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👍 | Hinako Shibuno's fierce battle is a good friend, and the Korean players are also working hard.


Photo: Hinako Shibuno, who was 9rd by 1 stroke with a total of 3 under, is also a good friend of the Korean player [Photo: Getty Images]

Good friends in Hinako Shibuno's fierce battle, and the Korean players also worked hard.

 
If you write the contents roughly
I can speak a little Japanese, so I wanted to learn Korean, too.”
 

Lee Jong-eun, who finished the tournament in 22nd place 6 "well played" US women's golf overseas major final game of the season... → Continue reading

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Korean

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Korean(Chosengo,Morning: business) Or Korean(Korean,Korea: 한국어) Is mainlyKorean PeninsulaUsed in言语so,South KoreaDPR Korea OfNational language..Unique speech writing system based on biospeech scienceHangulTo use[3].

South Korea and North Korea have established their own "standards" for orthography and pronunciation, and there are differences in dictionary arrangement and vocabulary.JapaneseLinguistics,PhonologyAcademically, "Korean" is used as the notation, so all academic language names here are unified and described as "Korean" (for details, please refer to "Korean".Korean naming problemSee).The official language of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous Prefecture in China, which has a population of about 70 million as the mother tongue of this language, is also called Korean, but the Korean language departments of Japan and China in this language. The learning standard in Korea isSeoulStandard languageIs the center[4][5].

Overview

About 5,200 million Koreans, more than 2,500 million North Koreans[6], About 250 millionKoreanAnd Koreans in China, about 280 millionThe United States of America,Canada OfKorean American,Korean Canadian, About 80 millionKoreans in JapanAnd Korean Japanese, about 70Russia,Central Asia,Europe OfKoreanIs spoken among Koreans[7]..However, among these, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, etc.Central AsiaThe language spoken in is "Koryo(Koryo-mar) "may be treated as a different language.

Current Korea (Republic of Korea)Standard language TheSeoulIs based on the dialect of North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of Korea)Culture language ThePyongyangAlthough it is based on the words ofJoseon Dynasty OfcapitalHas been in Seoul for a long time, so both dialects of Seoul起源Is[8].

phonemeIn terms of consonantsAerobicSilenceThere is a conflict.Sandhi(FrenchOf the terms used inliaisonIt is often confused with, but in reality it is "AnchenumanIs[9]) Occurs.Mostly in syllable structurevowelend withOpen syllableUnlike Japaneseconsonantend withClosed syllableAlso appear a lot.However,Korean in JapanThen, due to the influence of JapaneseClosed syllableThe pronunciation of is almost collapsed.

Linguistic typologyFrom the point of view ofJapaneseSame asAgglutinationThe modifier precedes the modifier,prepositionnotPostpositionIs used.Historically in JapaneseVietnamesealikeKanji cultureHowever, the current notation is mainlyHangulIs used.

South Korea,north koreaThe normative form is defined in eachMultiple central languagesBut also.LinguisticsBy the standard, the language spoken in South Korea and the language spoken in North Korea are the same language (that is, both South Korea and North Korea consider both languages ​​to be the same language), but north and south Topronunciation-vocabulary-grammar-OrthographyThere is a difference in such things.

ISO 639The language code is 2 charactersko, In 3 letterskorIt is represented by.

Language name

In Japan, "Korea" is traditionally named like "Korean Peninsula" and "Korean people".KoreanHowever, the Korean Peninsula is divided into north and south, reflecting the current situation in which Japan has diplomatic relations only with South Korea.KoreanIs often called.However, when "Korean" is used alone in Japanese, the words used in South Korea are Korean-style words (compared to the words of North Korea and the autonomous prefectures of China).[10]There is a strong tendency to be used as a name to refer to.In addition, "Korean"[11]"Korean"[12]There are many names such as "Koryo-mar"[13]..Also, originallyHangulIs the name of the character, not the name of the language, but sometimes "Hangul" is used as the language name.Japan Broadcasting Corporation(NHK) says "Korean courseIs being broadcast.The Hangul Proficiency Test Association explains that it uses "Hangul" to control "Korean".[14].

ChugokuIt is,1949From the founding ofSocialismBelonging to the camp, North Korea from the beginningKorean PeninsulaFrom the position of being the only orthodox government of the whole, the name given to the nation, ethnicity, language, and culture of the Korean people is "Korea"(Simplified charactersso"Korea”) Is used, and this name is also used for Korean groups and their languages ​​that make up the Chinese people, and they have been called“ Korean ”or“ Korean ”.

However1992Since the establishment of diplomatic relations between South Korea and China, direct exchanges with South Korea have progressed, and with the support of Korean capital, language texts and dictionaries that ported Korean-style vocabulary and character arrangements as they are are "Korean". It came to be issued with the name.As a result, the names "Korean" and "Korean" have been newly introduced in China.Yanbian KoreanTogether with North Korean, it has come to be used together with "Korean" as a name for the Korean language.

Published in China todayForeign languageLearning materials, TV / radio broadcasting, and studying at universityOrthography・ Most of pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, etc. South KoreaIs the standard language of.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of JapanandChinese Ministry of Foreign AffairsThe official website of Korea uses different names depending on the country (Korean official language is Korean)[15][16], The official language of North Korea is Korean[17][18]).

Mainland Chinaexcept forGreater China(Hong Kong[19],Macau[20],Taiwan[21]In)Political systemFor the above reason "Korean (Korean)I only call it.

South KoreaThen "KoreanIs equivalent to한국어(Korean,(Hanggo) ""South Korea(Korea 말,(The name "Hangunmaru)" is used,north koreaInKoreanIs equivalent tobusiness(Korea 말,(Chosonmaru) ""first name(Korean,(The name "chosono)" is used.here"(MaruIs a Korean word that means "word", and ""(OhRepresented the reading of "word"Kanji languageIs.In North Korea, which tends to prefer proper words,businessIs often used, and in Korea, "" is used in official situations.""한국어Is usually used.In addition to this, "Korean" is equivalent to "Korean" as an expression between Koreans.company(Mandarin) ”And“ our word ”, which is a native Korean word우리 말Is also used.

Among Koreans in Central Asia, "Koryo"(publicity,Goryeo 말,Корё маль, Koryo-mar) is used.In many European languagesGoryeoDerived from Korean (English) And other names are used, and the issue of neutrality has not been raised.

系統

Generally classifiedAltay languagesOrIsolated languageIs considered,JejuAs different languages, bothKoreanicIt may be summarized in.

Altay languagesThe relationship with and also with Japanese is often controversial.Some scholars may include it in Altaic languages ​​along with Japanese.

Comparison with Japanese

SyntacticIn terms of basicsword order TheSOV typeAnd in JapaneseTypologyIt has the same word order (note that the word order alone cannot be evidence of the same family of languages, because the SOV type is a universal word order to which about 50% of the world's languages ​​belong. Also, even if it is the same system, the basic word order may differ depending on the language, and even if it is the same language, depending on the times).denial,LawIn the expression of, in the case of inversus or so-called "BaggageThere are some cases where the negative expression is one word.ParticlethemeIs displayed in common with Japanese.

In terms of phonology, in the old days it was at the beginning of the wordStream sound(La line) ・voicedInterfering soundThe point that (dakuon) does not stand,Vowel harmonyCan be seen,vowelThe point of avoiding continuity is common with Japanese.They areAltay languagesIt is also a feature commonly found in, and is one of the arguments that Korean and Japanese are Altaic languages.However, there are some differences, such as the Korean syllables are based on closed syllables (CVC), while the Japanese syllables are based on open syllables (CV).

On the other handvocabularyIt is,Kanji languageOrSino-JapaneseExcept for, no phonological correspondence that systematically applies to the same progenitor has been found.

Since the Edo period, researchers have often pointed out the similarities between Japanese and Korean from various aspects (Shozaburo KanazawaSuch).Shinpei Ogura TheTsushima dialectI studied the relationship between Korean and Korean, but found nothing more than borrowing Korean into the Tsushima dialect.漢字 OfKureWas called "Tsushima sound" in old times, and some researchers thought that it was imported directly from.Rokuro KonoThe multi-layered nature was clarified by the research of.

Although the simple theory that it used to be is no longer given, research is still ongoing to find kinship through various materials and methods.About common pointsSprachbund(Sprachbund, language union, eg:Balkan Language Union) Is also possible.

Altay language

KoreanIsolated languageIf notAltay languageThere is also an opinion that it will belong to.However, although the Turkic, Mongolian, and Tungusic languages ​​are grammatically very similar and similar, it is currently proven to be an Altaic family with a common proto-language. Is not standing.

From a historical point of view, there is a theory that Baekje, Silla, and Goguryeo have different fixed language systems.However, there is a theory that the Korean dynasty has continued to be the ruler from Baekje, Silla, Goguryeo to the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty as in Japan, and the old and modern language systems have hardly changed.[22]..Korean is considered to have the deepest relationship with the Tungusic language family among the Altaic languages, and has the only cohesive textual material.ManchuA comparative study with is being conducted.

Dialects / variants

Standard language

South Korea and North Korea, which have Korean as their official language, have different standard variants.The standard variant in Korea is "Standard language"(a person) And "Seoul OfCultureIt is defined as "the language used by some people."The standard variant in North Korea is "Culture language"(business) And "Pyongyang OfWorking classIs defined as "the language used by".However, the standard language of North Korea is actually introduced.Seoul dialectIs based on the original north-southdialectThe differences in standard languages ​​that result from the differences are fairly limited, if not zero.Also in Chinese territoryYanbian KoreanIs basically based on the standard language of North Korea.

Before the Japanese rule, when people from the southern and northern parts of the Korean Peninsula had a conversation, it was sometimes difficult to communicate due to the difference in sound between the regions.We sought a standard language that would serve as a guideline for promoting school education.Governor-General of KoreaHas long been the capital of standard language norms in ordinary schoolsKeijo(CurrentSeoul Special City) As the language used by the middle class[23]..As a result, both the north and south languages ​​were based on the Seoul dialect of the first half of the 20th century, but as a result of South Korea and North Korea developing standard languages ​​based on their own language policies, characters in vocabulary, orthography, and dictionaries. In the order of arrangement etc., "한국어""South Korea"And" in North Koreabusiness""first nameThere is a difference between[Note 1]..For example, in South Korea and North Korea, after independenceKanji notationThe abolition of the Japanese vocabulary and the replacement of the Japanese vocabulary were started, but as a result of each of them individually, the difference between "Korean" in South Korea and "Korean" in North Korea was widened.

Regarding the difference between Korean and North Korean languagesNorth-South difference in KoreanSee.

dialect

The Korean dialect is bigJeju dialectThe mainland dialects are (Pyongan dialect), (Hamgyong dialect),Chubu dialect(Hwanghae, Gangwon, Gyeonggi, Chungcheong dialect), (Jeolla dialect),Gyeongsang dialectIt is classified into 5 categories (Gyeongsang dialect).Became the basis of Korean standard languageSeoul dialectBelongs to the Chubu dialect, and relatively well known in Japan belongs to the Gyeongsang dialect.

A variant of Korean caused by contact with other languages

Korean in Japan
Koreans in JapanKorean language used by the family and friends.He is strongly influenced by Japanese in terms of vocabulary and pronunciation.Therefore, there is a great tendency for the pronunciation to be similar to that of Japanese learners of Korean, and there are also a large number of loanwords from Japanese (Sonim,AyumiSuch).In addition, Korean residents in Japan are mainly used by special permanent residents who are oldcomers.Gyeongsangdo-Jeolla-JejuIt is a Chubu dialect because there are many people from the southern region such asSeoul dialectOften there is a difference.
Korean in the United States
Korean AmericanKorean language learned at Korean schools.This is often Korean with an English accent, and tends to use a lot of loanwords from English.
Chinese Korean
ChugokuLive inKoreanKorean used between.
Koryomar
KoreanKorean language used by (former Soviet Union, Korean people living in Central Asia).Like Chinese Korean, the base is a pre-modern local dialect, in all aspects of phonology, vocabulary, and syntax.RussianIs strongly influenced by.It is an endangered language variant that is rarely learned by young people today.

phoneme

KoreansyllableHas a structure of (C) V (C).

Short vowels are mainland dialects /to/,/ ɛ /,/is/,/ i /,/ ɔ /,/ o /,/ u /,/ ɯ / Eight ofSeoul dialectThen. / ɛ //is/ There is no distinction between (fusion / confluence), and there are seven vowel phonemes.Diphthong The/ ɰi /Only.Vowel harmony TheMiddle KoreanIt existed in, but in modern language it only leaves its mark.

consonant ThePop sound / p /,/ pʻ /,/ pʰ /,/ t /,/ tʻ /,/ tʰ /,/ k /,/ kʻ /,/ kʰ /,Squeal / ʨ, ʨʻ, ʨʰ /,Fricative/ s /,/ sʻ /,/ h /,nasal / m /,/ n /,/ ŋ /,Stream sound / l / Exists.Plosives and affricatesPlain sound,Thick sound,Fiery soundConflict and fricative / s / ThePlain sound,Thick soundConflict.

At the beginning of the word / l /,/ ŋ / Can't stand,/ i /,/ j / In front of / n / Cannot stand (excluding foreign words).At the end of the syllable, the conflict between plain / dense / aspirated sounds is neutralized, and affricate and fricatives are heard. / t / Because it is neutralized to/ p /,/ t /,/ k /,/ m /,/ n /,/ ŋ /,/ l / Only appear.Also the plosive at the end of the syllable / p /,/ t /,/ k / TheNo audible releaseIt is pronounced as (non-open plosive) and is difficult for many native Japanese speakers to hear.

Also variousAssimilationThere are rules.

Notation

On the Korean Peninsula漢字Since it was reportedIdu,Hyangchal,GugyeolSeveral methods have been tried to describe Korean using the sounds and kuns of kanji.However, it was not widely used due to the difference in linguistic structure between Korean and Chinese and the complexity of Korean phonology.The full-scale notation began1443 OfHunminjeongeumSince the enactment.The earliest notation was a phonetic notation in which letters were spelled out as they were pronounced, with some exceptions. From the 16th century, morphological notation began to be gradually adopted, but intellectual spelling was often found in morphological spelling, and common people's writing was often phonographic spelling.19st centuryAt the end of the period, Korean written in Kanji and Korean, which was similar to Japanese Kanji and Kana, gained the status of an administrative language along with the wording (Kanji), and the orthography was gradually solidifying, but they took root. Before that, Korea entered the era of Japanese rule.Kanji and Hangul mixed notation can be found in newspaper headlines, book titles, prefaces, etc. in later times, but the text is written accordingly.[Note 2]Almost does not exist.

The Governor-General of Korea stated that in the early days of the annexation period,Korean Orthography for Elementary School"(1912) Was established, but this is a codification of the customary notation of the private sector.The orthography is "Korean spelling method unification plan"(1933) And so on, and as of 2008, in South Korea,Hangul orthography"(1988), In North KoreaCollection of Korean orthography"(1966Enactment,1987Amendment) is used.The biggest feature common to the north and south orthography is to adopt morphology.SegmentationIs to do.In KoreanSandhi,AssimilationThere are many phonological rules such as, and one morpheme often appears as different sounds depending on the phonological environment.The morphology is to try to use the same characters as much as possible if the sounds are different but the same morpheme.The unit of word-separation is similar to that of Japanese phrases, but the current orthography of the north and south has slightly different rules for word-separation.In general, the south tends to use a lot of word-separation, and the north tends to use less word-separation.

Also, KoreanLatin lettersFor the method of notation withRomanization of KoreanSee.

grammar

Morphology

Indo-European,Afro AsianSeen insex-QuantityThere is no concept of gender, number,Case OfmatchThere is no concept of.

  • nounThe rank ofCase particleRepresented by.Even if the case is not specified in the spoken language, it is omitted if it is clear in the context.
  • A noun can take multiple case particles. The combination of two case particles may have a new meaning.
  • verbCannot form a phrase with the stem alone, and always requires a closing ending.
  • Between the verb and the ending endingtense,aspect, The ending of the predecessor that represents the subject honorific can be inserted.
  • adjectiveHas almost the same conjugation as a verb.Also, unlike Japanese, with adjectivesAdjective verbThere is no differentiation.
  • A crown is an invariant that modifies a noun in JapaneseAdnominalEquivalent to.
  • HonorificThere are three types of honorifics: honorifics for people, honorifics for subjects, and honorifics for objects, which are almost equivalent to polite, humble, and honorific in Japanese.
  • Nouns, particles, and verbs have a special vocabulary that represents honorifics (Suppletion), There are noun suffixes that represent honorifics, and verbs that represent honorifics (the endings that represent the main honorifics, the endings that represent the honorifics, and the endings that represent the honorifics).
  • The ending endings that represent honorifics for people are divided into 6 levels of respect, but only 4 levels are often used.
  • Standard Japanese honorifics are relative to the concept of Uchi and Soto, while Korean honorifics are relative to the hierarchy (including blood relatives).
    • (To my mother)아버지 께서 오셨어요.(There was a father)
    • (To my grandfather)I don't know.(Dad has come)

vocabulary

Korean vocabulary is roughly dividedProper language,Kanji language(Classical Chinese vocabulary),Foreign wordsIt consists of three layers.In particular, most of the foreign words of Korean in Korea are English, which is similar to Japanese in the sense that it has two layers of Chinese characters (classical Chinese vocabulary) and Western loanwords such as English on top of native words. It can be said that it has a vocabulary structure.Compared to Japanese, the proportion of words in each hierarchy in the entire vocabulary is slightly lower for native words and loanwords, and slightly higher for kanji words.

The proper language on the first layer is the ancient Korean language.All ofPart of speechIt is widely distributed in Korea and is the core of the Korean vocabulary, but like Japanese, some basic vocabulary is eroded by Kanji words, and the ratio is higher than that of Japanese.For example, representing a mountain/ san /Represents a river/ gaŋ /Are "mountain" and "e", respectively, and are proper words for the original mountain and river (, to buy) Remains, but it has been forced to reduce its meaning and make it extraordinary.

After the modern era, Japanese students began to adopt Japanese-made Chinese words, and borrowed Chinese characters, mainly Western modern terms translated into Japanese-made Chinese words.The kanji notation words that flowed in from Japanese are not only those that existed as "Kanji" for on-yomi reading in Japanese, but also "Handling" →first person/ chwigɯp /, "Pulling down" (Hikisage) →happy/ inha /In Japanese, kun'yomi is also included.

Kanji wordsnoun,verb,adjectiveSeen in.Nouns were taken in as they were, but verbs and adjectives were used to match the conjugation system of Korean.- 하다/ hada /Was taken in with.This is the same as using sa-variable verbs and adjective verbs in Japanese with "-suru" and "-da-na" in the stem, respectively.

Unlike the case of Japanese, the reading of kanji is unified to almost one for each character.In rare cases, one kanji may have multiple sounds, but it is Japanese.Kanji-KureIt often reflects the one-letter polyphony in Chinese, rather than reflecting the Chinese sounds of multiple eras as in.[Note 3]..For example, to evilOuch/ ak /Five/ o /There are two readings,Ouch/ ak /Means "bad"Five/ o /Means "hate" and reflects the distinction that originally existed in Chinese.In this case, in Japanese,MandarinThen, it corresponds to è and wù respectively.

The third layer is loanwords (other than Kanji).In KoreaEnglish, Russian was the main source of imports in North Korea.The method of importing loanwords is similar to that of Kanji words (nouns remain the same, verbs and adjectivesDo).

Other foreign elements include the Japanese language that flowed into the colonial era and the late Goryeo period.Yuan DynastyInflowed fromMongolian languageThere is.Japanese here meansHanja readingExcept for the Japanese-made Chinese words that were adopted in the reading, Japanese and Japanese-reading Chinese words and loanwords were accepted in a form close to the pronunciation of Japanese.For example, "game" is read in Hanja reading derived from classical Chinese.family/ sɯŋbu /It is a word that has become established in Korean in the form of, but it is derived from the Japanese kanji sound "Shobu".the name/ sjobu /It also flowed in the form of.The vocabulary taken from Japanese in this way is "bento"I'm sorry/ bento /,"Udon"Udon/ udoŋ /,"bucket"a person/ bakkessɯ /However, since the governments of South Korea and North Korea have adopted a policy of excluding such loanwords from Japanese, they are now treated as slang in a limited range, mainly among the elderly. There are many.Part of speechIs a noun,副詞Many, adverbs are in the original JapaneseNuanceOften slightly different from.These vocabularies are only a very low percentage of the total Korean vocabulary, but they were considered problematic because they were considered to be the remnants of the Japanese colonial era.There is a theory that Mongolian was quite influential at that time, but in modern times it leaves only a trace of a very small special vocabulary.

Separately in South Korea and North KoreaLanguage policyThere is also a difference in vocabulary between the two regions due to the fact thatNorth-South difference in KoreanSee).Also, Korean in China is strongly influenced by Chinese.In some cases, Chinese is read and incorporated in Korean sounds, and in other cases, Chinese sounds are incorporated as they are.For example, "graduation" means reading the same kanji in Korean in Korea.Graduated/ chorɔp /But in China, "graduationRead "(Graduation)" in Koreana person/ pirɔp /That is.Also, "computer" is derived from English in Korea.computer/ kɔmpjutɔ /But in China, "computerDerived from the Chinese sound of "(computer)"a person/ ttenno /Is.Russian verbs in Central Asia стрейтьIndefinite ending from (build)-tTake instead- 하다With 스트레이 하다/ sɯtɯreihada /[Source required]There is an influx of Russian words such as.Also, Korean is imported English.KonglishAlso has its own English vocabulary not found in the original English.

State of use

A country whose official language is Korean

A country whose main foreign language is Korean

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ German, this means a Germany,Austria,SwitzerlandThe Ministry of Education of the three countries jointlyOrthographyThere is a system involved in the revision ofAt least German unity in written language is maintained across national borders[Source required].
  2. ^ For example, there is a Korean language textbook published by the Governor-General of Korea.
  3. ^ As an exceptional case, it is used for things that have different pronunciations only in some idioms (eg, the normal pronunciation of Sense is 식, but in the idiom "sign" it is pronounced 지) and surnames. There are some that have different pronunciations only when they are pronounced (the normal pronunciation of gold is 금, but in the surname "Kin" it is pronounced 김).[Source required]

Source

  1. ^ Korean Made Simple: A beginner's guide to learning the Korean language, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (2014), ISBN 978 – 1497445826, P. 136
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin et al., Eds (2016). “Korean”. Grottolog 2.7Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. http://glottolog.org/resource/languoid/id/kore1280 
  3. ^ History of Hangeul - KONEST
  4. ^ Korean FAQ - Tokyo University of Foreign Studies
  5. ^ Korean - Beijing UniversityForeign language school (Chinese)
  6. ^ “North Korea’s population exceeds XNUMX million, aging progresses”. jointNews(July 2016, 9). https://jp.yna.co.kr/view/AJP20160916001600882 April 2022, 8Browse. 
  7. ^ Takao Oe "Chosengo | Korean" [Supervised]Aito Ito+Masuo Omura+Soji Takasaki+Yukio Takeda+Mitsuo Yoshida+Hideki Kajimura"[New Edition] Encyclopedia of Korea"平凡 社, March 2014, 3 New edition 19st print issued,ISBN 978-4-582-12647-1 , 352.
  8. ^ Makoto Bunjou. “Analysis of the language policy "lth and second Kim Il Sung teachings" in North Korea”. Aichi Gakuin University Academic Bulletin Database. P. 135. April 2019, 7Browse.
  9. ^ Hideki Noma (2010) "The Birth of Hangul" Heibonsha Shinsho, page 165.
  10. ^ "Korean Cultural Center in Japan". www.koreanculture.jp. April 2019, 7Browse.
  11. ^ "Asian Regional Language Introduction / Korean". www.daito.ac.jp. April 2021, 5Browse.
  12. ^ "You can learn so many foreign languages ​​at the University of Tokyo — Special Feature: University of Tokyo students, enjoy languages. (1) | A site for Kimi's high school and examinees to learn more about the University of Tokyo”(Japanese). Your University of Tokyo (September 2019, 11). April 2021, 5Browse.
  13. ^ Kim Tae-ho "The name of "Korean" in Japan"Language and Culture," No. 8, Konan University International Language and Culture Center, 2004, pp. 183-204, two:10.14990/00000402, ISSN 13476610, NOT 110002556782.
  14. ^ "Greetings / Overview of the Association”(Japanese). Korean Proficiency Test Association. April 2021, 5Browse.
  15. ^ "Republic of Korea basic data”(Japanese). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. April 2021, 5Browse.
  16. ^ "National Overview — Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China". www.fmprc.gov.cn. April 2021, 5Browse.
  17. ^ "North Korea basic data”(Japanese). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. April 2021, 5Browse.
  18. ^ "National Overview — Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China". www.fmprc.gov.cn. April 2021, 5Browse.
  19. ^ "[Asia] Exiled Korean Chinese beloved kimchi". Apple Daily Daily Report. April 2019, 7Browse.
  20. ^ "Korean Exchange Association". www.io.gov.mo. April 2019, 7Browse.
  21. ^ Selected book picking (October 2018, 10). “Korean knowledge of Korean: What is the key to making a phone call?”(Chinese). The News Lens. April 2019, 7Browse.
  22. ^ Kim, Nam-Kil (1992), "Korean", International Encyclopedia of Linguistics, 2, pp. 282–86, scholars have tried to establish genetic relationships between Korean and other languages ​​and major language families, but with little success
  23. ^ "Comprehensive Education Textbook: Teaching Method / Education System / School Management Law of Each Department. Otsu" Imperial Society of Local Administration,1923, Promotion of Korean language education and Chinese writing (summary of Korean professor),NDLJP:924525/47

References

Masaharu Uchiyama "Linguistic consideration of the language names "Korean" and "Korean""Intercultural Papers" No. 5, Hosei University Faculty of International Cultural Studies, April 2004, pp. 4-73, two:10.15002/00002829, ISSN 13493256, NOT 120000993866.

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