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Learn how to train and care for pets Animal protection festival in Okayama

 
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The festival has been held since 2005 for the purpose of enlightening animal protection, and is the 16th time.
 

The Okayama Prefectural Animal Protection Festival (sponsored by the Prefectural Animal Protection Foundation) will be held on the 25th at the Prefectural Animal Protection Center in Mitsuita, Kita-ku, Okayama City. → Continue reading

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Sanyo Shimbun Digital is a Sanyo Shimbun news site. We will deliver the news and sports news from each area in Okayama prefecture and overseas.


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Animal welfare

Animal welfare(Animal welfare) is generally the pain that humans give to animals.stressPsychological of animals by activities such as minimizing pain such as幸福It refers to the idea of ​​realizing. From the word "animal welfare", emotional "protection"Nursing care-MedicalIncluding社会 保障Reminiscent of "welfareBecause it may be misunderstood as "", do not translate it into Japanese in Japan.Animal welfareMay be written as[1].. Animal Sanctuary (Animal Sanctuary)Animal sanctuary) Called.

Animal welfare is an idea born in the West since modern times[2].. Animal welfare is an improvement in the treatment of animals centered on the "3 Rs (3R principles)" and "5 freedoms" to reduce experiments on animals.[3].

Overview

Zoo,aquariumRaised in, etc., used industriallyDomesticated animals, Used scientifically in research facilities, etc.Laboratory animal, Keeped in ordinary householdsPet animals,FurthermoreWild animalsMany animals, including those, have their own characteristics and behaviors for the benefit of humans.lifeEtc. are often heavily regulated. While allowing such use, animal welfare is an idea to give as much consideration as possible to avoiding and eliminating the pain felt by animals at the site.[4].

Animal rightsUnlike animal welfare, humans do not deny the use or killing of animals[4].. However, if it is unavoidable to kill the animal, use the least painful technique possible (Euthanasia) Is required[4].. The specific method is銃,Decapitation,Electrocution,MicrowaveThere are irradiation, killing traps, etc., but it is necessary to kill them instantly by either method.[5].

On the other hand, there are criticisms that animal welfare may give the false impression that exploitation of animals is declining, provide a way to alleviate the moral anxiety of citizens, and may justify exploitation from animals.[6].

Definition

Animal welfare is difficult to define scientifically[4].. The reason may be that there are many factors such as health and happiness that differ in importance and meaning depending on individual values, and therefore it is required to present a reference value.[7].

Basically, the following three concepts are used to explain animal welfare.[7].

Subjective experience
Considering the decline in happiness due to pain, fear, and frustration[7].. Applies only to organisms that can experience subjective emotions[7].
Biological functionality
Emphasis on reducing biological functionality due to illness, injury and malnutrition[7].Ethologyof,Physiologyof,PathologyDepending on the target index, there are many cases where stress is used as an index.Anterior pituitaryとAdrenal cortexActivation,GlucocorticoidShown by increased secretion, etc.[7].
Original nature
Based on the idea that animals should have the freedom to perform most of their natural behaviors naturally[7].. One of the drawbacks of this concept is that animals in nature are always struggling to survive with problems with their natural nature, and it is pointed out that the natural state does not always satisfy animal welfare.[7].

In animal welfare of domestic animals, in 1922UKProposed by the Livestock Animal Welfare Expert Committee ofFour freedomsIs internationally recognized[4].

  • Freedom from hunger and thirst (securing feeding and water supply)
  • Freedom from discomfort (supply of appropriate breeding environment)
  • Freedom from pain, injury and illness (application of prevention / diagnosis / treatment)
  • Freedom of normal behavior (appropriate space, stimulus, presence of peers)
  • Freedom from fear and suffering (proper handling)

In terms of animal ethics, the term animal welfare sometimes includes the meaning of animal welfare. The Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary describes animal welfare as "breeding environment, diet, routine care, disease prevention and treatment, guarantee of relief from pain, protection of animals from unnecessary discomfort and pain, human abuse and animals. Is defined as "avoidance of selfish use"[8].

実 例

Domesticated animals

The idea of ​​animal welfareAnimal husbandryHas a great influence on Japan, and activities and research are active mainly in Europe and the United States.[9].. As a specific example, avoid breeding in a narrow enclosure where you cannot move,slaughterIn, a method that does not bother as much as possible is implemented.

Temple Granding, a prominent animal behavior expert who tried to reform the slaughterhouse to create a humane slaughterhouse, designed half of the slaughterhouses in the United States and was asked about the contradiction between humanity and slaughter. They say that it makes sense to make animals as comfortable as possible during their lives, similar to giving morphine to end-stage patients.[10].

Exhibited animals

Basically, it is a general principle to keep animals until the end of their lifespan (lifetime breeding).[11].. In addition, in public breeding facilities such as zoos and aquariums, there is an active movement to review breeding and exhibition methods by incorporating the concept of animal welfare. Such "attempts to improve the living environment by promoting the expression of species-specific behavior and improving biological functions such as health and reproduction"Environmental enrichmentTo say[12].. It's done at the zooEcological exhibitionIs an example[13].

In addition,TV programAnimals that appear in etc.ChimpanzeeEtc.) has become a big problem in animal welfare because it impairs the original habits of the species due to overproduction of the program.[14].

Laboratory animal

In life science tests, "Replacement" is a method that does not use animals, the number of animals used is reduced (Reduction), and the pain caused to animals is reduced (Refinement).3R principlesIs being promoted[15].. This is also recognized in the Boronia Declaration adopted at the 1999rd International Conference on Alternatives to Animal Experiments held in 3.[15][16].

学会Some research papers that do not mention that consideration is given to animal welfare will not be accepted.[17].

Pet animals

Animal welfare problems are caused by the frequent breeding boom of specific animals and the incomplete breeding of animals by breeders, which causes unplanned breeding of domestic animals and sometimes poor breeding environments.[11].

In Japan, from June 2012 to pet dealers at night from 6:8 pm to 8:XNUMX amDog,catExhibition was banned[18].

Wild animals

Alien Biological LawThen.Exotic speciesIt is stipulated that euthanasia should be done in a way that is as painless as possible when exterminating.[19].

whalingFrom that point of view, the electric harpoon, which takes a short time to die, has been revived.

Animal Welfare Act

Established comprehensive measures necessary to promote animal welfarelaw.アメリカ合衆国It exists as a law in (1966) and the United Kingdom (2002). In addition, there are many countries that operate laws that require animal welfare in a narrow sense. in Japan,Animal crueltyForbidAnimal protection lawEtc. are applicable. However, in Japan, under the Act on Welfare and Protection of Animals, consideration for pets is advancing, but there is also a name for livestock, so understanding is not progressing, and there are calls for a change in the name and a new legal system. There is also.

2019,British labor partyIs one of the promises from the perspective of animal protectionlobster,crabI put up the contents that went into the cooking method that prohibits boiling alive[20].

Criticism of animal welfare

It is generally believed that animal welfare regulations should be in place, but the regulations give consumers who could choose a vegetarian diet the false image that they are ethically made because of the regulations. It has been pointed out that regulations are not good because they make things easier, help advertise the livestock industry and boost consumption of livestock products.[21]

There is nothing humane in the reality of animal slaughter, which kills hundreds of millions of animals while being aware of costs. It has been pointed out that those who appeal for animal welfare will implicitly understand that they will raise livestock.[22]

Francion says animal welfare is more likely to make the livestock industry more efficient, to make it more acceptable to society, and to contribute to expansion than to eliminate livestock.[23]

It has also been pointed out that if animal welfare options are added to factory livestock or abolition options, the abolition options are likely to be overlooked.[24]

Furthermore, it has been pointed out that slaughter is a betrayal of animal trust, even if animal welfare is thoroughly implemented.[25]

Related item

References

  1. ^ Shusuke Sato "With Supervision" "Science of Consideration for Animals Aiming for Animal Welfare" Chikusan Publishing Co., Ltd., April 2009, 4.ISBN 978-4-88500-428-5.
  2. ^ Akihiko Hirasawa (2014). “Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 25 Overseas Agriculture and Trade Situation Survey and Analysis Project (Europe) Report Part III Outline of Animal Welfare Policy in EU (PDF)”. Norinchukin Research Institute. 2018/7/31Browse.
  3. ^ Tetsuji Iseta"Animal welfare and memorial ethics (PDF) "Kansai Experimental Animal Research Association Bulletin" December 2016, pp. 12-6.
  4. ^ a b c d e So Ishikawa "What is animal welfare"Journal of the Japanese Society of Wildlife Medicine," Vol. 15, No. 1, 2010, pp. 1-3, two:10.5686 / jjzwm.15.1.
  5. ^ American Veterinary Medical Association (2007) (PDF). AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia (Report). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of 2012-7-12.. https://web.archive.org/web/20120712174941/http://www.avma.org/issues/animal_welfare/euthanasia.pdf 2012/6/20Browse.. 
  6. ^ Sue Donaldson, Will Kymlicka, Political Community of Humans and Animals, Shogakusha, 2017, p. 5.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Ian JH Duncan, David Fraser, "Chapter 2 Understanding Animal Welfare," "Science of Animal Welfare, Aiming for Animal Welfare," Chikusan Publishing Co., Ltd., April 2009, 4.ISBN 978-4-88500-428-5.
  8. ^ “Animal --Medical Dictionary”. Animal --Medical Dictionary. The Free Dictionary. http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Animal+welfare 2010/11/28Browse.. 
  9. ^ Shusuke Sato, Tomoo Tanaka, Mitsuru Fukasawa "European Union Aims for Animal Welfare Livestock: EU funded project Welfare Quality Final Report Meeting Participation Report" "Study of Livestock" Vol. 64, No. 6, June 2010, 6- Page 599.
  10. ^ Sherry F. Cove, Chapter 13 Answering Questions about Vegetarians, New Review, 2016, pp. 216-217.
  11. ^ a b Ministry of the Environment "Explanation of standards for breeding and storage of exhibited animals (PDF) "2012/6/20Browse.
  12. ^ Katsuji Uetake and Toshio Tanaka "Environmental enrichment and its effects in industrial animals"Journal of the Japan Society for Livestock Management," Vol. 39, No. 1, 2003, pp. 5-8, two:10.20652 / jjlm.39.1_5.
  13. ^ Yoshikazu Ueno "Report of the 3rd International Conference on Environmental Enrichment: Global Situation of Environmental Enrichment"Animal Psychology Research," Vol. 48, No. 1, 1998, pp. 65-68, two:10.2502 / janip.48.65.
  14. ^ Daisuke Fukui "Animal welfare on display: Health management incorporating wildlife medicine to attract people"Japanese journal of zoo and wildlife medicine," Vol. 15, No. 1, 2010, pp. 15-24, two:10.5686 / jjzwm.15.15.
  15. ^ a b Yasuo Ohno "Importance and Issues of Alternatives to Animal Experiment Research-Problems of Animal Experiments at the Society of Pharmacology-"Journal of Pharmacology, Japan, Vol. 125, No. 6, 2005, pp. 325-329," two:10.1254 / fpj.125.325.
  16. ^ Yasuo Ohno "Animal Experiments Recommended by the Japanese Pharmacological Society-Evaluation and Relief of Pain- "Introduction" and New Animal Experiment Guidelines of the Japanese Pharmacological Society"Journal of Pharmacology, Japan, Vol. 129, No. 1, 2007, pp. 5-9," two:10.1254 / fpj.129.5.
  17. ^ Tetsuro Matsuzawa "Psychological well-being: Thinking about a new perspective on animal welfare"Animal Psychology Research," Vol. 46, No. 1, 1996, pp. 31-33, two:10.2502 / janip.46.31.
  18. ^ Pamphlet "Partially revised the Ministerial Ordinance of the Act on Welfare and Management of Animals" Animal Protection Management Office, General Affairs Division, Natural Environment Bureau, Ministry of the Environment
  19. ^ Gen Asano "Euthanasia of wild animals (euthanasia)"Japanese Society of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine," Vol. 15, No. 1, 2010, pp. 5-8, two:10.5686 / jjzwm.15.5.
  20. ^ "Resumption of commercial whaling stopped = British opposition announces promise”. Jiji Press (August 2019, 8). 2019/8/31Browse.
  21. ^ Sherry F. Cove, Chapter 13 Answering Questions about Vegetarians, New Review, 2016, p. 215.
  22. ^ Sherry F. Cove, Chapter 13 Answering Questions about Vegetarians, New Review, 2016, pp. 218-219.
  23. ^ Sherry F. Cove, Chapter 13 Answering Questions about Vegetarians, New Review, 2016, p. 220.
  24. ^ Sherry F. Cove, Chapter 13 Answering Questions about Vegetarians, New Review, 2016, pp. 220-222.
  25. ^ Sherry F. Cove, Chapter 13 Answering Questions about Vegetarians, New Review, 2016, p. 223.

外部 リンク

Related organization
Guidelines


2005

2005(2005 years old)AD(Gregorian calendar)by,Normal year starting from Saturday.Heisei17 years.

This item describes 2005 from an international perspective.

Other chronology

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Event

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Anniversary

Below is a good number of years (Anniversary).

Event/Event

International Year

Art/Culture/Fashion

For local things in JapanJapan in 2005"ofApplicable sectionSee

インターネット

By this yearISPBy (provider)インターネットToAlways connectedThe service has spread widely to households, and over the next 10 years or soServiceAndUndergroundis notpopularThe Internet culture will be developed in this form.

In addition,YouTubeThe video was posted for the first time in.

Sports

Music

movies

literature

ゲーム

Birth

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

9

10

11

12

Die

Nobel Prize

The event of fiction

  • 2 month - Metropolitan Police Department OfShinji MuroiDirector is arrested. (movies"Suspect Shinji Muroi])
  • 4/10 -Manned in each countryMars Return Ship"Sigma 1" and "Sigma 2" return to near the earth. "Peanuts" is a space station with a crew memberFreedom"Docking." (Book "(English edition)])[1]
  • April-Zonder begins earth invasion. (Anime"King of Braves Gaogaigar])[2]
  • May-Invasion of gas humans begins. (Manga"Astro boy""Gas Human Volume")
  • 6/21 -Capital Island earthquake occurred. The capital island is completely submerged after the collapse. (game"Desperate city])
  • June-At the National Verbena Gakuen in Koyo-cho, Aozora City, a local city in a certain part of Japan, from the Shinkai and the Makai that were connected to the human world by the "Open Gate" 6 years ago, the daughter of the royal Eustoma Princess Nerine, the daughter of Forsythia of Lisianthus and the Devil, is transferred. Just a few days later, Primula, an artificial lifeform from the demon world, starts living together at the Fuyo family in the same town. (Anime"SHUFFLE!])
  • 8/19~20 Day -Time travel is carried out by multiple SF study group members. (movies"Summertime Machine Blues]).
  • November-The imperfect robot Frankenstein runs out of control, and at that time the robot revolution group "RR" (in the book, "Revolutionary") occupies Tokyo, but Frankenstein and Atom's success returns to normal .. However, the identity of the RR team was human. (Cartoon "Astro Boy" "Frankenstein's Wind")
  • November-A Great War broke out on Earth, caused by a nuclear explosionAustraliaDisappears.火星Most of the people who had settled in were returned to Earth due to the great war. The earth was then devastated, and most of the few immigrants left on Mars died. (novel"Mars Chronicle])[3]
  • November-to Harvardville Airport, USA and one planet-virus"Is scattered and bioterrorism occurs. This caused the plane to crash into the airport and stay inside the airport.Claire RedfieldAnd several survivors are left behind. At the same time, an agent from the US government reporting directly to the presidentLeon S. KennedyWill be dispatched. (movies"Biohazard degeneration])
  • 12/24 -Called "Pluto Kiss"ウ イ ル スOccurs. The virus stops various functions of society, and the network of the whole world stops instantaneously. From the same day, ordinary people will be prohibited from using the Internet in the general public. (game".hack])
  • December-The Tojokai 12 billion yen theft incident occurred. This incident was the origin of the killing of Sera's third chairman, Sera. This incident triggered the bombing of the Millennium Tower, which caused 100 billion people to fly in the sky in Kamuromachi. (game"Like a dragon])
  • Solar power satelliteThe first issue is launched. (Anime"Gundam series])[4][Note 1]
  • Nestine Consciousness to feed on pollutants on EarthUKAppeared in. Manipulates plastics all over the world to destroy humanity. (TV drama"Doctor Who])
  • DestronThe Cybertron City capture strategy ofConvoy, Prowl, Iron Hyde and many moreCybertronWarrior died. by thisMatrixSensed the presence ofUnicron SabertronAttack the stars. (movies"Transformers The Movie])
  • 地中海AtChris RedfieldSaid Jessica Sherawat. In response to this, agents of anti-bioterrorism unit BSAAJill ValentineAnd his partner Parker Luciani infiltrated the luxury liner "Queen Zenobia" floating on the sea and started investigation. (game"Resident evil revelations])
  • JMSDF OfAegisDestroyerAn incident occurs in which "Isokaze" is occupied. (movies"Aegis of the Extinct Country])
  • Alaska,Shadow Moses case.. 43rd President George Sears (Solidus Snake) Resigned, inaugurated James Johnson as next president.FOXHOUNDDismantling. (game"Metal gear solid])

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ ※TV drama"G-SAVIOUR] Old settings used in such as.

Source

  1. ^ Michael collins"Journey to Mars 2004"Kusosha, 1992, 218/226/280-282.ISBN 978-4-7942-0472-1.
  2. ^ Yuichiro Takeda"King of the World-Gaogaigar vs Betterman- Middle volume''Shinkigensha, 2020, 360 pages.ISBN 978-4-7753-1714-3.
  3. ^ Ray Bradbury"Mars Chronicle"Hayakawa Publishing, 1976, 307-310, 334-338, 371.ISBN 978-4-15-040114-6.
  4. ^ "ENTERTAINMENT BIBLE .1 Mobile Suit Gundam MS Encyclopedia [PART.1 One Year War]"Bandai, 1989, 63 pages.ISBN 978-4-89189-006-3.

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