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Genome editing in 5 minutes!Explain the principle, difference from genetic modification, danger, etc.!

 
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In addition, genome editing is used in various fields such as infectious disease control and biofuel development.
 

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Bio fuel

Bio fuel(Bio-fuel) is an organism (biomass) HasEnergyUsedAlcohol fuel, OtherSyngasThat.oillikeDepleted resourcesIn addition to being attracting attention as a "non-depleting resource" that can replacecarbon dioxide(CO2) Does not increase[1]Because it is said, mainlyAutomobile,aircraftMovePetroleum fuel OfAlternativeHas been attracting attention as.

Overview

Industrial fuelSecond oil shockでcrudePrice is 1barrelWith the price increase from $ 4 to $ 17 per unit,oilCheapercoal-Natural gas-Nuclear powerHowever, from 1980 to 2000, the price of transportation fuel was around $ 1 a barrel, so the alternative fuel was not profitable.But,Chugoku-IndiaAtAutomobileThe price of crude oil soared to $ 2005 a barrel from 2008 to 1 due to the rapid increase in demand for transportation fuel due to the spread and economic development ofGlobal warmingDepends on the problemCO2In recent years, investment in biofuels for low-cost transportation has expanded and R & D and commercialization seemed to make great progress, partly due to increasing demands for reductions. As of March, it has fallen to the $ 2016 level per barrel,Oil shale,shale gasAnd so on, it has become unprofitable.同年9月にIn September of the same yearICAOAt the general meeting, an agreement was reached on a framework for reducing CO2 emissions for aviation, and attention was focused on biofuels.

Types

It is roughly divided into the following three. 3年現在、原油価格高騰は航空産業、漁業に大きな打撃を与えているが、動植物油のAs of 2008, soaring crude oil prices have hit the aviation industry and fisheries, but animal and vegetable oilsJet fuelAnd for shipsdieselas well as the Hot-bulbResearch on application to institution is behind compared to research on application to automobile fuel, and analysis of problems in the case of raw burning and research on required chemical treatment are urgently needed.

Gasoline Alternative Otto Engine Fuel

Biomass ethanol

gasolineInstead of,corn,sugar caneThe cheap grain that saidfermentation・ Filter and alcohol (ethanol)Passenger car・Small sizeCommercial vehicleSubstitute gasoline forbiomassAlcohol fuelUse as.

grain·MolassesThe alcoholfermentationIt is a conventional method of brewing by letting it brew, and waste wood / arid land-grown plants that cannot be used as food.Cactus・ Pasture ・ Straw ・cornStem ・Thinned wood OfcelluloseThe heatFungusAfter decomposing with Corino bacteriayeastThere is a second generation cellulose ethanol brewed in.従来法は既にトウモロコシ価格が120ドル/tから150ドル/tに大幅上昇するなど食料との競合問題がでているために、食料と競合しないThe conventional method does not compete with food because there are already problems with food such as the price of corn rising significantly from $ XNUMX / t to $ XNUMX / t.Cellulose ethanolDevelopment of economic production method is urgent.最近RecentlyRITEとHONDAHas developed the RITE-HONDA method, which enables a significant cost reduction of the cellulose method.Idemitsu KosanとMitsubishi CorporationHas a plan to launch a large plant as a joint venture.

Biomass alcohol fuelFossil fuelAlthough the output is inferior to that of gasoline, it is not suitable, but most grains can be used as raw materials, so you should not choose raw materials, and cheap grains and grain squeezed waste (which is often industrial waste) By using it, the cost can be suppressed, the emission of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides is extremely low, and since it is a fuel for plant materials, new CO2Do not create (Carbon neutral) And other advantages.

Alcohol fuel has been used since the early days of automobiles.Second World WarAt the end, in JapanbeerIt is said that the entire factory was used for military purposes (for airplanes and automobiles) and had begun to be remodeled for alcohol fuel production.It has been a fuel that has not attracted attention since the stable supply of oil at a low price.しかし、1970年(昭和45年)のHowever, in XNUMX (Showa XNUMX)Oil shockAfter that, againmethanolOr ethanolAlcohol fuelAttention was focused on (biomass fuel).BrazilIt is famous for its practical use inThe United States of AmericaHowever, the standard is automobile fuel containing 10% alcohol fuel (E10 gas).Gasohol (Gasohol / gasohol) Is sometimes called.

JapanButMinistry of Economy, Trade and IndustryBegan to work on[2].. 2007年時点では、廃却処理に苦労しているサトウキビやAs of XNUMX, sugar cane and sugar cane that are struggling to dispose ofSugar beetPomace (Bagasse) Will be tested in the plant.Other than thattimberWaste materials andweedResearch is being carried out in the direction of using as little food as possible, such as methods using food as a raw material.

ETBE

DMF

Manufactured from fructose and glucose.It has a higher energy density than ethanol, does not mix with water, and is chemically stable.

Fuel for light oil alternative diesel engine

large Ofbus-Track-Construction machinery・ Ship ・Military vehicleForLight oilIt is an alternative fuel.Whereas gasoline alternative fuels utilize alcoholic fermentation of agricultural products / agricultural and forestry wastesBiodieselFuel (BDF / BioDieselFuel) is obtained by directly treating general animal and vegetable fats and oils with methanol or hydrogenating and decomposing them.製造To do.

First-generation BDF is alcohol-treated vegetable oilGlycerinIn Europe, it is advancing to mix about 5% of rapeseed BDF with light oil and use it as a fuel from which rapeseed oil has been removed. FOBThe price soared from $ 600 / t to $ 800 / t.Waste cooking oil diesel fuel recently seen in Japan also belongs to the first generation.When the first generation BDF is used at 100%, particulate unburned matter is likely to be generated unless exhaust gas is treated with a catalyst with strong combustion power, and there is also a problem of compatibility with high-pressure injection of common rail diesel, so rapeseed / soybean oil In the case of, it is easy to oxidize, palm oil is easy to solidify at low temperature,fish oil TheSludgeThere are problems such as engine seizure.

The second generation BHF (BioHydrocracking Fuel) is Nippon Oil.Hydrogenation decompositionObtained by testing the process of decomposing animal and vegetable oils using an instrument,GTLRefers to the same high quality diesel fuel.The problem of unburned fuel is that oxygen is removed from the fuel.ワ ッ ク スIs decomposed to improve the problem of solidification, and glycerin is decomposed to solve the problem of glycerin disposal.YieldAlso improves.

However, the hydrocracking device is petroleum refined residual oil.Hydrogenation decompositionAlthough the equipment can be diverted, it requires a large-scale capital investment.最も安価といわれるSaid to be the cheapestNanyou AbragiriEven if oil is used as a raw material, it is said that it will be unprofitable if the crude oil price of $ 2008 a barrel as of 1 falls below $ 150.In addition, since low-grade fuel oil such as heavy fuel oil A was originally used for marine engines, raw burning of fish oil for fishing boats is also being considered.

Jet fuel / light oil alternative gas turbine fuel

Jet fuel for aircraft, gas turbine fuel for warships / tanks,CogenerationSubstitute kerosene, jet fuel, and light oil as fuel for micro gas turbines.航空機用燃料としては1kgあたりの発熱量が高いことが絶対条件で、アルコールは発熱量が低いため使えず、動植物油かAs an aircraft fuel, it is an absolute requirement that the calorific value per kg is high, and alcohol cannot be used because it has a low calorific value. Is it animal or vegetable oil?GTLIs being considered.For the Army and Navy, the calorific value of kg is not so important, but alcohol is still considered unsuitable because it does not catch fire during battle.

Due to the uneven distribution of the aircraft engine industry in the United States, Britain and Russia, there were few researchers compared to alternative fuels for automobiles, and research was delayed, but crude oil prices fell in 2004-2008.barrelWhile airlines were hit hard by a surge from $ 18 to $ 150, vegetable oil pricesbarrelFor $ 50-70Virgin Atlantic CoconutOil etc.Air New Zealand Nanyou AbragiriUse oil as an admixture for aviation fuel[3]The test was started.

January 2009 JAL conducted an empty eco-activity as "JAL Bio Flight," which uses 1% of conventional fuel and 747% of biofuel as one of the four engines of the 4.[4]..但し、JALは経営再建と効率化推進の為、2011年03月に全ての747を引退させたHowever, JAL retired all XNUMXs in March XNUMX in order to rebuild its business and promote efficiency.[5].

Current status of gasoline alternative ethanol

the material is,corn,sugar cane,Edible oil,bamboo,woodThere are a wide variety of organic wastes such as sawdust and corn stalks, and the method of making alcohol fuel from them is a common method along with the production of methane gas.

In Japan, from April 2007, 4Bio ethanolTrial sales of gasoline containing gasoline have started, soaring gasoline prices,Global warmingIt is attracting attention in response to growing interest in.バイオ燃料E85(ガソリンにエタノールを85%混ぜた燃料:IPSJ)は、通常のガソリンよりもBiofuel EXNUMX (gasoline mixed with XNUMX% ethanol: IPSJ) is more than regular gasolineCO2Emissions are 70% less.The price is 1 euros instead of 1.6 euros per liter of gasoline.バイオ燃料が利用できるBiofuel availableFlex fuel vehicleIs widespreadBrazilIn May 2007,ToyotaLaunched a car that can use biofuel[6].

Second generation biofuel

In the first-generation biofuel, bioethanol was produced from sugar cane and corn, but the cultivation of these grains reduced the planted area of ​​feed grains and the grain market price soared.第二世代バイオ燃料ではIn second generation biofuelsAlgaeBiomass such asused paper·old clothes[7]Biofuels are produced by decomposing organic matter contained in waste such as sawdust and cow dung.そのため、資源的な制約が無く、需要が増えても穀物相場には影響を与えにくいが、その反面、収率が低く、原材料は安いものの、熱量あたりの製造費用が高くなる可能性があるTherefore, there are no resource restrictions, and even if demand increases, it is unlikely to affect the grain market, but on the other hand, the yield is low and the raw materials are cheap, but the manufacturing cost per calorific value may be high.[8][9][10][11][12].. 2013年以降、各地でプラントが建設されつつあるが、セルロースの発酵のためにPlants have been built in various places since XNUMX, but for the fermentation of celluloseSupercritical waterUse[13][14][15][16]The high hurdles have hindered its widespread use, and it has been stagnant due to the recent decline in crude oil prices.

In JapanOkaraShizuoka Yuka Kogyo Co., Ltd. has been working on the refining of bioethanol from the raw material, and since March 2008, it has been manufacturing biofuel by reusing okara, which is currently treated as industrial waste. Has started[17][18].

Decomposition of cellulose cell walls involves heat and chemical treatment, which has traditionally been a difficult problem.[19]. AlsoCellulaseAlthough it was also carried out by disassembling with, the pretreatment was troublesome and difficult.[10].University of Maryland College ParkSteve HutchesonChesapeake BayFound in the swampBacteria((English edition)) Has a strong cellulose cell wall resolution[20][10].. Zymetis社ではさらに効率よく糖に変更するために遺伝子を組み換えて、72時間で1トンのセルロースバイオマスを糖に変換できる事を実証したZymetis demonstrated that it can convert XNUMX ton of cellulose biomass to sugar in XNUMX hours by recombining genes to convert it to sugar more efficiently.[21][10].

In addition,Termite OfDigestive organsCellulose decomposition process byBiomass ethanolExpected to be useful in the manufacture ofUniversity of the Ryukyus,RIKENResearch will proceed in[22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29].

In addition, a type of alga that inhabits ponds and lakes around the world and produces oil by itself, "BotryococcusIs also being researched using the extracted oil as a biofuel.[30]..同じく藻のAlso of algaeAurantiochytriumResearch is also active.株式会社Co., Ltd.Euglena (company)Is also algaeEuglenaWe are aiming for practical application by 2020 using biofuel obtained from.横浜市にバイオジェット燃料製造実証設備を建設し2019年から商用フライト用のバイオジェット燃料を生産する計画であるとしているThe company plans to build a bio-jet fuel production demonstration facility in Yokohama City and produce bio-jet fuel for commercial flights from XNUMX.[31].

Biogas

Methane bacteriabyAnaerobic fermentationDecomposes organic matter bymethaneProduces gas.Since waste is mainly used as raw materials such as sewage and food waste, there are fewer resource restrictions than biofuels that use crops such as bioethanol as raw materials, and relatively little investment such as remodeling existing treatment facilities It is feasible with.Also,Sewage treatmentMethane gas produced at facilities is also a cause of global warming, and effective use is expected to have the effect of two birds with one stone.

Biohydrogen

Bio-hydrogenHydrogen-producing bacteria,Photosynthetic bacteriaGenerated byBiogasIs[32][33][34][35]..シロアリの消化器官内にいる共生菌の中には水素を生成する菌がいる事が確認されているIt has been confirmed that some symbiotic bacteria in the digestive organs of termites produce hydrogen.[36].

Biocoke

Converts all plant-derived waste materials into coal-like substances at high temperature and pressure,Solid fuelUse as.The energy loss of waste materials during production without fermentation is almost zero, the volume is less than one-fifth that of raw materials, and there are various advantages such as chemical stability.It is already in the demonstration stage as an alternative to coke.

Task

The following issues exist as biofuels become widespread or production increases.

  • As mentioned above, the biofuel uses plants (the most promising ones are sugar cane, wheat, corn, etc.).Naturally, a large amount of crops is required to increase production in large quantities, but unless specifically recommended by policies, the cultivated area of ​​crops cannot increase rapidly.There is concern that supply will be in short supply due to the rise in grain prices due to the increase in demand only when the production volume is not rising.また、バイオ燃料に使用される作物へのAlso for crops used for biofuelsTransferAs a result, crops that are unsuitable as biofuels may soar and run short.Especially in JapanFood self-sufficiencyIs about 40% (calorie basis), and it has been pointed out that there is enough to turn into fuel.Development of production technology other than food crops is desired.
    • As a result, Japan is affected by soaring prices of imported grains.In fact, since the latter half of 2007, the effects of daily necessities such as mayonnaise, cooking oil, meat products, cup noodles, and sweets, which use grains in particular, have begun to appear gradually, as manufacturers announced price increases due to soaring prices of raw materials. ..
  • As of April 2007, it is only used as gasoline for automobiles, and it can be said that it is still in the developing stage considering that it cannot be applied to other fields such as heating.
  • At present, the production cost is slightly higher than that of gasoline, and it is treated the same as gasoline under the Japanese tax system, so the selling price is high. 2007å¹´4月からの試験販売では、ガソリンとの差額分をIn the trial sale from April XNUMX, the difference with gasoline will beMinistry of Economy, Trade and Industry,Petroleum FederationIs paying.
  • The biofuel itselfCO2Emissions decrease[1]It is said that the construction, production and transportation of production plants (as of July 2007, biofuels sold in Japan areFranceHow much fuel is consumed at each stage (imported from), CO2Will not be known until it is discharged or actually started mass production.There is also an opinion that the total measurement from production to use, such as plant construction or deforestation to secure land for cultivating grains that are the source of biofuel, will have an adverse effect on the environment.However, there is a tendency for more land to be left over for grain fields due to the retirement of farmers and the shortage of producers.MiyagiTome CitySo for biofuelsFallow fieldTrial cultivation has begun in Japan, and cost reduction is the biggest issue.[37][38].
  • Due to its characteristics, biofuels are sensitive to heat and have the property of being oxidized if left at a certain temperature or higher.Therefore, since there is an aspect of selecting a storage location, a container, etc., it may be necessary to improve the fuel tank when using it as fuel for automobiles, airplanes, etc.These problems are also factors that raise the production cost of biofuels, and in order to lead to mass production, it is necessary to promote technological innovation on the hardware side at the same time.In addition, it is difficult to predict the future image of the evolution because it is not known whether it will be profitable in the future without actually trying it.
  • Compared to general fuelNitrous oxide(N2O) Is doubled.N2O TheCO2Since it has a greenhouse effect about 310 times that of the above, it may promote global warming rather than prevent it.Paul CrutzenDoctors and others point out[39][40].
  • Global warming is caused by multiple types of greenhouse gases.Therefore, CO2It is not always the case that even if only the reduction is made, it will eventually lead to the solution of the problem.Therefore, if we cannot not only rely on electric vehicles and biofuels but also comprehensively reduce greenhouse gases, it may not lead to a fundamental solution to the global warming problem.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b It's only theoretical, but the plants took it inCO2It can be said that the deducted emission amount is 0 because it is discharged using fuel.詳しくはFor more informationCarbon neutralSee.
  2. ^ About the start of a demonstration project on the production and use of sugarcane-derived biomass ethanol in Ie Village, Okinawa Prefecture --Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry press release August 2005, 8
  3. ^ [1]World's first test flight with second-generation biofuels (November 2, 2008,Air New Zealand)
  4. ^ [JAL Press Release |http://press.jal.co.jp/ja/release/200901/001107.html]
  5. ^ [Commemorative flight information from JAL advertisement http://jlpk.jal.co.jp/hwi/jumbo/]
  6. ^ "Toyota sells FFV in BrazilToyota Motor Corporation, May 2007, 5.
  7. ^ Bio-aviation fuel development, more competitive euglena and used clothing Nihon Keizai Shimbun Article: 2018/11 /
  8. ^ Possibility of second generation biofuels
  9. ^ Bioethanol "XNUMXnd generation" XNUMXst year To VB and food-free raw materials in the world
  10. ^ a b c d New microorganisms that break down cellulose to make diesel, alcohol, etc.
  11. ^ US second-generation bioethanol (XNUMX) has reached a critical moment
  12. ^ Biofuels that do not compete with food
  13. ^ Development of effective utilization technology of biomass waste using subcritical / supercritical water
  14. ^ Acquisition of alternative energy to petroleum by supercritical water treatment of woody biomass resources
  15. ^ Bioethanol production from lignocellulose by supercritical water method
  16. ^ Biomass resource recycling technology using subcritical water and supercritical water to be put into practical use
  17. ^ "Okara use biofuel production Shizuoka Yuka KogyoChunichi Shimbun, December 2007, 12
  18. ^ Business Information Energy Regeneration Business Shizuoka Yuka Kogyo Co., Ltd.
  19. ^ Supercritical waterWas disassembled by using
  20. ^ UM Scientists Find Key to Low-Cost Ethanol in Chesapeake Bay
  21. ^ Pilot test of cellulolytic bacterium "Saccharophagus dengradans"
  22. ^ Momentum for bioethanol production by termites
  23. ^ Termites become the savior of ethanol production?代替燃料技術の現在Current alternative fuel technology
  24. ^ Discovered a new enzyme that enhances biofuel production efficiency from termite intestines
  25. ^ Joint Genome Research Institute of the Department of Energy (DOE)
  26. ^ “Use waste materials as biofuel”. Okinawa Times (Okinawa: Okinawa Times): pp. 1st page. (July 2008, 7) 
  27. ^ New uses for termites
  28. ^ Comprehensive analysis of high-efficiency woody biomass saccharifying enzymes in termite intestinal symbiosis
  29. ^ Basic research on advanced termite symbiotic technology for bioenergy production
  30. ^ "Extracting biofuel from algae / Expecting new energy sourcesWeb Tooku, February 2008, 2
  31. ^ Euglena begins construction of bio-jet fuel demonstration facility in June Nihon Keizai Shimbun, November 2017, 2
  32. ^ Hydrogen production using microorganisms
  33. ^ Continuous hydrogen production from waste biomass by hyperthermophilic bacteria
  34. ^ Research on hydrogen production by microorganisms and its recovery method
  35. ^ Fermented hydrogen production from organic resources by microorganisms
  36. ^ Termites make hydrogen-a funny bikin-
  37. ^ "Will it be fruitful? "Biofuel rice" Trial cultivation begins when rice is climbed' Kahoku Shimpo, August 2007, 5.
  38. ^ "Make rice in" fallow fields "-Can you take advantage of opportunities for agricultural regeneration?"Close-up modern] April 2007, 5,NHK.
  39. ^ Nobel Prize chemists warn that biofuels do not help prevent global warming
  40. ^ Biofuels could boost global warming, finds study (21 September 2007) English

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