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👍 | Expressing dried cannabis with broccoli pictograms Arrested 5 men who sold it on Twitter


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 Expressing dried cannabis with broccoli emoji Five men arrested for selling on Twitter

 
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The five people are believed to be members of the same drug trafficking group, and so as not to be noticed, they expressed dried cannabis with broccoli emoji on Twitter, solicited customers and met directly to sell.
 

Broccoli is the secret word for cannabis? Five men, including Atsunori Miyagawa (36), an unemployed man from Ogaki City, Gifu Prefecture, were arrested in May last year... → Continue reading

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    drug trafficking group

    marijuana

    marijuana(Now, cannabis[1]) IsAsa(Cannabis grass)corolla,leafDry orResinChemical[1], Liquidated.Marijuana(Marijuana)[1][2].. Manufactured from flowers (taken from inflorescences of cultivated species[3])ThingsGanja(Ganja), ResinHashish(Hashish),CharasCall[4][1]..Other than suction, it has a long history and has been used since BC.[5][6].   

    About 60 kinds containedCannabinoid,In particularTetrahydrocannabinol(THC)PharmacologyHas an action[4], From its actionInhibitorAlthough it is classified as, it also has a hallucinogenic effect of perceptual transformation.[7]..As an effectHallucinogenNot considered to be, but a drowsiness-causing effect,Collapse[8]It also has a stimulating effect and is also used for those purposes.[9].. in JapanCannabis Control LawAlthough it is a regulated drug in Japan, its treatment differs from country to country.Luxury goodsasEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Canada,米 国It is legal only in some states of.Medical cannabisApproves more than 2021 countries as of 50[10].

    From ancient times in JapanShimejiな どHemp fiberPurpose, purifyingmarijuanaIt has been used for purposes other than suction, such as (reading: Onusa), which is a Shinto ritual purpose.[11]..In Japan, even after the war, there was no crime of use for textile and Shinto ritual farmers, but investigations into farmers who have permission to grow cannabis revealed that the ingredients were not detected and false arrests did not occur. The creation of a crime of use is being considered.Cannabis farmers who can get permission from prefectures[12]Exists only for Shinto ritual purposes in the 2020s[13][14][15][16].. Young people are occupying arrests due to SNS and curiosity[17][18][19][20]..Internationally, 1912Universal Opium TreatySupplementedThe distribution and use of cannabis was first restricted in 1925.1961, SubsequentSingle Convention on Narcotic DrugsAccording to the preamble, "drug addiction (in the original text, addiction (addiction) and not dependence dependence) is a serious harm to individuals", and import / export / distribution / production and possession without medical or academic reasons are It came to be regulated.However, since 2016, the regulatory rating has not followed scientific evidence,who(WHO) is reviewing the evidence, and there is a certain riskAbuseWith medical value found,Demolition of cannabis-related regulationsWas recommended[21].pain,Epilepsy,cancer, AIDS, asthma,Glaucoma,Sleeping disorder, There are studies on medical use in various fields such as appetite promotion[22].. In 2020Drug CommissionIt was decided that cannabis would be removed from the treaty's classification of "health care value outweighs the dangers" through a national vote compiled by[23].

    Overview of each country

    The way cannabis is regulated is not uniform in each country.From countries that impose the death penalty for trading as a crime, countries that make small amounts of possession non-criminal and exempt from punishment, countries that are legal only for medical purposes, countries that are legal as luxury goods as well as alcohol and tobacco , Can be sold with permission, etc.[24]..About this, in 2019, the United NationsInternational Narcotics Control CommitteeCalled for the abolition of the death penalty because of human rights considerations, and began to mention the possibility of treatment for minor crimes rather than punishment.[25]..At the same time, from the perspective of promoting medical research and human rights, there is a movement to demand the non-criminalization of drug use, saying that it is necessary to connect people who used drugs to medical treatment and welfare services instead of putting them in prison. Is shifting[26].

    As a country where cannabis for taste and medical purposes is legalCanada,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euThere is.Also, depending on the country, in some areas such as states, as a country that has been legalized for non-criminalization or medical purposes for taste purposes,The United States of America,Portugal,Israel,Belgium,Austria, Netherlands,United Kingdom,Spain,Finland,Germany, South KoreaAnd so on.

    United States state lawThen, as of the summer of 2017, 50 out of 29 statescapitalWashington DCRecognized as medical cannabis in[27].By February 2018, cannabis as a recreational product will be available in the capital and nine states (State of Washington,Colorado,ア ラ ス カ 州,Oregon,California,Massachusetts,ネ バ ダ 州,Maine[28],Vermont[29]) has been legalized. By December 2020, only 12 states will not have medical marijuana and 3 will allow recreational marijuana.[30].. In 1977Jimmy CarterThe administration has proposed excluding small amounts of cannabis possession from criminal penalties, and states have created such state laws.However, even though it was legal in each state, it remained illegal under federal law, and when cannabis use was dismissed, there was no judicial remedy, even for medical purposes.[31][32][33][34].. In December 2020, the Marijuana Opportunity Reinvestment and Expungement Act (MORE Act) was enacted.House of RepresentativesPassed by, this isSenateAttention is being paid to whether it passes through.(English editionSee also

    "New York Times"We should criticize the ban on cannabis, which is less dangerous than alcohol, for causing great harm to society, and abolish the US federal law that bans cannabis."editorialWas posted and controversial[35].. In 2016GallupAccording to polls, about 60% of Americans support the legalization of cannabis.Legalization support was only 1969% in 12, and even at the end of the 20th century it was a minority at around 30%.However, it has increased since the 2000s, and after 2010, legalization support became the majority.[36][37]..The resulting cannabis industry also developed rapidly. Many online smokers, like PILOTDIARY, like bamboo shoots after the rain, have begun to emerge.

    Medical cannabis was legalized in Canada in 2001, and the market size of medical cannabis was about C $ 2015 million annually in 8,000.[38].. As a luxury item, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Drugs held in New York in 2016 announced a policy to legalize cannabis in 2017. Legalization is the best way to protect young people and increase public safety, and is a better way for social security.[39].. Even cannabis for taste was legalized in October 2018[40].

    In the Netherlands, cannabiscoffee shopIt is sold at cannabis shops called, and cannabis has been virtually legalized from early on. As of 2014, the Dutch government said, "It is frequent at the German and Belgian borders.smugglingThe policy is to ban foreigners from purchasing in the southern region for the purpose of cracking down on drugs and reducing drug-related troubles caused by foreigners.In those areas, a system of issuing "cannabis permits" for Dutch residents has been introduced.On the other hand, opposition to the regulation has vehemently opposed, saying, "For the Dutch tourism industry, suicide and distribution may go underground and security may deteriorate."AmsterdamFor that reason, even tourists can buy 5 grams at coffee shops (price is about 50).Euro) Continues the policy of being able to buy cannabis[41]. NetherlandsIn the Ahen method,Soft drugIt is classified into the categories of.

    United Kingdom OfDrug abuse The[42], Classified as ABC by drug risk[Note 1], Cannabis is classified as Class B (upgraded from Class C again from January 2009)[Note 2]).

    In Japan, since 1948, cannabis leaves and earsCannabis Control LawOf non-regulated components of non-regulated partsCannabidiol (CBD) is imported and used[43]..Cannabis that has been cultivated in Japan since ancient times has a low content of THC, which is an euphoric ingredient, and it is said that there was no culture of sucking cannabis in Japan.Omahi ShrineIn (Tokushima Prefecture), there is a relief where an old woman takes a break from hemp leaves, and the picture of hemp cutting in the Edo period depicts a landscape where a hemp farmer takes a break, and there are many pictures reminiscent of suction. , It is said that there was a habit of suction.It was known that hemp field had a mental effect called "anesthesia".[44].. Since 1974, breeding of industrial hemp has been attempted and improved so that euphoric components are not produced.VarietyIs used[45].. For industrial use, the mainstream method is to plant them densely in the open field in order to grow them vertically, but for taste, they are often cultivated indoors to grow their branches horizontally. Therefore, it is difficult to cultivate cannabis taste by pretending to be industrial cultivation.

    Global Anti-Doping Regulations ban natural cannabis and THC along with various medicines and exclude CBD[46]..Won a gold medal at the Nagano Olympics snowboardRoss RebagliatiWas about to be stripped of medals due to a positive cannabis test in the doping test, but was eventually revoked because he hadn't smoked yet at the time of the Olympics.

    Designation

    In Japanesemarijuana(Taima), another name ishempIs[1]..Latin and Greek kannabis means "tube" and is derived from itEnglishThen widelyCannabis Called (cannabis), it refers to dried flowers and grass[1]..In Mexican / SpanishMarijuana (Marihuana, marijuana) is an abbreviation for the female name Maria Juana, and it is speculated that the Portuguese word Marigango changed the meaning of stimulants.[1].. There is a Japanese dictionary that explains that marijuana is put in a cigarette and sucked.[47], Mexico has a habit of mixing with cigarettes[1].. In India, the effect is weak and cheap, leaves and stems are the raw materialsbangAnd what is manufactured from flower earsGanjaAnd what was manufactured from resinCharasCalled.Middle EastThen.Hashishと 呼 ば れ る[4].

    Slang・ As common names and jargon (including English-speaking countries)Weed, Glasses, herbs, pots,420,(in Japan),leaf, Vegetables, green[48].

    Pharmaceutical classification

    ICD-10 Chapter 5 Substance-Related Disorders,DSMSo cannabis is an individual unit.Cannabis is classified into three major categories: stimulants (upper), suppressors (downer), and hallucinogens (psychedelic).InhibitorThere is a 2009 World Health Organization document that categorizes it as, but it is also said to have hallucinogenic properties that alter perception.[7]..In another document using these three major classifications, it is classified between the inhibitory effect and the hallucinogenic effect.[49].

    Harvard University familiar with hallucinogens and cannabisLester GrinspoonAccording to the report, cannabis has a weak psychedelic effect, but drug users do not treat it in the same line as it does not have a strong effect like hallucinogens, and unlike typical hallucinogens, cannabis It also has the property of causing drowsiness, and the typical hallucinogens LSD, mescarin, and sirocibin cause cross resistance, in which the use of one drug makes the other drug ineffective, but the cannabis component THC develops such cross resistance. There is a difference that it does not wake up[9]..It may be used during work in cannabis and in large quantities on a daily basis in Jamaica, but it is intended to provide a mild stimulus.[9].

    History

    Cannabis has a long history as a medicine and luxury item, 2700 years ago in ChinaShamanHas been excavated for the purpose of pharmacological action[5].. 2500年前の、中国の古代都市のXNUMX years ago, in the ancient city of ChinaJushiFrom the graveyard, 13 cannabis plants, which are thought to have been intended for ingestion due to the characteristics of the flower ears without hemp cloth, have been excavated.[6].Back HanChina's oldest drug science book, which is said to have been established around (25-220)Shennong』It is written that it was used as a medicinal herb. Called the "father of history"HerodotusIs "History』, 450 BCScythePeople andThraciansSaid he was smoking cannabis, and in 70Roman EmpireThe use of cannabis was mentioned as a medical treatment for.ArabicMiddle EastCannabis smoking habits became widespread from 900 to 1100.AmericaIn 1549アンゴラWas brought fromslaveBut,BrazilOf sugar in the northeastPlantationsugarHe cultivated cannabis with him and smoked.アメリカ大陸のスペイン領やイギリス領でも大麻の栽培は行われ、特にCannabis is also cultivated in Spanish and British territories of the Americas, especiallyMexicoThen cannabis use has become popular.

    Japanese"Bansenshukai(Volume 21, 1676) describes how to make a "fool medicine" made by drying and powdering cannabis leaves.It is said that if you mix it with meals and ingest about 3 light teas, you will be "disappointed".ヨーロッパでは、嗜好品としての大麻は1798年のIn Europe, cannabis as a luxury item was sold in XNUMX.Napoleon BonapartebyEgypt expeditionIntroduced from Egypt by 1843ParisThe "Hashish Drinker Club" was established in Japan.

    Since 1840, more than 100 books on the use of cannabis in medicine have been published in the West and have been in the limelight.[50]. In 1870GreekThe use of cannabis has become widespread throughout the country.Also, the British upper classRoyal familySpread betweenQueen victoriaWas used to relieve menstrual cramps.薬用としては腹痛やFor medicinal purposes, abdominal painFever,insomnia,tuberculosisUsed by patients.

    Edo period naturalistKaihara Ekikenof"Yamato herbThere is a section on cannabis (hemp) inMalariaEfficacy as a remedy for (malaria), how hemp has been planted in Japan since ancient timesJapanese calligraphyAnd 'KujikiIt is written that it can be seen in[51]..In addition, before World War IIBiopharmacyThe anesthetic properties of cannabis have been known in India and China since BC, in addition to their favorite uses.Sedativeas well as the HypnoticAs,asthmaIt is stated that there is a use as a smoke agent and cigarette[52]..Also, before it was no longer used due to the enforcement of the Cannabis Control Law, in 1886 it was designated as Indian cannabis plant.Japanese Pharmacopoeia』, And was listed until the 1951th revision in 5, and there is a record that it was used as a sedative and hypnotic drug in Japan as well.[53].

    In the United States, cannabis became available as a pharmaceutical formulation in 1840 and was among the top prescription drugs from 1842 to the 1890s.嗜好品としてはAs a luxury itemOttoman Empire OfSultanIsAbdul Hamid IITo commemorate the 1876th anniversary of independence in 100.Philadelphia World's FairOf the Ottoman EmpirePavilionThen the cannabis was sucked.After that, a store that can suck cannabis opened in the northern part of the United States, and businessmen with upper class and status went by stealth.Prohibition LawIn timesク ラ ブIt was used as a substitute for sake in public places such as.しかし、1915年-1927年には南西部州を中心に医療目的以外の大麻使用が州法で非合法化され始め、禁酒法の廃止や治安悪化、人種差別や移民問題However, from XNUMX to XNUMX, the use of cannabis for non-medical purposes began to be outlawed by state law, mainly in the southwestern states, and the abolition of Prohibition, deteriorating security, racism and immigration issues.[Note 3], Coupled with the widespread use of synthetic fibers, was outlawed by federal law in 1937. 1960年代にはIn the XNUMXsHippie movementCannabis use was popularized inVietnam WarThe number of US soldiers smoking cannabis surged on the battlefield.

    The crackdown until the 1980s increased indoor cultivation to avoid being caught in the United States, leading to improvements in production technology, which became widespread throughout the world.[54]..Regarding medical cannabis, it is in a state of being sandwiched between federal law, and patients who use cannabis for medical purposes, pharmacies, etc. are arrested or forcibly investigated.Gray zoneHowever, the crackdown on medical cannabis ended in February 2009.[55].

    On the religious side, 1200 BC-800 BCBrahminismThe scripture ofVeda』From medicines and rituals,ShivaTo godDedicationIt is written that it was used as a thing. Besides, 600 years agoZoroastrianismScripture of "Avesta] In麻 酔Mentioned as a drug / sedative, in 500-600Jewish OfTalmudAlso describes the use of cannabis. Also in JapanShintoAlso deeply involved, since ancient timesEmperorEnthronementLarge festivalThen, the hemp fabric "Aratae" has been made.[56].Old tombIt has also been excavated from[57], Purify the filthShideIt is said that (Shide) used to be hemp branches and leaves and linen cloth, and the Onusa used by the priests to purify ismarijuanaAnd use hemp[Note 4].. BesidesObon OfFireThere is a custom of[Note 5].

    1912 yearsUniversal Opium TreatyIt is,Opium,cocaineIn addition, it was signed for the purpose of prohibiting the harmful effects caused by chemicals derived from these, but it was desirable that cannabis be studied from a statistical and scientific point of view.[59].. On November 1924, 11, Egyptian national team Mohammed El Guinday said, "Hashish is as harmful, if not more than opium," and demanded the addition of hashish.[60].. "30-60% of Egyptian mentally ill people are from hashish," El Guinday's remarks have garnered support from Chinese and American delegations.[60].. Opposition from some colonial countries in Europe, including the United Kingdom[60], Africa, Asia and other countries with habits of use were reluctant, but cannabis products in India were restricted to academics and medical care, and trade was also cracked down.[60].. In 1961Single Convention on Narcotic DrugsWill be taken over by[60].. Since then, it has been outlawed in most European countries, but in 1976 a tolerance policy was implemented in the Netherlands.coffee shopAnd allowed cannabis sales at youth centers.

    2010 year 10 month,Mexican ArmyIs in mexicoTijuanaSeized 105 tons of cannabis from private houses in the suburbs of the city.The total terminal price is 42 billionPesoIt is worth (about 280 billion yen) and is considered to be the world's highest seizure rate of cannabis.

    Types

    Luxury goodsCannabis is classified into the following three types according to the "2006 World Drug Report".[2].

    Dried cannabis

    A processed cannabis product made by drying flower spikes and leaves, and is called ``marijuana'', ``ganja'', ``weed'', etc.[2].. The spikes are called "buds" and the spikes of unfertilized female flowers are called "synthemia".[54].. Dried cannabis is the most common method of processing cannabis as a luxury item, with 79% of the cannabis seized worldwide being dried cannabis.[61].. Hanaho'sTetrahydrocannabinol(THC) andCannabidiolThe content rate is higher than that of other parts. Highest content in Synsemia[54].. The THC content of dried cannabis on the market is increasing year by year due to the improvement of cannabis varieties and the establishment of cultivation techniques.

    Also, to meet the demands of enthusiasts who want to ensure good quality Synsemia, growers sell seeds that have been cleverly crossed to increase the germination rate of females. Seeds like thisFeminized seed It is called (feminised seeds), and some seed manufacturers claim that the germination rate of female strains is 100%.

    In India, the ones made from leaves and stems, which are weak and cheap, are called bangs, and the ones made from flower ears are called cannabis.[4].

    Cannabis resin

    Cannabis resin is a processed cannabis product made by compressing the sap from the spikes and leaves into a solid resin.[2].. Middle East and[4], In the WestHashish (hashish), also called charas in India[2].Also known as chocolate.Hashishi production methods are roughly divided into hand kneading (charas), pollinator (porin), and isolator.Western Europe is the main consumer in the world, where 74% of the world's cannabis resin is seized[62]. Also,MoroccoIs the largest producer of cannabis resin[62].

    Liquid cannabis

    A processed cannabis product extracted by dissolving dried cannabis or resin in a solvent is called liquid cannabis. Also known as Hashishi oil, hash oil, and honey oil. For the solventalcoholAnd oil,Petroleum ether,butaneEtc. are used. Since THC is extracted, the THC content is high, and it may exceed 50% depending on the solvent. The Japanese government generally calls it liquid cannabis, but its shape varies depending on the solvent.

    Effects on the human body

    In recent years, as we will see later, about cannabis like in the UK and CanadaScientific research / research,Medical useIn countries that actively support, clinical trials are being conducted under a legal and regulatory framework. Carter's textbook, based on the Schaefer Commission's report to the U.S. President's advisory in 1977, states that marijuana use is not a cause of psychosis and excludes small amounts of personal possession from criminal penalties. Declared desirable[65].. 1999,National Academy of SciencesAside from the harm caused by smoke, the Medical Institute says the side effects of cannabis use are within the range of side effects allowed by other medicines.[66][Page number required].. In 2008, a research group such as cannabis in the United KingdomBeckley Foundation"Cannabis can be bad for health problems, including mental and physical, but in relative harm it is far less harmful than alcohol or tobacco," he said in a report.[67][68]..It is called "Munchies" because it increases appetite.

    A paper on the relative harm of drugs in Lancet in the figure shows that cannabis is less harmful than tobacco and alcohol (although the 2007 paper published on page 1049 for tobacco and alcohol. A direct comparison of the risks of alcohol and illicit drugs is not possible)[63][64], 2011Global Commission on Drug Policy(It is a private NGO, not a UN agency[69]) And[70]Adopted in a 2012 UK Drug Policy Commission report to show the relative harm of drugs[71].

    1994 "Mental disorder diagnosis and statistics manualThe DSM-IV "Cannabis Dependence" section is used compulsively in people with cannabis dependence, but is generally used.Physical dependenceNot,Withdrawal symptomsIt was stated that there were no clinically meaningful and reliable reports of (withdrawal symptoms). In 2013 DSM-5, the diagnosis of cannabis withdrawal was added, saying that it is caused by discontinuation of use or considerable weight loss after long-term use of cannabis in large quantities, and the degree of symptoms usually requires clinical involvement. It is written that it is not true.AlsoDependenceabuseThe diagnosis name is cannabis use disorder because (intermittent use causes problems) has disappeared and it has been unified into use disorder.

    Collective term for mental illnesses thought to be caused by cannabisCannabis psychosisHowever, the disease unit of cannabis and schizophrenia has not been established, and in 1997, the World Health Organization (WHO) did not clearly define the disorder of "cannabis and schizophrenia." Presumed symptoms are also indistinguishable from other existing psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, so research evidence must be submitted to confirm cannabis and schizophrenia.[72].. The report reports cannabis, including loss of control over use.DependenceHe also states that he has shown sufficient evidence of the symptom group.[72].. The World Health Organization's 2016 report also found that it was biologically relevant for its relationship to mental illness, regular cannabis use and cognitive decline.[73].. Regarding the former, in some studies, cannabis use preceded psychosis and is associated with THC-induced psychosis, with no clear results on increased use rates and increased incidence of schizophrenia at a young age (Psychosis of acute poisoning due to THCTurned out to be prone toschizophreniaThe relationship with is unclear)[73]..On November 11, the same year, it was not officially reviewed by the World Health Organization's expert committee, and the use of medical cannabis was approved, and preparation of documents for review was started.[74].

    As of 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO)Cannabinoid(Examples of non-cannabis)cancer,Acquired immunodeficiency syndromeAt the stage when a disease such as (AIDS) has progressednausea,VomitingTherapeutic effect onasthmaandGlaucomaTreatment, antidepressants, appetite stimulants, antiEpilepsyAs a drug (anticonvulsant)Clinical trialThere was[22]..However, meta-analyses from multiple longitudinal studies now show an increased risk of depressive symptoms.[75].. In 2016, the US FDA released a cannabis-derived ingredient by GW Pharmaceuticals.CannabidiolAbout the product "Epidiolex"Dravet syndromeLennox-Gastaut SyndromeApproved by the regulatory affairs[76].

    In addition, many studies so far have been meaningless studies in which even the amount of THC used has not been described, but studies for medical purposes have clarified this point.[77].. THC is the safest category of acute toxicity[77], There is no study that proved death from cannabis poisoning and the lethal dose can be determined, and the safety factor leading to the lethal dose is 1 times the normal dose estimated from the data in monkeys.[78]..The effects of cannabis use during pregnancy on the foetation have not been shown by epidemiological data from an era when cannabis usage has fluctuated significantly.[78].. Of pharmaceuticalsSativexSince there is no risk of carcinogenesis, it can be assumed that the same is true for non-smoking intake forms.[78].. Evidence that burning cannabis alone and smoking is unlikely to increase the risk of lung cancer[78].

    In cannabis deaths, middle-aged and older people with heart disease may die from the blood pressure-increasing effects of cannabis.[79](DUI, exercise, etc. are also triggers for these people).It's unclear if the World Health Organization's 2018 report will cause a heart attack[80]..Dizziness may occur[79].. The drunkenness called stone generally causes sensitization of sound, but it increases the risk of driving accidents due to changes in judgment.[79].. Although not a rigorous test, there are consistent reports that use reduces memory of things and returns within a month of discontinuation.[81].. Studies of the cognitive effects of long-term use of cannabis have been from the use of cannabis for non-medical purposes, establishing accurate causal relationships such as self-reporting and hair dye-affected hair samples. Research is being conducted in difficult ways, and it is not clear about cognitive function and mental health before use, and the use of drugs that affect cognitive function such as alcohol.[82].. In 2013Systematic reviewSaid that long-term cannabis use could not be associated with brain changes.[81].

    Social opinion

    In Japan, a foundationDrug and stimulant abuse prevention centerClaims the harmful effects of cannabis.The claim is a translation of the drug specimen description, and the medical basis is uncertain.[83].

    In a 2012 general drug report by the UK Drug Policy Board (UKDPC), cannabis may be used for self-medication due to certain health problems. He also points out that problems such as isolation and inequality can exacerbate the problem of drug use, and that the real problem has not been identified.[84]..Studies have shown a link between cannabis use and depression, but pre-existing emotional problems can lead to both cannabis use and mental illness, making it difficult to determine a causal relationship. Was[85]..However, meta-analyses of multiple longitudinal studies (cannabis first and depression later) now show an increased risk of depressive symptoms.[75].

    IQ, both related to and not related to cannabis useCohort studyThese are self-reported, reliable research methods with no mention of the strength of cannabis potency.[86]..大麻使用と、低学力や学校の中退に関連があるとする複数の症例対照研究や横断研究があるが、大麻が原因で起こるという意見と、学業低下が原因で大麻を使用するという意見とで議論が続いているThere are multiple case-control and cross-sectional studies that link cannabis use to low academic achievement and school dropouts, with the opinion that it is caused by cannabis and that it is used due to poor academic performance. Discussion continues[86].

    Although it is an individual study, on September 2014, 9,Lancet PsychiatryPeople under the age of 17 who regularly use cannabis may graduate from high school or earn a degree in college compared to their peers who have never used any drugs, according to a study published in Is said to be about 60% lower.また、日常的な大麻使用者は、後の人生で自殺を試みる可能性が未使用者の7倍となり、また大麻以外のAlso, everyday cannabis users are seven times more likely than non-users to attempt suicide later in life, and non-cannabis users.Illegal drugWas eight times more likely to use[87][88].

    Increased efficacy

    The current cannabisBreed improvementThere is a social opinion that the effectiveness is increasing compared to the past due to the improvement of cultivation techniques and cultivation techniques.

    The British government claims that high-potency cannabis with a THC of more than 30%, called "skunk," is widespread and leads to serious mental illness, but the seized Skunk THC (TetrahydrocannabinolThe average content of) was 14%, only 20% of the total exceeded 4%, and no skunk exceeded 30%.[89]..アメリカの薬物乱用予防教育 (DARE) は「現在の大麻は30年前(1970年代)と比べて効力(THCの含有量)が20倍に増している。」と指摘しているが、2007年のThe US Drug Abuse Prevention Education (DARE) points out that "current cannabis is XNUMX times more potent (THC content) than it was XNUMX years ago (XNUMXs)," but in XNUMX. ofWhite HouseThe Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) has announced that cannabis has nearly doubled in efficacy in 20 years.[90]..National Drug Abuse Institute (NIDA) Survey (NIDA-sponsored Marijuana Potency Monitoring System) also federalDrug Enforcement Bureau Less than 15% of the cannabis seized by (DEA) had a THC concentration above 10%, and more than 20% accounted for 2% of the total sample.[91].. 2008年、オーストラリアのXNUMX, AustraliaUniversity of New South WalesAnd data from nine studies conducted worldwide at the National Drug and Alcohol Research CenterMeta-analysis"It is claimed that society is 20 to 30 times more potent than in the past and is having a negative impact on mental health, but this evidence does not support that claim." To[92]..また、ヨーロッパ麻薬監視センター (EMCDDA) の報告では効力の強い大麻が健康被害リスクを増やすことを示す証拠はなく、個人や社会、公共の秩序又は犯罪行為など全体において効力の強い大麻が普通の大麻よりもリスクが大きいということはないとしているIn addition, there is no evidence in the European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drugs (EMCDDA) that strong cannabis increases the risk of health hazards, and cannabis that is strong overall, including personal, social, public order or criminal activity, is common cannabis. It ’s not more risky than[93].

    In a separate study, a 2017 paper published in France reported that the number of children being taken to emergency rooms due to marijuana poisoning was on the rise in the country.取りまとめた小児科医は、原因を大麻に含まれるTHCの濃度変化にあることに言及し、「2004年には9%だったTHCの濃度が、2014年には20%に跳ね上がった」ことを指摘しているThe pediatrician who summarized it noted that the cause was a change in the concentration of THC contained in cannabis, and pointed out that "the concentration of THC jumped from XNUMX% in XNUMX to XNUMX% in XNUMX". are doing[94].

    Cannabis sold for medical use in Canada has a THC content of 10-14%.[95]Bedrocan for medical cannabis in the Netherlands is 19%[96]..効力の強い大麻のほうが少量の吸引量で望む陶酔状態が得られるので、煙の害を抑えることができるという指摘があるIt has been pointed out that the more potent cannabis can achieve the desired euphoric state with a small amount of suction, so it can reduce the harm of smoke.[97].

    Relationship with traffic accidents

    Even in states where cannabis has been legalized in the United States, it is illegal to drive a car with cannabis in effect.In the United States, alcohol is the number one drug that can be detected by drivers in fatal car accidents, and marijuana is number two.[98](However, this survey only detects illegal drugs such as heroin and cocaine, and drugs such as alcohol and cannabis that are illegal when driving.[99]).Previous studies of cannabis-affected drivers' car accident risk found that the greater the cannabis effect (typically measured by the driver's blood THC concentration), the higher the car accident risk. It has been reported.しかしながらそれらの調査においても、大麻のために上昇したとされる事故リスクは、違法運転とならない量のアルコールを摂取した場合のリスクよりも一貫して低い水準にある事が示されているHowever, those studies also show that the risk of accidents allegedly increased due to cannabis is consistently lower than the risk of consuming an amount of alcohol that does not result in illegal driving.[100]..According to reports from Yale University doctors, the probability of causing a serious accident while driving while cannabis is working is about one tenth that of drunk driving (cannabis also causes a temporary decrease in driving ability and causes accidents). Is supposed to be)[101].

    Inhaling cannabis reduces the ability to adjust, track targets, reaction time, and other abilities required for driving, but if you inhale a small amount of cannabis cigarettes less than one-third, there is no problem with driving ability. There was a research report that it is less likely to cause an accident than a shirafu driver[102].UK Department for TransportReport by[103] "Although it is different from normal times, it cannot be said that there are technical obstacles that lead to accidents."United States Department of Transportation[104] And the Government of Canada Illegal Drugs Commission[105] There was a similar report from.also,House of Peers of the United KingdomReport of Science and Technology Committee[106] So, while alcohol users tend to drive more dangerous than normal, marijuana users tend to drive slowly and carefully to avoid danger, to offset the decline in reaction time and athletic performance. , It was said that it would not directly lead to an increase in accidents.

    However, recent meta-analyses have shown a link between cannabis and road accidents, especially fatal accidents.[107].

    If you inhale a large amount of cannabis, problems such as being unable to drive along the lane, slowing down the response speed to yellow traffic lights and unexpected dangers, and not being able to correctly recognize your own speed will increase the risk of accidents.Also, the combined use of alcohol and cannabis increases the risk of accidents compared to the use of only one of them.[102].

    Humiisi theory

    One of the major reasons for cracking down on cannabis in Japan is the "gateway drug theory", which means that once you use cannabis, you will also use other drugs and become a gateway to other drugs.This is an idea spread by American drug control agencies in the 1950s, but in recent years, Western government agencies have been actively reconsidering this theory.As shown below, recent research institutes are negative about the relationship.Some of the research conducted by the following research institutes in the 1970s and 1990s also supports the gateway theory, and it is necessary to pay attention to the latest research by the institutes.In addition, all the research results are for Europe and the United States, not for Japan.

    • A 1997 WHO report also states that the majority of cannabis users are reluctant to use other illegal psychotropic drugs.[108].
    • 2005 yearsHouse of Representatives of the United KingdomThe Science and Technology Commission's report broadly considers various drug and gateway theories, in which John Strang of the British National Center for Substance Abuse said, "(In the same argument with cannabis as a gateway).primary schoolTo go toheroinIt's a gateway to become an addict, but no one wants to find any connection there. ".Also, Chairman of the Substance Abuse Advisory Committee,University of LondonEmeritus professor Michael Rollins said, "When I was young.nicotineAnd the use of alcohol is a much wider gateway to subsequent substance abuse than cannabis. ".The report concludes, "We could not find any evidence in support of the cannabis gateway theory."[Note 6].
    • Report from the European Monitoring Center for Drugs (EMCDDA) in 2006[110] Then, as a result of grouping and analyzing users by the drug that is mainly used for multiple use of drugs, it is shown that the group with cannabis as the main drug uses extremely few other drugs. Was done.However, this report does not describe the idea of ​​gateway theory in the first place.
    • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime"Australia has undergone extensive research on twins." "One of the twins who used cannabis by the age of 17 compared to the other, who had never used it," (UNODC) said. The rates of other drug use, alcoholism, and substance abuse / addiction increased from 2.1 to 5.2 times. Taking into account the recognized risk factors, the results were similar. " Says[111].
    • In addition, in recent yearsAmerican Institute of Medicine (IOM) reports and[Detailed information for identifying documents], Dutch studies also deny gateway theory[112].. There is a view that the legal position in which cannabis is placed is such a gateway.[113].
    Negative individual studies
    • The National Institute of Substance Abuse (NIDA), announced in 2006,University of PittsburghIn a study commissioned by 224 boys, 10 boys were followed up for more than 12 years from the age of 22 or 10 to XNUMX years.As a result, he concludes that "the order in which substance abuse proceeds is neither a specific drug as a starting point nor a fixed drug."This research was noted when the institution that originally advocated gateway theory found and published results that were the exact opposite of the research's intentions.[114].
    • More than 2006 Australians using cannabis and other drugs by Washington Medical College and others announced in 4000GeminiA large study of cannabis has also been followed up for a long period of time and concluded that cannabis has no ordering relationship that could lead to the use of other drugs. Also, even if there is some kind of gateway effect, it says, "Because cannabis is regulated, usersBlack marketIt is linked to the Diller, which becomes a source of other illegal drugs. " In fact, the number of heroin users is declining in the Netherlands, which allows cannabis to be sold in coffee shops.[115].
    Positive individual studies
    • US Drug Enforcement Administration The (DEA) claims on its website that cannabis users are 104 times more likely to use cocaine than normal.[116] And cannabisGateway dragIt is positioned as. The DEA's claim is based on a study conducted by the National Drug Enforcement Administration (NIDA) in 30, 1975 years before the latest study by the Institute.[117] However, there is no specific number of 104 times, and it is written as "much greater".
    • 1997 yearsColumbia UniversityA study by the Substance Abuse and Abuse Center found that the percentage of cannabis users who had used cocaine (17%) was divided by the percentage of cocaine users who had never used cocaine ("0.2%"). Users are 85 times more likely to use cocaine[118].
    • August 2014, 9,Lancet PsychiatryA study published in the study found that routine cannabis users under the age of 17 were eight times more likely to use other illicit drugs than those who did not.[88].

    Drug test (drug test)

    There are four testing methods for cannabis: urine, blood, hair, and saliva. It is often performed by urinalysis, and the detection period of cannabis components is proportional to the frequency of use, with a minimum of 4 to 48 hours and a maximum of 72 weeks. There are also simple tests (screening tests) and detailed tests. Simple tests use the easy-to-use and inexpensive enzyme-multiplied immunoassay (EMIT) and are positiveThresholdIs as high as 50 ng / ml.In close inspectionGas chromatographyMass spectrometry The test by (GCMS) is carried out over one to several days, and even if the positive threshold is as low as 1 ng / ml, it can be judged as positive.Cannabis positive reaction is a drugDronabinolIt comes out even if you are taking (Marinol).

    In the United States, the federal government has set a compulsory implementation guidance policy for drug tests in the workplace, which details the location, staff in charge, and method of conducting tests.[119].. In the 2010s, defects such as the false positive reaction of most of the simple urine tests were pointed out.[120].. In Japan, there are no legal provisions regarding drug testing methods.

    Japan

    Before the inflow of suction use 

    There was no cannabis inhalation habit in Japan[11]..Therefore, until around 1900, hemp was once edible as a seed in addition to textile materials.If you sow the seeds, it will grow naturally andFertilization,ThinningHarvesting is quick without the hassle of cultivationAnnual grassAs such, cannabis "as a crop" was a major source of income for some poor farmers.Before the war, when there was demand for hemp fiber materials and productsHokkaidoCannabis was cultivated as one of the munitions. In 1887, Hokkaido Hemp Co., Ltd. (laterTeikoku Hemp Co., Ltd.) Was established.In the Meiji eraAsthmaIt was also sold under the name of "Asthma Tobacco Indian Cannabis Grass" as a remedy for.

    First regulatory law

    But,ShowaFor the first time in the old "Narcotics Control Regulations" of 5, it was designated as a drug and cannabis was regulated.[121].

    Postwar regulatory tightening and softening

    After the war, on November 20, 1945, the cultivation was completely banned due to the "Prohibition of Narcotic Raw Material Plant Cultivation, Narcotic Manufacturing, Import and Export, etc."This has had a significant impact on the demand for hemp fibers in Japan.Therefore, the "Cannabis Control Law" was enacted in 11.For the purpose of collecting fiber and seedsCannabis planting is permitted under the permission system from the prefecture.Exception rulesWas established, and the current Cannabis Control Law was enacted in 23.[121].

    Popularization of hemp fiber alternative materials

    cotton,Jute, Chemical products and other hemp fiber alternative materials are widely distributed and soldAs the demand for hemp fiber declined and the selling price dropped sharply, hemp cultivation, mainly in the side business, will decrease sharply.Now, improved varieties for non-suction purposes of certified vendors are cultivated only in designated areas.[121].

    Inflow from the United States / social problems

    After the boom of the 1950s, in the United States in the late 1960shippieInspired by the movement, even in JapanFolk musicIs fashionable.Vietnam WarOpposition,world peaceCannabis smoking spread to young people in big cities as one of the anti-establishment tools while the momentum was rising. In 1966, the number of arrests was less than 250, but in 1978 it exceeded 1000 for the first time. Cannabis becomes a social problem as the number of arrests and arrests for inhalation, possession and sale of cannabis increases since the 1960s.[122][123].

    After Heisei

    In the 2000sCannabis Control LawThe number of people cleared for violations has been on the rise, but it has not always been consistent, as it has decreased since 2009.GangsterRelatively easy to involve stimulants and foreign organizationsheroin,cocaineOtherDangerous drugUnlike, cannabis is the only drug that can be cultivated individually and produced domestically, making it the most familiar and easy-to-use drug.[124]..There are also smuggling from the United States and Canada, and international illegal activities related to cannabis continue.It has been pointed out that the spread to young people due to curiosity and SNS, such as accounting for 7% of the arrest rate.[13][17][18][19].

    National Center of Neurology and PsychiatrySummarized an estimate of 2018 million cannabis users in 133[125].

    Variety

    Most of the cannabis cultivated in JapanTochigiBirth[126]It is mainly used for hemp thread and linen cloth, as well as daily necessities (clothing) and Shinto ritual (shinto ritual).sacred shrine ropeEtc.), fishing gear (fish net,),hemp reedIt is used as (Ogara).The cultivated cannabis is called Tochigishiro (Tochigi White)Improved varieties that are said to contain almost no THCIs.Tochigi Prefecture prohibits the removal of Tochigishiro seeds from the prefecture.Special products of hemp include Mino hemp, Kiso hemp, Okaji ramie, Kanuma hemp, Shizukuishi hemp, and Joshu hemp.

    Self-reliance eradication campaign

    Cannabis grass is stillweedIt grows naturally mixed with.The native cannabis plant itself is a natural product, so it is not legally illegal.[Note 7]It is illegal under the Cannabis Control Law to collect even one leaf without permission. Police are calling on owners of land where cannabis grows to weed, but cannabis is highly self-sustaining and grows wild over a wide area, but it is difficult to completely eradicate it because of the cost of fuel and the risk of misfire. .. In addition, cannabis grows naturally not only in Hokkaido but also in various parts of Japan, and every year in each region.Health center,MunicipalitiesIs engaged in eradication activities such as cutting native cannabis.Insects such as as a harmful effectMinistry of the Environment OfNear-threatened speciesEtc. specified inEcosystemIs affecting.

    Cannabis crackdown list

    The Cannabis Control Law was enacted in 1948, and in the 1960s a UN report stated that Japanese cannabis crimes were generally foreigners and that foreign sailors and soldiers were increasingly arrested.[127].. After that, in the 1970s, the number of Japanese arrests increased one after another.

    Number and number of drug offenses[128][129][130]
    marijuanastimulant drugPsychotropic drugsOpium
    Heisei 152,772 cases (2,032 people)20,129 cases (14,624 people)952 cases (465 people)84 cases (50 people)
    Heisei 163,018 cases (2,209 people)17,699 cases (12,220 people)1,156 cases (560 people)80 cases (59 people)
    Heisei 172,831 cases (1,941 people)19,999 cases (13,346 people)1,154 cases (504 people)31 cases (12 people)
    Heisei 183,252 cases (2,288 people)17,226 cases (11,606 people)1,133 cases (519 people)50 cases (27 people)
    Heisei 193,282 cases (2,271 people)16,929 cases (12,009 people)1,088 cases (469 people)57 cases (41 people)
    Heisei 203,832 cases (2,778 people)15,840 cases (11,041 people)1,106 cases (493 people)19 cases (14 people)
    Heisei 232,287 cases (1,648 people)16,800 cases (11,852 people)564 cases (256 people)16 cases (12 people)
    Heisei 252,086 cases (1,555 people)15,232 cases (10,909 people)862 cases (478 people)11 cases (9 people)
    Heisei 272,771 cases (2,101 people)15,980 cases (11,022 people)706 cases (398 people)6 cases (3 people)

    A series of cases of college students being arrested for possessing cannabis, and in 2008, 2,778 people were arrested annually, 90.6% of whom were the first offenders.[129].

    Sumo world cannabis chain arrest case

    Grand SumoIn the world in August 2008RussiaFromWakano PengWas arrested for possessing cannabis, and in September a simple drug test[Note 8](Positive threshold 50ng / ml) from the same RussiaRoho,Bailu MountainTwo of them and one of the Japanese wrestlers gave false positive reactions to cannabis. Roho and Hakurozan were dismissed because they tested positive in the detailed examination (positive threshold 2 ng / ml). The Japanese wrestler gave a negative reaction in the third simple test, so he discarded the sample (urine) and the test results. No close inspection and no disposal[131].. In response to these facts, the Japan Sumo Association has a policy of dismissing cannabis-positive wrestlers by drug tests.[132].. On the other hand, there are some who are concerned about this movement, saying that it is not taken into consideration when the test method is inadequate and when it is mixed with passive smoking or food and drink and ingested unconsciously.[133][134].. In March 2009WakarinWas arrested with an acquaintance.

    Cannabis criminal in Japan

    In Japan, it is claimed that cannabis is easy to cultivate and that cannabis has been cultivated in various parts of Japan for a long time and has become wild.In addition, the oldJapanese armyHas recommended production in Nagano Prefecture and Hokkaido for the purpose of producing munitions since before World War II, so even after the enactment of the Cannabis Control Law after World War II, Hokkaido[135], Nagano,Tohoku regionIt grows naturally in such places. Therefore, the government is exterminating it, but its vitality is strong and complete extermination is impossible.

    In Hokkaido, where there is a lot of native cannabis, we are conducting an eradication campaign under the initiative of the government.It has been pointed out that this is one of the reasons for the increase in cannabis offenses because illegal transaction prices are exceptionally cheaper in these wild areas than in other areas and collection is possible.In addition, the spread of the Internet has made it possible to learn how to grow cannabis, and online shopping sells cannabis seeds and cultivation / suction tools under the name of ornamental.

    In addition, stimulant drugIt is argued that the reduction in crimes has led to the crackdown on cannabis offenders, which has contributed to the increase in the number of cannabis offenders cleared.[136].

    In 2008, 389.9 kg of the 73.9 kg of dried cannabis seized was smuggled. The source of dried cannabisSouth AfricaThe largest amount of smuggling from Japan is 33.9kg, and the number of smuggling offenders (47 cases) is the highest in Thailand after 13 cases in the United States.[129].. In 2015, the United States had the largest number of cannabis smugglers (36), followed by Canada (5).[137]

    In 2008Core magazineThe company released a magazine "Burst High" that introduced cannabis cultivation methods, which became a problem.TokyoIn March of the same year,Metropolitan Youth Protection and Development OrdinanceUnder the age of 18 cannot read this magazine based onHarmful booksIt was designated as, and the company was also disposed of.The company continued to publish a magazine "High Gram Burst" (published December 12) with similar content in December of the same year.The capital took strict precautions again, but did not take measures to ban distribution.This magazine was distributed on the Internet even after the guidance of the city,[138], Is currently out of print.

    Laws and regulations

    Laws and regulations in Japan

    In Japan, cannabisCannabis Control LawIs regulated by.Cannabis is like opiumNarcotics and Psychotropic Drugs Control ActThe reason why it is regulated by a law different from the (Drug Control Law) is that the occupations of illegal manufacturers are different and the control is perfect.[139].. However, in the Narcotics and Psychotropics Control Law, chronic addiction to cannabis is called drug addiction like chronic addiction to other narcotics, and is treated in the same way. further,Drug exception methodAlso, it is defined as a regulated drug.

    In addition, the Cannabis Control Law prohibits the application of medicines made from cannabis under Article 4, item 2 of the same law, and the cannabis control law prohibits the application of medicines made from cannabis. There is.Although the Cannabis Control Law does not define "pharmaceutical products," the Cannabis Control Law defines pharmaceutical products in Article 2 of the Act on Securing Quality, Effectiveness, and Safety of Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices. In item 3, "things that are intended to affect the structure or function of the human or animal body and are not machinery or equipment (excluding quasi-drugs, cosmetics, regenerative medicine products, etc.). ) ”, It is illegal to apply cannabis, which is a controlled drug.

    However, as of March 2019, 3House of CouncilorsIn the question and answer of the drug approved in the United States by the special committee on Okinawa and northern issues, with the permission of the minister under the doctor who is a cannabis researcher, the drug to be investigated was given to the target patient based on the implementation plan There was an answer that it can be used only[140][141]..For more information and details, see "Medical cannabis #JapanSee.

    drugThe term is[Note 9], Narcotics and psychotropic drugs control law The case of drugs (narcotics in a narrow sense) specified in Appendix XNUMX and the five drug laws including the Cannabis Control Law, the Ahen Law, the Stimulants Control Law, and the Narcotics Special Law Cannabis is included in narcotics in a broad sense, although it may be referred to as a drug (narcotics in a broad sense). Many Japanese dictionaries also describe it as a drug. "Drugs made from hemp" ("Kojien』)," Another name for hemp. Also, a drug made from its leaves and resin. "("Daijisen]).

    Regulated

    Japan's Cannabis Control Law refers to cannabis as "cannabis sativa el and its products, but mature cannabis stems and their products (excluding resin), cannabis seeds and their products. Excludes. ”(Article 1 of the same law).

    Ofscientific name"Cannabis Sativa El (Cannabis sativa Because it is defined using "L.)"SubspeciesOr a variant, Sativa (Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa there. sativa) ・ Indica (Cannabis sativa subsp. indicates) ・ Ruderalis (Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa there. spontaneous) All are subject to regulation.Hemp familySince there is only one species of cannabis sativa el as a plant of the genus Cannabis (genus cannabis), "cannabis grass (cannabis sativa el)" referred to in Article 1 of the Cannabis Control Law refers to all plants belonging to the genus Cannabis. Including[142] Is said to be. However, this is based on the taxonomy based on the theory of one genus in the genus Asa (genus Cannabis), and there are also various theories of one genus in plant taxonomy. According to one genus, the species included in the genus Cannabis (Cannabis genus) is Cannabis sativa el (Cannabis sativa Linnaeus), Cannabis Indica Lamb ()Cannabis indica Lamarck), Cannabis Ruderalis Jani (C Janischewsky), And these are not subspecies or varieties of Cannabis sativa el, but different species.[143].

    marijuanaseed TheSeasoningsIt is widely used as food for birds and birds, and it is difficult to regulate and is not subject to crackdown.Customs lawThe import of cannabis seeds that have not been heat-treated to prevent germination is restricted.Also of cannabisattractAnd use itself is not against the law. This is due to hemp farmers who naturally ingest volatilized cannabis components, Homa cooking where hemp was burned until the law was enacted, Obon festival fire and open burning.Passive smoking, It is said that this is in consideration of cases such as being mixed in food and drink.

    License system

    According to the Cannabis Control Law, possession, cultivation, import and export of cannabis (cannabis grass and cannabis products) is licensed. That is, if you want to grow cannabis grass for the purpose of collecting fiber or seeds, you need a cannabis grower license from the prefectural governor, and if you want to grow cannabis grass or use cannabis for research purposes. Is a cannabis researcher license orpharmacistA license is required (Articles 2 and 3 of the same law). Also, when a licensed cannabis researcher intends to export or import cannabis,Minister of Health, Labour and WelfarePermission is required (Article 4, Paragraph 1, Item 1 of the same law).

    Japan has adopted a license system for cannabis cultivation, and industrial cultivation is legally possible. However, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare does not allow cultivation for the purpose of shipping as agricultural products for new licenses, but "the purpose of cultivation is to inherit traditional culture and to be closely related to daily necessities as commonly used daily necessities. Only when it is indispensable (such as Shinto rituals)[144], In fact, it has a policy of hardly admitting it. In addition, it should be notedTottoriSo, in 2016, we revised the Drug Abuse Prevention Ordinance to not issue licenses even if the requirements are met.[145].

    In addition, since the ingredients are naturally inhaled during cultivation, license holders will not be punished even if a cannabis reaction occurs from the body regardless of whether it is used or not.

    Penalties

    7 years or less if cultivated or imported / exported without a license or licenseImprisonmentIs imposed (Article 24, Paragraph 1 of the same law). Imprisonment for up to 10 years for commercial purposes (or up to 300 million yen depending on circumstances)fine(Section 2 of the same Article). Illegal possession, transfer / transfer of cannabis, and application of medicines made from cannabis are imprisonment for up to 5 years (Article 24-2, Paragraph 1 of the same law). In the case of commercial purposes, imprisonment with work for not more than 7 years (or a fine of not more than 200 million yen will be imposed depending on the circumstances) (paragraph 2 of the same Article).[Note 10].

    About cannabis cultivation or import / exportPreliminary crimeIs also punished (Article 24-4 of the same law), cultivation, import / export, possession, transfer / transferattemptedWill also be punished (Article 24, Paragraph 3 of the same law, Article 24-2, Paragraph 3). In addition, cannabis owned or owned by the criminalConfiscationIn addition to (necessary confiscation) (Article 24-5, Paragraph 1 of the same law), ships used to carry cannabis,aircraftAlternatively, the vehicle can be confiscated (voluntarily confiscated) (paragraph 2 of the same Article).

    Former act abroadProsecutorLawyerAccording to Tsutomu Nakamura, the use of cannabis is not prohibited by Japanese law, but it may be difficult to prove possession in many cases.Criminal lawJapanese law is applied and illegal according to Article 2.[146].. On the other handKonan UniversityLaw SchoolAccording to Professor Hisashi Sonoda, Article 2 of the Criminal Code is set up to crack down in cooperation with the partner country, so this common purpose does not hold in legalized Canada, and the Cannabis Control Law 24 It is said that the possession of Article 8 "Midari ni" (not satisfying the procedure for possession) will not be established if it is legalized in the partner country because it is not "Midari ni" possession.[40].. If not interpreted that way, he points out that when a Canadian who has possessed cannabis in Canada visits Japan, he will be punished by Japanese law for his actions in Canada.[40].

    From 1952 to 1954Occupation legislationThe abolition of the Cannabis Control Law was considered when the law was reorganized for the purpose of reexamining and simplifying the reorganization of administrative affairs, but there is a history that it was postponed.[147].

    Controlled delivery

    Narcotics Special Law (Law concerning special provisions such as the Narcotics and Psychotropic Drugs Control Law to prevent acts that promote illegal acts related to regulated drugs under international cooperation) Is controlled delivery (controlled delivery, so-called "Swim investigation”). If you try to import or export cannabisCustomsEven if it turns out in, the customs clearance is done without immediate arrest, information on the delivery destination and delivery source is obtained, and systematic drug transactions are arrested all at once.

    Cannabis policies in each country / region

    Many countries have laws that regulate cannabis, but this is international lawUnited NationsTo three international treaties on drugsApproveI am familiar with what to do. What are the three treaties?Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs(1961), 1971Convention on Psychotropic Drugs(1971 years),United Nations Convention Against Illied Trade in Narcotics and Psychotropics(1988), but the first single convention mentioned is particularly relevant to cannabis.Especially in the 21st century, some countries that have ratified the treaty have been decriminalized under domestic law or the Local Autonomy Law, permitting only medical treatment or decriminalizing the amount for entertainment purposes.

    In 50, 2011 years after the Single ConventionGlobal Commission on Drug Policy(Private sector, not UN agencyNGOIs[69]) Suggests that legitimate government regulations should be implemented, especially for cannabis, as an experimental method to undermine drug criminal organizations, as banned measures have failed and are fostering drug problems. went[70].

    Since cannabis has never been formally scientifically reviewed in 2016, the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO) are proceeding with a scientific review, and in 2019 the United Nations for regulatory review It became a carry to vote through[148].

    October 2018, 10, World Health OrganizationTedros Adanom"I don't think any addictive drug is good for human health," the executive secretary said of cannabis for taste. "WHO is actually about to legalize it."CountryWe will not encourage each country to follow. "[149]..The International Narcotics Control Board has also been discussing with Uruguay, which has been legalized, to criminalize imports and exports.[150]..On the other hand, in June 2019,International Narcotics Control Committee (INCB) issued a statement stating that violations such as possession of small doses of drugs due to personal use have alternatives such as treatment as the Convention does not require punishment.[25]..Although these international organizations have expressed concern about legalization, they have come to advocate human rights-friendly decriminalization.

    In December 2020, the United Nations Narcotics Control Board decided to remove what the treaty classified cannabis as the most dangerous group (risk outweighs medical value), and the path to medical use. Opened[151].

    The United States of America

    (English editionSee also

    Cannabis is federalControlled substance lawso"Schedule I"are categorized.prescriptionIt was stipulated that the production would be restricted by the production allocation by the Drug Enforcement Administration.Drug Enforcement Bureau Strictly cracked down by (DEA).On the other hand, in some states, state law has decriminalized small amounts of possession since the 1970s, approved medical cannabis since 1996, and decriminalized cannabis for personal use since 2012. Financial regulations such as account freezes are also being implemented for businesses such as cannabis cultivation and distribution.

    In 1973OregonSo amend the state law to remove criminal penalties from possession of cannabis, 1Ounce(= Approximately 28g or less) Possession of the following will be fined and no criminal history will be given[152].. 1977年にアメリカ大統領の諮問に対するシェーファー委員会の答申に基づいて出されたカーター教書によってマリファナの使用は精神病の原因になるとはいえないこと、個人の少量所持を刑事罰の対象から外すのが望ましいと言明されたCarter's textbook, based on the Schaefer Commission's report to the U.S. President's advisory in XNUMX, does not say that marijuana use causes mental illness, and it is desirable to exclude small amounts of personal possession from criminal penalties. Was declared[153]..Since then, such decriminalization has progressed in some states for small amounts of personal possession.一部の州の自治法で、自己使用目的の少量(1オンス)の所持がSome state autonomy laws require possession of a small amount (XNUMX ounce) for self-useFineIs specified as[154]..Of course, even in these states, "possession of more than 1 ounce", "possession of cannabis tree", "cultivation of cannabis", "sales / transportation / distribution of cannabis", "possession for sale regardless of the amount of possession", etc. It is a felony and imprisonment.

    August 2012, 11,State of WashingtonA referendum was held in conjunction with the presidential election in the United States, and on December 12, the same year, the private use of personal marijuana (dried cannabis) was legalized for the first time in the United States.新法では、6歳以上に最高21オンスのマリファナ所持が認められているThe new law allows up to 1 ounce of marijuana for people over the age of XNUMX[155]..合法的に販売されるマリファナには25%の税金が州より課せられるState imposes a XNUMX% tax on legally sold marijuana[156]..Similarly, in Colorado, a referendum was held on November 11, and the legalization of cannabis as a luxury item was passed.The new law will come into effect on January 6, the following year.[155]、州内の住民であれば、1回当たり最大1オンス(約28グラム)まで、州外の住民であれば4分の1オンス(約7グラム)までの購入ができるようになった。現在の店頭価格は1オンス当たり400-500ドルで、密売されていた当時の末端価格の4~5倍の値がついている[157].ア ラ ス カ 州Then, in February 2014, the legalization of cannabis for taste was implemented by the approval of legalization in the referendum in November 11.[158]..首都capitalワ シ ン ト ン DCBut in February 2015, recreational cannabis was also legalized.[159]..In Oregon, after a referendum in November 2014, in July 11, cannabis for personal use (2015 years old and over, private possession / use up to 7 ounces and self-cultivation, except when driving / public places) Legalization realized[160].

    In the referendum held in conjunction with the presidential election on November 2016, 11, a new referendumCalifornia, Massachusetts, Nevada, and Maine pass legalization of cannabis as a luxury item[161][162]..In California, possession, use, and self-cultivation of marijuana for people over the age of 21 to enjoy in a private place are now permitted under certain conditions.また同日、新たにAlso on the same day, a newFlorida,Arkansas,Montana,North DakotaIt was decided to legalize medical cannabis. 2017,The Pacific OceanUpper US territoryGuamSubmits legalization bill[163].. Vermont Legalized Cannabis Preference in January 2018[29].

    On September 2013, 9, the United States announced that 8% of Americans over the age of 12 who habitually use marijuana account for 12.7% of the total.Eric Hampton HolderAttorney GeneralHas stated that it will not be subject to federal penalties if it is inhaled in a state that legalizes marijuana, subject to state legislation that keeps children away from marijuana.[164]..However, under federal law, cannabis is illegal, and there is no judicial remedy for being dismissed for cannabis use in states where medical or preference cannabis has been legalized. In 2011, the Washington Supreme Court said, "Under federal law, even patients in Washington do not have the right to legally use cannabis."[31] "Employees are permitted to use medical marijuana by state law, but it is illegal under federal law, and state law does not defend employees," the 2015 Colorado Supreme Court said.[32] In each case, the employer has ruled that employees using medical marijuana can be dismissed. 2008年カリフォルニア州最高裁XNUMX California Supreme Court[33], 2010 Oregon Supreme Court[34] Has made a similar decision.

    Medical cannabis in the United States
    US Food and Drug Administration(FDA)[165] And the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)[166] "Cannabis has no medical value," he said.連邦法であるFederal lawControlled substance lawNow, let ’s talk about synthetic THC (trade name: Marinol) for medical cannabis.Schedule IIIIt is classified into. Schedule III substances are a category for drugs that are at "risk of abuse".
    In the United States, there are some states that can own and grow cannabis only with the recommendation or permission of a doctor for this medical cannabis under the state law "Medical Cannabis Law" established by each state council. However, it is illegal for patients to sell (resell) or distribute cannabis in any state. Medical cannabis law in 1996CaliforniaStarting with being executed in[167], Medical cannabis available in Washington, DC and 2017 of the 50 states as of summer 29[27].

    Canada

    (English editionThen in 2001Health CanadaMade prescription-based medical cannabis legal and within the scope of medical expense deductions[168].. Also, regarding the Cannabis Prohibition Law that came into effect in 2007 in 1923,OntarioOshawaCourt of First Instance ruled unconstitutional[169].

    The 2015 general election promised to legalize cannabis for tasteCanadian Liberal PartyWon[170],Party leader OfJustin TrudeauBecame prime minister. As a result, the cannabis legalization bill was deliberated in April 2017 and passed in June 4.[171], Enforced from October 2018, 10[168]..Canada is the second developed country to legalize cannabis for taste, after Uruguay.[172]

    The lifting of the ban on cannabis for taste has created an investment called the "green rush" in anticipation of the influx of tourists from outside Canada and the increase in demand.[173].. A prominent cannabis legalization activist in CanadaMarc EmeryJustin Trudeau has also professed to have used cannabis five to six times, including when he was a member of parliament.[168]..In response to these series of movements, the Government of Japan is calling attention to Japanese residents and Japanese tourists to be careful not to touch cannabis.[174].

    EU

    European UnionEven in the (EU), some countries have legal penalties similar to those of Japan's Cannabis Control Law. However, it is rare that the actual operation is as strict as in Japan. 2008European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drugs (EMCDDA) Survey[175] According to the report, 1 million people in Europe have used cannabis for life (those who have used it even once), accounting for 7100% of the European population.There are 22 million users within the past year.1 million users have been used within the past month.

    In Europe, hemp (traditional name) is a breed of hemp that has been bred for the purpose of using fiber.hemp) To distinguish it from marijuana and cannabis, which have a strong image as a drug.In order to permit the use of fiber, some countries have a permit system or a notification system for the cultivation of hemp with a euphoric component of 0.2% or less.The amount of euphoric component 0.2% is much smaller than that of native hemp euphoric component (1% to 20%), and it is not suitable for use for euphoric purposes.

    In the EU, we are doing a lot of research on the use of cannabis for medical purposes ("Medical cannabis"reference).In addition, some countries in the EU have adopted policies that are tolerant of cannabis crime (see national descriptions for details).

    Netherlands
    (English editionThere are many users of soft drugs such as, and I think that this cannot be completely expelled.If this is suppressed by the regulation law, soft drugs willHard drugIt will come out of the same black market as, increasing the chances of soft drug users to use hard drugs and increasing the harm caused by drugs.Rather, the policy is to allow the sale of soft drugs under certain conditions only in facilities that can be well managed by the government, and to completely separate the market from hard drugs to reduce the harm caused by drugs (Harm reduction).
    Due to the national situation of serious drug pollution, local governments are retailers selling cannabis for personal use.coffee shopHas the authority to allow.Under Dutch domestic law, manufacturing and possession for personal use is also illegal, so local government-licensed coffee shops are inconsistent.
    Although it is not a measure that can fundamentally resolve the contradiction (law revision, etc.), the Dutch Ministry of Justice has applied the guideline "Tolerance Policy on Soft Drugs (Gedoogbeleid)" since 1996. In the Netherlands, legal penalties are prioritized, with "possession of soft drugs weighing 5 grams or less for personal use" and "possession of hard drugs weighing 0.5 grams or less for personal use" having lower priorities. As a result, these charges are usually deferred from prosecution. Although it is illegal, it is an unavoidable measure to avoid the constant allocation of police and judicial personnel to drug crimes due to serious drug contamination. However,Guidelines TheLawEven if an indictment is filed against this, it will not be acquitted on the basis of the guidelines. It is still an illegal act.
    like thisdecreeLocal governments have also criticized the situation where law enforcement standards are clearly inconsistent. 2005, a border townMaastrichtThe mayor of the city, Gerd Leers, criticized the current policy as inconsistent. The mayor argues that by authorizing cannabis retailing and possession, while disapproving cultivation and wholesale, the government creates many problems of security and crime. He also insists that he wants to switch to either legalization and adjustment of cultivation or complete suppression. Rails's allegations drew support from local governments and brought the cultivation issue back to the agenda.
    In the Dutch ParliamentdecreeThere is a movement to fundamentally review itself, and each local government and the people are interested. In November 2008, the Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDA / 11 seats), the ruling party of the Netherlands, proposed a ban on the sale of soft drugs. Pieter van Vollenho claims "total closure of coffee shops selling soft drugs". The Christian Union Party (CU / 41 seats), the third party of the ruling coalition, also supported this. In response, the Labor Party (PvdA / 6 seats), the second ruling coalition party, expressed opposition.[176][177].
    In 2011, the Dutch government designated skunk and other cannabis with a strong psychotropic effect containing 15% or more of THC as a hard drug. Cannabis regulation tightened[178].
    United Kingdom
    (English editionSee also
    From 2004 to 2009, the classification of cannabis as an illegal drug was lowered, and possession of personal use was not subject to crackdown, but it was promoted to stricter again. In England1971 Misuse of Drugs ActBy Cannabis Class B (amphetamineIt was classified as (equivalent to).Possession and supply of drugs specified in the Drug Abuse Act were subject to punishment. The Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 restricted police investigative powers and introduced the concept of "Arrestable offence," which limits police arrests without a command.As a result, possession of class C drugs was no longer an "arrestable charge", but possession of cannabis, a class B drug, was still an "arrestable charge". 1984,Tony Blair OfLabor PartyThe interior minister under the administration announced the possibility of changing cannabis from class B to class C. This activity was at that timeConservative partyPoliticianDavid CameronSupported by. In 2004, cannabis became a class C drug, possession was no longer a "criminal offense", and possession of cannabis was illegal but non-punishable. The change was planned to allow police authorities to focus human resources on other crimes. Several proposals for establishing a Dutch coffee shop were proposed for this change, but most of them were scrapped.
    A "FRANK campaign" has been launched to disseminate knowledge of the harmful effects of cannabis to the public. Since the spread of cannabis is a major social problem in the United Kingdom, a government expert advisory reviewed scientific papers on cannabis in 2006 and concluded its implications. The conclusion begins with the sentence, "Cannabis is harmful. Ingesting cannabis poses a wide range of physical and mental risks." Also in the same year, former Sports Minister Richard KabourneLondon OlympicsAppeal for cannabis acceptance in[179].. In 2009, the government again upgraded cannabis from class C to class B because of the prevalence of "skunks" containing high levels of THC and concerns about cannabis-induced mental illness.[180].. This upgrade shows the relationship between cannabis and mental illnessevidenceIs weak and should be deferred to class C(English edition (ACMD) Recommendation[181] Was executed in the form of pushing through[182].
    Germany
    (English editionIllegal possession is illegal and will be punished with fines and imprisonment, but if the police or the prosecutor's office determines that it is not of public importance, or if it is possessed or cultivated with a small amount of personal use The prosecution does not have to prosecute if it is found to be small.[183].. Cultivation for medical and academic purposes is exceptionally permitted.[184].. Legalized medical cannabis in 2017[185].
    France
    (English editionRegulations announced policy to abolish imprisonment in 2018 and collect fines on the spot[186].
    Belgium
    (English editionSince 2003, possession of up to 3 grams will be fined around 100 euros.[187].(English editionSee also
    Italy
    (English editionSo the Supreme CourtRastafarianHas issued a ruling admitting possession of cannabis[188].. Medical cannabis was lifted in 2007 and in 2014Italian armyAnnounced policy to produce medical cannabis at the facility[189].
    Portugal
    Since 2001(English editionAnd other drugs (such as heroin and cocaine) have been decriminalized.According to a survey by the Cato Institute, this decriminalization policy has been improved in the management of drug problems and related areas, and the policy is successful.[190].
    Spain
    (English editionPersonal use is decriminalized, but sales are subject to regulation.Since 2006, the sale of seeds has been legalized and individual cultivation has become popular. Decriminalization of medical cannabis was promoted in the late 1990s and early 2000s. In 2001CataloniaStarting with Congress unanimously voting to legalize medical cannabisAragon,Balearic IslandsEtc. are legalized,University of Madrid,University of BarcelonaResearch in the medical field is being actively conducted.In 1991, the first "cannabis club" was established to transfer cannabis to its members for non-profit and is now spread throughout Spain.However, there is ongoing debate over whether these clubs violate the law, and in recent years these have been contradictory in several trials against club owners in the 2000s. The crackdown on cannabis clubs also tends to be relaxed. From 2006 to 2007, several clubs were charged with selling cannabis, but there have been cases in which the defendant's club members have won innocence and the police have returned the confiscated harvest.
    Czech Republic
    (English editionSince 2010, possession of five or fewer cannabis plants for personal use has been subject to the same penalties as parking violations.[191].
    Denmark
    (English editionIs the capitalCopenhagenIt is inChristianiaIs in circulation.See the English version of Christiania for more details.Medical cannabis is used.
    Sweden
    The manufacture, possession and sale of cannabis is illegal. However, some political parties have claimed to legalize cannabis or reduce penalties.[192].
    Switzerland
    (English editionHas been legally sold since 2011 with a THC content of 1% or less, and began taxation similar to tobacco in 2017.[193].. Since 2012, possession of less than 10 grams has been decriminalized to a fine.

    Russia

    Russian FederationIf you have 20 grams or less of cannabis, 4000RubleThe following fines or community service punishments, 20 grams or more will be imprisoned[194].

    Israel

    (English editionWas partially decriminalized in 2017 following changes in each country, use in public places is just a fine, and a fourth offense could result in imprisonment.[195]..This is because in 2019, small possession in private homes (15 grams as a guide) is no longer a crime, and the third violation within 2 years from the second violation in public is subject to criminal investigation. But it is still at the discretion of the police to investigate[196]..Medical cannabis is also used.

    Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu

    On December 2013, 12, it became the world's first nation to allow the production, distribution and sale of marijuana under government supervision.[197]..The International Narcotics Control Board warned that Uruguay's decision violated international law[198].

    Jamaica

    JamaicaThen, the Dangerous Drugs Law, which came into effect in 1913,[Note 11]Banned possession, sale and smoking of cannabis[199], Violators are fined and imprisoned accordingly[Note 11].

    2015 Revised Dangerous Drugs ActHowever, the possession of ganja (cannabis) of 2 ounces or less was denounced as a fine, which included medical cannabis andRastafari faithIncludes use for religious purposes for[201].

    Mexico

    (English editionWas legalized in 2009 after being charged with a small amount of marijuana (5 grams) by an individual.[202].. The Supreme Court's decision on October 2018, 10 states that the ban on the use of cannabis for taste purposes violates the basic human rights of being able to decide whether cannabis is a distraction, as if it were reflected in drug policy. Remarks continued[203].. In 2021, the Mexican Supreme Court upheld a proposal to legalize cannabis for recreational purposes[204].

    In 2021, the bill passed the cannabis legalization bill in the House of Representatives and is awaiting deliberation in the Senate again, but the bill is for people over the age of 18 to grow up to 28 grams of cannabis and 6 seedlings for recreational purposes. The purpose of admitting is to put production and distribution under national control and prevent it from becoming a source of funding for drug cartels.[205].

    Ecuador

    Possession up to 10g is non-criminalized.

    Bolivia

    1988The Narcotics Control Law 1008 requires rehabilitation and treatment for drug addicts for personal use, but this is not done because the infrastructure for rehabilitation is not in place.

    Brazil

    In Brazil, small amounts of cannabis are not subject to arrest for personal use acquisition, possession, storage, transportation or carrying.However, alternative penalties such as social service orders and participation in drug training are imposed, and fines are imposed if they are not followed.[206].

    Argentina, Chile

    In both Argentina and Chile, criminal law made possession, consumption, production, refining, and sale for purposes other than medical purposes illegal and was subject to crackdown, but on August 2009, 8, the Argentine Supreme Court Pointed out that punishing adults for marijuana use was unconstitutional unless the person hurt others, and personal use and possession were effectively legalized.

    In Chile, use is not illegal, but buying and selling is prohibited[207].

    Columbia

    2015 year 12 month,Columbia OfJuan Manuel SantosThe president has legalized and regulated medical cannabisPresidential decreeSigned[208].

    Australia

    Western AustraliaSmall possession and cultivation are decriminalized in some areas including[Source required].

    Kingdom of Thailand

    TraditionalKingdom of ThailandSo, if you are involved in the manufacture and sale of drugs, you may be sentenced to death or imprisonment for simple possession, and even if there is insufficient evidence, extrajudicial killings will be carried out without going through legal procedures. There was a case[209].. In 2003Prime Minister ThaksinDuring the administration, 3 suspected drug offenders were killed in three months, but a post-thaksin investigation found that 2500 of them were unrelated to drug offenders.[210]..The number of deaths continues to increase, and by 2017, the policy has been changed so that the death penalty will not be executed, and treatment of addicts has begun.[211].

    In 2019, the ban on medical cannabis will be lifted.Treating cannabis and hemp separately, cannabis grass can only be grown under government supervision.Regarding hemp, in January 2021, deregulation was implemented to allow individuals and companies to cultivate and commercialize it under a permit system.With a cannabis-like scent that does not contain narcotic ingredientsteaBeverages were also released[10]..Used in medicine, pharmaceuticals, food and cosmetics[212].

    20226/9Therefore, hemp with a THC content of 0.2% or less can be cultivated by individuals only by applying.[213][214]..However, the related laws are still undeveloped.[213], Promoted the policyAnutin Charnvir WeeracoonIs a policy to expand the legal cannabis market[215].

    Singapore

    SingaporeThere are cases of death penalty for possession of prohibited drugs including cannabis (narcotics, stimulants, etc.) with severe punishment.[Source required].

    Southeast Asian islands such as Indonesia and Malaysia

    Indonesia,MalaysiaDrugs are strictly prohibited in both countries and have strict punishment policies[Source required].

    India

    Cannabis culture in IndiaCannabis has been used religiously since BC and can be obtained at authorized retailers.

    South Africa

    (English editionIn 2018, the South African Constitutional Court ruled that the use of cannabis in private places by adults was not a crime, although it remained illegal in public, and Congress called for a bill to reflect this decision. Commanded to[216].

    Difference in variety

    Cannabis is tall and has thin leaves(English editionIndica species that are short and have thick leaves (such as haze)(English editionThere are varieties (such as afghani and kush) and a product of both.Sativa is a head-high that works on the head, energetic, active, and creative on the upper, Indica is a body-high that works on the body, sedative, relaxing and stones on the couch. It is said that it has the effect of solidifying like (couch lock state) and making it a body stone.In some cases, Sativa is used during the day or when working, and Indica is used at night or before going to bed or for treatment of insomnia and pain.Pure Sativa is not widely available on the market due to its low yield and long time to harvest.

    Modern cannabis beliefs and religions

    Purpose of suction

    IndiaThen,SadhuThe ascetic people are smoking cannabis as sacred.There is also a public marijuana sales office in India.Jamaica OfRastafariBut cannabis is considered sacred and the rastamen are smoking cannabis.

    Non-suction purpose

    Even in Japan, Japanese hemp and "drug cannabis" for suction are different, and even though cannabis is a sacred thing that is indispensable for Shinto rituals used as materials for shimenawa and rituals, "the spirit of our country" The main pillar of the Shinto ritual is not domestic, but Chinese, and even vinyl, 90% of Chinese cannabis, and others are vinyl. There is an opinion to revive the production of Shinto rituals using Japanese hemp.[11].

    Works on cannabis

    movies
    • "Marijuana(1936)
    • Reefer Madness Drug Addiction Madness (1936)-Made in the American Cannabis Eradication Campaignpropagandamovies.
    • "Drug Prostitution G Men(1972)- Shinichi ChibastarringbyDrug G MenDepicts the eradication of marijuana
    • "Tokyo-Seoul-Bangkok Real Drug Zone(1973) --Sonny Chiba, a work that reveals the international drug route.Nora MiaoActors from four countries appeared and were produced
    • "Up in Smoke & Chung Smoking Operation(1978)-ComedianCheech & ChongWith cannabishippieA movie about.
    • "Half Bake(1998) -A comedy movie about cannabis, which recorded the sixth-largest box office hit in the United States.
    • "Glass-Marijuana vs. America's 60 Years" (1999) -A documentary film that begins with the propaganda of cannabis regulation in the United States and pursues the affirmations and denials of the drug war.
    • "Be Bad Boys(2001)-Hip-hop artist,Method manRed manA comedy movie about cannabis starring.
    • "Harold & Kumar(2004, 2008, 2011) --All three works.A slapstick comedy woven from cannabis by two young Asian roommates in a university dormitory.
    • "Super High Me" (2007)-Comedian Doug Benson continues to smoke cannabis for 30 days, comparing physical changes to 30 days without cannabis.Super size me』Parody movie.
    • "Smoking high(2008)-A comedy movie about cannabis. In August 2008, it recorded the second highest box office revenue record in the United States.
    • Growing Op (2008)-A Canadian comedy film.
    • "Humboldt County" (2008)-American drama film.
    Drama
    • "" American TV drama
    Music
    Novel
    Historical novel
    • "Major Road" "Funeto" (2022)
    essay
    Comic

    footnote

    [How to use footnotes]

    注 釈

    1. ^ Class A is "most harmful", Class B is intermediate, and Class C is "less harmful"
    2. ^ However, in the case of cannabis, unlike the treatment of other B-class drugs, the first offense is a warning, the second offense is fine, and after that it is arrested.Three strike systemIs applied. However, since no record of the first offense is left, it is practically impossible to crack down on this method.
    3. ^ Employment of Mexican immigrants increased as a cheap labor force, and employment of Americans became unstable and became an immigration problem. Mexicans are known to prefer cannabis on weekends, and by outlawing cannabis, they used it as an excuse to exclude Mexicans from American society. Cannabis has been cracked down and there are cases of life imprisonment for possession of a small amount.
    4. ^ Gohei and cannabis are also read as "Taima". Also known as purifying cannabis. In addition, the shrine's bills distributed at the end of the year say "Jingu cannabis" (example of Ise Jingu), "Ujigami cannabis", etc., and there is a skewer inside, but this is originally small inside It is a remnant of the cannabis that was used to purify.[58].. In addition, there are many cases where hemp branches and leaves and fibers were used or are still used at the rituals of various shrines.
    5. ^ It is customary to cook the remaining cannabis (Ogara) after harvesting the previous year and harvesting fiber and seeds in the garden or at the front door so that the ancestors will not get lost when they return to our house. Is still there. In addition, there is a land for making eggplant cows and cucumber horses (spirit horses) as vehicles for ancestors, but they also use sardines on their legs.
    6. ^ Negative opinions on gateway theory predominate in the United Kingdom, where nearly 40% of the population has used cannabis.[109].
    7. ^ The Cannabis Control Law regulates unauthorized and intentional cultivation and possession (collection).
    8. ^ A simple test kit called Monitect-3 was used for the test. It is possible to detect methamphetamine, amphetamine, and THC by immunochromatography.
    9. ^ Narcotics also include the word "hemp", but this "hemp" means "numb" rather than plant hemp, and cannabis is not directly related to the origin of the word.
    10. ^ Illegal possession of heroin is imprisonment for up to 10 years, illegal possession of opium is imprisonment for up to 7 years, and illegal possession of psychotropic drugs is imprisonment for up to 3 years.
    11. ^ a b At the beginning of legislationUniversal Opium TreatyThe main purpose was to crack down on opium that was signed in[200].

    Source

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    2. ^ a b c d e United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 2006, p. 157.
    3. ^ Kazuho Abe "Cannabis Encyclopedia" (Musashino UniversityPublishing, 2018) Page 21,ISBN 978-4-903281-39-1
    4. ^ a b c d e Grinspoon & Bakara 1996, pp. 17–18.
    5. ^ a b Russo EB, Jiang HE, Li X, et al. (2008). “Phytochemical and genetic analyzes of ancient cannabis from Central Asia”. Journal of Experimental Botany 59 (15): 4171–4182. two:10.1093 / jxb / ern260. PMC 2639026. PMID 19036842. http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/content/59/15/4171.full. 
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    8. ^ "Arrested "Neko-kun!", A game commentator "I smoked cannabis because I wanted to be cool"”(Japanese). Livedoor news. April 2022, 4Browse. "I came to Tokyo at the age of 19 and smoked cannabis because I wanted to look cool. When I smoked cannabis, I wasn't good at it, so I tried not to smoke during the game," he admitted. ”
    9. ^ a b c Lester Grinspoon, James B. Bakara, Translated by Sachiko Fuchibuchi, Hiroyuki Myoki, "Psychedelic Drugs: Science and Culture of Psychological Substances," Kosakusha, 2000, pp. 46,59, 60-XNUMX.ISBN 4-87502-321-9.  Psychedelic Drugs Reconsidered 1979
    10. ^ a b [NIKKEI ASIA] A hot topic in Thailand, cannabis scented beverage / Ichitan, sold at Seven stores "Nikkei Sangyo ShimbunDecember 2021, 6 Global aspect
    11. ^ a b c "The fact that 90% of the" cannabis "used in shrines is from China". yahoo news(July 2016, 11). https://news.yahoo.co.jp/byline/endotsukasa/20161102-00064032 April 2016, 11Browse"For some time, there was no custom of inhaling cannabis in our country." 
    12. ^ "Cannabis Control Law | e-Gov Law Search". elaws.e-gov.go.jp. April 2022, 4Browse.
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    20. ^ "Portal site for cannabis measures "I'm CLEAN" | National Police Agency website”(Japanese). National Police Agency. April 2022, 4Browse.
    21. ^ "To recommendations recognizing the medical value of WHO, cannabis and cannabinoids”. Japanese Society of Clinical Cannabinoids (September 2019, 2). April 2021, 1Browse. Appendix "Reclassification of WHO Cannabis and Cannabis Related Substances" and "ECDD41 Recommendation Cannabis-related excerpt (Japanese translation)See also.
    22. ^ a b Therapeutic uses of cannabinoids who
    23. ^ "UN decides to remove cannabis and cannabis resin from Appendix IV”. Japanese Society of Clinical Cannabinoids (September 2020, 12). April 2021, 1Browse.
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    28. ^ Thomas Fuller, Californians Legalize Marijuana in Vote That Could Echo Nationally New York Times, 2016.
    29. ^ a b Tom Angell (January 2018, 1). "The ban on cannabis is lifted in Vermont, USA, the governor says" a problem of personal freedom "". Forbes. https://forbesjapan.com/articles/detail/19455 April 2018, 4Browse. 
    30. ^ Alicia Wallace (December 2020, 12). “Cannabis got a big win in Congress, but legal weed isn't around the corner”. CNN. https://edition.cnn.com/2020/12/04/business/cannabis-more-act-house-vote/index.html April 2020, 12Browse. 
    31. ^ a b Washington Supreme Court Upholds Termination of Medical Marijuana User Gordon Rees Scully Mansukhani, LLP (June 2011) Retrieved June 2021, 6
    32. ^ a b "The Colorado Supreme Court has ruled that employers can dismiss employees who use medical marijuana."(As of January 2015, 9Archive) --IBTimes
    33. ^ a b E-Update: California's High Court Affirms Decision Upholding Discharge of Employee for Marijuana Use(As of January 2008, 11Archive
    34. ^ a b http://www.osba.org/Resources/Article/Legal/CM_Emerald_v_BOLI.aspx
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