Photo: Volunteer year-end party in December last year
Supporters = Volunteers donate to hospitals = XNUMX lees instead of sewing activities
If you write the contents roughly
One of the volunteers who came to the company, Mr. I (anonymous hope), says that he learned the attitude of service from his colleagues, saying, "There are many wonderful volunteers."
Volunteer year-end party in December last year Used at the Japan-Brazil Friendship Hospital of the Sao Paulo Japan-Brazil Support Association (Chairman Akio Yogi) ... → Continue reading
Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
Anonymous(Tokumei) means that a person who has taken some action does not reveal who he or she is, including the case of using a pseudonym or pseudonym..
By guaranteeing each person's anonymity, each personPoliciesWhile it has the advantage of being able to protect, it has the disadvantage of being anonymous and can be used as a cover for wrongdoing.
As an act that maximizes the advantage of anonymity that each person's privacy is protectedAccusationThere is.By exposing the fraud of powers and companies in a way that guarantees anonymity, whistleblowers can publicize fraud without undue repression or discrimination.
In addition,DonationSocial good deeds such as the above may also be done anonymously.By hiding who you are and making a donation, you can show that you didn't donate for the sake of your name, and you can make a donation without any extra snooping from those around you.
On the other hand, anonymity has one side that can promote wrongdoing.If you can't identify who you are, you'll later be social about what you say and doresponsibilityThere is no danger of being pursued, so hide behind anonymity and hide othersSlanderSomeone may do something wrong, such as doing something.
Level of anonymity
There are various levels of "anonymity", from strong anonymity to weak anonymity.
For any A or B, it is not possible to determine whether the person who performed A and the person who performed B are the same person.Unlinkability(Literally translated as "non-connected").
Pseudonym for each personPseudonym, For examplePen name,nickname) Can be allocated to ensure anonymity, but in this case Unlinkability is not satisfied. This is because it is possible to determine whether the person who performed A and the person who performed B are the same person by examining whether the Pseudonym of the person who performed A and the Pseudonym of the person who performed B are the same.
If strong anonymity is required, it is desirable to be Unlinkable.
The word "anonymous" has two meanings in detail. There are cases where "anonymous" is not satisfied unless Unlinkablity is satisfied, and cases where "anonymous" is not satisfied even if Unlinkablity is not satisfied.
To distinguish from "anonymity" when Unlinkablity is satisfied, "anonymity" when Unlinkablity is not satisfiedPseudonymity(Literally translated as "pseudonym").
When you can prove to a third party that you did not do Adeniable(If translated literally, it is "denialable"), otherwiseundeniable(If translated literally, it is "undeniable.")
Suppose there are 100 people who may have done A now.If 99 of them prove that they have not done A, they can conclude that the last one did A.
If strong anonymity is required, it is desirable to be undeniable.
However, if you guarantee anonymity completely, some people may abuse the anonymity.Therefore, only some authorized persons called Escrow Agents (trackers, disclosers) may be authorized to identify who is who.
Cryptography and anonymity
Finding a way to guarantee anonymity and at the same time prevent anonymity from being abusedCipherIt is one of the major themes in research.
The following are typical cryptographic protocols related to anonymity.
Electronic voting method
Electronic voting is said to be secure when the following two requirements are mathematically guaranteed.
- No one knows which voter voted for whom.
- Voting results are counted correctly.
Electronic bidding method
Electronic biddingEven in the method, anonymity is required to guarantee the privacy of bidders.
When the following two requirements are mathematically guaranteedElectronic biddingThe method is said to be safe.
- Only the winning bidder and the bidder's bid amount will be known.No one knows at what price the other bidders bid.
- You cannot fake the bid result.
UsualPublic key cryptographyIn the case of, the anonymity of the sender is guaranteed, but the anonymity of the recipient is not guaranteed.
However, research on cryptography that takes into account the anonymity of the recipient has also been made.
Group signature method
Each userThe issuerYou can join the group by communicating with the authorized person.Group members can create signature statements.
This signature guarantees that the signer belongs to the group, but it is not possible to identify which member the signer is from.However,TrackerOnly the authorized person is exceptionally authorized to identify the signer.
Unlinkability and Undeniability are guaranteed in the group signature method.
The group signature method has an advantage that the group members can be prevented from misusing anonymity by giving the tracker the authority to identify the signer.However, the group signature method does not maintain any anonymity for the tracker, so the tracker must be a reliable person.The group signature method has the disadvantage that it cannot maintain any anonymity for the tracker.In order to increase anonymity, there is also a group signature method in which the tracker can identify the signer only when the signer signs the signature more than a specified number of times.
Anonymous in the press
事件-ACCIDENTNews reportThen,victimViolent and aggressive coverage by revealing the name of the person who becameMedia scrum) Is carried out, and the spread of the name to the world has caused a widespread phenomenon that the conventional quiet living environment is destroyed.these,Secondary damageThat is.In particular, for vulnerable groups such as children who have no means of counterargument, the psychological damage caused by secondary damage is enormous.In recent years, there has been a rapid rise in debate that investigative authorities should be prohibited from leaking victims' personal information to the press in order to prevent secondary damage.
Looking at the perpetrator,Suspect・ Anonymous coverage of the perpetrator boyArticle 61 of the Juvenile LawIs obliged byJuvenile crimeExcept for some, in JapanReal name coverageIs most of the time.Mass mediaMany of the suspectsPolicemenFrom public authority such ashuman rightsHe argues that real-name reporting is necessary to prevent infringement.
In response to these claims, real name reportsPoliciesNot only can it invade the victim and his family, but it mayFalse accusationThere are criticisms that it causes irreparable damage to the suspect and deprives the former criminal of the opportunity to rehabilitate after being sentenced.
On the contrary, the police and other public authorities tend to report to suspects with high anonymity. "* I found out by the investigation of the prefectural police, "I was arrested by * day" is typical, but with this, it is not known from "who" of the "prefectural police" or when it occurred, and the mass media is the power check mechanism. There are criticisms that it cannot be.It has also been pointed out that information manipulation by public authorities is likely to occur.Newspapers tend to avoid expressions that identify individual police officers in order to obtain information from the police, and one newspaper company described the deputy chief, who is a spokesperson, as "according to the deputy chief." Even so, he said that he would not speak, and even if the description changed, there was a strong rejection reaction at the police site..
In Sweden, the general public is, in principle, anonymous in reporting cases.政治家・ AdvancedCivil servant-PolicemenExecutivesLarge business ownerUnionExecutive[Source required]"Socially influential"Public figuresWill be reported under his real name only if he is allegedly involved in the case.Even in countries other than Sweden, for example, the real name, class, and job title of the person who announced that "according to what the ** police inspector of the ** police said" are often reported in detail.
Sophia UniversityProfessor'sYasuhiko TajimaIs basically the most important principle from the point of view of article accuracy, reliability and transparency, where the source of the information is the most important principle, especially when the source is a politician or bureaucrat who exercises public authority. Clarification is natural, and he argues that concealment of the source should be an exception in cases where the source is life-threatening or seriously disadvantageous..
Anonymity as the basis of democracy
Civil servant OfelectionAtvoteWhat you do is, at the most basic level, the dissemination of political will, but is to be done anonymously (Secret voting).The purpose of this is to prevent others from confirming the voting results of voters, thereby making it difficult for candidates and their related parties to threaten or acquire them.If anonymity is not guaranteed in the electionVoting behaviorBecause it is possible to put pressure on the military and police forces against the background,DemocracyAdvocateDictatorshipMay fall into.
In Japan,Article 15 of the Constitution of JapanIn section 4, in the electionvoteIs required to be anonymous.In addition, the voter's non-responsibility is also specified (the latter part of the same paragraph).
Anonymous on the network
It was popular before the Internet became popularPC communicationUsually one for each individualIDWas issued.In this environment, it was difficult to perform activities such as writing without using an ID.In addition, the ID of the writer was usually known to others.
From such a flow, even on the Internet among those who participated in PC communicationhandleResponsible for your own remarks and actionsNetiquetteWas sometimes said.However, as the use of the Internet spreads among the general public, the number of people who have no experience in personal computer communication has increased, and in Japan, for example, it is huge.Anonymous bulletin board· "channel 2"(After"channel 5With the rise of "), anonymous behavior is widespread, in which people act without using their own handle names.
Basically, when you speak or act on the Internet, if you pursue it in earnest in terms of technology, the IP address of the connected user will be almost known, but it is specific.serverExtreme such as putting a heavy burden onVandalismActs or to a specific personkillNotice etc.crimeRemarks that suggest the possibility of doing something, or talking about one's own criminal acts / experiences nakedlycrimeUnless you make a statement related to, there is basically little risk of being pursued by other users or being exposed.Therefore, it is generally thought that people can speak and act on the Internet without revealing their true identity.[Source required],that isチ ャ ッ ト,Electronic bulletin boardThere is also an opinion that it is creating a hotbed of crimes such as causing the occurrence of people who repeatedly slander others.In addition, it should be notedCrime noticeabout2011年In February, the police identified and arrested the criminal the next day in response to an anonymous murder notice that a street demon murder would occur in front of Shinjuku station.[Source invalid]Anonymous confidentiality on the Internet is becoming limited.
Anonymous remarks represent "not willing to take responsibility for one's actions" and are either anonymous or virtually anonymous handles ("anonymous," "passersby," "passing by," or "ohhh." Some communities explicitly prohibit the use of ad hoc throw-away handles).Also,Social networking servicesIn that way, only those who can be trusted by existing participants are allowed to participate.[Source required]In the form, some communities are emerging to maintain responsible remarks.
On the contrary,channel 2,4chanIn the bulletin board group such as, "Unless there is a special reason, the user basically writes anonymously", and when it becomes necessary to make the content of the statement consistent, the speaker (TripThere is an example of giving the handle (in a form that can be guaranteed to be identifiable by others).
- ^ Digital Daijisen "Anonymous』- Koto bank
- ^ a b c "Open Newspaper" Committee (January 2009, 1). "Open Newspaper" Committee Roundtable (Part 1) Information source, efforts to clarify. Special feature "Open newspaper" (Mainichi Newspapers) 2009/6/10Browse.
- ^ From the arrest of XNUMX in the murder notice