerable person and avoid a crisis.. — Mika Nishimura "Cute Theory"Meisei UniversityFaculty of Humanities"Meisei University Bulletin of Humanities" No. 51, pp.134-135, 2015
Nishimura also said, "CuteAbout "adult women who are neither young nor small" who abuse "" and adapt "cute" to themselvesA strategy to enter the patronage of someone, depend on that person, and live as if they wereOn the contrary, "a woman who has become mature and old and ugly" is not disturbed by the surroundings, and "to take care of her old age"Cute grandma'I guess that there may be only a survival strategy that is liked even a little..
A fiction work with a cuteness motif
- Fujiko F. Fujio"Cutie"
- A work with the theme of what is cuteness.Scientific modeling of animal children's survival and emotional correction of humansSFI see it from a perspective.
- Akio Nakamori"Fashionable thief"
- Television Animation"Healing ♥ precure』Episode 23" What is cute? Asumi and the puppy story "
- Tomomi Abe"The tide dances, the child dances』Volume 2 Episode 19" Torakura "
- Furuya Usamaru"Short cuts"
- Ero guro nonsense work with the motif of "cute" world residents such as high school girls and stuffed animals
- "Baby girl"
- A work with the theme of "cute" for girls.It portrays "cute" as a kind of curse in a pop and poisonous way.
- SAHA + Stonehead ""
- A manga based on a Korean fantasy novel.It depicts a great mage who reincarnated as a princess in a neighboring country, politically spreading "affairs" and solving all problems.
"Cute"Gaku" is a comprehensive concept and cultural aspect of "kawaii" that is unique to Japan.Humanities-Social scienceConsidered with a specific approachQualitative researchIs the center.for that reasonExperimental psychology,Neuroscience,Kansei engineeringWhen hunting papers and documents related to "prettiness" purely from a traditional approach, "emphasizing the peculiarities of Japan"Pop culturePlease be careful not to mix it with "Theory".Konrad Lorenz OfAs a Japanese researcher who paid attention to, there are others (such as the history of concept formation of "kawaii culture" in Japan.Eiji Otsuka,Inuhiko Yomota, See books).
Writings / Magazines
- Takeo Doi""Amae" structure"Hirobundo, 1971 / Augmented Popular Edition, 2007
- Yamane Kazuma"Study of Transformed Girl Characters-A Girl Can Be Seen Beyond the Characters"Kodansha, Year 1986
- Yi-Fu TuanWritten by /Shinobu Kataoka+Kim Yi-GuanTranslation "Love and Domination Museum-Pet's Royal Palace / Atypical Garden"Workshop, Year 1988
- Eiji Otsuka"Girls' Folklore-The Descendants of the Priestess," which is a myth of the end of the centuryKobunsha Publishing Co., Ltd., Year 1989
- Konrad LorenzWritten by /Toshitaka HidakaTranslated "Ethology II" Thinking Company, 1989
- Mari Shimamura"Fancy Study-" Cute "Dominates People, Things, and Money," 1991
- Soichi Masubuchi "Cute Syndrome"Japan Broadcast Publishing Association, Year 1994
- Art publisher"Art notebookFebruary 1996, Vol. 2, No. 48, No.2 "Special Feature: Cute"
- By Leslie A. Zebrowitz /Setsuko HanedaTranslation "Reading the Face-Invitation to Face Studies"Daishukan Bookstore, Year 1999
- Toru Yamada"Character Business-A Huge Market Created by" Kawaii ""PHP Institute, Year 2000
- Ingo Lenticular et al., "Thinking about Beauty from the Brain: A Biological Exploration of Art"Shinyodosha, Year 2000
- Nobuo Masataka"Children learn words with their bodies From melody to the world of meaning" Chuko Shinsho 2001
- Kaichiro Morikawa"Birth of a quaint city-Akihabara, a budding city"Gentosha, 2003 / Paperback edition 2008
- Eiji Otsuka "Psychological History of" Otaku "Theory of the XNUMXs"Kodansha modern new book 2004 years / Asahi Shimbun 2007 years / Seikaisha library 2016
- Sasakibara Go"Modern History of <Bishojo> -" Moe "and Characters" Kodansha's New Book 2004
- Ken Belson + Brian Bremner / Translated by Taisuke Sakai "The Ecology of Hello Kitty Making Huge Money"Toyo Keizai Inc., Year 2004
- Inuhiko Yomota"" Cute "theory"Chikuma Shobo〈Chikuma new book〉2006
- Shinji Miyadai,, "Supplementary Subculture Myth Dismantling-30 Years of Girls, Music, Manga, Sex and the Present of Communication"Chikuma Shobo, Year 2007
- Kenji Miyamoto"Japanese aesthetics"Kobunsha Publishing Co., Ltd.〈Kobunsha new book〉2008
- Reiko Koga "The Empire of" Cute "-Modes, Media and Girls"Seitosha, Year 2009
- Yasushi Takatsuki "Lolicon-Japanese Girl Lovers and Their World"Basilico, Year 2009
- Takamasa Sakurai "World Kawaii Revolution"PHP Institute, Year 2009
- Hiromichi Yamamoto "Why are gals immediately" cute "?"Gentosha Renaissance New Company〈Gentosha Renaissance New Book〉2010
- KAWADE Yume Mook"Literary artsSeparate Volume [General Feature] Hideo Azuma Bishoujo, SF, Absurd Gag, and Disappearance ”Kawade Shobo Shinsha April 2011
- Hideo Azuma"Hideo Azuma 2 Character Long Interview Creator of Contemporary Japanese Aesthetics" Cute Erotic "".
- Kaichiro Morikawa "How did Hideo Azuma become the" ancestor of otaku culture "?"
- Shinchosha Co., Ltd."New artSeptember 2011, Vol. 9, No. 62 "Special Feature: Nippon's" Kawaii ""
- Ogi Ogas + Sai Gaddam "Science of Libido-Why Men Are Excited by" Amateurs "and Women Motivate" Men "" (Original title:A Billion Wicked Thoughts: What the Internet Tells Us About Sexual Relationships）CCC Media House, Year 2012
- Keiko Nakamura ed. "Japanese" Cute "Picture Book-100 Years of Fancy Goods"Kawade Shobo Shinsha, Year 2012
- Kaoru Nagayama"Supplementary Erotic Manga Studies Introduction to Manga as a "Pleasure Device""Chikuma Shobo〈Chikuma paperback〉2014
- "Beautiful Girl's Art History" Exhibition Executive Committee Edition "Beautiful Girl's Art History-The Shape of a" Girl "in Pop Culture and Contemporary Art from Ukiyoe" Seigensha, 2014
- Eriko Aoyagi "<Lupo> Cute! From Yumeji Takehisa to Kitty", 2014
- Masahiko Abe"The strategy of youth-the story of" cute "and maturity"Asahi Shimbun Publishing〈Asahi selection book〉2015
- MDN Corporation"Monthly MdNOctober 2015 issue "Special feature: Girl's expression history'
- Yasunori Kudo, "Designing the Future of Cute Society and Academic Maturity," 2015
- Shoichi Hasegawa "20 Years of Gals and" We "The Birth and End of the High School Girl Magazine Cawaii!"Aki Shobo, 2015
- Yokomi <Integration of Knowledge> Series Editorial Committee Edition "(PDF) "Tokyo Denki University Press, Year 2016
- "" Cute "Engineering" edited by Noriko OkuraAsakura Shoten, Year 2017
- Keiko Ishikawa ed.Yumeji Takehisa Cute Notebook-Taisho Roman Maiden World- "Kawade Shobo Shinsha, 2017
- Written by Christine Yano / Translated by Kaoru Kumi "Why do the world love Hello Kitty? Characters with" kawaii "as the universal language"Work company, Year 2017
- Masae Yoshimitsu + Taomi Ikeda + Mari Nishihara, "Post <Kawaii> Cultural Sociology-Exploring the" New Fun "of Girls-"Minerva Shobo, Year 2017
- Takashi Sasaki "What is" Kawaii "(front and back)" Taseidou, 2018 (* Bibliographic information and abstracts of almost all "Kawaii" published in Japan and overseas are posted)
- Architectural Institute of JapanHen "" Cute "and Architecture"Kaibundo Publishing, Year 2018
- "The psychology explored through experiments after "cute""Chemistry, Year 2019
- Simon May "The World of" Cute "-The Power of Cute" Seidosha, 2019, Translated by Hidemi Yoshimine
- ＋ "Neuro Aesthetics-Brain Science of Beauty and Art"Kyoritsu Publishing, Year 2019
- "The birth of" prime "Japanese aesthetics created by girls and technology"Ota Publishing, Year 2019
- Konrad Lorenz (Konrad Lorenz) "Innate forms of possible experience (what you can experience has a natural form)(Original title:Die angeborenen Formen möglicher Erfahrung) "Z. Tierpsychol." Vol.5, pp.235-409, 1943, untranslated literature
- Konrad Lorenz, "Whole and Part in Animal and Human Society-Methodological Consideration", Studium Generale, 1950/3/9 (Original title:Ganzheit und Teil in der tierischen und menschlichen Gemeinschaft / Toshitaka HidakaTranslated by "Ethology II")
- Minako Maeda "Experimental Consideration on Baby-schema-Focusing on Inspired Stimulation of Maternal Mentalism-" "Bulletin of the Institute for Infant Education, Mukogawa Women's University" No. 2, pp.4-42, 1983
- Minako Maeda "Experimental Consideration on Baby-schema II-Factors of" Cuteness "-" "Bulletin of the Institute for Infant Education, Mukogawa Women's University" No. 3, pp.4-50, 1984
- Minako Maeda "Experimental Consideration on Baby-schema III-Focusing on" Roundness "-" "Bulletin of the Institute for Early Childhood Education, Mukogawa Women's University" No. 4, pp.4-42, 1985
- Midori Matsui "Micropolitics of eccentricity-" cuteness "as a symbol of deviation" "Art notebook』Volume 48 No. 2 / No. 720,Art publisher, November 1996, pp. 2-25, ISSN 02872218, NOT 40003243425.
- Reiko Koyama; Yuen Takahashi; Kazuo Mori (2006). “Factors that determine the cuteness of children and gender differences ". Social Behavior Personality Research Journal (Scientific Journal Publishers) 34 (9): 1087-1099. two:10.2224 / sbp.2006.34.9.1087. ISSN 0301 – 2212.
- "Relationship between personal moe and commercial moe, moe and cute and erotic" "Kokubungaku-Interpretation and Study of Teaching Materials』Vol. 53, No. 16,Gakutosha, November 2008, pp. 11-102, ISSN 04523016, NOT 40016253450.
- Hiroshi Iritono "Behavioral science approach to "cute""Human Science Research," Volume 4, Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, 2009, pp. 19-35, two:10.15027/29016, ISSN 18817688, NOT 120001954440.
- Hisao Shiizuka, Ayako Hashizume "Cuteness and interactivity"Conference Proceedings of the Horizontal Trunk Union", Cross-Sectoral Core Science and Technology Research Association (Horizontal Trunk Union), November 2011, two:10.11487 / oukan.2011.0.8.0, ISSN 1881 – 7688, NOT 130005034073.
- Nami Ihara, Hiroshi Iritono ""Cute" category classification according to the degree of youth <Paper>"Bulletin of Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University. I Human Science Research" No. 6, Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, December 2011, pp. 12-13, two:10.15027/33096, ISSN 1881 – 7688, NOT 120004288081.
- Hisao Shiizuka, "Structure of Cute Emotions-Cuteness and Interaction in Products," Kansei Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 2, Japan Society for Kansei Engineering, September 2012, pp. 9-99, ISSN 1882 – 8930, NOT 40019472496.
- Nami Ihara, Hiroshi Iritono "Psychological factors common to different "cute" emotions"Human Science Research," Volume 7, Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, 2012, pp. 37-42, two:10.15027/34619, ISSN 1881 – 7688, NOT 120005245671.
- Hiroshi Iritono "(PDF) Japan Kansei Engineering Society, Cute Artificial Materials Research Group, 2nd Anniversary Symposium (June 2012, 6)Shibaura Institute of TechnologyToyosu Campus) Documents, pp.7-10
- Kaori Ishida"About the characteristics and history of Japanese kawaii culture and its international dissemination"Bulletin of Komazawa Women's University" No. 19, Komazawa Women's University, December 2012, pp. 12-57, two:10.18998/00001135, ISSN 1340 – 8631, NOT 110009579442.
- Hiroshi Iritono "Cuteness and Youth: A Critical Consideration on Baby Schema"VISION" Vol. 25, No. 2, Japan Visual Society, 2013, pp. 100-104, two:10.24636 / vision.25.2_100, ISSN 0917 – 1142, NOT 130007537260.
- Shinichi Hatakeyama "About the cute concept and the "uncanny valley" phenomenon"Shokei College Research Bulletin A. Humanities and Social Sciences" Vol. 46, Shokei Gakuen Shokei College Research Bulletin Editorial Committee, 2014, pp. 29-42, two:10.24577 / seia.46.0_29, ISSN 2187 – 5235, NOT 110009767987.
- Noriko Okura, Ryo Kanno "Systematic study of cute artificial objects (17th report) -Basic study on "cute sounds"-IPSJ Research Report. Music Information Science, No. 74, IPSJ, May 2014, pp. 5-1, ISSN 0919 – 6072, NOT 110009903170.
- Mika Nishimura "Cute essay"Meisei University Research Bulletin. Faculty of Humanities" No. 51, Meisei University Faculty of Humanities. Meisei University Faculty of Humanities Research Bulletin Editorial Committee, March 2015, pp. 3-133, ISSN 0388 – 1318, NOT 120005612403.
- Kenta Ichinose "(PDF) 'Tokyo University of the Artsmaster's thesis, Year 2015
- Kaoru Endo "Cute: 1. "Kawaii" Philosophy-its historical perspective and contemporary significance-"Information Processing," Vol. 57, No. 2, Information Processing Society of Japan; 1960-, April 2016, pp. 1-118, ISSN 0447 – 8053, NOT 40020710911.
- Nobuhisa Kaneko "Cute: 2.Cute Edo period painting background"Information Processing," Vol. 57, No. 2, Information Processing Society of Japan; 1960-, April 2016, pp. 1-122, ISSN 0447 – 8053, NOT 170000147761.
- Noriko Okura "Cute: 3.Systematic study of cute artificial objects-Physical attributes of artificial objects with the sensibility value of "cute"-"Information Processing," Vol. 57, No. 2, Information Processing Society of Japan; 1960-, April 2016, pp. 1-124, ISSN 0447 – 8053, NOT 40020710920.
- Hiroshi Iritono "Cute: 4. "Cute" emotional psychological model"Information Processing," Vol. 57, No. 2, Information Processing Society of Japan; 1960-, April 2016, pp. 1-128, ISSN 0447 – 8053, NOT 40020710926.
- Ryota Horie, Miyuki Yanagi, Tomomi Takashina, Noriko Okura "Cute: 7. Biological reaction when seeing a cute image"Information Processing," Vol. 57, No. 2, Information Processing Society of Japan; 1960-, April 2016, pp. 1-141, ISSN 0447 – 8053, NOT 40020711380.
- Masato Ujikawa "Classification of causal system and effect system of "cute" -categorize "cute"-"Journal of the Japan Society for Kansei Engineering," Vol. 15, No. 1, Japan Society for Kansei Engineering, February 2016, pp. 2-39, two:10.5057 / jjske.TJSKE-D-15-00057, ISSN 1884 – 0833, NOT 130005128767.
- Natsumi Ishikawa "About the meaning of "cute""Tokyo Woman's Christian University Language and Culture Study" No. 24, Tokyo Woman's Christian University Language and Culture Study Group, March 2016, pp. 3-21, ISSN 0918 – 7766, NOT 40021302085.
- Takashi Sasaki "Development of "kawaii" research"Japan-Europe Comparative Culture Study" No. 20, Japan-Europe Comparative Culture Study Group, October 2016, pp. 10-15, ISSN 1349 – 0052, NOT 40020984632.
- Tom Hoi Kit, Takuya Miyazaki "Classification of "cute" objects and emotions"Bulletin of Hokkaido Kyoiku University. Educational Science" Vol. 70, No. 1, Hokkaido Kyoiku University, August 2019, pp. 8-63, ISSN 1344 – 2554, NOT 120006730733.
- ^ a b c d e f Nobuo Masataka"Children learn words with their bodies From melody to the world of meaning" Chuko Shinsho 2001, p.108-112.
- ^ Lorenz, K. (1943). Die angeborenen Formen möglicher Erfahrung [The innate forms of potential experience].
- ^ "Effects of contact experience with infants and emotions at the time of contact on children's interests"Tokyo Gakugei University, School Education Research Review (36) 1-15 October 2017, p.10.
- ^ Nittono (2019), p.55
- ^ a b c Rie Ueki"I can see it as much as I can! Really understand psychology"Japan Business Publisher, 2010, pp. 132-135, "How do parents and children become'parents'?"
- ^ Yasushi Oyabu "Development of baby's imitation behavior-from morphology to imitation of intention-"Journal of the Society of Biomechanisms," Vol. 29, No. 1, Society of Biomechanisms, February 2005, pp. 1-3, ISSN 02850885, NOT 40020710920.
- ^ "Tokyo University OfPsychiatristMetTakeo DoiHe has been advocating the concept of "Amae" since about XNUMX. (Omitted) After that, even in Europe and the United States, we focused on intimate relationships with caregivers.attachment(Attachment) Theory has developed, and it has been confirmed that such psychological tendencies are not limited to Japanese people.Which of the potential psychological tendencies that humans have will be noticed and accepted in society will vary from culture to culture. (Omitted) The idea of "Amae" isIt is different from the idea of. (…) In the baby schema theory, a cute subject is considered only as a trigger or a clue to attract the attention of the surroundings and cause behavior.On the other hand, with the idea of "Amae", you can see the situation from the standpoint of the person you think is cute.In other words, if you see a kitten that is spoiled, you may remember that you were spoiled by someone or that you wanted to be spoiled.In this way, by incorporating the perspective of "Amae", "Kawaii" can be seen as two-way rather than one-way. "Hiroshi Iritono" The psychology of "Kawaii" in experiments "Chemistry Doujin, 2019 Year, pp.203-204
- ^ (1970). Special Issue: Early Man. World Archeology Volume 2, Issue 1, DOI: 10.1080 / 00438243.1970.9979467 page 112 link
- ^ Collins, D. et al. (1973). Background to archeology: Britain in its European setting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.0-521-20155-1 hard cover
- ^ a b Bogin, B. (1997). Evolutionary Hypotheses for Human Childhood. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, vol. 40, pp. 63–89.
- ^ Reiko Koyama; Yuen Takahashi; Kazuo Mori (2006). “Factors that determine the cuteness of children and gender differences ". Social Behavior Personality Research Journal (Scientific Journal Publishers) 34 (9): 1087-1099. two:10.2224 / sbp.2006.34.9.1087. ISSN 0301 – 2212.
- ^ Karraker, Katherine; Stern, Marilyn (1990). “Infant Physical Attractiveness and Facial Expression: Effects on adult perceptions”. Basic and Applied Social Psychology 11 (4): 371–385. two:10.1207 / s15324834basp1104_2.
- ^ Sprengelmeyer, R; Perrett, D .; Fagan, E .; Cornwell, R .; Lobmaier, J .; Sprengelmeyer, A .; Aasheim, H .; Black, I. et al. (2009). Face: A Hormonal Link to Sensitivity to Cuteness in Infant Faces ”. Psychological Science 20 (9): 149–154. two:10.1111 / j.1467-9280.2009.02272.x. PMID 19175530.
- ^ Nittono (2019), p.56
- ^ Ingo Lenticular "Thinking about Beauty from the Brain-A Biological Exploration of Art"Shinyodosha, p.13, 2000
- ^ Hiroshi Iritono, "(PDF) Japan Kansei Engineering Society, Cute Artificial Materials Research Group, 2nd Anniversary Symposium (June 2012, 6)Shibaura Institute of TechnologyToyosu Campus) Documents, p.7
- ^ "Supernormal stimulusAnother example is when drawing a woman in an anime, the chest is big, the waist is narrow, and the hips are big.FemaleSex appealIs exaggerated, but such a woman is almost non-existent.Her tastes are different, but she is a perennial favorite.A classic example of a combination of specific features that provokes our emotions and behaviors.Some characters are created by local or private organizations. ""Yuru CharaThe word isIllustrator OfJun MiuraMr.Coined wordAndRegistered trademarkis.Originally, it was a costume that people could enter.Many of them are not perfectly crafted and have an unsophisticated handmade feel due to budget constraints, which invites a smile (bitter smile).Baby schemas are also included in these characters.Some of them aren't, but the ones I made to make them feel cute always contain the baby schema in an exaggerated form as a supernormal stimulus. ”Hiroshi Iritono“ In the experiment after “cute” The Psychology of Exploration ”Chemistry Doujin, 2019, p.57
- ^ KAWADE Yume Mook "Bungei Separate Volume [General Feature] Hideo Azuma Bishoujo, SF, Unreasonable Gag, and Disappearance" Kawade Shobo Shinsha, April 2011, p. 4.
- ^ It turns out that it was a proof of evolution that people were excited about XNUMXD eroticism! What is the mystery of "supernormal stimulation" that is activated by otaku !? April 2019, 2
- ^ Kaoru Nagayama"Introduction to Manga as an Augmented Erotic Manga Studies" Pleasure Device ""Chikuma Shobo〈Chikuma paperback＞ April 2014 p.4
- ^ Akio Nakamori"The eve of the birth of new human beings & otaku ──I was about to turn a sharp curve──Isn't there an" 80-year security "? It's not a political struggle. It was a rebellion in culture, no, a flood."Shinchosha Co., Ltd."Shincho 45May 2012 issue "Special feature / 5 years ago and 30 years later"
- ^ Hisao Shiizuka "Structure of Cute Emotions-Cuteness and Interaction in Products" Japan Kansei Engineering Society "Kansei Engineering" Vol. 11, No. 2, pp.98-108, September 2012
- ^ a b "youngvirginServe GodA priestessTocustomWas also in ancient times on the mainland.The young virgin daughter has a sign of "deviation from the world (= super-profane)".CurrentGeek cultureHowever, the appearance of a young girl's shrine maiden is one of the images that expresses the most "cute".Losing harmony with society and deviating from society is also a form of "super-profane." The "useless person" is also a super-profane "saint". "Kawaii" is an image of one "super profane" and "deviation". "Ka" in "Kanashi" and "Kahayushi"phoneme"The feeling of loss" of being a human being is included in "Why gals are immediately" cute "" by Hiromichi Yamamoto.Gentosha Renaissance New Company〈Gentosha Renaissance New Book＞ August 2010 pp.8-39
- ^ Matsui (1996), p.25
- ^ a b Miyazaki (2019), p.69
- ^ "Creepy, ugly, and'cute'are not images that are in conflict with each other, but rather that they overlap, pull each other, and depend on each other. When something is called "cute," it means that somewhere in it, grotesque is secretly used as a secret ingredient. "Inuhiko Yomota"" Cute "Theory" Chikuma Shobo <Chikuma new book〉 P.80, 2006
- ^ Nittono (2009), p.24
- ^ Kaoru Nagayama"Supplementary Erotic Manga Studies Introduction to Manga as a "Pleasure Device""Chikuma Shobo〈Chikuma paperback＞ 2014, pp.81-83
- ^ Kenji Miyamoto"Japanese aesthetics"Kobunsha new book October 2008 p.3
- ^ Ishikawa (2016), p.23
- ^ "Cute"" Is an expression that shows the affection that the superior has for the present.On the other hand, "beloved" was used to show the affection from the present to the superior. ((Hiroshi Iritono "Behavioral science approach to "cute""Human Science Research," Volume 4, Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, 2009, pp. 19-35, two:10.15027/29016, ISSN 18817688, NOT 120001954440.）
- ^ ""CuteThe etymology of "(kawayui)" is "kawahayushi"Old languageIs said to be.This is a modified word of "face (ha) yushi", which means "it's embarrassing, the conscience seems to blame and the face seems to blush."middle ages(Kamakura PeriodからAzuchi-Momoyama Period) Was used to mean pity and pity because of the meaning of "I can't stand to see", but in the latter half of the Middle Ages, the meaning of showing affection for the vulnerable, such as women and children, was derived.The early modern period(Edo PeriodIn the latter half of), the feeling of pity disappeared, and only the meaning of adorableness appeared, and the usage of the attribute adjective "lovable little sama" also appeared.Nowadays, it is "cute" that is often thought of as an attribute adjective, but it is interesting that it was originally an emotional adjective. "Hiroshi Iritono "Short Lecture "Cute" Psychophysiology"Physiological Psychology and Psychology," Vol. 32, No. 2, Japan Society of Physiological Psychology, 2014, pp. 53-54, two:10.5674 / jjppp.1410ci, ISSN 0289 – 2405, NOT 130005072710.
- ^ Otsuka (1989), pp.190-191
- ^ Otsuka (1989), pp.244-246
- ^ Matsui (1996), pp.25-26
- ^ Kazuma Ohara "" Cute Grandma ""Kyoko InagakiHen, "Children, Schools, Society-Sociology of Education and Culture," December 2006, World thought company, pp.156-157
- ^ Nishimura (2015), p.135
- Attachment theory
- Fairy tale
- 可愛 い
- Girl culture
- Girl hobbies
- Girl cartoon
- Kansei engineering
- Experimental psychology
- Signal stimulus
- Supernormal stimulus
- Sex science
- Radio system
- Natural bokeh
- Yuru Chara
- Chibi character
- Puni (Moe attribute)
- Girl love
- Tong Yan
- Foot binding
- Lolita Complex
- Rule 34
- Hideo Azuma
- Maidenic love comedy
- Priestess (subculture)
- Happy Tree Friends
- Concave culture
- Uncanny valley phenomenon
- Cute aggression --Aggression urge generated by capacity over for cute things
- Cute study - yuiseki --Scrapbox.io(The historical transition of the concept of "cute"Kansei engineeringRelated research includingBulletsSummary)
- Cognitive Psychophysiology Laboratory, Graduate School of Human Sciences, Osaka University (Iritono Laboratory Homepage)
- Hiroshi Iritono "Psychology of" Kawaii "" (created on April 2010, 4, last updated: February 6, 2020) --Iritono Laboratory Homepage
- Housewife and Science / Home Science Research Institute (Kasouken) Hobonichi Branch Office / Research Report 18 "Why is your baby's face so cute?" - Almost daily itoi newspaper
- Hiroshi Iritono (July 2018, 7). “You can only look at it for up to a minute and a half. There was a way to improve your concentration by looking at“ cute things ”.”. New R25 April 2020, 10Browse.
- Hiroshi Iritono (July 2019, 10). "What is" cute ": what I learned from research in experimental psychology".Nippon.com April 2020, 9Browse.
- Faces and gestures are cute ~ Instinct that appears in mysterious behavior --Kitten no Heya
- What is Pino and Pinoko [cute]? - YouTube Morinaga Milk IndustryOfficial channel
- Think "cute" across the board