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📱 | Survival for 28 days on the surface of new virus, banknotes and smartphones = Australian research institute


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Survival for 28 days on the surface of new virus, banknotes and smartphones = Australian research institute

 
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Also, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the infection can be transmitted by touching the surface of metal or plastic with the new virus, but it is much less likely than a droplet infection. ..
 

The new coronavirus that causes the infectious disease COVID-19 survives for 28 days on the surface of banknotes and mobile phones ... → Continue reading

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From the news, readings, and feature articles of BBC journalists who interview in about 100 countries around the world, we select and deliver topics that are meaningful to Japanese users who are knowledgeable.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Transmission route

Transmission route(Kansen Keiro,British: route of infection) IsinfectionPresent in the individual or environment that caused thePathogen, Is a route to reach an uninfected individual and cause a new infection. Depending on the pathogen, infection may occur via multiple routes of infection.EpidemicOutbreaks such asNosocomial infection Ofpreventionな どInfection controlAbove isPathogenFind outSource of infectionIt is important to find out, but above all, it cannot be completed unless the infection route is cut off.

  • Airborne infection-Microparticles (0.5 μm or less) stay in the air for extended periods of time and continue to contaminate even after the patient leaves[1].
  • Droplet infection-Small moist particles (0.5 μm or larger) remain in the air for a short period of time. Usually infected with the patient.
  • Direct infection-by touching the infected patient directly. Including sexual contact.
  • Indirect infection-by touching contaminated soil.
  • Fecal Mouth Path-Unwashed hands, contaminated plants and water sources.

Main infection routes

Infected belowRouteOf infectious diseases inAn exampleIs mentioned, but the infection route isMultipleIt should be noted that there may be cases and there is no one-to-one relationship.

Airborne

Splash nuclear infection,Dust infection,Aerosol infectionand so on.English is airborne transmission(Air-mediated propagation), abbreviatedAirborneAlso called.Airborne infections are simply infectiousaerosolPropagate throughFrom the standpoint of being infected[2], In the aerosolLimited to propagation by droplet nuclei(Splash nuclear infection)[3].

According to the International Epidemiological SocietyEpidemiologyThe dictionary adopts the former definition, which defines that microbial aerosols are transmitted by entering the respiratory tract.Examples include droplet nuclear infection and dust infection.Chemical Society of JapanJapanese standard byChemicalIn the dictionary (2nd edition), aerosol (also translated as aerosol) is a general term for a state in which solid or liquid fine particles are dispersed and suspended in a gas, such as smoke or fog. Solid or liquid in a dispersion medium whose state is gasColloidal particlesDispersedSolIt was named aerosol because it was regarded as a kind of aerosol. "[4]a.

Droplet nuclear infection is infectiousPathogenDroplet nuclei includingdroplet nuclei: Refers to those that diffuse through the evaporated droplet residue)[1]..These pathogens maintain infectivity in vitro for long periods of time.Moisture evaporates in the air 5MicrometerThe following light particles (droplet nuclei) that still retain their infectivity remain suspended in the air for a long period of time, 3フ ィ ー ト(91Centimeter) Travel longer distances and infect others via the upper and lower respiratory tract[5]..Particles in the air are less than 5 micrometers[6]..This generally requires a high level of isolation.Therefore, a negative pressure environment is required to avoid pollution.

tuberculosis,Varieg,measles,smallpox,Herpes zoster[Annotation 1]Etc. are airborne (droplet nuclear infection).These are often in the wardNosocomial infectionTo causeInfection controlIs an important disease.influenza,CoronavirusThere is always debate as to whether such infections cause airborne infections (strictly speaking, aerosol infections) or are the main transmission routes.[7].

Splash infection

English is droplet transmission(Small drop infection).This is due to respiratory droplets that occur during coughing, sneezing, conversation, etc., and is a common route of infection.Due to the large droplets, they cannot float in the air for long periods of time and are usually scattered at close range.[8]..Splash particles are 5 micrometers or more[6]..Infection by droplets can occur when it adheres to the surface of sensitive mucous membranes such as the eyes, nose, and mouth, or when it touches the face with a hand that touches the contaminated surface.

Respiratory infectious disease pathogens transmitted by dropletsInfluenza virus,Parainfluenza virus,Adenovirus,Rhinovirus,RS virus,Human metapneumovirus,Pertussis,Pneumococcus,Streptococcus pyogenes,diphtheria,rubella[9],CoronavirusCan be mentioned[10]..Splash diffusion can be reduced by wearing a surgical mask[11].

If the amount of virus contained in the droplets of an infected person is high, it is observed as if it were an airborne infection (strictly speaking, it corresponds to an aerosol infection).[12].

Direct infection

Contact infectionAlso called.English is direct contact(Direct contact).Infection is caused by direct contact between living organisms carrying pathogens.

It typically refers to skin-to-skin contact, kissing, and sexual intercourse.It also refers to contact with soil and plants containing pathogens.[13].Faeces routeIs mainly regarded as an indirect contact route, but in some cases, it is transmitted by direct contact with feces.[14][15]

Infectious impetigoSuch as skin diseases.In the medical field, such as MRSADrug resistanceIt is the main route of bacterial transmission.

Mucosal infection

Infection occurs when the infected person's blood or body fluid adheres to the mucous membranes of the eyes and nose.Transmission routes can be direct or indirect through vectors.It may be included in the next transdermal infection.

Epidemic keratoconjunctivitisOphthalmic diseases such as.

Transcutaneous infection

Normally, the skin has the ability to prevent the invasion of pathogens, but the pathogens invade the body by being bitten or bitten by mosquitoes, insects, or dogs.Parasites may invade the body directly through the skin.In addition, pathogens invade from areas where the protective function of the skin has been lost due to wounds and burns.Especially theseTranscutaneous infectionMay be called.Needlestick accidents are also included in percutaneous infections.

scabies,Rabies,Ebola,tetanus,Gas gangreneetc.

Iatrogenic

Blood infection(Cross infection) Tomo.Injection ortransfusion,such asMedicalIn addition to actions, bleeding due to trauma touches mucous membranes such as the eyes of others, causing infection of pathogens in the blood.Again, the route of infection can be direct or indirect through a vector.

Sexually transmitted

It is a sexual contact infection.There are aspects of mucosal and oral infections.

syphilis,Toxoplasmosis,Hepatitis B,AIDS,Genital chlamydiaetc.

Saliva infection

Especially when pathogens in saliva are transmitted by mouth transfer or deep kiss through saliva.Saliva infectionIt may be said.According to the clinical transmission route classification theory, plaque infection and breath infection are included in oral infection, but saliva infection is not included.Caries fungus,EB virusSaliva infection occurs due to such factors.

Vertical transmission

Both mother-to-child transmission and vertical transmission.It is further classified as follows.

Indirect infection

Indirect contact infection(Indirect contact transmission, vehicle-borne transmission) is a route transmitted by contact with non-living organisms.Examples include food, water, biological products (blood, etc.), mediators (handkerchiefs, bedding, surgical scalpels), etc.For example, improperly manufactured canned foodsClostridium botulinumbyBotulinum toxinIt provides an environment suitable for production.

Oral infection

Especially for infections through food and drink contaminated with pathogensOral infectionMay be called.If the cause of pollution is fecesInfection(Faeces route, See below).In addition, food and drink itself becomes a source of infection and is transmitted orally.BSEThere is.

Vector infection (horizontal transmission)

Other animals (especiallyArthropod) Becomes a vector (vector), and the infection is established by transmission. (1) As part of the life cycle of the pathogen, when the vector grows and propagates in the body and is infected from it (biological transmission), (2) the pathogen simply attached to the body surface of the vector is mechanically It may be transmitted (mechanical transmission, mechanical vector infection).

Faeces route

InfectionAlso called.It may also be regarded as a type of oral infection (water-borne infection, water-borne epidemic).

Infection is established by ingestion of food and drink contaminated with feces.

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli(Such as O157),Staphylococcus,Vibrio parahaemolyticus,Clostridium botulinum,Salmonella,typhoid,Paratyphoid,Bacillary dysentery,cholera,Campylobacter,Listeria,Helicobacter pylori,Amoeba dysentery,Norovirus,Rotavirus,Polio,Hepatitis A,Hepatitis E,Weyl's disease,Keratoconjunctivitisetc.

Identification of infection route

When the pathogen can be identified

Wipe the surfaces of handrails and medical equipment shared by patientscultureHowever, if a pathogen is detected, it is presumed that the object is one of the infection routes. In addition, in the case of bacterial infections,Pulse field gel electrophoresisWhen the closeness of the genotype is examined byHorizontal infectionSince the temporal order of can be estimated, it is not uncommon to find out how the pathogen was first introduced into the population.

When the pathogen cannot be identified

EarlySARSIf the pathogen cannot be identified, as described above, the sick and healthy individuals are first isolated, and detailed information is collected on their behavior patterns, life backgrounds, and contact history with others. Among them, factors that correlate with the presence or absence of infectionEpidemiologyInfected routes are estimated by identifying them.

Example: If multiple people in the same room away from the sick person are affected, it is suspected that a droplet nuclear infection (air infection) occurs.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Shingles usually develops in the oral cavity and is limited to the spread as droplets.

Source

  1. ^ a b "Do you misunderstand "airborne infection"?"Nikkei Medical" August 2020, 8.
  2. ^ "Medical dictionary air propagation". NovemberBrowse.
  3. ^ "WHO airborne tansmission definition”. WHO. NovemberBrowse.
  4. ^ The Chemical Society of Japan, "Japanese Standard Chemistry Dictionary, 2nd Edition" (2nd Edition) Maruzen, 2005.ISBN 4-621-07531-4. 
  5. ^ "Clinical Educators Guide for the Prevention and Control of Infection in Healthcare”. As of May 2015, 4オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.NovemberBrowse.
  6. ^ a b "Prevention of hospital-acquired infections". World Health Organization (WHO). 2020/3Browse.
  7. ^ "Summary of Evidence on Countermeasures for New Influenza Influenza Transmission Routes". www.virology.med.tohoku.ac.jp. NovemberBrowse.
  8. ^ "Clinical Educators Guide for the prevention and control of infection in healthcare”. NHMRC, Commonwealth of Australia (2010). As of April 2015, 4オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.NovemberBrowse.
  9. ^ "What is Diseases contagious from droplets?”. As of May 2015, 7オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2015/7Browse.
  10. ^ "Pass the message: Five steps to kicking out coronavirus" (English). www.who.int. NovemberBrowse.
  11. ^ "Respiratory Protection Against Airborne Infectious Agents for Health Care Workers: Do surgical masks protect workers?”. Canadian Center for Occupational Health and Safety (February 2017, 2). NovemberBrowse.
  12. ^ Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “New Corona Delta strain "airborne" ?! What we know now". NHK News. NovemberBrowse.
  13. ^ "Principles of Epidemiology: Chain of Infection" (English). US Centers for Disease Control and Infection (September 2019, 2). NovemberBrowse.  In this description,The United States of AmericaAt the innerPublic domainIs included.
  14. ^ LaMorte, Wayne W. (January 2016, 1). “Common Vehicle Spread". Boston University School of Public Health. NovemberBrowse.
  15. ^ Whittier, Christopher A. (2017-04-16), Bezanson, Michele; MacKinnon, Katherine C; Riley, Erin et al., Eds., “Fecal-Oral Transmission” (English), The International Encyclopedia of Primatology (Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.): pp. 1–1, two:10.1002 / 9781119179313.wbprim0193, ISBN 978-1-119-17931-3, http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/9781119179313.wbprim0193 NovemberBrowse. 

References

Related item

Center for Disease Control and Prevention

Center for Disease Control and Prevention(American Shippei Yobokanri Center, English:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Abbreviation:CDC) IsThe United States of America OfGeorgiaAtlantaIt is inMinistry of Health and WelfareJurisdictionInfectionComprehensive measuresgraduate School.

officialJapaneseThere is no reason, besides the item names in this sectionUS Centers for Disease Control[Annotation 1]-Disease Prevention and Management Center-Disease Control and Prevention Center-Quarantine CenterEtc. are called variously. JapaneseMinistry of Health, Labor and WelfareAnd Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareQuarantine stationTranslated words are not unified even in sentences published by[1][2].. In the Japanese literature published by the CDC専(Moppa)The abbreviation CDC is used.[3].. In this sectionCDCUnify with.

Overview

CDC1946 Founded in the United States and abroad, it is in a position to lead the protection of people's health and safety.United States Federal GovernmentInstitution.The main purpose is to provide reliable information on health and to improve health.tuberculosisIt plays a leading role in investigating and taking countermeasures against threatening diseases both in Japan and abroad.[4].

Documents recommended by this center are created and published based on the collection results of a large number of documents and data.World standard), And is actually referenced and utilized in Japan and the United Kingdom.Themes such as unknown viruses and infectious diseasesmovies-NovelOften appear in.

Extremely lethalBiosafety level4(BSL-4)[5]Is compatible with Level 4 laboratories (also called P4, BSL-4, PC4, MCL, etc.[6]), the one in the CDC is one of them.

Ebola virusな どResident EvilThe world relies on the CDC for measures against.It also preserves dangerous viruses and has been confirmed to be eradicated in nature.Smallpox virusThe official storage agency is here with the CDCState Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology, RussiaIs only[7].

By the way, in CDCBiological weaponsWe are rating the risk of pathogens that are likely to be used as.It is evaluated on a three-point scale of categories A, B, and C, and as the pathogen of category A with the highest risk and priority, Ebola virus, etc.Hemorrhagic feverVirus / Smallpox virus /Anthrax-Plague bacterium-Clostridium botulinum-TularemiaAre listed.

It also acts as a vector for these plaguesmosquitoSuch aspestIt also gives detailed information on the methods and regulations for disinfection.[8].

組織

  • Headquarters: United StatesGeorgiaAtlanta (State capital), Clifton Road
  • Branch: Washington DC-Colorado-PennsylvaniaAll over the United States and other countries
  • Infrastructure: National Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID), National Center for Human Immunodeficiency Virus/SOD, and Tuberculosis Prevention (), National Center for the Prevention and Health of Chronic Diseases (), National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), National Birth Center for Abnormal and Developmental Disorders (NCBDDD), National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), National Immunization Program (NIP), Epidemiology Program Office (EPO), Public Health Practice Program Office (PHPPO),National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health(NIOSH)

Number of staff

CDC guidelines

  • Blood vesselInsidecatheterCDC guidelines for origin-derived infection prevention
  • CDC guidelines for hand hygiene in the medical setting
  • MRSAとERVGuideline for Prevention of In-hospital Transmission of Cancer
  • CDC Guidelines for Environmental Infection Control in Medical Health Facilities
  • Dental careCDC guidelines for infection control in the field
  • CariesFor preventionFluorideCDC guidelines for using[9]
  • Medical care relatedpneumoniaCDC guidelines for prevention
  • surveillanceCDC guidelines for
  • More

出版物

  • Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR)(Weekly morbidity and mortality rate): The CDC's public relations magazine will promptly post the spread of infections such as emerging infectious diseases and legal infectious diseases.

Information service

In CDC,CDC Newsroom[10], MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)[11][12], Health Information for Travelers[13]Information such asE-mail Magazine,HypertextIt is delivered in the format.

It is a valuable information source and a news source for the press, which allows you to quickly know the latest information on clinical trials and research and the detailed contents such as which disease is occurring and to what extent in the United States.[12].

episode

2011 May 5Was widespread in parts of the United States at that time"The end of the world is near"To sayFalse rumor,rumorIn response to the officialBlogTo thezombieEven if "the end of the world by" comes, we can prepare."Disaster preventionFor advice,ユ ー モ アPosted with[14].

Appearance work

footnote

注 釈

  1. ^ General notation in Japanese mass media (print media).In the broadcasting media, it is called "American CDC = Centers for Disease Control and Prevention".
  2. ^ The instruction manual states in the text that "Atlanta is home to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)."

Source

  1. ^ Search results on the website of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare by Google
  2. ^ Search results on site of quarantine station of Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare by Google
  3. ^ CDC Resources in Languages ​​Other than English
  4. ^ International Center for Health and Safety American Center for Disease Control and Prevention
  5. ^ Ebola virus,Marburg virus,Lassa virus,B virus,Hendra virus,Nipah virusな ど
  6. ^ Primate Forum: Zoonoses (4th) 11/00/XNUMX
  7. ^ http://www.cnn.co.jp/usa/35050584.html
  8. ^ http://www.cdc.gov/westnile/faq/mosquitocontrol.html pest control
  9. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website, "Water Fluridation", page accessed March 9, 2007
  10. ^ CDC Newsroom[1]
  11. ^ MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)[2]
  12. ^ a b MMWR abstract translation
  13. ^ Travelers' Health
  14. ^ "A humorous "recommendation for disaster prevention" in the US Centers for Disease Control that spreads "world's end predictions"". AFP BB News(July 2011, 5). http://www.afpbb.com/articles/-/2801572?pid=7245342 NovemberBrowse. 

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