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Coast Guard

Coast Guard(I want to work hard,British: Coast Guard) Is a patrol in the ocean or inland waters (rivers / lakes)securityrescueAn organization that conducts activities.

Various types called guard ships and guard boatsPatrol ship,aircraftOwns and ownsHarborIt is normal to set up an activity base in.From the relevance of the missionNavy,Policemen,CustomsOften has a close relationship with.US Coast GuardThen, it corresponds to the patrol missionShip ThecutterCalledTaiwanThen frigate and frigate, South KoreaIn, guard ships and boats are conducting territorial waters security.Japan OfJapan Coast Guard ThePatrol boat,Patrol boatと 呼 ば れ るShipIs engaged in patrols and surveillance of territorial waters, maritime police activities, and rescue activities, but it does not have military functions, so it is different from the coast guards of other countries.

The organization of the Coast Guard varies from country to country, and in some countries the Navy carries out its mission without a Coast Guard.[1]..Also, some countries install it as part of the Navy.Border guardalikeParamilitary organizationIt may be installed as a type of, in which case it replaces the Navy in normal times.WatersPerforms security and rescue activities in and inland waters (rivers and lakes), and fights with the Navy during the war.In addition, some emerging countries do not have a navy but only a coast guard.


The Navy focuses on defense and military operations at sea, while the Coast Guard is primarilySecurity / police missions in sea / water areasTo carry out.This is a matter of expertise, on behalf of the Navy's warshipscivilianThis is to prevent tensions with neighboring countries by having the maritime police organization in charge of police duties.However, there are few pure civilian coast guard organizations, and they usually have the character of paramilitary or military organizations.

Japan as an example of considering tensions with foreign countriesJMSDF TheMaritime security actionUnless it is an emergency such as when it is announcedArrestRightinvestigationWithout the right, it is possible to investigate an incident that occurred at sea and arrest the suspectPolice organizationIsJapan Coast GuardIt is the role of.

The basic missions of the Coast Guard established around the world are summarized in the following three:

  • In the territorial waters andExclusive economic zone(EEZ), security activities in inland waters
  • Search and rescue activities for water accidents and distress accidents in territorial waters, exclusive economic zone (EEZ), and inland waters
  • Waterway enlightenment, surveying, buoy installation work in the territorial waters

However, it is not limited to these, but in combat areas as a Navy support unit like the United States Coast Guard (USCG).VisitSometimes he has military missions such as activities, and conversely the United KingdomRoyal Coast GuardIn some cases, it is limited to search and rescue activities.The Royal Navy provides coast guard, and also conducts inspections of private vessels such as smuggling vessels and fishing vessels, similar to the Japan Coast Guard.

Security activities in the territorial waters and EEZ

It can be divided into the following three:

  1. Control of criminal vessels such as smugglers and fishing vessels
  2. Investigation of general criminal cases on board a ship sailing in territorial waters
  3. Monitoring and control of ship traffic on the route

1. is one of the Coast Guard's most important missions, for example the United States Coast GuardCaribbeanViadrugMost focused on smuggling issues.The Japan Coast Guard is also important in Japan as a role to prevent smuggling of narcotics and stimulants at the water's edge, and more recently.Suspicious ship(Craft vessels) Problems and measures to control smuggling vessels carrying illegal immigrants are becoming important.In addition, heavy equipment in various countries around the worldPirateSince there are a number of cases in which ships stalk territorial waters and high seas, the defense of commercial ships and the control of pirate ships against these are also international issues (as of 2004).

in recent yearsMarine resourcesThe need for protection is also increasing, and the task of monitoring and detecting poaching and illegal dumping of waste in cooperation with the relevant ministries and agencies is becoming important.

Compared to 1., 3. is a modest but unavoidable task.RouteThe Coast Guard of each country has devoted many of its patrol boats to its vigilance and is making efforts to ensure safe and smooth navigation.

Search and Rescue (SAR) in territorial waters and exclusive economic zones

Conduct search activities and appropriate rescue activities in the event of a marine accident on a vessel navigating the territorial waters.Many Coast Guards are large enough to fly long distances for this search activity.Fixed wing aircraftAnd confirm the site and scale of the accident, including the emergency signal from the ship that caused the accident.In Japan, which has a wide territorial waters, it is difficult for the Japan Coast Guard alone.Japan Air Self-Defense ForceとJMSDFThe Air Self-Defense Force in charge of the search and rescue region established inRescue teamAnd the Maritime Self-Defense ForceRescue unitEtc. are cooperating in search and rescue activities,Japan Ground Self-Defense ForceIs not a rescue operationEast China SeaOn a remote island15th Helicopter CorpsIs cooperating with the emergency transportation of patients as a medical support activity.

In tanker accidents, petroleum products and chemicals often spill over a wide area of ​​the ocean, causing serious marine pollution.The recovery and neutralization of spilled petroleum products is also an important task of the Coast Guard.

Battle during the war

Guarding the territorial waters during the war is a military operation,Engagement qualificationHave.During the war to unify the command systemNavyIt is often incorporated into.

Waterway enlightenment, surveying, buoy installation work in the territorial waters

Waterway enlightenment, surveying, and buoy installation work in the territorial waters are also tasks of the Coast Guard in many countries.In Japan, before the war, the Navy carried out surveying missions without establishing a coast guard, but after the war, apart from military surveying, it is necessary for maritime traffic such as nautical chart creation, tidal current measurement, and seabed topography measurement. The survey was conducted by the Japan Coast Guard (Marine Information Department) Is doing.Also, if some or all of the territorial waters, such as Canada and the United States, are closed by drift ice, it is owned by the Coast Guard.IcebreakerDestroys the drift ice and secures a winter route.

Scientific research

In some countries, as an extension of oceanographic surveys, they may be in charge of transporting scientists and equipment to support scientific surveys such as ecological surveys of the oceans and islands within the territorial waters.For financial reasonsMarine research vesselNot only developing countries that cannot own the ship, but also developed countries that abolish dedicated vessels with short operating hours to cut costs and use Coast Guard vessels when necessary.

United States Coast GuardAntarctica observation shipHe is also in charge of supporting scientific research overseas, such as the operation of.

Coast guard of each country


Second World WarLater, oldImperial Japanese NavyThe early Japan Coast Guard was established based on the remaining ships and personnel.AlliesDue to Japan's demilitarization policy by the military, the initial number of personnel is 1 or less, 125 ships are 5 tons or less, and the armament is limited to small arms only.[2]..Immediately after its foundingMinesweepingActivities are also one of the important missions, some of whichKorean WarOne person has been killed in an accident during work. Temporary measures until future independence on April 1, 1952 (Showa 27)[3]As a former Navy soldier in the Japan Coast GuardMaritime Guard(Maritime Safety Security Force)[4]Was founded, and on August 8st of the same year, including the minesweeping unitSecurity Agency OfGuards(Safety Security Force)[5], July 1954, 29 (Showa 7)Defense AgencyWith installationJMSDFWas reorganized into.At this time,"Maritime Public Security BureauThe main part of the Japan Coast Guard (excluding the Coastal Safety Force system), which was planned to be reorganized into ", will continue to exist as the Japan Coast Guard without being reorganized.

After that, the Japan Coast Guard (Maritime Safety Agency of Japan)Ministry of Transport OfOuter officeAfter that, in 2001Reorganization of central ministriesLaterMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismBecame an external station of JapanWatersandExclusive economic zoneOnPolicemenBecame a law enforcement agency with authority.Currently, "JCG = Japan Coast Guard"Paramilitary organizationIsUS Coast GuardThe English name is reminiscent of ("USCG = United States Coast Guard"), but in the classification of the Coast Guard, it is a maritime police agency system (among the Japan Coast Guard staff).Maritime SheriffIt is,Criminal procedure codeas well as the Japan Coast Guard Actbased onSpecial judicial police officerIs classified as)[6]..According to Article 25 of the Japan Coast Guard Law, it is not permitted to operate as a military, and it is legally different from the Coast Guard of other countries operated as a paramilitary organization.On the other handSelf Defense Force ActArticle 80 allows all or part of the Coast Guard organization to be under the command of the Minister of Defense in the event of an emergency.[7]However, it is interpreted as police activity to the last, and there is no provision for military activity in the Japan Coast Guard Law.coastlineIs the 6th largest in the world, the total area of ​​territorial waters and exclusive economic zone is also the 6th largest in the world, andG7The scale of the organization is large due to the fact that it is one of the world's third largest economies, and as of 3, it has about 2010 people, more than 12,000 ships and more than 400 aircraft. There is.We are also actively conducting joint training with other countries, and our ability to carry out their duties is highly evaluated as "the world's leading coast guard."[8]It is described as.Currently, due to suspicious ship problems etc., it is fast and heavily equippedPatrol boatDeployment, strengthening cooperation with the Maritime Self-Defense Force in various aspects, etc.[9]It has become.


US Coast Guard (USCG = United States Coast Guard)Homeland SecurityIt is an organization under the umbrella of.It is a federal law enforcement agency and is responsible for security and search and rescue.U.S. ForcesFifth Army (Armed Forces)[10]However, it may come under the command of the Navy during the war.Members are subject to the Unified Military Criminal Code as military personnel[11], Uses the same class designation as the Navy.World War IIVietnam WarOf course, he was dispatched to all the wars in which the United States participated, and carried out missions such as inspection activities and convoy escorts.76mm cannons on the ships (guard ships) ownedCIWSEquipped with such items, the structure is also a highly durable warship structure.EmergencyToAnti-ship missileSome ships can be equipped with a launcher (most Japanese patrol vessels have a commercial ship structure).

In joint military exercises held overseasNavyYou may see Hamilton-class cutters as participating ships.Although the number of vessels in peacetime is inferior to that of the Japan Coast Guard, it has a long-distance coastline.aircraftWe are focusing on the maintenance ofEarly warning aircraftHas the ability asC-130,P-3Equipped with a warning against drug smuggling.

In addition, since there are many canals and navigable rivers and lakes, we have many rescue boats, surveying boats, and buoy-installed boats in such inland waters.The Coast Guard is also responsible for the protection of coasts, rivers and lakes, and the development of harbors, and has a specialized construction and management department.

The United Kingdom

In the UK, as an administrative agency that oversees the Coast GuardMaritime and Coastguard AgencyThe Coast Guard (HM Coastguard) is tasked with searching and rescue operations for marine accidents along the coast, and the small vessels and rescues used for these activities.helicopterEtc. are only equipped.Also, if necessaryRoyal Air ForceIs also participating in salvage, and the Maritime and Coastguard Agency is making these adjustments.

For territorial waters security and maritime security activities,Royal NavyHowever, a large patrol boat (OPV) is used for coast guard.

In addition to this, under the direct control of the Minister of InteriorBritish border forcesThere is a customs surveillance boat corps inside, which monitors smuggling on the territorial waters.

South Korea

South KoreaThen.Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and TransportUnder (Ministry)Marine Police Agency(KCG = Korea Coast Guard) has been set up to provide coast guard.The main officeIncheonPlaced inBusan, Incheon,Sokcho,Tokai,Taian,Gunsan,Mokpo,Wando,Yeosu,Tongyeong,Pohang,Ulsan,Jeju,SeogwipoThere are 14 maritime police stations in Japan.

Korea and JapanTakeshima(Korean name: Dokdo) Due to territorial disputes, Japanese fishing boats may be captured.In the first place, when the Korean Coast Guard was established, the main task was to strengthen effective control by destroying Japanese vessels (fishing vessels, patrol vessels, etc.) around Takeshima.Lee Seung-nou lineImmediately after the declaration of (January 1952)Korean NavyAnd a private sector hero organizationDokdo Volunteer Garrison, Marine Police (1953Established in December) shot and captured more than 12 Japanese fishing boats around Takeshima, resulting in the abduction of nearly 300 Japanese fishermen by South Korea and the death of 4,000.Even those who can return to Japan after being abducted may get sick.tortureSome were seriously injured.1961There have been multiple incidents of Korean guard boats shooting and seizing Japanese fishing boats on the high seas around Jeju Island.For example, 1961May 3The second Shinei Maru was in the same yearMay 3The second Akita Maru has been tracked, attacked, and captured by Korean guard boats.Also, in these cases, JapanJapan Coast Guard OfPatrol boat,Fisheries Agency OfFishery patrol shipReceived an emergency call from the fishing boat and rushed to the scene to warn the Korean guard boat pursuing the fishing boat, but the guard boat repeatedly shot at the patrol boat and the surveillance boat, seized the fishing boat and took it to South Korea. doing[12].

For the mission of the Korean Coast Guard,north koreaGuerrillaIt also includes the prevention of infiltration of the sea and the monitoring of marine pollution to protect the marine environment.Successive directorsNational Police AgencyA graduate is appointed, and he has a close relationship with the land police in terms of personnel.

2014May 4Occurred inSewol sinking accidentBecause of the failure of the rescueMs. ParkThe President dismantles the Korea Coast Guard and renews itNational Security AgencyWas established, but became president with a change of governmentWen ZaiyinBy2017Was returned to the Korea Coast Guard system[13].


Republic of China(Taiwan) In April 2000Executive Yuan Coast Guard Administration(CGA = Coast Guard Administration, Executive Yuan) was organized.This organization had 2004 people in 19,680, and is as large as the Japan Coast Guard.

2018With the establishment of the Coast Guard Administration, it became a subordinate organization of the Coast Guard Administration, and its name was changed to "Kaikan".


ChugokuMarine administration ofMinistry of Public SecurityIs maritime public security,State Oceanic AdministrationIs a marine resource,Agriculture DepartmentIs fishery management,Kaiseki General OfficePlans and formulates customs operations strategies, the State Oceanic Administration coordinates the strategies of each institution, and the State Oceanic Administration centrally receives guidance from the Ministry of Public Security.China Coast GuardA system is in place to operate public ships and aircraft under the name of[14].. In March 2013, Meng Hongwei, who is also the Deputy Secretary of the Ministry of Public Security, was appointed as the first Director of the China Coast Guard and Deputy Director of the State Oceanic Administration.[15].2013Full-scale operation of the China Coast Guard began in July.However, he is in charge of dealing with pollutant spillage from ships, waterway operations, etc.Transportation DepartmentThe Maritime Bureau (hull display "sea cruise") operates public vessels independently.[16]..The Ministry of Transport also has a rescue salvage station (hull display "sea rescue") that specializes in search and rescue.

Until March 2013, it will be under the jurisdiction of the Border Control Department of Ministry of Public Safety.China Coast Guard(CHINA COAST GUARD, hull display "China Coast Guard"),Ministry of Land and ResourcesThe Chinese Sea Superintendent Corps (hull display "sea superintendent") and the Fisheries Bureau of the Ministry of Agriculture (hull display "fishing administration") under the jurisdiction of [17]..From March to July of the same year, the organization was gradually integrated.


In Turkey, it is an agency of the Ministry of Interior.Turkish Coast GuardHowever, he is in charge of maritime police, distress rescue, and sea route maintenance.In addition to the headquarters, there are headquarters for these missions, HQ for the Mediterranean Sea, HQ for the Aegean Sea, HQ for the Sea of ​​Marmara, HQ for the Black Sea, HQ for Education Center, and HQ for Aviation.

Although it is a paramilitary organization, it is treated lower than the three armies of land, sea and air and Gendarmerie, such as the commander not participating in the National Security Council.In an emergency, it is supposed to be under the command of the Navy.However, even the most heavily armed ships are armed at the level of cannons, and most are small, unarmed ships.They also have fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters for patrol and rescue missions, but these are also unarmed.

Other countries

  • Canadian Coast GuardIs a non-military organization, and its mission is mainly limited to the installation of buoys, surveying, and the opening of routes in winter by icebreakers.
  • In addition to the border guard, the German Coast Guard is divided into customs and other government offices, and there is no unified organization.
  • In FranceMaritime Gendarmerie National Military PoliceIt is organized in and performs the same mission as the Coast Guard of each country.Also,NavyMay also perform Coast Guard missions.
  • As a maritime organization in ItalyItalian NavyUnder the umbrellaItalian Coast GuardHowever, its scale and role are limited due to historical background, and instead it operates patrol boats and is engaged in measures against smugglers, mafia and illegal immigrants.
  • In russiaRussian border armyPlays the role of the Coast Guard.
  • The Israeli Coast Guard is part of the Navy, but its area of ​​activity isDead Sea,Sea of ​​GalileeIt is inland waters that have borders such as.Entering Israeli territory beyond the Dead SeaEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euGuerrillaThe aim is to prevent smuggling.The boat I own is made in the USARiver Patrol Boat (PBR)It is small but heavily armed.
  • In Southeast Asian countries, JapanJapan Coast GuardWe are focusing on strengthening the capacity of the Coast Guard organization modeled after.This is due to the fact that important international routes exist along the coast and piracy has been frequent for some time, and that poaching by Chinese fishing vessels is frequent in the South China Sea's own jurisdiction.Therefore, it can be operated offshore.Patrol boatEquipment is an issue.In recent years, the supply of ships from Japan has been progressing.
    • Indonesia:(English edition)(Indonesia Coast Guard / Badan Keamanan Laut Republik Indonesia, BAKAMLA) was founded and is currently working on strengthening the organization and equipment.
    • Malaysia: The Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency is a completely new organization, where many domestic agencies had previously shared coast guard duties, but due to the conspicuous inefficiency of over-divided operations. As in the territorial waters under the Malaysian Civil ServiceOn the high seasEstablished on February 2005, 2 and started activities on November 15, 11 in order to carry out domestic and international law enforcement, search and rescue, and other missions in Japan.It has 30 headquarters in Japan.In an emergency, the minister orders him to come under the command of the armed forces.[1]
    • Singapore:Police coast guard(Police Coast Guard, PCG) is a division of the Singapore Police Force. When the Coast Guard was transferred from the Navy of the Republic of Singapore in 1993, it was called the Marine Police, but eventually it was renamed the Police Coast Guard with the reorganization and became a police force. , Has become one of the world's special forms of law enforcement, combining water police activities and the Coast Guard mission. Twelve 46t class boats have a maximum of 12 other relatively small (captain 94-20m) guard boats.[2]
  • Norwegian Coast Guard(Kystvakten) is an organization under the Norwegian Navy, but the handling of equipment is independent.In normal times, it focuses on fishery protection.
  • In Romania, those under the Ministry of Interior Administration play the same role as the Coast Guard.
  • There is no unified organization in AustraliaAustralian NavyPatrol boats play a role similar to the Coast Guard.Currently, trying to create a unified organization, prospect of realization is not standing.
  • PakistanarmyCoast Guard under the command ofPakistan Coast Guards)When,NavyJapan Coast Guard under the command ofPakistan Maritime Security Agency) Exist side by side.The former is literally the main mission of Pakistan's coastal defense, which includes search and rescue missions, and owns a large number of small boats and high-speed boats.On the other hand, the latter is mainly responsible for guarding the pelagic and inshore waters, and owns large patrol boats such as former US-made destroyers.
  • Has a small coastlineEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euAs of 2020, the Navy does not own it, and the Border Guard's surface unitNeumGuarding the coast.

List of Coast Guard and similar organizations

Japanese flag Japan

Ensign of the Japanese Coast Guard.svgJapan Coast Guard(Japan Coast Guard)

United States flag The United States of America

Seal of the US Coast Guard.svgCoast Guard(USCG: United States Coast Guard)

Canadian flag カナダ

Coastguard Flag of Canada.svgCoast Guard(CCG: Canadian Coast Guard)

Russian flag ロシア

Russian Border Guard.svgFederal Security Service Border Guard(Former: Federal Border Guard)

Republic of Korea flag South Korea

Marine Police Agency(KCG: Korea Coast Guard)

Flag of the People's Republic of China Chugoku

Emblem of China Coast Guard.svgChina Coast Guard(CHINA COAST GUARD, abbreviated as "China Coast Guard")

Republic of China flag Republic of China (Taiwan)

Flag of the Coast Guard Administration of the Republic of China.svgSea patrol(CGA: Coast Guard Administration, Executive Yuan)

British flag The United Kingdom

Maritime and Coastguard Agency(MCA: Maritime and Coastguard Agency),Royal Lifeboat Association(RNLI: Royal National Lifeboat Institution)

French flag France

Emblème de la Gendarmerie Maritime.svgNational Gendarmerie Maritime Gendarmerie(Gendarmerie Maritime)

Italian flag イタリア

Guardia Costiera.svgCoast Guard(Guardia Costiera)


Norwegian Coast Guard Racing Stripe.svgCoast Guard (Kystvakten)


Kustbevakningens vapen.svgCoast Guard (Kustbevakningen)

Dutch flag Netherlands

Netherlands Coast Guard flag.svgCoast Guard (kustwacht)

Indian flag India

Indian Coast Guard Logo.svgCoast Guard(ICG: Indian Coast Guard)

Bangladesh flag バングラデシュ

বাংলাদেশ কোস্ট গার্ডের প্রতীক.svg(Bangladesh Coast Guard)

Pakistan flag Pakistan

(Pakistan Coast Guard)

Indonesian flag Indonesia

(English edition)(Indonesian Coast Guard)

Malaysia flag Malaysia

Crest of Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency.svgMaritime Enforcement Agency (established in November 2005, formerly Maritime Police)

Philippines flag フィリピン

Philippine Coast Guard (PCG) .svgCoast Guard(PCG: Philippine Coast Guard)

Panama flag パナマ

Escudo actual.pngNational Maritime Service

Singapore flag Singapore

Police coast guard

 Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu

Vietnam Marine Police insignia.jpgMaritime police(Vietnam Marine Police)

Kingdom of Thailand flag Thailand

Water police(Royal Thai Marine Police)

Turkish flag トルコ

Coast Guard(Sahil Güvenlik)

German flag Germany

German Federal Police Department (Deutsche Küstenwache)

Grenada flag グレナダ

Coast Guard (Grenadian Coast Guard)

Greek flag Greece

Coast Guard(Hellenic Coast Guard)

Sri Lanka flag Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka Coast Guard Seal.svgCoast Guard(Sri Lanka Coast Guard)

Tonga flag トンガ

Coat of arms of the Tonga Defense Services.svgDefense Bureau(Tonga Defense Serevices)

Argentina flag アルゼンチン

Prefectura Arg logo.svg(Prefectura Naval Argentina)

Haiti flag ハイチ

Coast Guard(Haitian Coast Guard)

New Zealand flag New Zealand

(Royal New Zealand Coastguard)

Portugal flag Portugal

COA pt garde nationale républicaine.svgNational guard(Guarda Nacional Republicana)

Spanish flag スペイン

Emblem of the Spanish Civil Guard.svgCivil Guard Civil(Guardia Civil)


Border Police National Border Police Agency


Rajavartiolaitoksen logo.svg(Suomen rajavartiolaitos)

Georgia (country) flag ジ ョ ー ジ ジ

Flag of the Georgian Coast Guard.pngCoast Guard(Coast Guard of Georgia)

European Union flag European Union

Frontex logo.svgEuropean Border and Coast Guard(European Border and Coast Guard Agency)


  1. ^ National Diet Library Reference Territorial waters security activities of the maritime police agency
  2. ^ Postwar Japan's Maritime Defense Development (1948-52) Kyogo Ishida National Institute for Defense Studies
  3. ^ NHK News Bureau "Self-Defense Forces" news group JMSDFWas born in this way-The secret of the founding revealed by the "Y document" P.256-261
  4. ^ Chuko Shinsho Hiroshi Masuda Birth of the Self-Defense Forces Japan's rearmament and the United States P.136
  5. ^ NHK News Bureau "Self-Defense Forces" news group JMSDFWas born in this way-The secret of the founding revealed by the "Y document" P.259
  6. ^ National Diet Library Reference Territorial waters security activities of the maritime police agency
  7. ^ "Article 29 of the Self-Defense Forces Act (Act No. 165 of 80)". e-Gov Law Search. Administrative Management Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (September 2019, 6). 2020/1/12Browse.
  8. ^ All about the Japan Coast Guard Gaijinsha Magazine Code 05604-11 P97 Norio Miyake
  9. ^ Current status and problems of terrorism countermeasures and suspicious ship response capabilities Japan Coast Guard September 16 P9
  10. ^ 10 USC § 101 (a) (4): The term "armed forces" means the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard.
  11. ^ 10 USC Chapter 47.
  12. ^ Protest against shooting of Japanese fishing boats and patrol boats by Korean guard boats, March 1961, 3, Japan Diplomacy Main Documents and Chronology (25), p. 2.Ministry of Foreign Affairs Information and Culture Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs Publications, First Half of 338, pp. 36-55
  13. ^ "Resurrection of the Korea Coast Guard after the dismantling of Park Geun-hye". Sankei Shimbun(July 2017, 7). https://www.sankei.com/world/amp/170720/wor1707200052-a.html 2020/5/1Browse. 
  14. ^ Strengthening authority of the State Oceanic Administration of China Centralization of departments to secure interests, Tokyo Shimbun March 2013, 3
  15. ^ Under Secretary of Public Security also serves as State Oceanic Administration No. 2 and directs "China Coast Guard" , Nihon Keizai Shimbun May 2013, 3
  16. ^ China unifies Senkaku surveillance function, strengthens State Oceanic Administration, Sankei News March 2013, 3
  17. ^ China Security Report 2011-National Institute for Defense Studies, Ministry of Defense

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