What is an "orthoptist" with a high pass rate?Detailed explanation of qualification exams, work contents, annual income, etc.!
If you write the contents roughly
An orthoptist is a profession that was nationally qualified in 1971 and is one of the rehabilitation professions called "Certified Orthoptist" for short.
An orthoptist who is an eye professional.I had the opportunity to get involved as a child, so I was taken care of ... → Continue reading
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Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
Generally speaking, it refers to the position within an organization.さらに仕事上任務に就くために必要な条件として公にみとめられる能力を指すIn addition, it refers to the ability to be publicly recognized as a necessary condition for taking on a job mission..
The word "qualification" has several uses.慣用 句When used as a parent or guardian, someone who does not fulfill their responsibilities as a parent or guardian says "not qualified as a parent", or someone who makes a generally unconvincing statement "is not qualified to say (it) to you". It is often used to correct the persuasiveness and responsibility associated with the words and actions of individuals and organizations.[Note 1]However, it must clearly meet certain criteria and conditions (for example).Status of residence(Therefore, "I am not qualified to say" in the above example actually means "do not speak" because I am not familiar with it, but the original meaning of the word "qualification" From this point of view, it is just "pointing out something that is not detailed", so in this case, it is actuallylicenseIt has been used in the meaning like (It is originally prohibited, but it is permitted by satisfying the conditions).In addition, the concept of qualification may be used in the sense of social system, and its examples can be categorized into the following three types.
- Professional qualifications (professional qualifications, non-professional qualifications, etc.)
- Professional qualifications are mainly acquired to work in a specific profession or to prove professional abilities, and the accreditation bodies are national qualifications and official qualifications according to the attributes of the national government, local governments, private corporations, and international organizations. , Private qualifications, international qualifications, etc..
- In addition, professional qualifications are sometimes referred to as vocational qualifications, and are used to refer to qualifications that are required to be acquired in order to engage in a specific profession.また、非職業資格という場合には必ずしも就業する上で取得は必須ではないものの、経歴上、一定の専門性を証明するのに資する資格をいうIn addition, non-vocational qualifications are qualifications that contribute to demonstrating a certain degree of specialization in the career, although acquisition is not always essential for employment..
- Status qualification (employee qualification, membership qualification, etc.)
- The status of a corporate employee (member) under the Civil Code may be referred to as a qualification...Anyone can issue it.
- Qualification conditions (examination qualification, entrance qualification, graduation qualification, completion qualification, application qualification, participation qualification, recruitment qualification, appointment qualification, etc.)
- Qualifications for taking specific exams, qualifications for employment, etc., application qualifications or participation qualifications that allow application to various events, educational background such as "graduation qualification" and "completion qualification" of school May be described.
Although these three qualifications are separate concepts,Appointment QualificationSome have multiple meanings, such as having a meaning as a national qualification as a professional qualification and a meaning as a qualification condition...In addition, among professional qualifications, status qualifications and specific completion qualifications, the qualification name that can be used as a title is "Qualification title".
Professional qualifications (vocational qualifications / non-vocational qualifications)
In this section, we will explain about professional qualifications and professional qualifications.Typical examples are national qualifications, public qualifications, and private qualifications.this is,testIn addition to the status given to those who have passed the test, they meet the criteria such as legal status, financial situation, and physical condition, and act in various social situations such as admission qualification, admission qualification, bidding qualification, and qualification to speak. It is a term used for conditions that are deemed appropriate for.これらの内、法律、政令、省令等によりOf these, by law, cabinet order, ministerial ordinance, etc.CountryThe status granted by is a national qualification.また、条例等によりIn addition, by ordinance etc.PrefecturesThe status granted by the above corresponds to the prefectural qualification.これらの資格は、後述する業務独占資格、名称独占資格、必置資格等、法律上特別な扱いを受けるThese qualifications are subject to special legal treatment such as occupational monopoly qualifications, name monopoly qualifications, and mandatory qualifications, which will be described later..
In Japan, national qualifications are based on the national system, and the abilities and knowledge of individuals in various fields are judged, and it is proved that they are engaged in a specific occupation...また資格の制度に法的な裏付けが存在し、そこ（根拠法）に資格付与方法・資格付与基準についての明確な記述があり、中央省庁または都道府県レベルの地方自治体が所管する資格を指すIn addition, there is legal backing in the qualification system, and there is a clear description of the qualification granting method and qualification granting criteria, which refers to the qualifications under the jurisdiction of the central government agency or the local government at the prefectural level...Depending on the qualification, restrictions may be imposed by age, educational background, work experience, etc.The actual examination work and issuance of licenses and qualifications are required (or entrusted with authority) based on the law.Local governmentIt may be under the jurisdiction of a private organization or a private organization, but it does not mean that it is no longer a national qualification.
Prefectures,市町村Since the qualifications given based on the ordinances stipulated by the above are not national qualifications but official qualifications, they are valid only within the local government.As an example,Blowfish cookObtainedPrefecturesIt is an occupational monopoly and name monopoly qualification that is valid only within.
Some national qualifications are "administrative law"Authorization”, And the general public is allowed to perform prohibited acts in particular (Architect,pharmacist).In addition, there are some that are allowed to do acts that are prohibited only as a business (Doctor,LawyerSuch).These qualificationsBusiness monopoly qualificationCalled.
The legal term for qualification is not fixed, "licenseAlthough terms such as "permit" are used, they correspond to "permit" and "notary" in administrative law.
Some qualifications can be obtained by taking special education and skill training.Many of them are related to the operation of machinery and specific work.For these,List of qualifications by special educationandList of qualifications by skill trainingchecking ...
Business monopoly qualification
Main occupational licenses
- patent attorney
- Judicial scrivener
- Tax accountant
- Certified public accountant
- Land surveyor
- Administrative scrivener
- First-class architect
- First gradePilot
- Real estate appraiser
- First classWork environment measurer
- Social insurance laborer
- Maritime agent
- Maritime assistant
- Second gradePilot
- Weather forecaster
A qualification whose use of the qualification name is prohibited by Japanese law by anyone other than the qualification holder.Occupational monopoly qualifications are often also name monopoly qualifications, but when we simply say name monopoly qualifications, we mean those without business monopoly.
- Main name monopoly qualifications (Here, for example, among the name monopoly qualifications that do not have occupational monopoly, those whose names include "shi" or "master" are given)
A qualification stipulated by Japanese law that a specific qualification holder must be assigned at the company or business establishment when conducting a certain business.Occupational licenses may also have the nature of a mandatory qualification.
- Main mandatory qualifications (Here, for example, the mandatory qualifications that do not have occupational monopoly and whose names include "shi" or "master")
Qualifications specified as an expert in Japanese law
- Certified Public Accountant (Audit and Accounting Specialist)
- CPA Act Article XNUMX
- CPA is responsible for auditing and accountingExpertAs an independent standpoint, by ensuring the reliability of financial documents and other financial information, we aim to ensure fair business activities of companies, protect investors and creditors, and ensure the sound development of the national economy. Our mission is to contribute to.
- Tax accountant (expert in tax affairs)
- Tax accountant law Article XNUMX
- Tax accountantExpertAs an independent and fair position, the mission is to respond to the trust of taxpayers in accordance with the principles of the tax return system and to properly fulfill the tax obligations stipulated in tax laws and regulations.
- Patent Attorney (Intellectual Property Expert)
- Patent Attorney Act Article XNUMX
- A patent attorney relates to intellectual property (intellectual property prescribed in Article XNUMX, paragraph XNUMX of the Fundamental Act on Intellectual Property (Law No. XNUMX of XNUMX), the same shall apply hereinafter in this Article.)ExpertAs a result, it contributes to the proper protection of intellectual property rights (which means the intellectual property rights stipulated in paragraph XNUMX of the same Article) and the promotion of their use, and to the proper operation of other intellectual property related systems. Its mission is to contribute to the development of industry.
- Building lot building trader (specialist in building lot or building trading)
- Article XNUMX of the Building Lots and Buildings Transaction Business Act
- When a real estate building trader engages in the business of a real estate building transaction business,ExpertAs a result, in order to protect the interests of purchasers, etc. and to contribute to the smooth distribution of the residential land or building, we will perform the business stipulated by this Act fairly and honestly, and cooperate with those engaged in the business related to the residential land building business. I have to try.
- Scrivener (specialist in registration, deposit, litigation, and other legal affairs)
- Article XNUMX of the Judicial Scrivenist Law
- A judicial scrivener shall be responsible for registration, deposits, proceedings and other legal affairs as provided for in this law.ExpertIts mission is to protect the rights of the people and contribute to the formation of a free and just society.
- Land and house surveyor (expert in the business of registering real estate display and clarifying the writing boundary of land)
- Land and Building Investigator Law Article XNUMX
- A land and house surveyor (hereinafter referred to as a “surveyor”) is a registered person regarding the display of real estate and the writing world of land (Real Estate Registration Law (Act No. XNUMX of XNUMX), Article XNUMX, XNUMX). Refers to the writing field prescribed in the item. The same shall apply in Article XNUMX, Paragraph XNUMX, Item XNUMX and Article XNUMX, Paragraph XNUMX).ExpertIts mission is to contribute to the clarification of real estate rights and to the stability and improvement of people's lives.
A national qualification is a registration system (defined by a Cabinet Order or a Ministerial Ordinance) that, in a narrow sense, refers to one or more of the above-mentioned occupational monopoly, name monopoly, and mandatory qualifications, but in a broad sense no qualification is given. Things) may be included.
Information Technology Engineer Exam
Information Technology Engineer Exam TheLaw concerning promotion of information processingIt is a national examination conducted based on.However, even if you pass, no exclusive business will occur, andInformation processing security support personOther than the name is not an exclusive qualification,Bookkeeping test,TOEICIt may be positioned as a de facto ability certification test such as.
However,Policemen,SDFIn many cases, only those who have passed any of the information processing engineer examinations are hired for information processing-related occupations of public institutions such as, so they are often treated as national qualifications.In addition, the Information-Technology Engineers Examination conducts international mutual certification, and is overseas (mainly).AsiaMutual certification with national qualifications of each country) may be performed.
Based on the Chamber of Commerce and Industry LawJapan Chamber of CommerceAnd certification tests sponsored by various chambers of commerce and industry, Certification exams certified by ministries and agencies under the private skill examination business certification system based on national standards (the system is now abolished)), Certification tests sponsored by ministries and agencies, certification tests conducted by public interest corporations independently of the law, certification tests conducted by local governments independent of the law, etc. Qualifications that are not national qualifications. However, the boundary with private qualifications is ambiguous. For exampleKanji KenteiWas certified by the Ministry of Education in 1992 and the implementing organization became a foundation, and there is no doubt that it became a public qualification at this point. After that, in 2005, due to the abolition of the private skill examination business certification system, it changed from "certified by the Ministry of Education" to "supported by the Ministry of Education", and in 2009.ScandalThe sponsorship was canceled by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, and the implementing organization became a public interest incorporated foundation in 2013, but when did it change from a public qualification to a private qualification, or because it is implemented by a public interest corporation, it is still public. Whether it is a qualification is controversial.
- Main qualifications that are official qualifications
- Chamber of commerceOrganizer:Nissho Bookkeeping Test,Salesman certification,International accounting test(BATIC),Business Practice Legal Exam(Visit method),Welfare and living environment coordinator,Environmental and social certification(eco test),Business Manager Certification Test,Color coordinator,Business accounting test(Visit party),Mental health management certificationな ど
- Ministry of educationSupported by:Practical English Proficiency Test(Eiken),Industrial English Proficiency Test(Industrial Eiken),Japanese test,Practical French Proficiency Test(French inspection),Spanish Proficiency Test(West inspection),Practical math skill test(Suken),All bookkeeping ability test,Secretary skill test,Business document proficiency test,Information test(J inspection),Business ability test job path(B inspection),CG-ARTS test,Color test,Home cooking skill test,Health management ability test,World Heritage Test,Japanese food testな ど
- Ministry of Foreign AffairsSupported by:United Nations Official Language English Examination(United Nations Associations Test of English),Practical Italian test
- Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareSupported by:Medical fee billing office work ability certification test,Business Career Certification Exam
- Ministry of Economy, Trade and IndustrySupported by:IT coordinator
- Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsSupported by:Statistical test
- Ministry of the EnvironmentCertification:Of which, an eco-diagnostician
- Prefectural governorCertification:Blowfish cook,Food Sanitation Officer,Visiting caregiver(Nursing staff basic trainingCompleted,Nursing care staff beginner trainingCompleted),Care support specialist(Care manager),After school child support staffな ど
- Other:Japanese language proficiency test,Examination for Japanese University Admission
Qualifications that can be freely set by private organizations and individuals, and can be given voluntarily by setting their own screening standards. There is also a test that indicates the level for each grade. Since it is not stipulated by law, it is recognized that some industries have a certain level of ability guarantee.Qualification Commercial CodeThere are some internal qualifications (internal qualifications) that are not accepted outside the company, even if the company gives them to employees for their own activities.
In addition, qualifications that are tested not only in Japan but also overseas and are certified by international standards (Vendor qualificationEtc.) is also one of the features. See also international qualifications in the section below.
- Example)TOEIC,TOEFL,Clinical psychologist,P inspection,MOS,MCP,SAP Certified Consultant,CCNA,News current affairs ability test,QC test,Certified Hearing Aid Technician,CFP qualification,AFP qualification,CIIA,Math coacher,Food analyst, Food coordinator,Security diagnostician,Security equipment,COM license,Oracle Master,Oracle Certified Java,Chiropractor,First-time chick sexing teacheretc.
Depending on the interpretation,RakugoInUndercard-The second-True hit,martial artsInSegment-Renshi-Priest-Hanshi,GeidoInNatori-Instructor-Teacher,Grand Sumo OfmasterYou can't take a disciple without a certain title, diploma, or experience.stage name(In sumo wrestlingFour-pronged name), And the stage name of the disciple cannot be named. There are rules in each industry, and it can be seen as a kind of private qualification.
An international qualification is a word that is mainly used to mean one of the following four types, and is a very vague word if it cannot be judged from the meaning of the sentence.
- Officially established international mutual certification qualifications-typicallyArchitect(Architect),Engineers(Engineer), Craftsman (technical engineer), information technology engineer (information processing engineer), etc.
- Qualifications certified by organizations based in multiple countries- CytotechnologySuch as, private qualifications certified by organizations that have bases in multiple countries or have affiliated organizations may be called international qualifications..
- TradeQualifications related to international affairs such as Customs officer(National qualification), international trade business certification (private qualification), etc., which are conducted only in Japan, but the business content is international affairs, the qualification may be called an international qualification.
- Foreign qualifications-National qualifications and private qualifications in foreign countries (general qualifications other than Japanese qualifications) are sometimes called international qualifications in Japan.
Name of qualified person
The word "qualified person of XX" is used to mean "qualified person of XX" and "qualified person of XX" to mean "qualified person of XX". Words such as "○○ qualified" may be used.[Note 2]For example, even if you pass the administrative scrivener examination, you are not an administrative scrivener unless you join the administrative scrivener association and receive registration. There are many cases where it is displayed.
In addition, even if the name is not an exclusive qualification, if it is recognized that the person has the authority to perform business by using the name, the display of qualified persons, etc. may be restricted.For example, a residential land and building trader becomes a residential land and building trader when he / she passes the examination, meets the requirements such as practical training, and is registered as a residential land / building trader, but must be issued a notary certificate and within the valid period. If you cannot do business, you will be qualified with a notary public certificate.
In this way, it should be noted that the meaning of the word "qualified person" differs depending on the qualification and industry.
Qualification fraudulent commercial law
There are many troubles related to the sale of teaching materials related to qualification acquisition by one-sided telephone.In addition, there are cases in which a fictitious qualification is obtained and money is defrauded, or a private qualification is planned to become a national qualification in the future, and the student is urged to take the course.これをthisQualification Commercial CodeOr, it is called the Samurai Commercial Code.
- "List of lists about Japanese qualificationsRefer to each internal link destination.
- ^ For examples, see Akira Matsumura, supra (Sanseido, 2006), p. 1074 and Shinmura, supra, Iwanami Shoten, 2011), p. 1199.
- ^ In Masashi Kaneko's "Administrative Scrivener Law Commentary New 3rd Edition" (Kitaki Publishing, 2008), the notation that a qualified person such as a lawyer or a certain public employee is qualified to become an administrative scrivener is used. Has been done.
- ^ "Daijirin XNUMXrd edition(Sanseido, 2006), p. 1074 and "Kojien XNUMXth edition』(Iwanami Shoten,2011) See page 1199.
- ^ "Shin Meikai Kokugo Dictionary 1994th Edition" (Sanseido, XNUMX) ISBN-4 385-13142-2
- ^ For details, refer to the section below "Professional qualifications (vocational qualifications / non-vocational qualifications)" in this section.
- ^ For the concept of vocational qualifications and non-vocational qualifications(PDF) It is also used in "University Education Annual Report No. 4" (Saga University, 2008) edited by Saga University Education Development Center.
- ^ For example,Ministry of JusticeWebsite Q & A for general incorporated associations and general incorporated foundationsreference.
- ^ For example, as an example of exam qualifications and application qualificationsMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare Doctor / Dentist National Examination QualificationSee etc.
- ^ Qualification for social education chiefas well as the Qualification for social welfare chiefEtc. are good examples.private讲座The qualifications for completion such as, etc. may be described in the same way as the professional qualifications.
- ^ For general explanation of the qualification system, for exampleBy" (PDF) 'Independent administrative agencyLabor Policy Research and Training OrganizationHen"" (20101issue) Others, see Shiho Kono, supra (Saga University, 2008).
- ^ Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Material: About the outline of national qualification
- ^ Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry Material: Outline of National Qualifications
- ^ Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry materials (P132 2.3.2 What is a national qualification): What is a national qualification?
- ^ Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry page blank, so original material posted: Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry commissioned Industrial Technology Survey Survey report on future issues for promoting industry-academia collaboration (P132 2.3.2 What is national qualification): What is national qualification?
- ^ Chamber of Commerce Law Article 9 No. 9
- ^ See Shiho Kono, supra (Saga University, 2008), page 40.
- ^ For example, an international qualification in the Internet field,CIW (Certified Internet Webprofessional)reference.
- Supervised by Kyosuke Kinda, "Shinmei Kokugo Jiten", 1994th edition, published by Sanseido in XNUMX ISBN-4 385-13142-2
- Shinmura, "Kojien, 2011th Edition" (Iwanami Shoten, XNUMX)ISBN 400080121X
- Akira Matsumura, Daijirin Third Edition (Sanseido, 2006)ISBN 4385139059
- List of lists about Japanese qualifications
- List of licenses in Japan
- List of diplomas in Japan
- List of licenses in Japan
- List of certification tests in Japan
- List of qualifications by skill training
- List of qualifications by special education
- Vendor qualification
- Business monopoly qualification
- Qualification title
- Qualification Commercial Code
- Telephone solicitation sales -Used to solicit so-called "qualification commercial law".
- Certified training
- Administrative materials
- Q & A for general incorporated associations and general incorporated foundations -Ministry of Justice
- Research papers, etc.