Photo Dog bones from the early Kofun period excavated from the Makimuku site in Sakurai City, Nara Prefecture (provided by the Sakurai City Board of Education)
A medium-sized dog in the early Kofun period?
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Until the Yayoi period, small dogs were the mainstream, but this time it falls under the middle and large class, indicating the possibility that it was brought from the continent in the Kofun period.
An analysis of dog bones from the early Kofun period that was unearthed at the Mimukai Ruins (Sakurai City, Nara Prefecture), which is considered to be a promising candidate site for Yamataikoku, has been… → Continue reading
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|Category: History of Japanese themes|
Kofun periodWhat is Kofunjidai?Japanese HistoryInYayoi Periodfollowed byarcheologyIt is the above time division, large keyhole-shaped tomb moundRepresented byOld tombrefers to the period when the "Japanese calligraphy"according to,Emperor Oshin TheGyomiyaTheNamba Okuma Shrineage,KingThe country of Wa called (Ookimi)ChiefIsEmperor Nintokuis the capitalUemachi PlateauNaniwa (currentlyOsaka), and the palace was designated Nanba Kotsu-miya.The center of domestic distributionSumiyoshitsu,NambatsuIt is said to be the era when ports were opened and Wakoku was unified.
In terms of foreign relations, from the 4th century onwards, Japan entered the Korean Peninsula,Silla,BaekjeTo obey,GoguryeoIt is also interpreted that he fought fiercely withGwanggaeto monumentknown from sentences (War between Goguryeo and Wa,Koreans related to Japanese people). In the 5th centuryFive Kings of Japansent envoys to China.WaKorean PeninsulaGot at鉄Resources arearmor,arms,Farm tools,tooletc.from the mainlandText(漢字)WhenBuddhism-Confucianismwas brought.Also,"Suisho"according to,Silla,BaekjeThere is a description that Wakoku is a large country with many curiosities and that they are used throughout Wa.
life and culture
People of this era used them as vessels for tableware, cooking utensils, storage tools, etc.EarthenwareとSue warewas used.Hajiki isJomon pottery-Yayoi potterySince then, it has been produced by traditional "noyaki" firing, but from the end of the early period (late 4th century) to the early middle period (first half of the 5th century), it was imported from the Korean Peninsula.MigrantCeramic earthenware andKiln kiln(Anagama) technology was brought,OsakaSouthernPottery kiln ruins(Ceramic industryThe start of the).
Villageof people in (mura)Residence,Warehouse・As a building such as a livestock hut,pit building（竪穴住居）・平地建物・Digging pillar buildingetc., were built.Kuroimine Site(GunmaShibukawa）の事例などから、ムラには竪穴建物1軒～数軒が集まったHouseholdIt is known that there were specific units, separated by fences, scattered in the village, and connected by roads.In the village of Kuroimine, plazas and fields that are thought to be places for rituals, work spaces, etc. have also been detected..
One notable change in the lifestyle of the Kofun period is the middle period (5th century).竈(Kamado) was introduced.In the Japanese archipelago, as a cooking facility for boilingPaleolithicSinceFurnaceが使われ、古墳時代前期（4世紀）段階でも竪穴建物内にて地床炉が使われていたが、4世紀末から5世紀初頭ごろ、先に述べた須恵器のKiln kilnAlong with technology, the stove was also brought by immigrants.Kamado hasHaji qualityIn addition to the "movable cooking stove" also called "Kamagata pottery" that can be carried by、竪穴建物内の北側や東側の壁面に粘土There is a "built-in oven" that is constructed with。古墳時代中期（5世紀）における竪穴建物への「造り付けカマド」の導入は、それまでのFurnaceIt is said to have brought about a dramatic change in the cooking style of the time, which has been described as a ``kitchen revolution,'' and spread explosively over a wide area of the Japanese archipelago.。5世紀半ば段階では、早々にカマド付き竪穴建物を取り入れた上で成立したYazakiyama Ruins(Kanagawa横 浜 市Tsuji), but the spread rate of fire pits at settlement ruins is still 10% nationwide.Kanto regionIn the late 4th century, it was 6% nationwide and over 72.4% in the Kanto region..Other cooking utensils were also changed, and until the previous term they were roundEarthenwareThe pot has a long body so that it can be easily placed on the stove, and the steamerNephewbecame popular, and tableware with round bottoms (hand-held tableware), which had been the mainstream until then, became mainstream..
In addition, in this era, the Kamado was regarded as an object of faith,Kamado GodAt the same time, the culture of enshriningRelicExample of containment of (stone imitation) (Kanagawa横 浜 市Yazakiyama Ruins), or the bottom was knocked out when dismantling an old stoveEarthenwareAn example of what seems to be a "Kamado Calming" with two face down (ChibaKatoriKorokuyadai ruins), etc. have been found in various places..End of the Kofun periodAsuka PeriodAlthough the case of7st century OfOfficialThe remains of the Hatra Kanga Ruins (SaitamaFukaya-Kumagaya）の竪穴建物からは、カマドの支脚と見られる棒状土製品に人面が彫刻されたものが見つかり、カマド神ではないかとされている.
(I.e.The introduction and start of production of kofun is also one of the immigrant cultures that influenced the people of the Kofun period.3st centuryDepicting the half of the Japanese archipelago "Wei Zhajin, "In Wa牛-(I.e.No.”harnessIt is believed that horses were introduced to the Japanese archipelago during the late to middle Kofun period (late 4th to 5th centuries).Military-Agriculture-Cargo handlingIt is used in various places to train horsesMakiWas placed.
Paddy rice cultivationSince the Yayoi period,Small plot paddy field” continues to be made, but the small plots of rice paddies in this eraShizuokaShizuoka City OfKakukinkita Ruins,,GunmaTakasakiLike the Mifuro Ruins and Ashida Gaido Ruins, Small parcels gathered in units of hundreds to thousands to form paddy fields of tens of thousands of square meters can be seen nationwide..
In addition, large rectangular paddy fields with east-west and north-south axes began to appear in some areas.For example, from the end of the 5th century to the beginning of the 6th centuryOkayamaOkayama CityThere is an example of the Nakamizo site, and the area of one paddy field measures 150 to 200 square meters.It is presumed that new rice paddy development techniques were introduced, and new paddy fields were developed.TonkuraThere is an opinion that the establishment of the rice field was done by introducing such a new rice paddy creation technology..
Kofun and Buried Persons
Keyhole-shaped burial mounds were built in various places as the Yamato sovereignty established itself as a unified government of Wa.AustralianIt is considered to be a form that allows It is commonly believed that burial mounds of the emergence stage appeared after the middle of the 3rd century.Radiocarbon datingIn fact, it has not reached the stage where it can be called an established technology, and many researchers have pointed out the defects and problems of its accuracy and measurement method.3st centuryThere are also persistent objections to the initiation theory. in the late 3rd or early 4th centuryNara BasinA keyhole-shaped burial mound, which is considered to be a royal tomb, appeared in the early 4th century, and in the middle of the 4th century to the end of the 4th century, in the northern part of the Nara Basin, Saki (also known as Sofu). Four large keyhole-shaped tombs classed as royal tombs were built in the second half of the XNUMXth century.Osaka PlainDuring the first century, huge burial mounds were built, and towards the end of this century advanced mass burial mounds appeared in parts of the Kinai region.Continue5st centuryBy the middle of thethat is,6st centuryAt the end of the period, keyhole-shaped burial mounds stopped being built almost at the same time in various parts of Japan.This is understood to be a manifestation of the establishment of the central and local governing organizations after the establishment of the Yamato sovereignty, and the development of a more powerful government.Square and round burial mounds continued to be built for a while after this.The tomb of the Great King was specially constructed as an octagonal burial mound.
In the Kofun period,Royal family,貴族large burial mounds, burial mounds of local powerful families,Side hole graveCollective graves such asCylindrical Haniwa CoffinHierarchy in the graves where the dead are buried has become remarkable, and along with this, differences in physical characteristics can be seen among the entombed.In terms of height, which is the easiest to understand, the burials in large burial mounds were generally tall, sometimes reaching nearly 170 centimeters.The average height of men buried in the tombs of local ruling families is about 160 cm, while those buried in side-entry tombs are about 158 cm.The most distinctive feature of human bones from the Kofun period isJomon people,YayoiIt is that the large-boned and sturdiness that was seen in the skeleton of theThis tendency is very conspicuous among the burials of large burial mounds, and not so much among the burials of ordinary people's burial mounds such as horizontal cave tombs and cylindrical haniwa coffins. intermediate.About 70% of the people who were buried in large burial mounds had facial features that were common among Jomon people, but among the people buried in large burial mounds, many later became common among Japanese.In addition, the dent () in front of the gills of the lower jaw is often seen.In addition, the tip of the chin is thin and pointedMandiblewho have3rd molarThe percentage of those who do not sprout increases.These changes in the facial bones associated with the reduction of mandibular bone thinning and retraction are due to changes in lifestyle, especially the reduction in the hardness of food.In addition, it is thought that the difference in living standards became greater depending on the class, and the hierarchy became conspicuous..
Early Kofun period
Early Yamato Kingdom (Regional State)
At the end of the Yayoi period,ExcavationFrom the results of this study, we know that there was a political force centered on northern Kyushu and a political force centered on the southeastern part of the Nara Basin.
In the first half of the 3th centuryWeiin the historical literature ofKing of Japan(Shin Wei）Himikoappears, but its locationYamadai KuniThere are still different theories as to whether it was located in northern Kyushu or Kinai.
In the early Kofun period, the influence of these two areas became the base, and Kinai was the base.Yamato kingshipis believed to have been established, the process is unclear.However, there is also a theory that Yamato sovereignty and Yamatai are different powers.
The results of archeology show that the forces in the Nara Basin were the powers of local ruling families (Kibigovernment, etc.)Yamato kingshipThis suggests that the power of northern Kyushu declined during this process.However, after the northern Kyushu forces moved eastward to the Nara Basin, they suppressed the Nara Basin forces.Yamato kingshipThere is also a view that it has become.
During the period when the Yamato sovereignty was established, there were much larger tombs ( large keyhole-shaped tomb mound) have appeared mainly in the Nara Basin.At the end of the Yayoi period, Kinai,Kibi,Izumo,ChikushiEach region had its own unique tomb system, such as (→Grave system in the Yayoi period), and the keyhole-shaped tumuli show a fusion of the characteristics of each region.
The Yamato sovereignty is believed to have ruled from central Honshu to northern Kyushu, based in the Yamato region (Kinai).Yamato sovereigntyJapanWhen it grew into a political force representing the "Japanese calligraphy], etc. have a description that suggests it (Yamato Takerutales, etc.) remain, but the details of the process are unknown.
blank 4th century
Both the Yamato sovereignty and the ruling class gained power.The military strength of the ruling classnational armyHe was called and took charge of the Japanese army.Keyhole-shaped burial mounds spread throughout the country.
The Five Kings of Wa
early 5th century413(Jin Dong-Yoshiki9), the tribute offered by Wakoku toJinsho] It is recorded in the An Emperor Period.421(宋-Eternal first2 years)Song BookYou can see an article of ``Wasan'' in Wakokuden.After this, articles about the King of Wa began to appear in Chinese history books, and they were followed by Chin, Ji, Xing, and Bu.This is"Five Kings of Japan”.The five kings of Wa can be seen in "Nihon Shoki"EmperorAn attempt was made to compare theAlthough it is not necessarily determined, for example, WaobuEmperor YukiIt is believed that this is not the case.As for Bu, in the document presented to the Chinese emperor above, it is recorded that his ancestors have worked hard to unify the land of Wa.
SaitamaGyoda CityInariyama TumulusIron sword inscriptions excavated fromKumamotoTamana CityEta Funayama KofunA part of his reign can be seen from the sword inscription excavated from The ``be'' system had not yet been established at the end of the 5th century, as ``jotojin'' and ``tensojin.''Shimane MatsueOkadayama Burial MoundFrom the iron sword inscription "Nukatabe no Omi" excavated fromTribal systemIt is possible to know the enforcement ofIn addition, the minister-Dalian system was established, and the ministerMr. Taira, in DalianMr. Otomo-Mr. Monobewas selected.It is said that the system of surname and surname was established to some extent.
Considering the establishment of the Japanese state, it can be considered that the Yamato sovereignty expanded and the sovereignty was strengthened and unified.Then entered the Asuka periodRenewal of DahuaWith the country name "Japan" byErastarted using.
From the latter half of the 4th century to the 5th century, the Japanese army fought against Baekje, Silla, and Goguryeo on the Korean Peninsula.Gwanggaeto monument(koukaidoouhi)Wak Koguryo War).and right after that(I.e.started the introduction ofWarhorsefocused on rearing.
In the 6th century, there is a description in "Nihonshoki" that Kokuzo Iwai of Tsukushi communicated with Silla and tried to prevent the invasion of the Japanese army by mobilizing neighboring countries.Iwai no Ran(527) is treated asIt is thought that the military and economic burdens of repeated dispatches of troops to the Korean Peninsula were heavy on northern Kyushu and caused turmoil, but at this time the power of northern Kyushu was not yet completely under the control of the Yamato sovereignty. also suggests.
Late Kofun period
Establishment of an ancient nation
安閑(531 - 535)・Xuanhua(535- 539)・Kinmei(539- 571), they broke away from regional states and formed early states through each dynasty.Under royal power, have maggotsMr. Monobe-Mr. Otomo-SogaThere were vassals, ren, kunitsuko, gunji, and so on.In rural areasKibiThe ruling clans in each region created departments and wielded their influence, such as the line clans creating uji and vassals.
In the Senka Dynasty, when the Soga clan became ministers and gained momentum,SushunMorning(587 - 592), the Soga clan held the core of the government with only one minister.Emperor Sushun was assassinated by SOGA no Umako in 592.稲目-Mako-Ezo-IrukaAnd the era when the Soga clan occupied an important position in politics645(Emperor4 years)Otomi's strangelasted for about half a century.
In the Kinming dynasty,Family registerwas created, and the predecessor national organization of Kokuzo and Gunji was established.Also, in this Kinming DynastyBuddhismthe tradition of538ToBaekjeIt was from "Japanese calligraphyIs552Although it is written that it was transmitted to Japan, it is known from other historical materials that it was a modification by the editor.Regarding the introduction of Buddhism, the Soga clan, who accepted Buddhism, and the Mononobe clan, who opposed it, fought and ended in victory for the Soga clan.
Relations with Korea
It is recorded that it interacted with the people of the Korean Peninsula during the Kofun period.
Since the 4th century, the so-calledNinaIt is also known from the inscription of King Gwanggaeto (considered to have been built in 414 A.D.), etc.
Also"History of Three Kingdoms(began writing in 1143 and completed in 1145) is one of the few historical materials that describes the relationship between the ``blank 3th century'' and the Korean Peninsula, although the credibility of the description before the 4rd century is questionable.
The southern part of the Korean Peninsula was prosperous until the end of the 4th centuryNakdong RiverThe Japanese archipelago power in the basinGoguryeoIt began to retreat under the influence of the southward movement of power, and instead moved to the southwestern part of the Korean Peninsula after the 5th century.Sakaeyama RiverThe power of the Japanese archipelago in the basin became prosperous (KoreaGimhaeCity” official website伽耶Overview of history”), in recent yearsSakaeyama Riveraround the basin large keyhole-shaped tomb moundare found in large numbers. (Kang Inkyu 1983)
Relationship with China
In this era, China'sNorth ChinaToFive Hu Sixteen(316 - 439) after the rise and fall ofNorthern Wei-Dong Wei-West Wei-Hokusai-North ZhouContinue withNorth morningHowever, there are no known historical materials regarding diplomacy and trade between these countries and Wakoku.
Period division (tumulus)
There are slight differences in the division of the Kofun period depending on how the formation and decline of the Kofun period are understood.For example, there has been a great deal of controversy regarding the date when keyhole-shaped tumuli began to be constructed.Currently, in general, the Kofun period3st centuryfrom halfway through7st centuryIt often refers to about 400 years until the end of the year.From around the middle of the third century6st centuryuntil the end of large keyhole-shaped tomb moundis northTohoku regionSouthern[Annotation 1]South fromKyushu regionIt was an era when construction continued to the southern part ofKeyhole-shaped burial mound eraSometimes called.
Even in the 7th century when keyhole-shaped burial mounds were no longer built,Burial mound-Tumulus,Octagonal burial moundetc. will continue to be made, but this timeLate Kofun periodSometimes called.
Some archaeologists believe that keyhole-shaped burial mounds appeared after the middle of the 3rd century. From the latter half of the 3rd century to the beginning of the 4th century is the Early Kofun period, from the end of the 4th century to the Middle Kofun period, and from the beginning of the 6th century to the middle of the 7th century is the Late Kofun period.However, some literary historians and some archaeologists have doubts that the Kofun period began before the end of the 3rd century, and it is believed that it actually began in the early 4th century.The actual construction of burial mounds began around the first half of the 7th century in Kinai and western Japan, and in the Kanto region.8st centuryIn the Tohoku region, it almost ended around the end of the 8th century.The name of the era comes from the fact that the construction of ancient tombs was flourishing during this period.
Appearance of the Kofun period
Appears after the middle of the third century.The front part is open in a plectrum shape, and some moats are not allowed.Some of them use natural mountains, and it is said that there are many of them in the oldest burial mounds.Haniwais not confirmed.FukiishiIt seems that the method of making is not fixed.again,Wei ZhajinBased on this, it is said that he died around 248.HimikoThere is a theory that his tomb was a round burial mound, but the tomb itself has not been identified.
- Main during this periodOld tomb
- FukuokaKyoto-gunKanda Town,Ishizukayama Tomb(Yamatai Kingdom Kyushu theoryone theorythen queenHimikoThe oldest keyhole-shaped burial mound, believed to be the tomb of.130 meters or more at the beginning of construction.It is presumed that a composite rim pot was established on the mound at the time of its construction.. )
- OitaUsa City,Kawabe / Takamori KofungunAkatsuka Burial Mound (57.5m, surrounded by an 8.5-11m wide moat)
- NaraSakuraiOta Ishizuka,Makimukuishizuka Burial Mound(96 meters, the rear circular part is irregularly shaped, and the front part is open like a plectrum of a shamisen. Fukiishi and haniwa are not used.)
- KyotoKizugawaYamashiro Town,Tsubakii Otsukayama Tomb(Estimated 175 meters, using natural mountains)
- NaraTenri CityYanagimoto Town,Kurozuka Kofun(130m, found to be plucked. It also has a moat around it.)
- ShizuokaNumazu CityTokuma-do,Mt. Takaosan Tumulus(62 meters, the length of the front and rear parts is almost the same, and there is a surrounding moat. Fukiishi and haniwa are not used.)
Early Kofun period
In the latter half of the 3rd centuryWest JapanIt was accompanied by special pot-shaped earthenware and vessel-shaped earthenware in various places.Mound tomb(Chief Tomb) appears.After that, circular burial mounds, which are considered to be the forerunners of keyhole-shaped tumuli, and large square burial mounds that have changed from the four-corner protruding burial mounds unique to the Izumo cultural area, are representative, and the oldest one is in Shimane Prefecture.Yasugi CityIn the previous period, a rare Sukanto-dachi was excavated.A little while later,Nara BasinThe construction of large keyhole-shaped tombs in the class of the Great King's Mausoleum was concentrated inthe burial facilityVertical hole type stone chamberso,Burial goods ThemagicTypicalmirror-ball・In addition to swords and stone products鉄製Agricultural toolscan be seen.These days,Cylindrical ringIs popular.Earthenwarewas made in the Kinai region and spread throughout the country, after which ware haniwa and house-shaped haniwa appeared.again,Fukuoka OfOkinoshimaThen.Yamato kingshipIt is said to be the time when the national rituals by
- Major royal tombs of this period
- NaraSakurai,Hashihaka Kofun(Yamadai KuniQueen ofHimikoThe first royal tomb. 280-meter keyhole-shaped burial mound, constructed in the latter half of the 3rd century)
- NaraTenri City,Yamato Burial MoundsNishitonozuka Burial Mound (219 meters)
- NaraTenri City, Yanagimoto Burial MoundsGyotoyama Tomb(242 meters, said to be the Mausoleum of Sujin)
- NaraTenri City, Yanagimoto Burial MoundsShibutani Mukaiyama Tomb(Denkeigoryo, 310 meters)
- Major burial mounds of this period whose size and content corresponded to those of kings
- Main Chief Tombs
|Construction time||Region||Old tomb||Address||Burials designated by the Imperial Household Agency|
|Mid-fourth century||Three wheels||Hashihaka Kofun||Nara||Sakurai箸中||Emperor KoreiThe princess|
Hundred Raid Day
|Late 3 century||Nishitonozuka Kofun||Tenri CityNakayama Town||Emperor KeitaiQueen|
|End of 3 century||Toyama Chausuyama Burial Mound|
(Sakurai Chausuyama Burial Mound)
|Toyama, Sakurai City||(no rule)|
|Early 4th century||Mesuriyama Ancient Tomb||Takada, Sakurai City||(no rule)|
|First half of the 4th century||Gyotoyama Tomb||Yanagimotocho, Tenri City||10nd generation|
|Mid-fourth century||Shibutani Mukaiyama Tomb||Shibuya-cho, Tenri City||12nd generation|
|Late 4 century||佐紀||Horaiyama Kofun||NaraAmagatsuji Town||11nd generationEmperor Suren|
|Late 4 century||Gosashi Shinko Tomb||Sanryocho, Nara City||Shingo Empress|
(14th generationEmperor NakasoEmpress)
At the beginning of the 5th century, a large keyhole-shaped burial mound of the royal tomb class was built.Nara Basinto the Kawachi Plain, and thenMegaA human haniwa appeared. In the middle of the 5th century, the pit-type stone chambers of large burial mounds in the Kinai region changed from narrow to wide, and long-lasting sarcophaguses came to be accommodated.Huge burial mounds began to appear in various places, and as burial goods,harness-armor-KnifeThere were many military items such as
In the latter half of the 5th century, an increasing number of burial mounds in northern Kyushu and the Kinai region adopted horizontal stone chambers.Some of the large burial mounds in northern Kyushu were built by stone men and stone horses.Also around this time, in the southern part of Osaka,Sue ware, and the curved blade sickle, U-shaped sukisaki and hoesaki appeared.
At the end of the 5th century, advancedCrowd burial moundappeared, house-shaped stone coffins began to be incorporated into large burial mounds.Lateral underground tombs began to be built in southeastern Kyushu and northern Kyushu, and decorated burial mounds began to appear.
- Tomb of allies in Kinai
- Gigantic tombs of some regional chieftains
|Construction time||Region||Old tomb||Address||Burials designated by the Imperial Household Agency|
|End of 4 century||Hanoi||Nakatsuyama Tomb||Osaka||Fujiidera City(I.e.||Empress Ojin|
Nakatsuhime no Mikoto
|Early 5th century||Kamiishizu Misanzai Kofun||Sakai CityNishi-wardIshizugaoka||17nd generation|
|First half of the 5th century||Mt.Honda Mt.||HabikinoHonda||15nd generation|
|Mid-fourth century||Daisen Tomb||Sakai CitySakai WardDaisencho||16nd generation|
|Late 5 century||Hase Nisanzai Tomb||Sakai CityKitaMozu Nishinocho||Hase Nisanzai Tomb Reference Site|
(Candidate: 18th Anti-Emperor）
|Late 5 century||Oka Misanzai Tomb||Fujiidera, Fujiidera City||14nd generation|
Late Kofun period
In the first half of the 6th century, in ancient tombs in western Japan,Side hole type stone chamberbegan to be actively produced.Ancient tombs with horizontal stone chambers also appeared in the Kanto region, and stone people and stone horses declined rapidly in northern Kyushu.
- Great King Mausoleum in the late Kofun period
- The final stage of the keyhole-shaped tomb
In the latter half of the 6th century, in northern KyushuDecorated tombIs popular.HaniwaHowever, it became popular in the Kanto region as it declined in the Kinai region.in western JapanCrowd burial moundwas built in abundance.
Late Kofun period
By the end of the 6th century, keyhole-shaped tumuli were no longer built nationwide, and square, round, and octagonal burial mounds began to be constructed.Ancient tombs of this periodTerminal burial moundIt says. 646 yearsThin burial orderEven after the Kofun period effectively came to an end in theTerminal burial moundHowever, there is some controversy as to whether or not the late tumulus is a tumulus.
- A typical burial mound from the terminal period
- Otsumi Gongenzuka Tomb(ChibaSanmu CityŌtsutsumi Burial Mounds, the largest keyhole-shaped burial mound in the final period, total length 174 meters including three layers of surrounding grooves)
- Mt. Asamayama Tumulus(Chiba印 旛 郡SakaemachiRyukakuji Ancient Tombs, the last keyhole-shaped burial mound, total length 93 meters)
- Ryukakuji Iwaya Tomb(Ryukakuji Burial Mounds, Sakae Town, Inba District, Chiba Prefecture,End of lifeThe largest square burial mound, 78 x 78 meters)
- Kasuga Mt. Tomb(Isonagaya Burial Mounds, Taishi-cho, Minamikawachi-gun, Osaka Prefecture, Mausoleum of Emperor Mei, 63 x 60 m square burial mound)
- Danozuka Tomb(Sammu City, Chiba Prefecture, Itazuke Burial Mounds, 62 x 62 m square burial mound)
- Yamada Takatsuka Tomb(Isonagaya Burial Mounds, Taishi-cho, Minamikawachi-gun, Osaka Prefecture, Mausoleum of Emperor Suiko, 63 x 56 m square burial mound)
- Soja Mt. Atagoyama Tumulus(GunmaMaebashiSquare burial mound of 55 meters on a side in Soja-cho)
- Hotoyama Kofun(Soja-cho, Maebashi City, Gunma Prefecture, Soja Burial Mounds, 54 x 49 m square burial mound)
- Ishimakitai burial mound(Shimano, Asuka Village, Takaichi District, Nara Prefecture, speculated to be Soga no Umako's tomb, square burial mound of about 50 meters on a side, total length of 19.1 meters.Side hole type stone chamber）
- Yawatayama ancient tomb(SaitamaGyoda CityFujiwara Town,Wakakodama Burial Mounds, a circular burial mound with a diameter of 66 meters)
- Yamamuro Himezuka Tomb(Yamamuro, Matsuo-cho, Sanmu City, Chiba Prefecture,Otsuka Kofungun, a circular burial mound with a diameter of 66 meters)
- Mibu Kurumazuka Kofun(TochigiShimotsuga-gunMibu TownMibu, a round burial mound with a diameter of 62 meters)
- Makino Kofun(Koryo-cho, Kitakatsuragi-gun, Nara Prefecture,Oshizaka HikotoA round burial mound with a diameter of 43 meters, which is likely to be the tomb of
- Munesaka Tomb No. 1(Sakurai City, Nara Prefecture, Nakatomi family, round burial mound with a diameter of 45 meters)
- Minezuka Kofun(Tenri City, Nara Prefecture, Mononobe clan, round burial mound with a diameter of 35 meters)
- Takamatsuzuka Tumulus
- Kitora Tumulus
- ^ Wakasa 2013a, pp. 48–51.
- ^ Wakasa 2013c, pp. 60–63.
- ^ a b c Wakasa 2013b, pp. 52–55.
- ^ Suita City Cultural Property News 2005.3.31"Archived copy”. As of May 2007, 11original[Broken link]More archives.April 2012, 3Browse.
- ^ Wakasa 2013d, pp. 64–67.
- ^ Yokohama History Museum 2012, p. 5.
- ^ a b c Yokohama History Museum 2010, pp. 15–17.
- ^ Yokohama History Museum 2012, p. 9.
- ^ Yokohama History Museum 2012, p. 5-8.
- ^ Yokohama History Museum 2012, p. 23.
- ^ Cultural Promotion Division (April 2019, 4).Welcome to Hatara Ruins (Hara-kun)". Fukaya. April 2022, 4Browse.
- ^ Shizuoka Research Center for Buried Cultural Properties 1996
- ^ Wakasa 2013e, pp. 68–71.
- ^ Takizawa 1999 pp.173-193
- ^ Hisashi Kano "Building the Kibi Country" (Manabu Fujii, Hisashi Kano, Eiichi Takebayashi, Katsunao Kurachi, Masayoshi Maeda "History of Okayama Prefecture" Yamakawa Publishing, 2000, 17 pages)
- ^ "Problems with Dendrochronology of Wood-Relationship with Ancient History"Ancient Culture of East Asia" No. 136,Yamato Shobo, 2008.
- ^ Ichimichi Katayama“History of the Japanese through Bones” Chikuma Shinsho 2015
- ^ Shiraishi, 1999.
- ^ "Yamatai country" Youzaburo Ishihara October 10 Daiichi Printing
- ^ "Buzen Ishizukayama Burial Mound Reprint Edition" Masahide Nagamine, Kanda Town and Kanda Local History Study Group, August 2016, Seiun Printing Co., Ltd.
- ^ Kanda Town Official Ishizukayama Burial Mound
- ^ Kanda Town History Museum Cultural Property Guidebook
- ^ a b Shiraishi, 2013
- ``Keyhole-shaped burial mound'' "Encyclopedia of Ancient Japanese History"Yamato Shobo, 2006.ISBN 978 – 4479840657.
- ``Keyhole-shaped tomb'' "East Asian Archaeological Dictionary"Tokyodo Publishing, 2007.ISBN 978 – 4490107128.
- "Ishizukayama Burial Mound" "Encyclopedia of Japanese Ruins" Otsuka Hatsushige他編 Yoshikawa Hirofumikan 1995 Page 723
- Yukio Kobayashi"Research on the Kofun Period" Aoki Shoten 1961 pp.99-100 pp.146-155 pp.291
- "Illustrated Historic Sites of Japan Volume 3 Primitive 3", Dohosha Publishing, 1991, p.214
- Taichiro Shiraishi"Kofun and the Yamato Government: How the Ancient Nation Was Formed" (Bunshun Shinsho 36) Bungeishunju April 1999 ISBN-4 16-660036-2
- Makoto Takizawa "Chapter 7 Formation of a Japanese-style Agricultural Society -Paddy Field Development in the Kofun Period-" Archeology of Food Producing Society (Modern Archeology 3)Asakura Shoten 1999 pp.173-193
- Kazuo Hirose, Keyhole-shaped Mounded Mound CountryKadokawa Shoten<Kadokawa Selection Book>, September 2003.ISBN 4-04-703355-3.
- Kazuo Hirose, Michiaki Kishimoto, Masamasa Ugaki, Tetsuya Okubo, Masayuki Nakai, Atsushi Fujisawa, "Political Structure in the Kofun Period"Aoki bookstore, 2004.ISBN 4-250-20410-3.
- Taichiro Shiraishi, Kinki Burial Mounds and Ancient History, Gakuseisha, 2007 ISBN 978-4-311-20297-1
- Kazuo Hirose “The World of Keyhole-shaped Mounds”Iwanami Shoten<Iwanami Shinsho>, 2010.ISBN 978-4-00-431264-2.
- Yokohama City History Museum “Life Revolution in the Kofun Period: Late 5th Century, Yazakiyama Ruins” Public Interest Incorporated FoundationYokohama City Furusato History FoundationBuried Cultural Property Center, August 2010, 6. NCID BB02541057.
- Yokohama City Museum of History "God of Fire/God of Life - Exploring Ancient Kamado Faith" Public Interest Incorporated FoundationYokohama City Furusato History FoundationBuried Cultural Property Center, August 2012, 1. NCID BB09027313.
- Wakasa, Tohru"12. Imported Techniques and Handicrafts" "Visual Edition: Kofun Period Guidebook" Shinsensha <Series "Learning Ruins" Supplementary Volume 04>, June 2013, 6, pp. 10-48. NCID BB12600899.
- Wakasa, Tohru"13. Korean Wave Boom in Ancient Times" "Visual Edition/Kofun Period Guidebook" Shinsensha <Series "Learning Ruins" Separate Volume 04>, June 2013, 6, pp. 10-52. NCID BB12600899.
- Wakasa, Tohru"15. The Reality of Unevenness Revealed" "Visual Version: Kofun Period Guidebook", Shinsensha, <Series "Learning Ruins" Supplementary Volume 04>, June 2013, 6, pp. 10-60. NCID BB12600899.
- Wakasa, Tohru"16. How people lived in the Kofun period" "Visual Edition/Guidebook of the Kofun period", Shinsensha, <Series "Learning Ruins" Separate Volume 04>, June 2013, 6, pp. 10-64. NCID BB12600899.
- Wakasa, Tohru"17. Expanding Small Paddy Fields" "Visual Version: Kofun Period Guidebook", Shinsensha, <Series "Learning Ruins" Separate Volume 04>, June 2013, 6, pp. 10-68. NCID BB12600899.
- Taichiro Shiraishi, The Formation and Development of the Japanese Country as Seen from the Perspective of Ancient Burial Mounds, Keibunsha, 2013
- Edited by Kazuo Hirose "Introduction to ancient tombs from zero knowledge"Gentosha, February 2015.ISBN 978 – 4344902923.
Oikawa, Tsukasa, Yamanaka, Asaji, Ozawa, Atsuo, Nakao, Kinji, Kasai, Nobutaka, Palino Survey Co., Ltd. "Kagane North Ruins (Ruins)" Volume 68 18-5 Ejiridai-cho, Shimizu City, Shizuoka Prefecture <Survey Report of Shizuoka Prefectural Research Institute for Buried Cultural Properties>, March 1996, 3 (original work March 29, 1996).two:10.24484 / sitereports.1685. NCID BN15490226.
- Kazuo HiroseConsiderations for reconstructing images of the Kofun period: Was the keyhole-shaped burial mound period a prehistory of the Ritsuryo state?"Research Report of the National Museum of Japanese History, Vol. 150, National Museum of Japanese History, March 2009, 3-33 [including English summary], two:10.15024/00001685, ISSN 02867400, NOT 120005836992.
- Japanese History
- Japanese history period classification table
- List of ancient tombs in Japan
- Terminal burial mound
- Emperor Nintoku
- Great King (Yamato kingship)
- Kawachi Dynasty
- Dynasty change theory
- Kofun people
- Uemachi Plateau
- Yamato kingship,Japanese
- Equestrian conquest dynasty theory
- large keyhole-shaped tomb mound
- Sue ware
- Haniwa(Haniwa dancing people, Cylindrical ring, Representation haniwa, morning glory haniwa）