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👍 | US Senator requests information from FB and Twitter to prevent false alarms


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U.S. Senator Requests Information from FB and Twitter to Prevent Misinformation Spread

 
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Separately, Senator Bob Menendez also requested that YouTube, a video posting site under the umbrella of the US Alphabet, remove content that spreads false alarms on election results.
 

[Reuters] – A group of lawmakers led by US Democratic Senator Richard Blumenthal said on the XNUMXth ... → Continue reading

 Reuters


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YouTube

YouTube(YoutubeIt is, Google LLCProvided by[2]World's largestVideo sharing service. You isyou", Tube is "CRT(tv set)” means[3][4].

History

20052/14,PayPalWas an employee ofChad Harley,Steve Chen,Jodh KalimRagaCaliforniaSan MateoEstablished in[5]. HarleyIndiana University of PennsylvaniaDesigned by Chen and KarimUniversity of Illinois Urbana-ChampaignComputer scienceLearned[6].

According to one well-publicized theory in the media, Harley and Chen had the idea for YouTube in early 2005:San FranciscoIn the chainApartmentIt was alleged that he had a hard time sharing the video of the dinner party held in. Karim has not attended this party and denied that such a party was held. Chen said the party was actually held, and the story "YouTube was triggered by a dinner party" needs a clear story.MarketingAdmitted that it was emphasized considerably due to the above reasons[7].

According to Karim, the idea for YouTube was triggered in 2004.Janet JacksonHappened38th Super Bowl Happening(Jackson's chest was exposed during the performance) and also occurred in 2004Sumatra offshore earthquakewas. KarimインターネットI searched for videos of those incidents above, but I couldn't easily find videos of either event, and that experience gave birth to the idea of ​​a video sharing site.[8].

YouTubeventure capitalInvested byStartup companyStarted as a business. Main investorSequoia CapitalAnd invested US$2005 million on YouTube between November 11 and April 2006[9]. Initially, the YouTube headquartersSan Mateo, CaliforniaIt was placed on the second floor of a Japanese pizza store/Japanese restaurant[10].www.youtube.com OfdomainWas activated on February 2005, 2[11]. According to Harley and Chen, the earliest YouTube version was a video version.(English edition(User can upload images of opposite sexDating site), and it was Karim who showed that direction.[7][12].

The first video posted on YouTube was by Jord KarimSan Diego ZooThe scene of being in front of the elephantMe At The Zoo(Posted on April 2005, 4)[13][14].. In May 2005, the beta version of YouTube was released to the public. The first video on YouTube to reach 5 million viewsRonaldinhoAppearedNikeIt was an advertising video (achieved in November 2005)[15][16].. Established YOUTUBE, INC. in October 2005 as a Delaware corporation operating in California[17][18]

With a $2005 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November 11, YouTube launched its official service on December 350, 2005. When the official service started, the number of video views per day was about 12 million.[19][20].. YouTube has grown rapidly, and according to the announcement in July 2006, more than 7 new videos are uploaded per day, and the number of video views per day is about 1 million times.[21].

In the United States, around December 2005NBCPopular TV program "Saturday Night LiveWas uploaded, and it became a hot topic on blogs, etc.[22], In early 2006, you can easily paste YouTube videos to blogs etc.APIWas also made public and exploded. In Japan, in March 2006, a private research companyNet RatingsAccording to a survey, the number of users from within Japan reached about 212 million, and it was announced that the average usage time exceeded the number of US users.[23].

2006In 4 monthAmericaOf a film production companyWeinstein Company,Dimension FilmsIn partnership with a movie trailerYouTubeDelivered in[24].. Starting with this, various companies and organizations have channels on YouTube and have started to publish contents. October 2006 YouTube Headquarters CaliforniaSan BrunoMoved to[25].

www.youtube.comBy selecting the domain namewww.utube.comTrouble occurred with the owner of. In November 2006, if your site was constantly overloaded by visitors trying to access YouTube,www.utube.comOwn(English editionThe company sued YouTube. After that, Universal Tube changed the domain name of its site towww.utubeonline.comChanged to[26][27].

It was said that YouTube will reach 100 million dollars per month only in terms of server line cost, so attention was paid to how to make money[28]In a $2006 billion share exchange on October 10, 9GoogleAgreed to the acquisition of[29][Note 1].. Google's acquisition of YouTube completed on November 2006, 11[30][31].. Established YOUTUBE, LLC in November 2006 as a Delaware corporation operating in California[32][33]. "UploadThere was concern from general users that strict restrictions will be taken on the videos that were taken, but Harley CEO said, ``YouTube was acquired by Google, but in the future it will be an independent service with a brand called YouTube Will continue to be provided." Google is also a similar serviceGoogle VideoContinue the service. Launched a service to search YouTube videos through the search window[34].

after that,timeSelected for "Invention of the Year for 2006"[35]. 2007In March, a private research companyNet RatingsAnnounced that the number of users from households in Japan exceeded 1000 million.[36].. 5th May, same yearWebby awardAward[37].. The communication capacity consumed by YouTube in 2007 was estimated to be equivalent to the total communication capacity of the Internet in 2000.[38].

A third-party web analytics companyAlexa InternetandSimilar webAccording to YouTube, YouTube was the second most visited website in the world as of December 2016. In addition, Similar Web claims that YouTube, which has more than 12 billion monthly visitors, is the number one website in the TV and video world.[39][40][41]. 2008On November 11, the official event "YouTube Live" hosted by YouTube headquartersSan FranciscoOpened on November 11,Tokyo"YouTube Live Tokyo" was opened in.

Market research companyCom scoreAccording to the data released by 20105YouTube videos have been played over 140 billion timesmarket shareIs about 43%, and YouTube was the dominant source of online video in the United States[42].

2011As of May, 5 hours of video were uploaded to YouTube every minute.[43].. The rate at which videos are posted is increasing year by year, and as of January 2012, 1 hours per minute[43], As of May 2013, 5 minutes per minute[44][45], As of May 2014, 11 minutes per minute[46], As of February 2017, 2 hours of video was uploaded every minute[47][48].. As of January 2012, YouTube MonthUnique userWas 8 million[49].

In March 2010, YouTube posted specific content (Indian Premier LeagueFree streaming of 60 cricket games (including XNUMX games) has started. YouTube said the attempt was the world's first free online broadcast of a major sports event[50].

In May 2010, YouTube videos were viewed more than 5 billion times a day[51][52][53].. This number is 2011 billion times as of May 5[54][55][56]Increased to 2012 billion times as of January 1[43][57].. As of February 2017, YouTube had a daily viewing time of 2 billion hours.[58][59][60].

201010Chad Harley Retires from YouTube CEO as YouTube Adviser(English editionIt was announced that it will be taken over by[61].. In April 2011, YouTube software engineer James Zahn revealed that 4% of views were generated by 99% of the total video.[62].

In December 2011, YouTubeUser interface(UI) has been updated. With the new UI, video channels are displayed in the list at the center of the top page, similar to the SNS news feed.[63][64].. The logo design was changed for the first time since October 2006 as well as the UI, and the red shade used was darkened.[65].

2013In May, YouTube wasSubscription methodLaunched a pilot program to open a paid channel for[66][67]. 2013On September 9, the official event "YouTube Entertainment Week" hosted by YouTube was held. The producerMitsutaka Takasu.

20142, Susan WoshkyOn youtubeCEO) Was appointed to[68].. In November 2014, YouTubeSubscription methodAnnounced the paid service "Music Key". "Music Key" is an existing serviceGoogle Play MusicAnd a service that can play music content on YouTube without adsbundleWas what[69]. 2014July, YouTube alwaysSSLConversion (alwayshttps) Was done.

2015February, YouTube optimized for kidsMobile app "YouTube Kids" has been released. "YouTube Kids" has a simplified user interface, content carefully selected for children,Parental controlFunction provided[70].. August 2015, 8, YouTubeComputer gamesHas started the service of "YouTube Gaming" optimized for video and live streaming. "YouTube Gaming" is also offered as a mobile app,Amazon.comOwnedTwitchWas aiming to compete with[71].

In October 2015, a paid service that allows you to access all content on YouTube without adsYouTube Red] Was announced. Members of "YouTube Red" (which is the successor to "Music Key" announced last year) can watch the original videos produced by YouTube talents, as well as use the function to play YouTube content in the background on mobile devices. YouTube will also be the third app optimized for playing and searching for music content.YouTube MusicWas released[72][73][74].

20161YouTube for $2 MillionOffice parkPurchased and expanded the headquarters of San Bruno. The head office has a land area of ​​about 51500 square meters and can accommodate up to 2800 employees.[75].

20178/29, YouTubeMaterial designHas officially released a new user interface that adopts. At the same time, the YouTube logo was renewed, and it became a motif with a video playback button.[76]. 2017December, YouTubeoriginal video"YouTube Originals" has started.Idolish SevenYou can watch the spin-off works of[77].

20184/3At an open cafe at YouTube headquarters in San Bruno, California(English editionThere has occurred.San Diego39-year-old woman living inYouTuberIt is believed that the crime was caused bysuicidedid. The suspect had been in dispute with YouTube for many years, arguing that YouTube was trying to repress content creators, and was upset that payment for the posted video was stopped.[78][79][80][81].

20185/17, YouTube announced that the service name of "YouTube Red" will be changed to "YouTube Premium" and that this service will be deployed in Canada and 13 European countries. In addition, "YouTube Music" became independent soon.subscriptionIt was also announced that it would be deployed as a system service[82].. Both services were launched in Japan on November 11 of the same year.[83].

December 2019, 12, Terms of Use updated, YouTube service provider from YouTube LLCGoogle LLCWas changed to[2].

Movie

Watching

The service is basically free to use.You can watch many videos even if you have not registered.Free membership registration is required to rate videos, leave comments, and create playlists. Some of them can be viewed directly by searching on YouTube, but they are not displayed in the video list of the channel and can be viewed only via a specific site, URL, or notification.Limited releaseIs also possible.AjaxTechnology is used to use YouTubeJavaScriptNeed to enable.

Long time agoAdobe FlashVideo playback was being performed using, but from 2015HTML5Playback became standard[84].

The playlist (addition/addition destination to the queue) allows you to combine videos, perform automatic playback (repeat), and shuffle playback.

In the search, in order to identify the desired videohashtagCan also be inserted.

Functions are being actively added, and "Video Annotations" that allows you to write annotations such as balloons on videos[85], The ability to add subtitles to videos[86], Video subtitle automatic translation function[87], TV screen (for homegame machine"YouTube for Television", a dedicated service for viewing on[88], "YouTube XL", a dedicated user interface for viewing on a large-screen TV[89], "YouTube Leanback", a user interface that can be viewed as a TV on a web browser[90]Was published.

Applause

A gifting function (throwing money) for videos, implemented in early 2020. You can purchase a certain amount of money in the form of applause and give it to the video contributor. It is not implemented for all channel users and will be implemented at any time.

In Japan, the upper limit per person was fixed at 1 yen at the start, but in September of the same year it was relaxed so that it could be sent up to 200 yen, 9 yen, and 500 yen.

YouTube Premium

YouTube subscription service. You can get additional services by paying a monthly fee. As a main example, ads are not displayed on videos, and it supports pre-download for the purpose of background playback of music and viewing in offline environment. There are also contents that are only available to the premium.America, South KoreaIt is carried out in. 201811IsJapanBut it is being implemented. Formerly known as YouTube Music Key, YouTube Red. belowYouTube PremieresAnother service.

YouTube Music

YouTube music distribution service.

YouTube Go

An Android app that aims to make YouTube easier to access on mobile devices.

Launched in India in February 2017[91]Expanded to 2017 countries including Nigeria, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, Philippines, Kenya, South Africa in November 11. Expanded to 14 countries worldwide in February 2018, including Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and Iraq[92]Became available worldwide in August 2019[93].

YouTube Kids

YouTube video service for children.

YouTube TV

YouTube's paid streaming TV service offering live TV, on-demand video, and cloud-based 70-month storage recording capabilities for over 9 TV networks[94]

Upload

The video formats that can be uploaded are very wide, and most of the video formats currently in circulation are supported. Unlike Nico Nico Douga, you will always be recompressed on YouTube, so you can upload the original file without compressing it yourself.

As for audio, YouTube recommends a sample rate of 5.1 kHz or 96 kHz for stereo or 48 channels, but currently it cannot be played on 5.1 channels.

Although the image quality can be selected from the menu at the bottom right of the player, the image quality that can be selected is limited depending on the image quality of the uploaded video, so not all video can be displayed in the following image quality. Also, since the advertisement video is not on the menu, the image quality cannot be selected.


aspect ratioIs automatically judged and can be reproduced at the correct ratio.

For videos that include extreme depictions such as obscene videos, the age verification of 18 years old or older is set by member registration due to notifications from viewers, but age verification is simple because there is no verification method, so it is not very effective. In some cases, it may be deleted as a guideline violation instead of age verification. Since videos that require age verification are decided by YouTube on their own discretion, even those that can be broadcast on TV may require age verification due to harassment reports (especially when violent scenes occur. Action movie clips determined to be there, street fights on the street, etc.).

The posted video isCopyright infringementIf it is deleted 3 times for reasons such as or extreme sex depiction, all videos uploaded in the past at the same time as the account will be deleted without warning.

Basically, you can upload a video file with a capacity of 2GB and a length of 15 minutes 29 seconds. If you are a member who does not violate the guidelines, you will be able to upload and post a video file with a capacity of 20 GB and unlimited length by application and authentication.

20097/21The first 3D video was uploaded to[100], 201511/11"Google Cardboard", and now you can watch virtual 3D in all videos.

20156/7IsAmericaVideo production company succeeded in uploading 8K Super Hi-Vision video[101].. However, because of the load, there are few compatible playback devices.

By the way, the image of the first 8K uploaded this time is 6% upscaled from the 125K image taken by the American camera to 8K image, and the original image taken is not 8K.

Live streaming

YouTube launched in April 2011Live streamingfunction. Popular nameYouTube Live.

YouTube in November 2008YouTube LiveA real live event called[102], U2 Concert[103], February 2010 US PresidentBarack ObamaQ&A session with[104]We conducted initial experiments of live streaming that depended on the technology of third party partners.

In September 2010 YouTube launched live streaming testing of Google proprietary technology with some content partners.[105][106]Announced official launch of live streaming service in April 2011[107].

In October 2012, more than 10 million peopleFelix BaumgartnerFly from the edge of the universeRed Bull StratosWatched as a YouTube live stream[108][109].

In May 2013, it could not be used without more than 5 subscribers, but in August of the same year it was relaxed to 1000 or more, and in December the restriction was lifted.[110].. In addition, the live streaming function was introduced in the mobile application from February 2017, and the condition was initially 2 or more subscribers, but in the latter half of 1 it was relaxed to 2017 or more subscribers. However, as of October 100, it has been raised to over 2019 subscribers[111].

As a system, in addition to the image quality conversion function that is usually found on YouTube, chat is provided instead of comments. Chats are divided into two stages: high-level chats that exclude pop-outs from viewers and normal chats that display all notes. It is also possible to leave it in the form of a movie as an archive for delivery within 12 hours after broadcasting (you can set whether to reproduce chat comments). You can set reminders (immediately before the start of distribution) on the viewer side on the page that you give a notice in advance. It can also deliver up to 4K 60fps and 360 degree video.

Limited live broadcasting via a specific URL is also possible as with videos. However, limited live distribution to subscribers of membership is not possible (corresponding to archived videos).

The live information is a list of live broadcasts that are currently being planned and will be broadcast in the future on dedicated channels for live broadcasts. You can get the same service from "YouTube Gaming," which specializes in game distribution.

Note that live streaming is restricted and unusable if the user infringes copyright or violates the guidelines (when a warning is given). Also not available from Germany[112].

Super Chat

20172A paid function that can make messages stand out in the chat field in live chat and video premiere[113].. One of the functions that can be used when the number of subscribers on YouTube exceeds a certain number.Throwing moneyFunction, abbreviated as "spacha"[114].

It is a purchase system with multiple monetary levels, and chat comments are highlighted in color according to the amount paid, and if the amount is above a certain amount, it is displayed at the top of the chat in the form of a ticker for a certain period of time.A few percent of the total amount charged as Super Chat will be the revenue to the distributor. There is a daily upper limit on the amount of Super Chat that can be used per day.

In a September 2019 interview, YouTube's Chief Product Officer Neal Mohan replied that up to seven of the top 9 SuperChat revenue rankings were Japanese creators.[115].. July 2020, 3,New coronavirus infectionPerform an unattended live with the fashionMSS ProjectHowever, 5000 million yen was collected before the start of the performance.

Super Stickers

A paid function to display a sticker in the chat field in live chat and video premiere released in November 2019[116].. One of the functions that can be used when the number of subscribers on YouTube exceeds a certain number.

YouTube Premieres

Of movies and TV shows on YouTubePremierA function that allows the creator and the viewer to simultaneously watch and enjoy the movie (pre-produced, not streaming) like the screening. aboveYouTube PremiumAnother function.

The scheduled video will be played live without being able to rewind or fast forward, and everyone will watch the video at the same time. You can also use chat features like YouTube Live and super chat.Once played, it can be played as a normal video.[117]

YouTube Shorts

A function that allows you to post a short video of up to 2020 seconds on a mobile phone released in India in September 9.クリエイターツールとして、複数のビデオクリップを繋ぐマルチセグメントカメラ機能やスピードコントロール、ハンズフリーで簡単に録画できるタイマー・カウントダウン撮影といった機能が用意されているAs a creator tool, there are functions such as a multi-segment camera function that connects multiple video clips, speed control, and a timer / countdown shooting that allows easy hands-free recording.[118][119].

Multi camera video

Multi-camera angle feature available only at YouTube live events[120].. After live distribution, it can be viewed as a video archive.

The "multi-angle function", which allows the user to switch cameras during video playback, has been released on some channels.Madeline BaileyThe official YouTube channel of is also using this technology.[121][122].

360 degree video

In March 2015, YouTube supported upload and playback of 3-degree videos[123]. Live streaming of 4° video up to 360K resolution is also supported[124].

Link with Google account

Most videos can be viewed without a Google account, but videos with age restrictions can only be viewed if you have a Google account.

If you have a Google account, you can mainly use the following services.

  • Video Post
  • Create playlist
  • Ratings and comments on videos
  • Display recommended videos
  • Closed captionsAdditional files for

Revenue

Alphabet Inc.Released its accurate YouTube advertising revenue for the first time in February 2019 as part of its 2020 financial report. YouTube revenue was $2 billion in 2017, $81 billion in 2018, and $111 billion in 2019, according to Alphabet[125]. The interests of YouTube are still private.

Approximately 2019 million YouTube Premium and YouTube Music subscribers and 4 million YouTube TV subscribers as of Q2,000 200[126]. If you subscribe to a certain number of people,[127][128]A banner will be given.

Content ID

In June 2007, Google started trial of a copyright protection tool that automatically detects uploaded videos that infringe YouTube copyright[129][130].

Copyright holders can block videos from being viewed, track video playback statistics, monetize videos with ads and, in some cases, share revenue with users who upload them. Can choose[131][132].

Partnership with video creators

In May 2007, YouTube launched the Partner Program (YPP), a system based on Google AdSense[133]. This allows video contributors to share the revenue generated by advertising on their site.

Meet the YouTube partnership requirementsAccountTo

Either of them must be linked.

Stream a video commercial before the main part begins[Note 2]In addition, a still image advertisement with a banner (Iconlik) can also be inserted.

In order to receive income, if it is via AdSense, it is similar to AdSense (in the name of the personBank accountsAnd you need to register your current address). In case of multi-channel network, you will receive the revenue by the method specified by the network (bank transfer, Paypal, etc.).

However, after the winter of 2019, revenue will not be covered for "children" content. YOUTUBE may automatically determine that it is for children, and an application is required each time.

Channel membership

Become a "channel member" of the corresponding channel by the user paying a fixed fee monthly for the channel using the system[134][135]. Old name, sponsorship[134].

By becoming a channel member, you can prioritize access to badges, unique emojis, and other member-only content that can be displayed in the comments section of videos and Youtube Live.[134].

Facility

Evil

Abuse monetization and unreasonableHate speech,Human rights violations,RacismAn increasing number of posters are making money from inappropriate content that fuels.

20173/17,UKThe government has questioned that ads of the government and British companies will be posted on inappropriate content and announced that it will raise ads from YouTube[136].

The same problemUKIn addition to the ripple effects, major American companies have also announced that they will raise advertisements. Announced that YouTube promises to take measures against the problem[137].

As part of the measures on April 2017, 4, advertisements will be hidden on channels with less than 7 views, and monetization will be effective only if there are no problems after reviewing channels that have been viewed 1 times or more. The reason is that channels with less than 1 views have a lot of copyright infringing videos aimed at advertising income, to protect the income of creators with high legal compliance.[138].

20182/20Since then, the criteria for conducting monetization screening have changed, and channels with 1,000 or more subscribers and more than 12 hours (4,000 minutes) of viewing time in the last 240,000 months will be subject to monetization screening. The same standard is applied to channels for which monetization is valid before the standard change, and monetization is invalid if the requirements are not met.

Impact on public opinion

Examples of applications other than entertainmentEHomes OfTogo FujitaThrough YouTubeStructural statement forgery problemOr make a complaint againstLos Angeles Police DepartmentA video of a police officer in violence against a non-resisting suspect is anonymously published on YouTube[139]It is a place of accusation.

Other than that,カナダPolice are streaming a video image of a person who seems to be a criminal when a murder case occurred to arrest the criminal on YouTube[140].

On the political side, YouTube has prepared "You Choose '08",2008 United States Presidential ElectionFor this purpose, we set up a place where candidates and voters can directly exchange their opinions on video. Presidential candidate who is one of the registrantsHillary ClintonCommented, "By using YouTube, you can share your will in the video with American people."[141].

JapanBut in December 2007LDP,Social Democrats,Japan Communist PartyHas opened official channels one after another, disseminating policies and distributing information on the party's activity status to appeal to young voters[142][143].

August 2007, 6,ベネズエラAs anti-governmentHugo ChavezPrivate broadcaster Radio Caracas Television (closed by President)RCTV) Started publishing the program on YouTube as a form of protesting the closure[144].

In the second half of 2007オーストラリア OfCatholicPriestIsJeff BaronThe behavior ofTaking pictures secretlyVideoUploadThis led to the situation being transmitted to the world through the mass media, eventually leading to the dismissal of the priest.[145].

201011/4,Japanese GovernmentWas hidden bySenkaku Islands Chinese fishing boat collision caseVideo of that timeMaritime SheriffMetMasaharu IsshikiByKobe City Ofcyber cafeからUploadThe situation of the incident was revealed in the video, which shocked public opinion in Japan. this isSenkaku Islands Chinese fishing boat collision video outflow incidentIt was also called a social phenomenon in Japan.

Copyright issue

Like other video sharing servicesCopyright lawContent protected by, for exampleTV program,promotion video, Some of the artistsLIVEIt has been pointed out as a problem that many secretly recorded ones are illegally uploaded. YouTube uses the terms of service toUploadBanned, but illegal content is endless.

Response from YouTube

20063/27からAnimeSuch asPirated versionIn principle, uploading files for more than 10 minutes is restricted to limit uploading[146], Users now split files within 10 minutes[147].. Since April 2006, 4, the Director system has begun to meet the demand for uploading videos of 10 minutes or more.[148].. If you register with Director, you will be able to upload files for more than 15 minutes, but the registration will be reviewed and limited to those who provide complete original content. Unusually, if you upload a video that infringes another person's copyright, you will be deleted just once and the account will be deleted.

Previously there was a tendency for illegal content to be abandoned, but from around May 2006 deletion work became active.

Also on October 2008, 10 with YouTubeJASRACWe have signed a comprehensive license agreement regarding music copyright. YouTube pays about 2% of its income to JASRAC, so it is legal to upload a video that secondarily uses music managed by JASRAC. In addition to JASRACJRCas well as the E-licenseHas already signed a contract with[149].

However, it is illegal to post the original sound source or the promotional video as it is because these are only secondary use licenses. Therefore, if there is a problem with the sound source even if there is no problem with the video, only the sound source will be deleted.muteIn addition to the above, there is a case where the movie cannot be viewed in some areas although the movie and the sound source are not deleted.

Kadokawa Shoten OfKadokawa Digix TheYouTubeParticipation in the demonstration experiment of video identification technology for[150]Since it was judged that the copyright measures by this were effective, the official channel was opened in February 2008, and Kadokawa GroupYouTubeIn addition to utilizing the promotion ofKadokawa GroupWith regard to posted videos using the video work, if the permission of each right holder is obtained, the certified mark and advertisement will be added as a certified video, and the advertising income will be distributed to the right holders. In addition, we are planning to sell advertising frames for official videos and develop "creator excavation plan" in which the creators of excellent works of posted videos are appointed as directors and screenwriters of Kadokawa Group's works.[151].

TV station support

February 2006, 2 in the United StatesNBCAs a copyright infringement,Saturday Night Live』Unauthorized reprint video was deleted. This was the first time that a video was requested by a major TV station to delete a video (after that, "Saturday Night Live" opened an official YouTube channel).

To each TV stationYouTubeThere is a dedicated surveillance unit (mainly a dedicated department that deals with organization and copyright/rights-related work, or an affiliated company of Sky and Road and other program production companies) that requests monitoring and deletion of videos. A company that has to make frequent offers[152]A special request form has been created and sent to. Especially for TBS, please refer to "Message Form for Audience Service Department"YouTubeIf you report about the unauthorized upload (= copyright infringement) of the TBS program above, the video file will be deleted by TBS within a few days from the day after the report. TBS is also strengthening the support for deleting videos from other video sharing sites.

2006 years,Space shower tv,MUSIC ON! TVHave submitted a request for deletion. However, there is no end to the secondary diversion of program images.

ExceptionallyTOKYO MXThere were cases where uploading was tolerated for some programs[Note 3]. 2006's "BlogTVIs a performer, advertiser, production company,TOKYO MX4 companiesYouTubeWe found the program value of actively uploading to the program, and we are uploading after dividing the program of 30-minute broadcasting into 10 by 3-minute frame. In "" of April 2008, 4 broadcast,MondayBroadcast minutes of the previous weekFridayBefore the TV broadcastYouTubeThe method is to share with. In addition, overseas TV stations (British Broadcasting CorporationEtc.) is relatively forgiving.

To prevent illegal distribution of broadcast programs from January 2007, 1Broadcast Content Proper Distribution Promotion Liaison CommitteeWas launched and executives of CEO Chad Harley and parent company Google Inc. visited Japan on February 2 and met with Japanese copyright groups.[153]. Although it was difficult for the registrant presented by the Japanese side to register personal information, it will develop technology to prevent uploading illegal videos and display a warning message about copyright in Japanese. promised.

Record company response

First, YouTube was released in September 2006Warner Music GroupBetweenMusic videoSigned a contract for handling[154]. Furthermore, on October 2006, 10Universal Music,Sony Music EntertainmentFormed a partnership with CBS to post and buy videos[155]. Google also formed a video distribution alliance with Sony BMG Music Entertainment and Warner Music Group on the same day[156][157]. Google/YouTube on May 2008, 5EMIHas signed a tie-up with us for video and music usage, which means that all four major global labels have signed license agreements with Google/YouTube.[158]. Universal Music, Sony BMG Music Entertainment, and Warner Music Group have also acquired YouTube shares for a long time and reportedly earned $3 million when merged with Google.[159].. Not just a majorIndie labelWe are also affiliated with.

Court battle

MTV,Paramount picturesUS media giant that ownsViacomDemanded to delete more than 2007 unauthorized posting videos in February 2, with YouTube on March 10thGoogleFiled a $10 billion copyright lawsuit against the New York federal district court[160].. "The YouTube and Google business models, which generate revenue from advertising on unauthorized footage, are clearly illegal," the statement said. According to the complaint, 16 videos of the company have been streamed so far, and it has been viewed 15 billion times in total.

Media companies are using YouTube to use their programsCable TV,TV broadcastからAudience,AdsI'm worried about taking money. Viacom at the same timeア ッ プ ル OfiTunes StoreSo, they are looking for a legal digital distribution method, such as selling the program for $ 1 each. this is,iTunesUsingcomputer-iPad-iPhone(Video iPod) You can watch it.

Although YouTube says that it will cooperate with all copyright holders and immediately delete it when notified, Viacom avoids YouTube taking such an initiative to prevent copyright infringement, and the site Argues that the burden and cost of monitoring is passed on to copyright holders.

On March 2007, 3, it was said that the video requested by Viacom to be deleted included a parody video of a corporate program affiliated with Viacom, which is not a copyright infringement.Electronic Frontier FoundationTo Viacom,Freedom of speechSued for infringing[161]Biacom admitted that it was wrong to request removal, the complaint withdrawn in April of the same year[162].

Proposed revision of copyright law in Japan

20079/26,Ministry of educationJurisdiction At the 2007th meeting in 13,A guideline was set that it is illegal even if you download illegal content published on YouTube without knowing it, and we agreed to put it in the draft revision of the copyright law[163]. Also,Agency for Cultural AffairsThe Copyright Division has issued a statement that "YouTube is streaming playback, so it is not illegal to enter this guideline"[164].

20084/1ToJapan Music Copyright Association (JASRAC) has entered into a comprehensive agreement on the use of music, and it is now possible (legally) to upload videos that play or sing "Songs managed by JASRAC". Same day,EMI Music JapanHas an official channel. It also separates access from Japan and overseas.[165].

Since YouTube is structurally not a streaming playback but a download playback, if this amendment is passed and passed by the Diet as it is, it will not be possible to know the illegal content that was released to YouTube without knowing its own PC. The opinion that it is illegal even if you look at it, etc. continued, mainly on the net.[166]It has been pointed out that the browser cache function does not apply to "download" or "copy" in the copyright industry.[167].

Cultural CouncilCopyright Subcommittee from October 2007th to November 10th, 16Public commentWas widely used to solicit opinions[168].. In contrast,Meeting of advanced Internet usersAre calling for general users to submit their opinions, and will support the submission of opinions by general users.[169].

Access control measures

There is a continuous posting on YouTube of content that violates national laws. Therefore, each government orInternet service providerAnd often as an emergency measure to YouTubeAccess regulationMay be carried out.

August 2007, 1,BrazilAtsoccer player OfRonaldoOf a former fiancee in the beach with her loverPaparazziIt was taken by and was released to YouTube, but appealed to a Brazilian court YouTube side repeatedly deleted the image, but soon someone else made it public, and the image still remains. The Brazilian government took measures to prevent YouTube from connecting to YouTube due to[170].. The following day, January 1, the video was completely deleted and access restrictions were lifted.

August 2007, 3,トルコIs the first president ofKemal AtaturkAs the video that slanders is postedIstanbulThe First Criminal Security Court has issued an order banning YouTube access from within the country. Turkey Telecom, Turkey's largest telecommunications service, immediately restricted YouTube access[171].. The video in question was deleted, and access restrictions were lifted on March 3[172].

August 2007, 4,ThailandThe transitional government ofKing Bhumibol(At that time)insultAssuming that the video that was posted was posted, we took measures to restrict access to YouTube from the same country[173].. Although the video itself was voluntarily deleted by the contributor, YouTube saysGeorge W. BushA video that made fun of the president was left unattended,'' he declined.[174].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ By the way, before YouTube acquiredGoogle AdSenseWas using the advertisement of
  2. ^ Some sponsors can watch the main part by skipping the CM for a certain time and then skipping
  3. ^ MoreTalkative/Chenping's free-flowingSee

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  141. ^ YouTube uses presidential election feature section "You Choose", Hillary also utilized, INTERNET Watch, March 2007, 3
  142. ^ LDP opens official channel on YouTube, Asahi.com, December 2007, 12
  143. ^ Social Democratic Party also official channel on "YouTube", Internet Watch, December 2007, 12
  144. ^ Silenced Venezuelan TV station moves to YouTube, CNN.com, June 2007, 6
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  149. ^ Music license agreement from YouTube, JASRAC: ITpro
  150. ^ Kadokawa Group,YouTubeUtilization Copyright verification tool cooperation,ITmedia, August 2007, 7
  151. ^ Official certification of "User Submitted Kadokawa Anime" YouTubeJoined Kadokawa,ITmedia, August 2008, 1
  152. ^ Example:NHK,Nippon TV,TBS TV,Fuji Television Network, Inc,TV Asahi,Television Tokyo Channel 12, Ltd.,MBS TV,ABC TV,Kansai TV,Yomiuri TV,Tokai TV,MegereSuch.
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