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Public employee examination
Public employee examination(Public servant)Civil servantFor the purpose of selecting candidates who are recognized as eligible for appointment asCountry,Local governmentIs a test conducted by.National agencyIs an employeegovernment officialAdoptNational Civil Service ExamAnd each local public organization employeeLocal civil servantAdoptLocal civil service examIt is roughly divided into.There are various methods depending on the job type, but generally it is a written test.interviewThe person test such as is taken.
Administrative agencyOther thanIndependent administrative agency,National University Corporation,Outer organizationStaff recruitment exams such as are not included in the civil servant exam because they are not civil servants.Instead, it is also called the "quasi-civil servant examination", but it is not covered in this section.
Mechanism of examination system
The current Japanese civil service systemOfficial office decree,例規In principle, those who are established based on the above and who are qualified by fair standards will be assigned to their jobs.When a vacancy occurs due to retirement etc., transfer or promotion etc.Personnel changeAnd hire new personnel from non-civil servants who should be replenished for jobs that will eventually be vacant.Qualification appointment systemSee also section.At the time of new hiring, those who have qualified abilities are selected and successful applicants are recorded in the "hiring candidate list" for a certain period of time.decree,OrdinanceThe number of people who passed the exam and the number of hires are not equal because the number of staff who are vacant is adopted as the number of staff specified in.National institutions and local governments that conduct individual examinations select successful applicants in anticipation of a fixed number of vacancies, and most successful applicants are hired.The national agencyNational Personnel AuthorityWill conduct a recruitment test all at once and hire each institution, so successful applicantsVisit to government officeGet a job offer by such means.Part-time staff,Part-time staffThere are many cases in which adoption is decided outside of the test.
The appointment of a civil servant is "National Civil Service LawandLocal Civil Service ActBased on the above, the ability will be tested according to fair standards, and those who are recognized as qualified will be selected. "Hereditary,RecruitmentIn order to eliminate such things, we select by academic ability test, composition, interview, etc. based on grades and meritocracy.Pilot,Air traffic controllerIn the recruitment of, the physical and psychological aptitude of the person is also evaluated.There is also a tendency for local government employees to prioritize personal evaluation rather than writing.
Achievement testLiberal arts examとProfessional examSo, although there are no questions that have been deepened professionally, there are many graded points for specialized exams, and there are many difficult cases due to the wide range of subjects and not low competition ratio.Many national civil servants have multiple applicants, and in many cases, duplication of examination dates and times is avoided for each institution in order to secure the number of examinees.There are cases where local governments reduce costs by sharing exam questions and conducting common exams on the same day to reduce the number of concurrent applicants.University graduates are usuallyTokyoとTokyo Special WardIs on the same day with its own schedule,OsakaWith other than police clerkOsakaIs on the same day with its own schedule,HokkaidoClerks other than police affairs have their own schedule, police affairs in Osaka prefecture and police affairs in Hokkaido and technicalPrefectureAnd Osaka cityOrdinance cityWill be tested on the same day.Many of the final passers have declined, and some local governments will conduct secondary recruitment on their own schedule after October.See also the section on the Local Civil Service Examination below.
As it is a employment examination, the examination fee is free in principle, but some local public organizations and public university corporations are charged...The Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications is of the opinion that "it is a violation of the Local Autonomy Law for the local government to collect the examination fee from the examinees in the local government staff recruitment examination."Local government lawArticle XNUMX stipulates that "commissions can be collected for office work that benefits residents, such as issuing a resident card," but the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications states that "the employment examination for local government employees is an office work for local governments." Yes, it cannot be collected. "
National Civil Service Exam
Types of national civil service exams
|National Personnel AuthorityTo implement|
List of employment examinations for general public employees
|Types||High school graduate||University graduate||Graduate degree||society|
|General employment exam||●||●|
|General employment exam||●||●||●|
|Professional exam||Imperial Guard||●||●|
|Ministry of JusticeProfessional staff (human science)||●|
|National Tax Specialist||●|
|Food hygiene watchman||●|
|Labor Standards Inspector||●|
|Air traffic controller||●|
|Aviation Security CollegeStudent||●|
|Coast Guard CollegeStudent||●|
|Coast Guard SchoolStudent||●|
|Japan Coast Guard School Student (Special)||●|
|Experienced recruitment exam||Experienced person (chief officer level (office work))||●|
|Ministry of Foreign Affairs(Clerk level)||●|
|National Tax Agency(National tax inspector level)||●|
|Ministry of Agriculture(Chief level (technical))||●|
|Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism(Chief level (technical))||●|
|Tourism Authority(Chief level (office work))||●|
|Japanese Meteorological Agency(Chief level (technical))||●|
The employment examination for national civil servants includes the examination for hiring general public servants andMinistry of Defense staff(SDFincluding),Diet staff,Court staffSuch asSpecial occupationThere is a test to hire a national civil servant, the formerNational Civil Service LawAccording to Article 48 and National Personnel Authority Regulations 8-18 Article 9National Personnel AuthorityIs the testing institute.Ministry of Foreign Affairs Professional Staff Recruitment Exam TheMinistry of Foreign AffairsIs the testing institute.
The examination conducted by the National Personnel Authority is called the National Personnel Authority Recruitment Examination, and recruits national civil servants to hire staff engaged in general clerical and technical work.General employment examination (graduate graduate examination), general employment examination (university graduate degree examination),General employment examination (university graduate level),General employment examination (high school graduate),Professional examas well as the Experienced recruitment exam,Such14 types are held 15 times a year[Source required].
Professional exams are about university graduationNational Tax Specialisttest·Labor Standards Inspectortest·Finance Specialisttest,Air traffic controllerIncludes employment exams, etc.Prison officertest,Ministry College,Coast Guard SchoolRecruitment test is being carried out.
Classes I, II, and III have been implemented in Advanced A, Advanced B, Intermediate, and Beginners until 1984, and there are no educational background restrictions for Advanced, Intermediate, Beginners, or I, II, or III. , Elementary and III classes, which are originally high school graduates, have few successful applicants for high school third graders and high school graduates.Lost ten yearsSince 1990, many fourth-year university students and university graduates have passed, and in 4, more than half of them passed. By 1995, the age limit for 1997th year university students and university graduates except for postal services, From 2012, it has been reorganized into general employment exams for graduates, university graduates, university graduates, and general employment exams for high school graduates.
Recruitment exam transition
- National civil servant employment 6th grade employment examination → National civil servant employment advanced examination → National civil servant employment advanced class A examination → National civil servant employment type I examination → National civil servant employment general employment examination (graduate graduate, university graduate level)
- National Civil Service Level 6 Employment Examination → National Civil Service Employment Advanced Examination → National Civil Service Employment Advanced Class B Examination → National Civil Service Employment Type II Examination (Ministry of Finance Employment, etc.) → National Civil Service Employment General Employment Examination (Ministry of Finance Employment, etc.)
- National civil servant employment 5th grade employment examination → National civil servant employment intermediate examination → National civil servant employment type II examination → National civil servant employment general employment examination (university graduate level)
- National civil servant employment 4th grade employment examination → National civil servant employment beginner's examination → National civil servant employment type III examination → National civil servant employment general employment examination (high graduate)
List the differences between type I and type II.
Class I is "a degree that requires knowledge / technology at the university graduation stage and its application ability"graduate SchoolThe degree of questions is also given, and the examination age is from 22 to 29 years old at the time of the examination, and 21-year-old university students at the time of the examination can take the examination only for those who are expected to graduate. Type II exam is limited to prospective graduatesJunior college,College of technology,Vocational school specialized courseStudents over the age of 20 can also take the exam.The recruitment candidate list listing period is 3 years for Type I and 1 year for Type II.
The general employment exam for graduates and university graduates is "the employment exam for staff engaged in work that requires advanced knowledge, skills or experience, such as policy planning," and the general employment exam for university graduates is ". This is a recruitment test for staff members who are mainly engaged in routine tasks such as paperwork. "
Class I is promoted to the chief class at the time of hiring in the shortest period of time, and class II is promoted to the section chief class of the ministry.In many cases, the place of work is within the block of the local branch office where Type II was adopted and only in the head office, and Type I gives priority to a lot of experience regardless of domestic or overseas. The promotion of human resources is also being promoted, such as the "Guidelines for Promotion of Promotion of Type II and Type III Employed Staff to Executive Staff" was notified in 11 by the Secretary-General of the National Personnel Authority.
Ministry of Defense Specialist Staff and Self-Defense Officials, ParliamentHouse of Representatives-House of Representatives Legal Affairs Bureau-House of Councilors-House of Councilors Legal Affairs Bureau-National Diet Library, CourtSupreme Court, Etc. Special occupations National civil servants carry out employment examinations separately from the National Personnel Authority, but there are many type examinations according to types I, II, and III.
Aviation Security College-Coast Guard College-Meteorological College-National Defense Academy-National Defense Medical College,SuchMinistry CollegeThe staff who devote themselves to their studiesStudentAlthough it is called, the status is a recruitment test because it is a formal national civil servant, but for convenience, "Entrance examMay be written as..The Japan Coast Guard Academy, the National Defense Academy and the National Defense Medical College carry out written examinations, interviews, and physical examinations (the Japan Coast Guard Academy also measures physical fitness).In the Air Traffic Controller Recruitment Examination at Kokuhoandai SchoolWork memoryAn aptitude test is conducted to test the ability to judge the situation.
Changes in the number of successful applicants and hires
In the past, the number of successful applicants and hires for the Type III exam was the highest, but since the time when Japan Post A and Post Office B, which accounted for about half of the Type III hires, were separated from the National Type III exam as a general postal exam, universities The number of aspiring civil servants who graduated increased, and the majority of them were hired as type II.
Last as National Type I and National Type IIHeisei 23University graduation In the administrative and administrative divisions of the national civil service examination, the universities and faculties that were hired in 24 are listed..
|Faculty of Law, University of Tokyo(58 people)||Chuo University Faculty of Law(35 people)|
|Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo(26 people)||Doshisha University Faculty of Law(24 people)|
|Faculty of Law, Kyoto University(19 people)||Osaka City UniversityFaculty of Law (22 people)|
|The University of Tokyo|
Faculty of Public Policy Education(17 people)
|Ritsumeikan University Faculty of Law(21 people)|
|Waseda University Faculty of Law(9 people)||Okayama UniversityFaculty of Law (17 people)|
Faculty of Law, Meiji University(17 people)
Faculty of Law, Hosei University(17 people)
Shows the universities that passed the national civil service recruitment general employment examination (graduate graduate examination / university graduate degree examination) conducted in 27..
|General employment exam|
|Tokyo University(459 people)|
|Kyoto University(151 people)|
|Waseda University(148 people)|
|Keio University(91 people)|
|Tohoku University(66 people)|
|Osaka University(63 people)|
|Chuo University(58 people)|
|Hokkaido University(54 people)|
|Hitotsubashi University(54 people)|
|Tokyo Institute of Technology(53 people)|
Local civil service exam
The classification of the local civil service examination varies greatly depending on each local public organization, but the examination that employs staff engaged in general clerical work and technical work is conducted.Advanced(University graduate) ・Intermediate(Junior college graduate) ・BeginnerIn many cases, it is divided into (high school graduates).There are various names, and some local governments classify them according to their educational background.Recently, the number of local civil servant examinations that hire experienced people is increasing.Except for some local governments, such as Tokyo and the special wards of Tokyo, and from 2010, Osaka Prefecture and Osaka City, etc., prepare and score alternative exam questions.Cabinet OfficeJurisdictionPublic interest corporationIsFoundationIt is outsourced to the Japanese Research Center for Human Resources Examination.In recent years, tests have also been conducted to evaluate communication and consensus building abilities..
Excluding Hokkaido (only police office work), Osaka prefecture (only police office work) and Kyoto prefecture, prefecture and Osaka cityGovernment-designated cityIn principle, the employment examination for university graduates is conducted on the 6th Sunday of June, and the same examination questions are given, but the examination questions are classified according to the number of questions, the subjects to be asked, and the contents of the questions, and the contents of the examination questions differ depending on each local government. ..
municipal officeRecruitment exams for university graduates (other than government-designated cities)
- Those implemented on the same day as prefectures and ordinance-designated citiesA schedule'
- The one held on the 7th Sunday of July is "B schedule'
- The one held on the 9th Sunday of July is "C schedule'
- The one held on the 10th Sunday of July is "D schedule'
- The one implemented in November is "E schedule(Currently rarely used)
And, it is classified by the examination schedule and used by prep schools and reference books. Many C schedules are taken, and university students are more likely to take the national class II and prefectures or ordinance-designated cities in June, and the C schedule in September.If there are no problems with the schedule and housing conditions, you can take the test for all dates, but for the purpose of suppressing concurrent applications with other prefectures, government-designated cities, and municipalities, "resident in the region" is added to the test requirements, and "Schedule A" and "Schedule A" Many local governments have their own schedules, "C schedule".Exams on the same schedule are often a common problem.The employment examinations for university graduates at the town / village office are unified within the prefecture, and there are various schedules such as the same schedule as the city hall and original schedules.
Tokyoas well as the Tokyo Special WardThe degree of university graduation was the same as in other prefectures and government-designated cities, and was held in June, but it was held on the first Sunday of May from the 6 recruitment test conducted in 2004.
Police officer,Firefighter,TeacherThe recruitment test is also treated as a type of local civil service test, but police officers hired by the National Police Agency are hired from those who have passed the national civil service class I and class II exams.Police officer recruitment examThe Metropolitan Police Department is three times a year, and other prefectural police are often twice.TeachersTeacher recruitment testSee.
There are various differences in the civil service exam depending on the type of exam, but here we will give typical examples of exam subjects, mainly for general clerical workers equivalent to university graduates.In addition, it should be notedHiratsukaSome local governments use a document screening method,Nisshin CitySome local governments have a conventional method and a document screening method.
Liberal arts exam (primary exam)
- Imposed on the primary exam.All questions must be answered, some answers are optional, and the five limbs can be selected.mark sheetHas been taken.
- There is a group of problems that ask mathematical and arithmetic thinking and reasoning skills, which are collectively called "numerical processing". Logical puzzle-like "judgment reasoning", "numerical reasoning" that is closest to ordinary mathematics and arithmetic It is also called "material interpretation" to understand statistical tables and graphs, and the idea of space, and is subdivided into the field of space puzzles, "space grasping".
- The following categories are generally used for the question fields.
- Humanities --Japanese history, world history, geography, literary arts, thought, national language
- Social science --Politics, economy, society
- natural Science --Mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, earth science
- --Modern, English, ancient, Chinese
- Numerical processing --Judgment reasoning, numerical reasoning, material interpretation, spatial grasp
- Current affairs --More limited than similar areas of private sector
Professional exam (primary exam)
- Depending on the type of job and examination type, it may not be imposed on the clerical work of local public servants...There is no specialized examination in the administrative system of national class III and local beginner's examinations, and aptitude tests are conducted to measure administrative processing ability.The answer includes a descriptive formula and a combination of alternative and descriptive formulas.The following is an example of the question fields of the "administrative (general clerical)" exam, which has the largest number of hires in the civil service exam.
- AdministrationSystem field- politics-Public administration-国際 関係-Sociology-Social policyAnd so on,Current affairsMay be asked.2006To the national type II testPedagogyas well as the psychologyWas newly established.
- lawSystem field- Constitution-Civil law-Administrative lawIn 3 fieldsCriminal law-labor law-Commercial law-International lawMay be added.
- EconomySystem field- MicroeconomicsとMacroeconomics"Economic Theory" and "Economic Principles"Finance,Economic policy, Economic circumstances,Economic historyThere,Business Administration,International Economics,Econometrics,statistics,accountingEtc. may be added.
- Technical jobs are except for agricultural sciences other than the agricultural engineering category.MathとphysicsIs generally called "the basics of engineering (the basics of engineering)" and is an essential problem.The number of questions is 6 to 20 depending on the exam.Technical "Labor Standards Inspector"B" is mathematics, physics,ChemicalSelect and answer 40 questions from all 32 questions.
- Some testing institutions impose essay writing, aptitude tests, interviews, and oral examinations in the primary examination..The dissertation will be conducted at the same time as the primary examination due to the schedule, but it may be graded as the result of the secondary examination.
- An aptitude test is also conducted in the air traffic controller recruitment test at Kokuhoandai School.
- Composition, individual interview, group interview, etc. regarding job expertise, aptitude, humanity, etc.Aptitude testSelect by such as.An increasing number of local governments are adopting group discussions and presentations, and "interview cards" and "interview cards" in which designated items such as self-promotion and aspirations are filled in in advance or on the day of the exam.entry sheet"And so on are often used.
- Police officer・ In the recruitment test for firefighters and coast guard officers, a physical fitness test is conducted as part of the physical examination.
- It is mainly conducted in the local civil service examination, and individual interviews and physical examinations are conducted.In some cases, the number of examinees and hires is small and it is not implemented.
- National Personnel AuthorityThe national civil servant recruitment general and general employment examinations conducted by the government will not be conducted in the tertiary examination because each government agency will select those who have passed the secondary examination and decide who will be hired.The national civil servants where the tertiary examination is conducted include the quotas for SDF personnel to be hired as pilots and the examination for air traffic controllers.
- ^ For example,Ichikawa City(2004-2016) andShima city(2010-2016) is 1000 yen, public university corporationNagoya City UniversityIs 1000 yen (2008, 2011-2016. 2009-2010 1500 yen.).
- ^ "情報 験 情報". National Personnel Authority National Civil Service Examination Employment Information NAVI. 2017th of February 9Browse.
- ^ Until 1995, those under the age of 4 were able to take the test as of April 1 of the year they took the test, but in 23 it was reduced to under 1996 and in 22 it was reduced to under 1997.This made it impossible for fourth-year college students and college graduates to take the exam.
- ^ Entrance examination information --National Defense Academy
- ^ Status of appointments based on basic policies such as recruitment promotion (24) Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications
- ^ National civil servant recruitment general employment examination 2015, the most successful applicants are "University of Tokyo" 459 people
- ^ The impact of Takarazuka!Magnification XNUMX times - NHK
- ^ For example(PDF)
- ^ Even if the interview is supposed to be conducted in the primary exam, it may be targeted only to those who have achieved a certain grade in the written exam.
- ^ Introduction of physical fitness test [Preparation for recruitment test] - Miyagi Prefectural PoliceRecruiter Official Channel
- Human Resources Committee
- Teacher recruitment test
- Higher civilian examination
- Bar examination
- Shinshi (Japan)
- Double school