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📷 | The cameraman was also tempered! What is the “rare guest” who took the leading role of ZOZO Marine?


Photo A rare guest appears! In the 6th inning, Orix 1 death, 20st and XNUMXrd base, and when the batter, Muku Ota, a flock of birds entered the ground and interfered with the progress of the game.Lotte's center fielder, Eito Takabe, with a wry smile in the back = ZOZO Marine (photographed by Kaidemaki) on the XNUMXth

The cameraman was also tempered! What is the “rare guest” who took the leading role of ZOZO Marine?

 
If you write the contents roughly
After the typhoon passed, all the creatures of nature must have started their activities all at once.
 

I was overwhelmed by the sudden visitor. On the 20th, Lotte-Orix 23rd round (ZOZO Marine) 6th inning 1 death XNUMXst, XNUMXrd base, batter... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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typhoon

typhoon(Typhoon,typhoon, UK: Typhoon) IsTropical cycloneNorthwest ofThe Pacific Ocean or South China SeaExists in and(I.e.Maximum in the regionwind speedIs about 17.2 m / s(34knot(kt),Wind power8) A name that refers to something that has been developed above[1].

Strong wind,Storm areaStrong with(I.e.,WindOften brings, and in most casesweatherdisastercause.From the sky地球Looking towards, counterclockwiseCumulonimbusConsists of a vortex of.A typhoon called a super-large typhoon has a radius of 15 in a strong wind region with a wind speed of 800 m / s.kmWith the above, it will be a very big typhoon. "Typhoon articles by yearSee also.

Definition

The position with the lowest atmospheric pressure is called the "center of atmospheric pressure."[2], a typhoon is defined by its position and intensity.The biggest difference from extratropical cyclones is(I.e.Not accompanied byThat is.

位置

Northwest Pacific100th east longitudeから180 degree meridianFor up toNorthern hemisphere"Has a center[3].. As for the sea areaNorth PacificWest (northwest Pacific) and its adjoining seaSouth China Sea,East China Sea,Philippine Sea,Sea of ​​JapanFor land areasEast Asia,Southeast Asia,MicronesiaPart of each is included.

Of the tropical cyclones with a maximum wind speed of 17 m/s or more, northIndian OceanIs inCyclone'[Note 1]と 呼 ば れ る[3]..South Pacific, North Pacific (180 degree meridianEast), among the tropical cyclones of the North Atlantic, those with a maximum wind speed of 33 m / s (64 kt) or more are "HurricaneCalled "[4][Note 2]..However, the phenomenon is the same for typhoons, cyclones, and hurricanes.[4][5].. When these tropical cyclones cross geographic boundaries, the names change. For example,2006The hurricane Ioke that occurred in the northeastern Pacific on the other hand moved westward and exceeded a longitude of 180 degrees.Typhoon 12Became. In this way, what changed into a typhoon across the areaTransboundary typhooncall.There are things that disappear from typhoons when crossing the border,2019 OfTyphoon 1It is,Malay PeninsulaThe typhoon changed to a cyclone as it crossed the 100°E near meridian.[6].

Still moreInternational Classification of World Meteorological OrganizationAt tropical depressions, depending on the maximum wind speed, tropical depression, tropical storm, severe tropical storm, regardless of geographical area.TyphoonIt is classified into four stages. In this case, "typhoon" and "typhoon" described in this section are both called "typhoon" in English, but they are different in concept.

power

In the case of a typhoon, it refers to one that has a maximum wind speed of 17 m/s or more in the tropical cyclone region.[3].

Numerical values ​​of typhoon position, central pressure, maximum wind speed, and magnitude were established by accumulating past observation data.Devolak methodOn the basis ofArtificial satelliteThe method is to estimate from the image and correct each time the wind speed can be observed on the ground or on a ship.[2]Therefore, the "maximum wind speed near the center" is not necessarily an actual measurement value. For example, in order to measure the wind speed around the typhoon on the ocean, an aircraft is required.1987(ShowaUntil 62 years)U.S. Army Aircraft observationThere were also times when[7]However, due to the heavy burden of observers, equipment, operations, etc., observation by aircraft is not currently performed as a regular means in Japan (observation examples for academic research are available).

Incidentally,World Meteorological Organization (WMO)World weather monitoring plan (WWW) will be the center of typhoon monitoring activities in the Northwest Pacific OceanJapanese Meteorological Agency"Participating in the Tropical Cyclone ProgramRegional special weather center(RSMC for TCP), and the JMA's judgment is officially international, but in this areaPeople's Republic of China,Taiwan,The Philippines,Vietnam,The United States of AmericaSince each meteorological organization monitors the typhoon and makes its own estimation, there may be some errors in the wind speed depending on the organization.[8].

Origin of "typhoon"

In Japan, in the old daysFrom the place of blowingNobun(Beside, why)11st centuryAt the beginningPillow soshiko''The Tale of GenjiYou can see the expression in[9][10]..However, Nobun is a word that refers to the typhoon itself.MeteorologyThe concept is different from the above typhoon[11].

Tropical cyclones during the Edo periodClear countryFollowinghurricaneLiterature translated as (gufu) (Shinzo ItoThere is Japan's first meteorological book "Kafu Shinwa") translated from Dutch byMeijiAt the beginning ofTyphoon or Wind(Owaze) etc.[12].

Around the end of the Meiji era,Takematsu OkadaBytyphoonIs said to have been born[13][14].1956As a guideline (Showa 31)Rewriting with the same kanjiMany after being showntyphoonCame to be written[13](On the other hand, in Taiwan and Hong Kong, it is still called a typhoon.)There are various theories about its origin, and the main theories include the following.[9].

  1. Greek mythologyMonsters that appear inTyupon (τνφων, Typhoon) Derived from "typhoonFrom "typhoon".
  2. ArabicMeans storm inИوفان (flood) ”Was transmitted to the Orient, and“typhoonIt became.Also, in English, "typhoon"(Typhoon).
  3. ChugokuGuangdongSo, the strong wind in the south or the east is regarded as the wind from a foreign country.Wind(daai6fung1, Tayphon), then introduced to the West, of Greek mythologyTyuponDue to the influence of the Greek "typhoonIt came to be spelled "" and was reimported to the Orient.typhoon".
  4. OkinawaA theory made up of (Ryukyu then):Kume VillageMeteorologistSai On OfCoined wordIs said to be[Source required].

Englishof"typhoon"Is old"touffonSpelled "" in ChineseWindThe theory that "" is derived from is considered unnatural.Arabicorigin,GreekTwo theories of origin are considered to be influential.

[By whom?]

By the way, in OkinawaUchinaguchiThen "Kazehuchi(Wind blow) "or"Tafu(Typhoon) ".

Typhoon structure and rank

The typhoon center position, maximum wind speed, central pressure, storm radius, and strong wind radius are collectively referred to as typhoon specifications.[2].

Typhoon structure

Subtropical,熱 帯In large quantities supplied from the seawater vaporIt is a tropical cyclone that can rise and swirl the air, and when it exceeds the maximum wind speed of 17.2 m / s, it becomes a typhoon.[15].. In this respect, the structure is different from that of a temperate cyclone in which cold air and warm air tend to mix and air swirls.[15].. In a temperate low pressure system, cold air and warm air collide with each other and sometimes have a front line, but the typhoon body is made of only warm air, so there is no front line.[15]..When cold air flows in due to the northward movement of a typhoon, it changes to an extratropical cyclone ("#Disappeared from the occurrence of a typhoon"reference).

Near the center of the typhoon, the storms cancel each other out due to the turbulent wind direction.[Note 3].. An area with almost no wind or clouds that is a downdraft near the center of the typhoonTyphoon eyesA typhoon with more power appears more clearly, but sometimes it becomes unclear when the power declines.

In a developed typhoon, tall cumulonimbus clouds surround the centerEye wallIt is called[16].. As for the structure, around the eyes of the typhoon, the wind blown from the periphery toward the center creates a strong updraft, and cumulonimbus surrounds it like a wall (Inner rain zone). The height of the wall is from 1000m above the ground to 1m above the sky. And on its outer circumferenceOuter rain zoneIs surrounded by. In addition, in a place several hundred kilometers away from the typhoon bodyPioneer Rain ZoneMay be formed, and if the front is stagnant at this position, the front becomes active and heavy rain occurs.

In addition, typhoons are generally moreRight side (southeast side)The weather will be stronger. This is because the wind that blows toward the typhoon and the air flow that pushes down the typhoon body have the same direction, so the wind blows more strongly. According to meteorology, the right half of the typhoonDanger half circleCall. The left half of the typhoon is relatively weak because the direction of the air flow is opposite to that of the air flow.Navigable half circleCall. However, the concept of a navigable semicircle was that once the sailing ship took a course away from the center of the typhoon, if it was on the left side in the direction of travel of the typhoon, the starboard stern was able to avoid the tail stern (and conversely, the sailing ship If you are on the right side of the direction of travel, you will have to keep your hands so that you will not be drawn into the center while receiving the wind toward the starboard front side), and the wind and rain are weak compared to the right half, and it is navigable. Even though it is in the range of a half circle, caution is required due to strong wind and rain.

Typhoon rank

Typhoons are classified and classified according to their "strength" and "size" for the purpose of expressing the power of the typhoon in an easy-to-understand manner.[17][18].

For classification by strength, the WMO-specified taxonomy is used internationally, but there are some taxonomies that are slightly different according to it.Tropical Cyclone ScaleThe same typhoon may be classified into different levels depending on the meteorological organization. Specifically,Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) classifies by 1-minute average maximum wind speed, and Japan Meteorological Agency classifies by 10-minute average maximum wind speed.For example, in the same typhoon observation at the same time, even if the Joint Typhoon Warning Center of the U.S. Army determines that the typhoon has reached the intensity of the typhoon, in Japan it may not reach the intensity of the strong typhoon and it may be determined that the intensity is average (1). The average minute wind speed tends to be 10-1.2 times higher than the average 1.3-minute wind speed).In addition, although the strength is classified according to the maximum wind speed, the central pressure was used in the past, and from the remnants of that, the typhoon information released in Japan also covers the central pressure.

In Japan, it is used in mass media etc.Super typhoonAlthough there is no clear definition by the Japan Meteorological Agency,[19]In addition, the United States Typhoon Warning Center refers to typhoons with a maximum intensity of 130 knot (approximately 67 m/s/240 km/h) and is called a "super typhoon."[20][21], People's Republic of China (Hong Kong,MacauTyphoons with wind speeds of 100 knots (185 km / h) or more are called "super typhoons".

Maximum wind speed (m/s)Maximum wind speed (knot)International classificationJapanese classification
(Old)(new)
<17.2≦ 33Tropical depression /Tropical depletion (TD)Weak tropical depressionTropical cyclone
17.2 - 24.534 - 47Tropical Storm /Tropical storm (TS)typhoonweaktyphoon(nothing special)
24.6 - 32.648 - 63Severe Tropical Storm / Severe Tropical Storm (STS)Average strength
32.7 - 43.764 - 84Typhoon / Typhoon (T or TY)strongstrong
43.7 - 54.085 - 104Very strongVery strong
> 54.0≧ 105FuriousFurious
Classification by JTWC
classMaximum wind speed (1 minute average)
Super typhoon130 knot (240 km/h) or more
typhoon63 --129 knot (118 --239 km / h)
Tropical storm34 --62 knot (63 --117 km / h)
Tropical cyclone22 --33 knot (41 --62 km / h)
Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical Astronomical Observatory Classification by (PAGASA)
classwind speed
Super typhoon221 km/h or more
typhoon118 - 220 km / h
Severe tropical storm89 - 117 km / h
Tropical storm61 - 88 km / h
Tropical cyclone30 - 60 km / h
Hong Kong Observatory-Macau Geophysical Meteorological DepartmentClassification by
classwind speed
Super typhoon100 knot (185 km/h) or more
Strong typhoon81 --99 knot (150 --184 km / h)
typhoon64 --80 knot (118 --149 km / h)
Severe tropical storm48 --63 knot (88 --117 km / h)
Tropical storm34 --47 knot (63 --87 km / h)
Tropical cyclone22 --33 knot (41 --62 km / h)
(Chinese versionClassification by
classwind speed
Super typhoon51.4 m/s (185 km/h) or more
Strong typhoon41.7 --51.3 m / s (150 --184 km / h)
typhoon32.8 --41.6 m / s (118 --149 km / h)
Severe tropical storm24.5 --32.7 m / s (88 --117 km / h)
Tropical storm17.5 --24.4 m / s (63 --87 km / h)
Tropical cyclone17.4 m/s (62 km/h) or less

The Japan Meteorological Agency also classifies by size.[22].. Wind speed of 15m/s or moreStrong windClassify according to the size of. If the radius above 15 m/s is asymmetric, take the average value. It used to be 1,000Millibar(In the currently used unit systemHectopascalIt was judged by the radius of the isobar.

Rank of sizeWind speed 15m/s or more radius
(Old)(new)
Super large typhoon≧800km
Large typhoon500-800km
Typhoon of medium size (medium size)(nothing special)300-500km
Small (small) typhoon200-300km
Tiny typhoon<200 km

By combining these, we used to say "a large, moderately strong typhoon." However, depending on the combination, it may be a “very small and weak typhoon”.1999(11)8/14 OfGenkura River water accidentWith such an expression, the Meteorological Agency is2000(12)6/1Therefore, the expressions such as “weak” and “normal” have been abolished, and the expressions have been revised as in the (new) column of the above table. Therefore, what was called a "small,'medium-sized, very small" weak "medium strength" typhoon is simply a "typhoon" and a "large, medium strength typhoon" is a "large typhoon." It came to be expressed.

Disappeared from the occurrence of a typhoon

Most typhoonsNorthern hemisphereInSummer: からFall:Occurs over time. Taking the course of the peak period as an example, at the beginning of the outbreak, while moving northward to the west due to the influence of the trade wind,Pacific highMove along the edges ofConversionAfter doingWesterliesAs a result of this, we moved northward to the east,Jet streamWhen it enters a strong area, it accelerates to the east and descends to the east, and the power rises due to the decrease in the central ascending force due to the decrease in seawater temperature and temperature Weaken. However, there are not so many textbook-like courses to follow, and the ones that take complicated routes such as continuing westward or stagnation due to the influence of the Pacific High often appear. The Japanese archipelagoThe PhilippinesIslands, Taiwan, ChinaSouth China-Central ChinaCoastal area,Korean PeninsulaEtc. will cause great damage. Depending on the courseVietnam,Malaysia,Mariana Islands,MicronesiaIt may pass through. Although rare, it occurs in low latitudes with high seawater temperature even in winter[Note 4].. The northern limit of the course is a jet stream, and the course shifts to the north as it gets warmer due to the change in the flow path, and then to the south after summer.

Typhoon life

Typhoon

Various theories have been advocated for the mechanism of tropical cyclones such as typhoons and hurricane cyclones.熱 帯Theory that it is due to the ascending air currents generated on the sea surface due to strong solar radiation,Tropical convergence zoneThere was a theory that it would occur on the (equator front), but all were incomplete.

Currently, "Eastern windWaveTheory” has received much support. Near 30 degrees north (south latitude) of the north and south hemispheres,equatorialWent up and went north (south)空 気mass(latent heat(Including air)Hadley circulationTo stay in the sky and then descend,Subtropical high pressure zoneIs formed.North Pacific HighFor example, the wind blown from these high pressure systems toward the equatorCoriolis powerAfter that, it becomes a constant easterly wind. This isEasterly windThe idea is that undulations (waves) in the flow of this wind create counterclockwise vorticity, and the latent heat generated when water vapor condenses becomes an energy source and creates a tropical cyclone. It is still unclear why the vibration can occur, but it is the theory that best fits the actual situation.[Needs verification]

However, many of the vibrations generated in that way collapse without developing. When a high pressure over 1 meters is accompanied by a high pressure, it is considered that a typhoon develops due to the strengthening of the updraft by circulation of high pressure.

Generally, when a typhoon occurs, the water temperature on the sea surface is 26 --27. That's all[23], The steam that evaporates from the hot sea surface is the driving force[24]..In addition, the Coriolis force is necessary for the occurrence of a typhoon, and a remarkable tropical cyclone does not occur near the equator (up to a latitude of about 5 degrees) where the Coriolis force is small.[4].

Typhoon development

The process of typhoon development is well understood. The driving force of the typhoonCondensationIt is the heat generated by the heat. Due to contact between warm air and cold airEffective potential energyWas convertedPhysical energyIs an energy source for developmentTemperate lowHere is the big difference.

Water vapor in the air condenses with the ascending airflow, and heat (latent heat) Is released. Lightened air rises. Then, near the ground, moist air from the surroundings rises toward the center, further releasing heat and giving energy. Typhoons develop when these conditions are met. like thisConvective cloudThe way of development of is called SISK.

The typhoon swirls counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere when the wind moves toward the center.Coriolis powerIt is to receive.

If two typhoons are within 2 km, they may interfere with each other and follow complicated paths.The fifth generation who advocated thisCentral Meteorological ObservatoryLongS. FujiwaraTake the name ofThe effect of FujiwaraCall. The movements are classified into six types: side-by-side type, directional type, follow-up type, time waiting type, accompanying type, and detached type.

In general, typhoons develop over the southern seas of Japan and approach and land on the Japanese archipelago.[1]Then it tends to decline.This is because the seawater temperature is high over the South Sea and the elements necessary for the development of the typhoon mentioned above are in place. In some cases, the typhoon does not decline), and the development of the typhoon tends to converge.Many typhoons approaching the Japanese archipelago in early summer and late summer to autumn involve cold air from high latitudes and gradually change to an extratropical cyclone structure.(I.e.Will be formed. Typhoons with advanced low temperament gain kinetic energy due to the north-south temperature difference, so they may hardly fade even if they proceed or land in a sea area where the seawater temperature is 25°C or less. Further to higher latitudes, the temperate cyclone is completed when the front reaches the center. Alternatively, the warm cyclone in the typhoon may disappear, resulting in a temperate cyclone, but in this case, the front may not always be drawn to the center of the cyclone.[27].

Do not land on the Japanese archipelagoTsushima StraitsPassing throughSea of ​​JapanIt is a warm current if it enters the southern part, or if a typhoon once landed on the Japanese archipelago and then went out to the southern part of the Sea of ​​Japan after its power declined.Tsushima CurrentThe warm air (only when the seawater temperature is 26 ° C or higher) redevelops by supplying energy to the typhoon, and may cause enormous damage to Hokkaido and the Tohoku region, which are usually less susceptible to damage from typhoons.1954 OfToyamaru Typhoon(Typhoon No. 29 in 15) and1991 Of3 Typhoon No. 19(Apple typhoon),2004 Of16 Typhoon No. 18Is an example.

Extinction of typhoon

When a typhoon reaches the sea area where the sea surface temperature is low, the supply of water vapor is reduced, and when the typhoon loses its original energy due to friction with the surface of the sea when it moves, it changes into a tropical depression or a temperate depression.[28].. Especially when a typhoon moves northward and begins to entrain cold air in the north, the structure changes to a temperate cyclone.[28].

However, the change from a typhoon to a temperate cyclone is a structural change of the cyclone, and it does not necessarily mean that rainfall and wind speed are weak.[28].. Typhoon No. 2004 in 18 had a central pressure of 968 hpa and a maximum wind speed of 30 m/s even after it changed to a temperate cyclone, and at this low pressure, a maximum instantaneous wind speed of 50.2 m/s was observed in Sapporo City, Hokkaido.[28].

Impact on each country

Japan

Typhoon is JapanNativeThere are various routes to hit the typhoon, and it is difficult to categorize it, but as a typical typhoon, around 15 degrees north latitudeMariana IslandsIt occurs in the sea near the sea, travels westward at a speed of about 20 km / h, and gradually changes its course to the north, around 25 degrees north latitude.Okinawa IslandsIt is conceivable that the pattern will turn to the east and reach the mainland of Japan while accelerating toward the northeast.It is a type that is often published in books as a typhoon route, but in reality, there are few that take such a typical route, and in rare cases it occurs in the South China Sea and goes northeast as it is, over the southeastern sea of ​​Japan. Those going northwest from, orKanogawa Typhoon(1958Some of them, such as Typhoon No. 33), move north without a clear turning point.Furthermore, in the midsummer, when the airflow in the upper layer where the typhoon flows is weak and the direction cannot be determined,Typhoons with complex movementsCan also be seen.

According to the Japan Meteorological Agency definition,landingIs the center of the typhoonHokkaido,Honshu,Shikoku,KyusyuTo reach the coast of[1].. Therefore, even if the center of the typhoon reaches the coast of an island other than the above four islands, it is not said to be landing,OkinawaThere will be no typhoon landing. The fact that the center of a typhoon crosses small islands or peninsulas and returns to sea in a short time means that通過と 呼 ば れ る[1].. Also, a typhoon to a certain placeClose toIs that the center of the typhoon reaches within a radius of 300 km from that location.[1].

On average, around 11 typhoons approach Japan each year, and about three of them land on mainland Japan.[29].200410 typhoons landed on the island and set a record of the number of landings (2004 typhoon intensive landingreference). Meanwhile,1984,1986,2000,2008,2020In some years, the typhoon did not land at all.

Most of the typhoons land on mainland Japan from July to September, and the average annual landing number is highest in August, followed by September. In August, the high pressure of the Pacific Ocean covers Japan and it is difficult for typhoons to approach.However, the number of typhoons is the highest and the high pressure has a strong and weak cycle. Often approaches and lands. Of course, there are quite a few that go west and land in the Philippines, Taiwan, and China, or head toward the Korean Peninsula. It may land once every few years in June and October. In the earliest example19564/25ToTyphoon 3Have landed in Kagoshima Prefecture[30], The slowest, on November 1990, 11Typhoon 28Has landed on the Kii Peninsula[30].

The Philippines

In the Philippines, the risk of a typhoon rising every June to December increases[31]..Will an average of about 20 typhoons occur in the Philippines each year?Waters6-9 typhoons have landed[31]..The Philippines was affected by 2004 typhoons during the 2014 years from 11 to 88, with a total death toll of 18,015, a total of 43,840 injured, and a total economic loss of 13,700 million.US dollarDamage occurred[31].


Typhoon observation and course prediction

Typhoon observation

In the United States,1943ToTexasHoustonStruck(English editionAs a result of the direct observation carried out at the time of theHurricane hunterA specialized unit called was formed.at firstUS Air ForceUS NavyWas observed individually, but since 1993United States Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)(English editionTransferred to NOAAOfficer unitDirect observation is continued with the observation equipment operated by.

The Japan Meteorological Agency is in charge of locating and forecasting typhoons in the latitude range of 60° north latitude and 100° to 180° longitude longitude.[3].

Currently, meteorological satellites for typhoon observationSunflowersPlays an important role, and the center of the typhoon and the wind speed are observed by continuous analysis of cloud images.For typhoons approaching or landing near Japan, use weather radarAmedusIs also used.

From 2017Nagoya University,University of the RyukyusFrom research groups such as aircraftDrop sondeDrop, observeDroneDirect observation is carried out at. On October 2017, 10, the research group became the first Japanese researcher to directly observe the center of a typhoon with an airplane.[32][33].. We aim to improve forecast accuracy by combining the obtained data with the data from satellites and radar.[34].

Typhoon track forecast display

In the typhoon track forecast display, the strong wind area with an average wind speed of 15 m / s or more is represented by a yellow circle, and the storm area with an average wind speed of 25 m / s or more is represented by a red circle. Expected reach after 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours is dottedForecast circleI will write it in.The probability that the course of a typhoon will fall within the forecast circle is approximately 70%.Also, if the center of the typhoon passes through the forecast circle, the area where there is a risk of entering the typhoon area is surrounded by a red line.This is called a storm warning zone.

台風の進路予報表示は1953年(昭和28年)6月から1982年(昭和57年)5月まで扇形方式、1986年(昭和61年)5月まで予報円方式が用いられ、1986年(昭和61年)6月以降は現行の予報円・暴風警戒域方式が用いられている。また、予報期間は2002年(平成14年)6月から[Note 5]It will be announced 2009 hours ahead in March 21 and 3 hours ahead from April 72.[35]..In addition, 2020 (Reiwa2 years) From September 9th, forecasts for tropical cyclones that are expected to develop into typhoons within 9 hours have been issued up to 24 hours ahead.[36].

Effects of the typhoon

Typhoon damage

When a typhoon lands or approaches, storms (strong winds) cause the collapse of man-made objects and trees.climax・ Due to high waves and heavy rainFlood damage(洪水,soakingBesides, landslidesLandslideSuch damage will occur.

(I.e.

  • Eddy Rain-Heavy rain near the center of a typhoon.
  • Topographic Rainfall-Heavy rain is likely to occur in terrain where typhoons generate air currents toward the mountains.
  • Frontal development-depending on the season due to the approach of typhoonsautumn rainFronts andrainy seasonStimulates the front line and causes heavy rain, which often causes damage (eg:24 Typhoon No. 4).The structure near the center of the typhoon is covered with warm air, and the typhoon itself does not have a front.[3].. However, if the front of the typhoon reaches the center of the typhoon due to the effect of cold air, the typhoon will change to a temperate low.[3].

Wind

Typhoons cause storms and strong winds.Due to seawater sprayed near the coastSalt damageMay occur in power linesinsulatorInsulators may be accompanied by a discharge phenomenon.

Typhoons cause high waves and swells.Wave height can exceed 10m.Due to strong wind blowing and air pressure dropclimaxMay occur.coral reefWaves depending on the terrain such as the coast(I.e.May occur.

Thunder

Even though the typhoon body approaches when the clouds developThunderIs rarely accompanied by. But indirectthunderstormMay occur. In the typhoon body, it tends to occur on the left side in the direction of travel[37].

Other

  • 竜 巻 -The relationship has not been clarified, but due to the approach of a typhoon竜 巻Can also occur.
  • snow -Due to tropical cyclones, during typhoonssnowAlthough it does not rain, it may snow in high latitude areas after it changes to a temperate cyclone, or it may snow due to a winter pressure distribution. Rarely1932Landed in late autumnShichigosan TyphoonIn some cases, such as Typhoon No. 1990, which landed in the late autumn of 28, heavy snowfall occurred in a mountain village when a typhoon approached.

When a typhoon passes through the Sea of ​​Japan side, it is on the Sea of ​​Japan side when approaching, and when a typhoon passes through the Pacific side, it is on the Pacific side when it leaves.Fern phenomenonIs likely to occur (especially the former) due to a fire caused by dry hot air or a sudden rise in temperature.avalancheIs also likely to occur.

In addition, after the typhoon has passed, the sky may become clear and good weather may occur in the area where the typhoon passed.Typhoon passing(Taifu Uika)”[38]. ( WiktionaryTyphoon passingThere is an item. )

Typhoon damage in Japan has been steadily decreasing since the mid-20th century, when records were clear. This is thought to be due to the development of typhoon research from an academic perspective, the construction of a disaster prevention system based on experience enhancements and the like in administration, and the transmission of disaster records and voluntary disaster prevention activities in the private sector. The strength of the landing force was rarely seen in Japanese historyIsewan TyphoonOr later,Disaster Countermeasures Basic LawStarting with enactment, Isewan Typhoon Class or "Super Isewan TyphoonA disaster prevention system that can withstand class typhoons has been targeted[39][21].. However, even now, there are some areas of great damage, and disaster prevention is being strengthened in some areas. Also, the neighboring countries of Japan, especiallySoutheast AsiaHowever, since the disaster prevention system and infrastructure are not yet mature, landslides and floods may cause serious damage with a large number of deaths.

Rain typhoon/wind typhoon

While the damage caused by wind is relatively small, the damage caused by rain is greatRain typhoonCall[40][41][42]..Generally, typhoons that approach and land during the rainy seasonAutumn rain frontTyphoons in the fall, when activity is active, are more damaged by rain than wind[40].. An example of a typical rain typhoon in the past is 1947Kathleen TyphoonAnd 1958Kanogawa TyphoonAnd so on[40][43].. On the other hand, while the damage caused by rain is relatively small, the damage caused by wind is great.Wind typhoonCalled[44][41][42], A typical wind typhoon of the past, 1954Toyamaru TyphoonAnd 19913 Typhoon No. 19, 200416 Typhoon No. 18And so on[45].. However, these are all common names established by the Japan Meteorological Agency.[41], There is no strict definition because it is just a convenience distinction[44][40].. It should be noted that the typhoon itself does not have properties such as "strong rain" and "strong wind", and these words are only used as a result of the disaster caused by the typhoon.[46].

In the case of a strong typhoon, it is not uncommon for both rain and wind to cause enormous damage.18 Typhoon No. 13In (2006),KyusyuDue to the activation of the fronts in the vicinity, torrential rains such as those at the end of the rainy season were exhibited.SagaImari CityThen, 7% of the rainfall during the period was torrential rain that fell the day before landing.

Social impact of typhoons

  • TransportationDisturbance
    • In particularaviation,ferryRouteIn the case of a storm, it may be very dangerous if accompanied by a storm, and it may be suspended even after the typhoon has passed due to the fact that the aircraft and the vessels used may not be able to manage (the destination or the evacuation destination cannot operate on the course of the typhoon). There are many.
    • Regarding domestic aviation, the flight of the aircraft per day is complicated, and one aircraft often operates 5 or 6 flights, and even in regions where typhoons are not involved Depending on the schedule, the aircraft used may not be ready before departure and may be canceled or delayed.
    • またTrain,bus,Motorway(highway-National roadEtc.) may also be suspended, closed, or slowed down if the wind speed or rainfall exceeds a certain level.In recent years, if the impact on railways is expected, long-distance trains will be suspended, thinned out operations, and all trains will be stopped at each station in advance. many. (""Planned suspension"reference)
  • Public facilities (municipal public facilities/service reception, leisure facilities,Department store-supermarketEtc.) or suspension of business
  • Cancellation / postponement of sports games, concerts and events
  • Indoor facility (Dome Stadium,gymnasiumEven in events held in concert halls, concert halls, etc., there are cases in which the event is canceled due to the inability of local people to enter the site due to paralysis of transportation and the safety of spectators (dome baseball field in professional baseball). The cancellation exampleDome Stadium#Case of a game cancellation at Dome Stadiumreference).
  • Indoor evacuationIt may be necessary to evacuate from damage caused by storms and floods.

Typhoon and water resources

Typhoons, which are often talked about from the perspective of damage, are also seen in various parts of Japan during the summer after the rainy season.damFrom the perspective of securing water resources for rivers and mountainous rivers, regular typhoons are important.for example,17 Typhoon No. 14(2005)19 Typhoon No. 4(2007) caused great damage (both severe disasters), but before the typhoon hit, it was 0% due to drought.Saimeura DamThe water intake restriction was lifted because the water storage rate was restored to 100% or more at once in just one night.In other words, it cannot be said unconditionally that "a typhoon should not come".

Typhoons and global warming

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeAs shown in the Fifth Assessment Report of TyphoonGlobal warmingThere is a strong view that is related.In fact, in 2004, 3.8 times as many typhoons as usual landed in Japan.September 27 heavy rain in the Kanto and Tohoku regions,First Year of Reiwa East TyphoonCaused enormous damage to various parts of Japan.Global warming affects both the ocean and the atmosphere.In the former case, the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere increases as the amount of evaporation of seawater increases due to the rise in seawater temperature, and an updraft is likely to occur.The typhoon generated by this tends to increase in size.In the latterTroposphere OfTemperature decrease rateBecomes smaller and the atmosphere stabilizes.For this reason, typhoons are less likely to occur and the number decreases.Global warming has two contradictory effects on typhoons.[47][48]

Typhoon and biological nature

Typhoons are disasters, but they are regularly struck and have their own position in the natural environment of the region. For example, in Okinawa, typhoon precipitation is important for local residents to secure water. Similarly, in Okinawa森林 OfMaterial cycleIf you considerFallen leavesIn terms of quantity, we cannot ignore that during a typhoon.

There are also animals that move on typhoons. Found in a non-established distribution areaButterflyHowever, in Japan there are examples of tropical species being found on the mainland, often after typhoons.for examplefemale red purple,HippopotamusIt is known that, etc. appear in this way, and generations are repeated by winter. They can't over winterDeath migrationIs also an example.Dragonfly dragonflyIs also an example of this. Similarly, it breeds south of Okinawa and is rarely observed near Honshu.Wild bird Stray birdAs may be observed after a typhoon.

There are also cases where typhoons blow organisms on the Pacific Ocean to the coast of Japan. Sometimes they are launched into the beach after a typhoon has passed,Bonito,BonitoIn some cases, such as jellyfish, or some, etc. can be seen, and shellfish collectors aim for this.

Attempt to control and use typhoons

In Japan, from an aircraft in the eyes of a typhoonAnd water,Artificial rainfallUrgeSilver iodideThe research "Typhoon Shot" has begun to disperse heat and weaken the power ("Typhoon Shot")Moon shotNamed after).Also unmannedsailboatThere is also a plan to automatically track typhoons and use them for power generation.[49]

Record typhoon of the past

Japan

Before the 1930s
  • Eternal wind: September 989 (EternalAugust of the first year)Kinki.. "At night, a big wind in the world.Imperial PalaceThe gates, high towers, shinden-zukuri, corridors, various government offices, buildings, fences, common people's houses, shrines and temples all collapsed and no one stands, and the trees are missing and the mountains are bald.In addition, there are floods and storm surges, and the coasts, riverbanks, people, fields, livestock, and rice fields in Kinai are all dead.Fuso abbreviation], the original text is Chinese)
  • : September 1281 (Hiroyasu4 years, July) Western Japan.The role of Koan(Master) Invaded Japanyuan-GoryeoAbout 14 of the 10 Allied troops drowned. (This is later神 風Will be handed down. )
  • Siebold typhoon
  • Great wind disaster in the third year of Ansei: September 1856, 9 (AnseiAt night from August 3th to 8th, 25rd yearKanto regionAttacked.Izu PeninsulaFrom the vicinityEdoIt is probable that it passed just north of.The violent storm surge and storm surge caused great damage to a wide area of ​​the Kanto region, including Edo, and the "Early Modern History" has killed more than 10 people.
  • Tokyo Bay Typhoon(October 1917, 10): A typhoon that traveled northeast from the eastern part of the Philippines and passed northeastern Tokyo before dawn on October 1st.Tokyo BayStorm surge occurred, about 3,000 casualties[50], 6 houses that were half destroyed and destroyed. The lowest pressure record of 952.4 hectopascals recorded in Tokyo has not been broken as of October 2019.
  • Typhoon on September 1921, 9: A typhoon that was slowly moving eastward to the south of Honshu suddenly moved northward and suddenly traversed Japan from the Kii Peninsula.Therefore, the warning announcement was delayed,ToyamaMany fishing boat distresses below.A typhoon known for the incident in which the director of the Fushiki weather station at that time committed suicide due to public denunciation.However, it seems that there was a conflict between the prefecture and the country regarding the meteorological observation facility behind the suicide of the weather station director.
  • (Niitaka Taifu, August 1922, 8): A typhoon that passed through the Kanto region on August 26th moved northward and reached the vicinity of the Kamchatka Peninsula on the 8th, and the Japanese Imperial Navy in the vicinityCruiser ShintakaSank. Since it was at a high latitude, it is possible that the typhoon had changed to a temperate low when the accident occurred. A typhoon with a unique name (but unofficial) for the first time.
the 1940s
the 1950s
the 1960s
the 1970s
the 1980s
the 1990s
the 2000s
the 2010s
the 2020s

The Philippines

Typhoons with many deaths in the Philippines in recent years
RankingNameInternational namePhilippines nameYearsDeath toll
125 Typhoon No. 30haiyanYolanda20136,300
23 Typhoon No. 25ThelmaUring19915,101
324 Typhoon No. 24BophaPablo20121,901
4Typhoon No. 59 in 11IkeNitang19841,363
523 Typhoon No. 21WashiSendong20111,268
6Typhoon No. 27 in 17Trix-1952995
7Typhoon No. 26 in 20Amy-1951991
8Typhoon No. 62 in 22NinaSisang1987979
920 Typhoon No. 6FengshenFrank2008938
107 Typhoon No. 20Angelarose1995936

Typhoon name

Typhoons are like "Typhoon No. ○" and "Typhoon No. ○" in Japan.Typhoon numberOften referred to as, each typhoon has a unique name that is used internationally. thisInternational name(Because the names proposed by Asian countries have been given since 2000.Asian nameAlso called).

Typhoon statistics

  • About statistical standards
    • Date and time-allJapan Standard Time (JST). (Universal time What was observed in (UTC) is corrected to Japan Standard Time (JST). )
    • Approach- The center of the typhoon is JapancoastlineIf you enter within 300km fromIs "a typhoon approaching Japan". However, nowMeteorological officeIt is calculated by the distance from.
    • Landing- The center of the typhoonHokkaido,Honshu,Shikoku, When reaching the coastline of KyushuIs "a typhoon that has landed in Japan".However,Okinawa main islandIf you cross a remote island or a small peninsula and go out to the sea again in a short time, it is said to be "passing".

Typhoon normal value

The average values ​​shown below are1981 - 2010It is an average value based on the data of 30 years.[51][Note 6][Note 7].

Typhoon normal value[51][Note 8]
123456789101112Year
The number of occurrences0.30.10.30.61.11.73.65.94.83.62.31.225.6 (26.7)
Number of approaches to Japan0.20.60.82.13.42.91.50.60.111.4 (10.8)
Number of landings in Japan0.00.20.50.90.80.20.02.7 (2.6)
Mainland and OkinawaAmamiNormal value of the number of typhoons approaching[51]
123456789101112Year
Native[Note 9]0.00.10.41.01.71.70.70.05.5
Okinawa/Amami[Note 10]0.00.40.61.52.31.71.00.30.17.6
Normal value of the number of approaching typhoons in each region[51][Note 11][Note 12][Note 13]
Region123456789101112Year
Okinawa region0.00.40.61.42.21.70.90.30.17.4
Amami region0.00.10.30.81.01.10.60.03.8
Southern Kyushu region0.00.00.40.70.91.00.40.03.3
Northern Kyushu0.00.00.30.81.01.00.33.2
Shikoku region0.00.30.61.00.90.30.03.1
Chugoku0.00.30.50.80.90.20.02.6
Kinki0.00.30.51.01.00.50.03.2
Tokai region0.00.20.51.01.00.50.03.3
Hokuriku region0.20.40.90.80.20.02.5
Kanto region·Koshin region0.00.20.40.91.10.60.03.1
Izu Islands-Ogasawara Islands0.10.40.30.81.21.31.10.30.15.4
Tohoku region0.00.10.30.80.90.42.6
Hokkaido region0.10.20.70.70.11.8

Typhoon record

Most of the following records have statistical data, with some exceptions.1951Based on statistics from.

Record of numbers

List of past typhoon occurrences[52]
Years123456789101112Year
202221353
2021111234441122
2020118363123
201911145646129
201811145941329
20171185433227
201647743126
201511212234541127
2014212251521223
20131143677231
201211445351125
2011234371121
20101254214
2009222573122
200814124423122
2007113456424
20061137342223
200511115552223
200412528333229
200311222533221
2002111356422126
20011256531326
2000256522123
1999214662122
199813523216
199723346432128
199611256622126
19951126561123
19941127986236
19931147552328
19921124857331
199121114563629
1990111346444129
1989112275643132
198811328852131
198711244622123
1986112235354329
198521318541227
1984255473127
1983135255223
198231335531125
198112348423229
198014142641124
1979111242632224
19781134854430
19771133551221
19761122244511225
1975124553121
19741111445544232
19737524321
197211365553231
1971113428564236
1970123655426
196911134332119
19681113835527
19671211179943139
1966121410943135
19652111235582232
19642275656134
1963144354324
196211258453130
1961112346641129
1960113310341127
195911125542223
1958111475532231
195721111454322
195612125614123
19551111276431128
19541115543121
195311216353123
1952335363427
19511121133241221
List of past typhoons landing in Japan[53]
Years123456789101112Year
202211
20211113
20200
201912115
20181225
201711114
2016426
20152114
20141124
201322
2012112
2011123
2010112
200911
20080
20071113
2006112
20051113
20042132210
2003112
2002213
2001112
20000
199922
1998314
19972114
1996112
199511
19941113
19933126
199233
1991123
199022116
198911215
198822
198711
19860
1985123
19840
1983112
1982224
19811113
198011
1979213
19781214
197711
1976112
197522
1974123
197311
1972213
19711214
1970123
196922
19681113
1967213
1966235
19651225
1964112
1963112
1962145
19611113
1960314
19592114
19581124
195711
19561113
19551124
1954145
1953112
19521113
1951112
Annual number of typhoons
Years with high occurrencesYears with low incidence
RankingYearsThe number of occurrencesRankingYearsThe number of occurrences
11967391201014
21994 1971362199816
41966353196919
519643442011 2003 1977 1975
1973 1954 1951
21
61989 1974 196532
92013 1992 1988 1972
1958
31
Annual number of typhoons approaching Japan (including number of landings)
Years with a large number of approachesYears with few approaches
RankingYearsNumber of approachesRankingYearsNumber of approaches
12004 1966 196019119734
4201217219955
52018 195516319776
72019 2000 1997 1994
1965 1961 1958
1542020 2010 1983 19797
82017 2009 1998 1969
1964 1951
8
Annual number of typhoons landing in Japan
Years with many landingsYears with few landings
RankingYearsNumber of landingsRankingYearsNumber of landings
120041012020 2008 2000
1986 1984
0
22016 1993 1990662009 1995 1987 1980
1977 1973 1957
1
52019 2018 1989 1966
1965 1962 1954
5
Number of typhoons landing
(By prefecture)
RankingPrefecturesNumber of landings
1Kagoshima42
2Kochi26
3Wakayama24
4Shizuoka22
5Nagasaki17
6Miyazaki14
7Aichi12
8Chiba9
9Kumamoto8
10Tokushima7

Record about time etc.

It can be said that February when the seawater temperature is the lowest is the yearly change of typhoons, and the January 2 standard shown below is a social category.

Typhoon with early occurrence date (of the year)
RankingNameInternational nameDate and time of occurrence
131 Typhoon No. 1Pabuk20191/1 At 15
2Typhoon No. 54 in 1Alice19791/2 At 9
3Typhoon No. 30 in 1Violet1955January 1, 2:15
430 Typhoon No. 1Bolaven20181/3 At 9
5Typhoon No. 32 in 1-1957January 1, 3:15
625 Typhoon No. 1Sonamu2013January 1, 3:21
7Typhoon No. 60 in 1Fabian19851/5 At 21
8Typhoon No. 47 in 1kit19721/6 At 9
4 Typhoon No. 1Axel1992January 1, 6:9
10Typhoon No. 60 in 2Elsie19851/7 At 15
Typhoon with a late date and time (of the year)
RankingNameInternational nameDate and time of occurrence
112 Typhoon No. 23Soulik200012/30 At 9
226 Typhoon No. 23Jangmi201412/28 At 21
3Typhoon No. 27 in 27Horses1952January 12, 28:9
413 Typhoon No. 26Vamei200112/27 At 9
5Typhoon No. 50 in 21-197512/26 At 21
6Typhoon No. 41 in 35Pamela1966January 12, 26:9
7 Typhoon No. 23Dan1995January 12, 26:9
85 Typhoon No. 28Nell199312/25 At 9
24 Typhoon No. 25Wukong201212/25At 9
10Typhoon No. 29 in 23-195412/24 At 15
Occurrence date and time is early (in the year)Typhoon No. 1
RankingNameInternational nameDate and time of occurrence
131 Typhoon No. 1Pabuk20191/1 At 15
2Typhoon No. 54 in 1Alice19791/2 At 9
3Typhoon No. 30 in 1Violet1955January 1, 2:15
430 Typhoon No. 1Bolaven20181/3 At 9
5Typhoon No. 32 in 1-1957January 1, 3:15
625 Typhoon No. 1Sonamu2013January 1, 3:21
7Typhoon No. 60 in 1Fabian19851/5 At 21
8Typhoon No. 47 in 1kit19721/6 At 9
4 Typhoon No. 1Axel1992January 1, 6:9
10Typhoon No. 33 in 1Ophelia19581/7 At 21
Occurrence date and time is late (of the year)Typhoon No. 1
RankingtyphoonInternational nameDate and time of occurrence
110 Typhoon No. 1Nichole19987/9 At 15
228 Typhoon No. 1Nepartak20167/3 At 9
3Typhoon No. 48 in 1Wilda19737/2 At 3
4Typhoon No. 58 in 1Sarah19836/25 At 15
5Typhoon No. 27 in 1Charlotte19526/10 At 3
6Typhoon No. 59 in 1Vernon19846/9 At 15
7Typhoon No. 39 in 1Tess19645/15 At 15
8Typhoon No. 2 for 1 yearsVongfong20205/12 At 21
913 Typhoon No. 1Cimaron20015/11 At 9
1018 Typhoon No. 1Chanchu20065/9 At 21
Length of typhoon blank period
RankingTyphoon AInternational name of typhoon ATyphoon A disappearance date and timeTyphoon BInternational name of Typhoon BDate and time of typhoon BBlank period
127 Typhoon No. 27Melor201512/17 At 928 Typhoon No. 1Nepartak20167/3 At 9199 days 0 hours
9 Typhoon No. 28paka199712/22 At 1510 Typhoon No. 1Nichole19987/9 At 15
3Typhoon No. 47 in 31Violet197212/16 At 3Typhoon No. 48 in 1Wilda19737/2 At 3198 days 0 hours
4Typhoon No. 57 in 25Roger198212/10 At 21Typhoon No. 58 in 1Sarah19836/25 At 15196 days 18 hours
522 Typhoon No. 14Chaba201010/31 At 323 Typhoon No. 1Aere20115/7 At 21188 days 18 hours
6Typhoon No. 50 in 1Lola19751/28 At 15Typhoon No. 50 in 2Granny19757/28 At 3180 days 12 hours
7Typhoon No. 26 in 20Amy195112/17 At 21Typhoon No. 27 in 1Charlotte19526/10 At 3175 days 6 hours
8Typhoon No. 58 in 23Thelma198312/18 At 15Typhoon No. 59 in 1Vernon19846/9 At 15174 days 0 hours
911 Typhoon No. 22Gloria199911/16 At 2112 Typhoon No. 1Damrey20005/7 At 9172 days 12 hours
1017 Typhoon No. 23Bolaven200511/20 At 918 Typhoon No. 1Chanchu20065/9 At 21170 days 12 hours
Typhoon with early landing date (of the year)
RankingNameInternational nameLanding date and timeLanding point
1No. 03/Typhoon No. 31 in 3Thelma19564/25 X NUM X hour X NUM X minutes46Kagoshima prefecture/Osumi PeninsulaSouthern
2No. 06/Typhoon No. 40 in 6Amy19655/27 At 1212Chiba/Boso Peninsula
3No. 04/15 Typhoon No. 4Lymph20035/31 X NUM X hour X NUM X minutes38EhimeUwajima Citynear
4No. 02/Judy Typhoon(Typhoon No. 28 in 2)Judy19536/7 At 943KumamotoYatsushironear
5No. 04/16 Typhoon No. 4Conson20046/11 At 1639KochiMuroto Citynear
6No. 03/Typhoon No. 38 in 3Rose19636/13 At 2239KochiSukumonear
7No. 04/24 Typhoon No. 4Guchol20126/19 At 1730Southern Wakayama Prefecture
8No. 07/9 Typhoon No. 7Opal19976/20 X NUM X hour X NUM X minutes23AichiToyohashinear
9No. 03/Typhoon No. 53 in 3Polly1978January 6, 20:1842Nagasaki Prefecture/Nishisonogi Peninsula
10No. 06/16 Typhoon No. 6Dianmu20046/21 X NUM X hour X NUM X minutes39KochiMuroto Citynear
Typhoon with late landing date (of the year)
RankingNameInternational nameLanding date and timeLanding point
1No. 28/2 Typhoon No. 28Page199011/30 At 1430WakayamaShirahamasouth
2No. 34/Typhoon No. 42 in 34Dinah196710/28 X NUM X hour X NUM X minutes23Southern Aichi Prefecture
3No. 21/29 Typhoon No. 21Lan201710/23 At 322ShizuokaKakegawanear
4No. 23/16 Typhoon No. 23Tokage200410/20 At 1339KochiTosashimizu Citynear
5No. 26/Typhoon No. 30 in 26Opal1955January 10, 20:1230WakayamaTanabe Citynear
6No. 20/Typhoon No. 54 in 20Tip:197910/19 X NUM X hour X NUM X minutes30Near Shirahama Town, Wakayama Prefecture
7No. 10/10 Typhoon No. 10Zeb199810/17 X NUM X hour X NUM X minutes46KagoshimaMakurazakinear
8No. 19/Typhoon No. 62 in 19Kelly1987January 10, 17:039KochiMuroto Citynear
9No. 15/Loose typhoon
(Typhoon No. 26 in 15)
Ruth195110/14 At 1946KagoshimaIchikikushikino CityNear (current)
10No. 19/26 Typhoon No. 19Vongfong201410/13 X NUM X hour X NUM X minutes46Near Makurazaki City, Kagoshima Prefecture
Short-lived typhoon (excluding periods when it was not a typhoon)
RankingtyphoonInternational nameYearsTyphoon period
1Typhoon No. 45 in 13Dot19700 hours
2Typhoon No. 49 in 29Horses19743 hours
3Typhoon No. 36 in 12-19616 hours
Typhoon No. 36 in 14-
Typhoon No. 41 in 28-1966
Typhoon No. 49 in 31Judy1974
16 Typhoon No. 26Merbok2004
25 Typhoon No. 14Unala2013
Longevity typhoon (excluding periods when it was not a typhoon)
RankingNameInternational nameTyphoon periodDate and time of occurrenceDisappearance date
129 Typhoon No. 5Noru19 hours a day20177/20 At 2120178/8 At 21
Typhoon No. 47 in 7Rita19727/7 At 2119727/26 At 21
3Typhoon No. 42 in 22Opal18 hours a day19678/30 At 919679/17 At 15
4Typhoon No. 61 in 14Wayne17 hours a day19868/18 At 1519869/6 At 21
5Typhoon No. 47 in 9Tess15 hours a day19727/9 At 319727/24 At 15
69 Typhoon No. 28paka14 hours a day199712/8 At 3199712/22 At 15
6 Typhoon No. 31Verne199410/18 At 9199411/1 At 21
Typhoon No. 26 in 20Amy195112/3 At 9195112/17 At 21
94 Typhoon No. 30Gay14 hours a day199211/16 At 3199211/30 At 9
1015 Typhoon No. 2Kujira14 hours a day20034/11 At 920034/25 At 12
Longevity typhoon (JMA standard)
RankingtyphoonInternational nameTyphoon periodDate and time of occurrenceDisappearance dateRemarks
1Typhoon No. 61 in 14Wayne19 hours a day19868/18 At 1519869/6 At 21Tropical storm for 1 hours a day during the period
229 Typhoon No. 5Noru19 hours a day20177/20 At 2120178/8 At 21
Typhoon No. 47 in 7Rita19727/7 At 2119727/26 At 21
4Typhoon No. 42 in 22Opal18 hours a day19678/30 At 919679/17 At 15
53 Typhoon No. 20Nat15 hours a day19919/16 At 15199110/2 At 9Tropical storm for 2 hours a day during the period
6Typhoon No. 47 in 9Tess15 hours a day19727/9 At 319727/24 At 15
7Typhoon No. 49 in 14mary15 hours a day19748/11 At 1519748/26 At 21Tropical storm for 3 hours a day during the period
821 Typhoon No. 17Parma14 hours a day20099/29 At 15200910/14 At 9Tropical storm for one day of the period
99 Typhoon No. 28paka14 hours a day199712/8 At 3199712/22 At 15
6 Typhoon No. 31Verne199410/18 At 9199411/1 At 21
Typhoon No. 26 in 20Amy195112/3 At 9195112/17 At 21

Record of scale

Typhoons with low central pressures over the sea
RankingNameInternational nameCentral pressure (hPa)Observation dateObservation point
1Typhoon No. 54 in 20Tip:870197910/12OkinotorishimaSoutheast
2Typhoon No. 48 in 15Nora875197310/6The PhilippinesEast
Typhoon No. 50 in 20June197511/19マ リ ア ナInshore
4Kanogawa Typhoon
(Typhoon No. 33 in 22)
going87719589/24Near Okinotorishima
5Typhoon No. 41 in 4kit88019666/26Minami Daito Islandsouth
Typhoon No. 53 in 26Rita197810/25Philippines East
Typhoon No. 59 in 22Vanessa198410/26
8Typhoon No. 28 in 7Nina88519538/13Philippines East
Typhoon No. 34 in 9Joan19598/29Miyakojimasouth
Typhoon No. 46 in 35Irma197111/12Philippines East
Typhoon No. 58 in 10Forrest19839/23Okinotorishima South
22 Typhoon No. 13Megi201010/17Philippines East
Typhoons with low central pressure on land (meteorological office)
RankingNameInternational nameCentral pressure (hPaObservation dateObservation point
1Okinoerabu Typhoon
(Typhoon No. 52 in 9)
Babe907.31977(Showa52 years)9/9Okinoerabu(Kagoshima
2Miyakojima Typhoon
(Typhoon No. 34 in 14)
Sarah908.11959(34)9/15Miyakojima(Okinawa
3Muroto Typhoon-911.61934(9)9/21Muroto Cape(Kochi
415 Typhoon No. 14Maemi912.02003(Heisei15 years)9/11Miyakojima (Okinawa)
5Makurazaki Typhoon
(Typhoon No. 20 in 16)
going916.11945(20)9/17Makurazaki(Kagoshima)
6Second Muroto Typhoon
(Typhoon No. 36 in 18)
Nancy918.01961(Showa 36) January 9Naze(Kagoshima)
7
(No name)
-922.01930(5)8/9Minami Daito Island(Okinawa)
8Typhoon No. 38 in 14Gloria923.51963(38)9/10Ishigakijima(Okinawa)
918 Typhoon No. 13Shanshan923.82006(18)9/16Iriomote Island(Okinawa)
1016 Typhoon No. 18Songda924.42004(16)9/5Nago(Okinawa)
Typhoon with low central pressure when landing (immediately before)
RankingNameInternational nameCentral pressure (hPaLanding date and timeLanding point
1Second Muroto Typhoon
(Typhoon No. 36 in 18)
Nancy9251961(Showa36 years)9/16 At 9Muroto CapeWest
2Isewan Typhoon
(Typhoon No. 34 in 15)
Edge9291959(34)9/26 At 18Cape ShioWest
35 Typhoon No. 13Yancy9301993(Heisei5 years)9/3 At 16Satsuma PeninsulaSouthern
4Typhoon No. 4 for 14 yearsNanmadol9352022(4nd year of Reiwa)9/18 At 19Kagoshimanear
Loose typhoon
(Typhoon No. 26 in 15)
Ruth1951(26)10/14 At 19Kushikinonear
63 Typhoon No. 19Mireille9401991(3)9/27 At 16Sasebosouth
Typhoon No. 46 in 23Trix1971(46)8/29 At 23Cape Sata
Typhoon No. 40 in 23Shirley1965(40)9/10 At 8Aki Citynear
Typhoon No. 40 in 15Jean1965(40)8/6 At 4Ushibukanear
Typhoon No. 39 in 20Wilda1964(39)9/24 At 17Cape Sata
Typhoon No. 30 in 22Louise1955(30)9/29 At 22Satsuma Peninsula
Typhoon No. 29 in 5Grace1954(29)8/18 At 2KagoshimaWestern part
(reference)Muroto Typhoon911.61934(9)9/21Cape Muroto West
Makurazaki Typhoon
(Typhoon No. 20 in 16)
going916.31945(20)9/17Makurazakinear
Maximum wind speed (Japanese Meteorological AgencyAnalysis, 10-minute average)
RankingtyphoonInternational nameYearsMaximum wind speed (kt)
1Typhoon No. 54 in 20Tip:1979140
225 Typhoon No. 30haiyan2013125
22 Typhoon No. 13Megi2010
Typhoon No. 57 in 10Bess1982
5Typhoon No. 3 for 2 yearsSurigae2021120
Typhoon No. 2 for 19 yearsGoni2020
28 Typhoon No. 14Meranti2016
3 Typhoon No. 28Yuri1991
2 Typhoon No. 19Flo's1990
Typhoon No. 61 in 3Lola1986
Typhoon No. 60 in 22Dot1985
Typhoon No. 59 in 22Vanessa1984
Typhoon No. 58 in 5Abby1983
Typhoon No. 57 in 21Mac1982
Typhoon No. 56 in 22Elsie1981
Typhoon No. 55 in 19Wynne1980
Typhoon No. 53 in 26Rita1978
Maximum wind speed (US NavyAnalysis, 1-minute average)
RankingtyphoonInternational nameYearsMaximum wind speed (kt)
1Second Muroto Typhoon (Typhoon No. 36 in 18)Nancy1961185
2Typhoon No. 36 in 24Violet1961180
Typhoon No. 30 in 28Ruth1955
4Kanogawa Typhoon (Typhoon No. 33 in 22)going1958175
5Typhoon No. 2 for 19 yearsGoni2020170
28 Typhoon No. 14Meranti2016
25 Typhoon No. 30haiyan2013
Typhoon No. 41 in 4kit1966
Typhoon No. 39 in 34Opal1964
Typhoon No. 39 in 18Sally1964
Typhoon No. 34 in 9Joan1959


Maximum wind speed (land)
RankingNameInternational namemaximum
wind speed
(M/s)
Wind directionObservation dateObservation point
1Typhoon No. 40 in 23Shirley69.8Southwest19659/10Muroto Cape
(Kochi・Meteorological Office)
2Loose typhoon
(Typhoon No. 26 in 15)
Ruth69.3south195110/14Hososhima
(Miyazaki・Lighthouse)
367.1SoutheastCape Sada
(Atago・Lighthouse)
4Second Muroto Typhoon
(Typhoon No. 36 in 18)
Nancy66.7Southwest19619/16Muroto Cape
(Kochi/Meteorological Office)
5Typhoon No. 29 in 13Kathy65.0South-southwest19549/7Cape Toi
(Miyazaki/Lighthouse)
6Toyamaru Typhoon
(Typhoon No. 29 in 15)
Marie63.3South-southwest19549/27Cape Kamui
(Hokkaido・Lighthouse)
7Second Miyakojima Typhoon
(Typhoon No. 41 in 18)
Cora60.8Northeast19669/5Miyakojima
(Okinawa・Meteorological Office)
8Toyamaru Typhoon
(Typhoon No. 29 in 15)
Marie58.8Southwest19549/26Cape Sata
(Kagoshima・Lighthouse)
9Typhoon No. 45 in 10Anita57.5Northwest19708/21Tosa Okinoshima
(Kochi/Lighthouse)
10
(No name)
-57.0*Northeast19308/9Minami Daito Island
(Okinawa)

*-Estimated value due to instrument damage

Maximum instantaneous wind speed
RankingNameInternational namemaximum
moment
wind speed
(M/s)
Wind directionObservation dateObservation point
1Second Miyakojima Typhoon
(Typhoon No. 41 in 18)
Cora85.3Northeast1966(Showa41 years)9/5Miyakojima
(Okinawa・Meteorological Office)
2Second Muroto Typhoon
(Typhoon No. 36 in 18)
Nancy84.5Southwest1961(36)9/16Muroto Cape
(Kochi・Meteorological Office)
327 Typhoon No. 21Dujuan81.1Southeast2015(27)9/28Yonaguni Island
(Okinawa・Meteorological Office)
4Second Miyakojima Typhoon
(Typhoon No. 43 in 16)
of79.8Northeast1968(43)9/22Miyakojima
(Okinawa Meteorological Office)
5Typhoon No. 45 in 9Wilda78.9Southeast1970(45)8/13Naze
(Kagoshima・Meteorological Office)
6Typhoon No. 40 in 23Shirley77.1Southwest1965(40)9/10Muroto Cape
(Kochi/Meteorological Office)
7Makurazaki Typhoon
(Typhoon No. 20 in 16)
going75.5South-southeast1945(20)9/17Hososhima
(Miyazaki・Lighthouse)
815 Typhoon No. 14Maemi74.1North2003(Heisei15 years)9/11Miyakojima
(Okinawa Meteorological Office)
9Typhoon No. 31 in 12Emma73.6south1956(31)9/8Naha
(Okinawa Meteorological Office)
10Typhoon No. 39 in 20Wilda> 72.3West1964(39)9/25Uwajima
(Atago・Meteorological Office)
Typhoons with large strong winds (in order of diameter)
RankingNameInternational nameYearsStrong wind area maximum diameter (km)
19 Typhoon No. 13Winnie19972360
2Typhoon No. 62 in 13Freda19872220
2 Typhoon No. 12Yancy1990
9 Typhoon No. 25Keith1997
5Typhoon No. 3 for 18 yearsKompasu20212200
67 Typhoon No. 12Oscar19952130
7Typhoon No. 61 in 10Sarah19862040
2 Typhoon No. 23Kyle1990
8 Typhoon No. 9Herb1996
10Typhoon No. 56 in 24Gay19811940
13 Typhoon No. 4Utor2001
Typhoons with large storm areas (in diameter order)
RankingNameInternational nameYearsStorm area maximum diameter
(Nm)(km)
1Typhoon No. 59 in 22Vanessa1984500950
Typhoon No. 28 of XNUMXForrest1989
3Typhoon No. 56 in 24Gay1981450850
Typhoon No. 58 in 5Abby1983
Typhoon No. 62 in 20Lynn1987
9 Typhoon No. 13Winnie1997
7Typhoon No. 55 in 18Vernon1980425800
83 Typhoon No. 19Mireille1991420
10 Typhoon No. 10Zeb1998
10Typhoon No. 54 in 20Tip:1979400750
Typhoon No. 57 in 9Andy1982
Typhoon No. 57 in 10Bess
Typhoon No. 57 in 23Owen
Typhoon No. 59 in 10Holly1984
Typhoon No. 60 in 5Hal1985
Typhoon No. 60 in 20brenda
Typhoon No. 25 of XNUMXColleen1989
8 Typhoon No. 24Dale1996
Typhoons that developed rapidly (in order of pressure drop rate)
RankingtyphoonInternational nameYearsMaximum pressure drop (6 hours)
1Typhoon No. 28 in 13Tess1953--93 hPa
2Typhoon No. 28 in 7Nina-65 hPa
3Typhoon No. 33 in 19Grace1958-55 hPa
4Typhoon No. 29 in 12June1954-50 hPa
Typhoon No. 35 in 8Shirley1960
Typhoon No. 39 in 18Sally1964
7Typhoon No. 26 in 4Iris1951-44 hPa
8Typhoon No. 29 in 17Olga1954-40 hPa
Typhoon No. 29 in 19Pamela
Typhoon No. 37 in 28Karen1962
Typhoon No. 38 in 17Judy1963
Typhoon No. 55 in 19Wynne1980
18 Typhoon No. 20Chebi2006
Typhoons with long periods of intense power
RankingtyphoonInternational nameYearsA period of intense power
1Typhoon No. 53 in 26Rita197896 hours
230 Typhoon No. 22Mangkhut201890 hours
316 Typhoon No. 16Chaba200478 hours
4First Year of Reiwa East Typhoon
(First year of Reiwa Typhoon No. 19)
Hagibis201972 hours
Typhoon No. 59 in 22Vanessa1984
Typhoon No. 56 in 22Elsie1981
Typhoon No. 54 in 20Tip:1979
89 Typhoon No. 24Joan199766 hours
924 Typhoon No. 17Jelawat201260 hours
3 Typhoon No. 28Yuri1991
3 Typhoon No. 23Ruth1991

Record of damage

Typhoons with many dead and missing people (since 1951)
RankingNameInternational nameYearsNumber of dead and missing
1Isewan Typhoon(Typhoon No. 34 in 15)Edge19595,098
2Toyamaru Typhoon(Typhoon No. 29 in 15)Marie19541,761
3Kanogawa Typhoon(Typhoon No. 33 in 22)going19581,269
4Loose typhoon(Typhoon No. 26 in 15)Ruth1951943
5Typhoon No. 28 in 13Tess1953478
6Typhoon No. 41 in 24Helen1966318
Typhoon No. 41 in 26going1966
8Typhoon No. 34 in 7Georgia1959235
9Typhoon No. 40 in 29Carmen1965 209
10Second Muroto Typhoon(Typhoon No. 36 in 18)Nancy1961202
Typhoons with many injuries (since 1951)
RankingNameInternational nameYearsNumber of injured
1Isewan Typhoon(Typhoon No. 34 in 15)Edge195938,921
2Second Muroto Typhoon(Typhoon No. 36 in 18)Nancy19614,972
3Loose typhoon(Typhoon No. 26 in 15)Ruth19512,644
4Typhoon No. 28 in 13Tess19532,559
5Toyamaru Typhoon(Typhoon No. 29 in 15)Marie19541,601
6Typhoon No. 34 in 7Georgia19591,528
73 Typhoon No. 19Mireille1991 1,499
816 Typhoon No. 18Songda2004 1,364
9Kanogawa Typhoon(Typhoon No. 33 in 22)going1958 1,138
1011 Typhoon No. 18Bart19991,077
Typhoon that causes great damage to Japanese houses (Japan 1951 or later)[54][55]
RankingNameInternational nameYearsHousing damage
1Isewan Typhoon(Typhoon No. 34 in 15)Edge1959833,965
2Second Muroto Typhoon(Typhoon No. 36 in 18)Nancy1961499,444
3Loose typhoon(Typhoon No. 26 in 15)Ruth1951221,118
4Toyamaru Typhoon(Typhoon No. 29 in 15)Marie1954207,542
53 Typhoon No. 19Mireille1991170,447
630 Typhoon No. 21jebi201897,910
7Typhoon No. 28 in 13Tess196686,398
8Typhoon No. 30 in 22Louise195585,554
9Biwa Peninsula Typhoon(Typhoon No. 15 in the first year of Reiwa)Faxai2019 76,874
10Typhoon No. 34 in 7Georgia195976,199
Typhoons with heavy flood damage (since 1951)
RankingNameInternational nameYearsFlood damage
1Kanogawa Typhoon(Typhoon No. 33 in 22)going1958521,715
2Typhoon No. 28 in 13Tess1953495,875
3Typhoon No. 51 in 17Fran1976442,317
4Second Muroto Typhoon(Typhoon No. 36 in 18)Nancy1961384,120
5Isewan Typhoon(Typhoon No. 34 in 15)Edge1959363,611
6Typhoon No. 40 in 24Trix1965251,820
7Typhoon No. 29 in 12June1954181,380
8Typhoon No. 49 in 8Gilda1974148,934
9Typhoon No. 34 in 7Georgia1959148,607
10Typhoon No. 47 in 20Helen1972146,547
Typhoons with large damage (Japan)
RankingNameInternational nameYearsDamage amount
1Typhoon No. 57 in 10Bess19825,91600 million yen
23 Typhoon No. 19Mireille19915,73500 million yen
3Typhoon No. 56 in 15Thad19812,27200 million yen
4Typhoon No. 51 in 17Fran19762,08000 million yen
55 Typhoon No. 13Yancy19931,75500 million yen
611 Typhoon No. 18Bart19991,63100 million yen
72 Typhoon No. 19Flo's19901,32200 million yen
8Typhoon No. 60 in 6Irma19851,30300 million yen
916 Typhoon No. 18Songda20041,26200 million yen
10Typhoon No. 57 in 18Judy19821,25800 million yen

Other records

Typhoon with a heavy rain impact index
RankingtyphoonInternational nameYearsHeavy rain index
123 Typhoon No. 15Rock201110000
229 Typhoon No. 21Lan20178527
330 Typhoon No. 7Prapiroon20188491
416 Typhoon No. 23Tokage20048427
5Typhoon No. 51 in 17Fran19768366
617 Typhoon No. 14Nabi20057885
72 Typhoon No. 19Flo's19907833
8Typhoon No. 54 in 20Tip:19797451
923 Typhoon No. 12Talas20116863
1019 Typhoon No. 4Man-yi20076859
A typhoon with a strong wind impact index
typhoonInternational nameYearsStrong wind index
116 Typhoon No. 18Songda200410000
230 Typhoon No. 24Trami20188166
33 Typhoon No. 19Mireille19918052
416 Typhoon No. 16Chaba20047718
518 Typhoon No. 13Shanshan20067105
617 Typhoon No. 14Nabi20056308
724 Typhoon No. 17Jelawat20126001
830 Typhoon No. 21jebi20185840
916 Typhoon No. 23Tokage20045827
1011 Typhoon No. 18Bart19995817
Typhoon with a large overall impact index
Typhoon numberInternational nameYearsComposite index
130 Typhoon No. 24Trami201814740
216 Typhoon No. 23Tokage200414254
317 Typhoon No. 14Nabi200514193
429 Typhoon No. 21Lan201713763
523 Typhoon No. 15Rock201113757
616 Typhoon No. 18Songda200413150
7Typhoon No. 54 in 20Tip:197912792
816 Typhoon No. 16Chaba200412204
92 Typhoon No. 19Flo's199011799
1030 Typhoon No. 7Prapiroon201811208
Typhoons with high average speeds (hours)
RankingtyphoonInternational nameYearsAverage speed (km/h)
1Typhoon No. 41 in 28-196672.7
2Typhoon No. 26 in 1-195172.6
3First year of Reiwa Typhoon No. 3Cuttlefish201966.7
420 Typhoon No. 10Phanphone200860.7
5Typhoon No. 28 in 15-195359.3
6Typhoon No. 52 in 15-197758.7
7Typhoon No. 53 in 30Winnie197855.1
811 Typhoon No. 22Gloria199955.0
9Typhoon No. 46 in 29Carmen197154.4
10Typhoon No. 42 in 29-196753.8
Typhoon with long travel distance
RankingNameInternational nameYearsTravel distance (km)
1Typhoon No. 40 in 32Faye19658,753
2Second Muroto Typhoon(Typhoon No. 36 in 18)Nancy19618,113
315 Typhoon No. 18Parma20037,606
4Typhoon No. 27 in 27Horses19527,554
53 Typhoon No. 19Mireille19917,307
6Typhoon No. 62 in 7Wynne19877,275
7Typhoon No. 53 in 26Rita19787,179
8Typhoon No. 37 in 28Karen19627,113
9Typhoon No. 54 in 20Tip:19796,872
1029 Typhoon No. 5Noru20176,846
Typhoons that went south (south to south)
RankingNameInternational nameYearsSouthward width (latitude)
115 Typhoon No. 18Parma20038.9
229 Typhoon No. 5Noru20178.2
35 Typhoon No. 27Manny19937.5
16 Typhoon No. 25Muifa2004
5Typhoon No. 61 in 14Wayne19866.9
612 Typhoon No. 15Bopha20006.7
73 Typhoon No. 20Nat19916.6
88 Typhoon No. 25Ernie19966.4
930 Typhoon No. 12Jongdari20186.3
10Typhoon No. 39 in 14Kathy19646.2
Typhoon No. 52 in 12Dinath1977
Typhoon No. 59 in 25Bill1984
Typhoon No. 4 for 11 yearsHinnamnor2022

Typhoon for each number

Typhoon of each year

Special typhoon

Typhoons with complex movements

A typhoon that follows a complicated course and sometimes it is difficult to predict the course. It is also called "stray typhoon", but this term is not used by JMA[56].

Longevity typhoon

After developing into a typhoonTropical cyclone,Temperate lowA typhoon that takes a long time to change to[57].AntonymIs a "short-lived typhoon". The above-mentioned "typhoon with complicated movements" often becomes a "longevity typhoon".

Transboundary typhoon

The Pacific OceanOf these, the range to be observed by the Japan Meteorological Agency (Pacific Northwest,South China Sea) ExceptHurricane,CycloneA tropical cyclone that has been classified as a "typhoon" beyond the boundary of the observation range.

Revival typhoon

A tropical typhoon that has been weakened more than once and has reached a tropical cyclone with a maximum wind speed of 1 m/s (17.2 kt) or less, and has developed again and has a maximum wind speed of 33.5 m/s or more. A low pressure.

Year-round typhoon

Also known as the "New Year's typhoon", as its name implies, it is a typhoon that occurs over the years. Basically it occurs in December and disappears in January of the following year. The appearance of such typhoons is extremely rare, and there are only five cases in the past (since 12).[58][59]. 1, one of the year-end typhoons12 Typhoon No. 23It is,20st century21st centuryIt was also the only "typhoon over the century" (to the extent that observation records remain) that straddled the area.[60].

List of past typhoons (UTCStandard)[58][59]
typhoonInternational nameDate and time of occurrence (UTC)Date and time of disappearance (UTC)
Typhoon No. 27 in 27Horses195212/28 At 019531/5 At 12
Typhoon No. 34 in 23Harriet195912/24 At 019601/2 At 12
Typhoon No. 52 in 21mary197712/21 At 91978January 1, 2:18
Typhoon No. 61 in 29Norris198612/23 At 01987January 1, 2:0
12 Typhoon No. 23Soulik200012/30 At 020011/4 At 18

Typhoon future forecast

Global warmingIn the future, the power of typhoons generated will become stronger than it is now,Super typhoonIt is feared that the occurrence of strong typhoons such as "will increase and the impact on Japan will increase as well." On the other hand, however, it is said that the number of typhoons will be lower than now due to global warming.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ However, the cycloneTemperate lowIt may mean all low pressure systems including[Source required].
  2. ^ Hurricane has higher wind speed standards than typhoons and cyclones. In this area, the maximum wind speed must be 17.2 m/s or more and less than 32.7 m/s.Tropical stormCall.
  3. ^ Near the centerCentrifugal forceIs strong and counteracts the storm that is trying to converge to the center.
  4. ^ For example, when cold cold air from the Eurasian continent moves over the Tsushima warm current, the temperature difference between the lower layer and the upper layer may become extremely large, similar to the sea level in the polar regions.
  5. ^ From July 1997 (Heisei 9) for ships.
  6. ^ Months with blank values ​​indicate that there were no typhoons applicable during the statistical period for calculating the normal value.
  7. ^ The number of approaches may extend over two months, and the total number of approaches in each month does not necessarily match the number of approaches in a year.
  8. ^ In parentheses1970 - 2000mean value.
  9. ^ "Mainland" refers to the case where the mainland, Hokkaido, Kyushu, or Shikoku has entered within 300 km from any of the meteorological offices.
  10. ^ "Okinawa/Amami" refers to the case within 300 km from either the Okinawa or Amami meteorological station.
  11. ^ For regional classification,Japan Meteorological Agency websiteSee.
  12. ^ "Northern Kyushu"Yamaguchi "Chugoku region" does not include Yamaguchi prefecture.
  13. ^ "Kanto region" does not include Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands.

Source

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  2. ^ a b c "Typhoon analysis technology (PDF)”. Japan Meteorological Agency Forecast Department (October 2009, 10). April 2021, 9Browse.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "About the typhoon". Japan Meteorological Agency Frequently Asked Questions. April 2021, 9Browse.
  4. ^ a b c Ogura 2016, p. 231.
  5. ^ Tanaka 2017, p. 277.
  6. ^ "Typhoon No. 1 goes out of the Meteorological Agency's surveillance area into a cyclone for the first time in 21 years". Weather news (September 2019, 1). April 2019, 1Browse.
  7. ^ "Digital Typhoon: Typhoon Observation and Dovolak Method”. Asanobu Kitamoto @National Institute of Informatics(NII). April 2016, 8Browse.
  8. ^ "Definition of typhoons (tropical cyclones) and their lives". April 2015, 10Browse.
  9. ^ a b "Typhoon etymology". Advantageous Japanese. Japan Broadcasting Corporation (February 2014, 9). As of February 22, 2014originalMore archives.April 2014, 9Browse.
  10. ^ In addition, Kunio YanagidaPointed out that the ancient word "side" did not include the meaning of a terrifying strong wind.reference:Kenkichi Yamamoto"XNUMX selections of basic season words" (Kodansha Academic Library, 1989) pp. 600-601.
  11. ^ Takahashi 1976, pp. 155–156.
  12. ^ "World Encyclopedia"平凡 社 1998
  13. ^ a b Takahashi 1976, p. 155.
  14. ^ Hirokazu Hinuma. “Old Japanese name of typhoon (PDF)”. The Meteorological Society of Japan. April 2020, 11Browse.
  15. ^ a b c "What is the difference between typhoons, tropical cyclones and temperate cyclones?". AkitaLocal weather station.As of August 2011, 3originalMore archives.April 2016, 9Browse.
  16. ^ Mechanism of typhoon Japan Weather Association
  17. ^ Atmospheric pressure Typhoon terms Japan Meteorological Agency (accessed September 2021, 9)
  18. ^ Typhoon size and strength Japan Meteorological Agency (accessed September 2021, 9)
  19. ^ Chiezo mini|Super typhoon Koto bank(Retrieved September 2021, 9)
  20. ^ "weather"Kazuhisa Tsuboki"Super typhoon (PDF) , Read June 2018, 10.
  21. ^ a b Question 44: Is the super typhoon and super Isewan typhoon the same expression? Digital Typhoon, viewed October 2009, 10.
  22. ^ "Japan Meteorological Agency | Typhoon size and strength". www.jma.go.jp. April 2020, 4Browse.
  23. ^ Ogura 2016, p. 232.
  24. ^ Tanaka 2017, p. 279.
  25. ^ "rain band=rain band". Japan Science and Technology Agency. April 2009, 10Browse.
  26. ^ Kazuhisa Tsuboki. “Numerical simulation using a cloud resolution model of a rain zone that causes a tornado associated with a typhoon (PDF)". Nagoya UniversityMeteorology Laboratory. Pp. Page 3/8. April 2009, 10Browse.
  27. ^ Kazushi Suzuki "Characteristics of satellite imagery in typhoon temperate cyclones (PDF) "Technical Report of Meteorological Satellite Center" No. 38 (March 2000) Retrieved September 3, 2021
  28. ^ a b c d 13th from the site of disaster prevention survey (PDF) Hitachi Insurance Services (viewed February 2020, 2)
  29. ^ "Japan Meteorological Agency | Typhoon occurrence, approach, landing, route”. Japan Meteorological Agency. April 2016, 7Browse.
  30. ^ a b "Japan Meteorological Agency | Landing date and time”. Japan Meteorological Agency. April 2016, 7Browse.
  31. ^ a b c Preparing for the typhoon / flood season in the Philippines (PDF) InterRisk Research Institute (accessed February 2020, 2)
  32. ^ "Blue sky and cloud walls while rushing into the eyes of typhoon No. 21". Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2017, 10). April 2021, 3Browse.
  33. ^ Succeeded in direct observation by flying into the "eyes" of Typhoon No. 21 - NHK
  34. ^ "From next year, such as Nagoya University, which aims to improve the accuracy of force prediction by aircraft to observe large typhoons."[Broken link]Sankei Shimbun
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  38. ^ "Typhoon passing』- Koto bank
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  44. ^ a b Japanese Language Dictionary, Digital Daijisen, Mention in the World Encyclopedia, Britannica International Encyclopedia Small Item Encyclopedia / Daijirin XNUMXrd Edition / Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica) Selected Edition.What is a wind typhoon?”(Japanese). Koto bank. April 2020, 5Browse.
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