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🚁 | What is the fun and difficulty of operating a drone?


What is the fun and difficulty of operating a drone?

If you write the contents roughly
If you're curious, why not fly a small radio-controlled helicopter or plane first?

Flight operator Yuki Takehara (25) = Fukui City = who shoots images and photos using a drone, drone ... → Continue reading

 Fukui newspaper

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Radio control

In this articleRadio control(British: radio control) AndwirelessControlOrRadio controlI will explain what is called.Abbreviation isRCOrR / C.


Radio control, or radioControlIt is,wirelessByRemote controlSystem, or itsRemoteRefers to the method.model OfAutomobile-airplaneSuch asHobbiesBesides,Industrial-MilitaryIt is used in various fields such as.

General name and registered trademark

EnglishRadio control, its transcription "radio control", and the translated word "radio control" are general names (Common noun).

On the other hand, regarding the name "RC model",JapanThen.2017Even nowMasudaya CorporationHowever, many toys and sporting goods are targeted.toyOther categories "[Note 1]で商標Has the right (Trademark Registration No. 482788)[1].

Since the scope of trademark rights is limited to "as a business" use, it is legally legal for general enthusiasts to refer to other companies' products as "RC models" on a daily basis.[2]..However, selling products that fall under the category of "toys and others" with the name "RC model" is a use of "as a business" and constitutes a trademark infringement, so it may be called "RC" in other companies' products. General (for exampleTamiyaIs the "RC model",KyoshoIs expressed as "R / C model".Co., Ltd.タ カ ラ ト ミ ーSeparately, "Aero RCIs registered as a trademark in Japan (Trademark Registration No. 4881063)[3], No. 4892934[4]). ).

However, since the trademark right extends only to products with the same or similar classification, using the name "RC model" for products other than "toys and others" does not constitute a trademark infringement.For example, "Radicon Magazine" is a "magazine" and does not fall under the category of "toys and others", so even if it is used, it will not be a trademark infringement.[Note 2]. Also,HiroboCo., Ltd. uses "radio control" for toy models, but "radio control" for industrial radio-controlled aircraft that are neither the same nor similar to the "toys and others" category.[6]Is used.

NHKSince there is an internal regulation that prohibits the promotion of products and trademarks of specific private companies, it is called "radio control" and "radio control".

Positioning of radio control in remote control

Remote controlWhat is done in general, remote control (リ モ コ ン).In the old days, for example, two for maneuvering a model airplanewireUsedU-conWired etc.cableThere are almost no communication means to transmit without a cable (that is, "wireless") as opposed to the method usingRadio waveBecause it was only, the name "radio control" (radio control) was established in radio-controlled toys.

Later,Infrared,laser,UltrasoundWireless methods other than radio waves have also emerged.However, since the command signal cannot be transmitted unless it is within the line-of-sight range, it is often used at a very short distance, and radio control by radio waves is still the mainstream as a remote control method.

Radio control in a broad sense

  1. When a pilot (person) performs some operation on the transmitter for some purpose
  2. Information about the operation performed by the pilot gets on the radio wave
  3. Radio waves are received by the receiver mounted on the "thing" at a distance.
  4. The receiver converts the information contained in the radio waves into a unique electric signal and transmits it to the operating device by wire.
  5. The operating device causes physical movements in various parts according to the characteristics of the "thing".
  6. As a result, the entire "thing" behaves as the pilot intended.

It is a concept that summarizes a series of activities, and can be further divided into hard and soft aspects.

This section describes 1-3 (and 4), which is the core of the system. People who see 5 and 6 as the outer shape (concrete shape) are more impressive, but the core of radio control is not that, but rather 1 to 4.

In general (mostly)HobbiesFor use in the model field ofaircraft-Automobile-tank-ShipModels such as these are used to control models from a distance, as if the operator were on board.In addition to hobby model maneuvering, for spraying pesticideshelicopterAndcraneIt is also widely used in industrial machinery such as, and is also used for military purposes and geological surveys.

The "things" that are movedpowerIs diverse,Internal combustion engine(gasoline engine,Glow engine etc),Electric motorEtc. are mainly used.Things that use the power of nature even in actual machines such as gliders and yachts are also used in radio control.[Note 3].



Initially for military purposes, it was first developed as a target maneuver and then as a guided missile guidance system.The basic transmitter was in 1878David Edward HughesBySpark transmitterWas developed and the receiver was in 1894Oliver LodgeByCohera detectorWas developed.

In 1898Madison Square GardenでNikola TeslaThere is a record of moving a small unmanned ship by radio control.Tesla directed the ship as if it were moving according to the instructions of the spectators, but it was actually steered through a receiver installed on board Tesla.[7]

John Hayes Hammond Jr. is called the father of radio control because of an experiment he conducted as an apprentice to Thomas Edison at the age of twelve.Hammond is Tesla's best friend, and both experimented in his castle lab.He learned a lot through his interaction with Tesla.Tesla patented this invention on July 12, 2.[8] Spanish engineer in 1903Leonardo Torres KebedoIs a radio control system "Telekino"Paris Academy of SciencesDemonstrated in France, Spain, United Kingdom and the United States.[9] Inventor Jack Kitchen in 1904Lake windermereI loaded my own experimental radio-controlled device on the steamship Bat and piloted it.

In 1909, the French inventor Gabe "Torpille Radio-AutomatiqueWe demonstrated a radio-controlled torpedo named ".[10] In 1917Royal Flying CorpsIn the experimental departmentArchibald LowHowever, for the first time, he succeeded in radio-controlled flight of an aircraft.

In the 1920s, a variety of radio-controlled vessels were targeted and used in Navy shooting exercises. US Navy battleship in 1922IowaEquipped with the world's first radio-controlled modelTarget shipBecame.[11] It was fitted with a radio-controlled device developed by Hammond and used until it sank during a shooting exercise in March 1923.

SovietRed ArmyWith Finland in the 1930sWinter warでTeletankUsing a wirelessly controlled unmanned tank calledSecond World WarAt the start, they had at least two battalions.The Teletank could be steered from another command tank at a distance of 2–500 m, and the two cars formed one remote mechanical group.The Red Army also had remote-controlled coast guard boats (cutters) and experimental remote-controlled planes.In the same 1,500s, it was a radio-controlled Tiger Moss in England.Queen beeThefleetDeveloped for shooting training.Queen beeLater, with a similar name, was developed exclusively as a higher performance target aircraft.Queen WaspWas changed to.

German troops also during the warRadio guided bulletFritz X,Henschel Hs 293, Introducing a radio-guided tank into the actual battle, Fritz X is an Italian battleship "RomeThe result of the battle was achieved, such as sinking.

From the experiment of the radio-controlled torpedo "Invincible torpedo" in Japan, the radio-controlled torpedo was operated in 1937.Target shipRemodeled to "Settsu'[12]Is actually operated,1930ToHibiya ParkでRadio controlled tank OfNagayamaRecord of the public experiment[13][14]In 1944No. XNUMX type B radio guided bullet,Type XNUMX instep radio guided bulletWas also developed.

At the same time, as a radio control device in the field of hobbies,1937,AsahiyaA scientific magazine published by "Science and modelFor magazinesSpark transmitterとCohera detectorThere is an article about making a scientific model using.

Military use in World War II

Radio control was further developed during World War II, with its protagonist being Germany, used in numerous missile programs.Germany's greatest efforts are with radio-controlled missiles to attack ships that were difficult and dangerous to attack.Glide bombWas directed to.But at the end of the warGerman Air ForceHas similar problems with attacks on Allied bombers, and manyCommand guidanceDeveloped anti-aircraft missiles, but none were commissioned.

The German Air Force's [anti-ship] system is primarilyTelefunkenMade ofFunk-Gerät (Or FuG) 203 Kehl A two-shaft transmitter (with one joystick) mounted on the command aircraft, also Telefunken's FuG 2 Strasburg It is a non-powered armored anti-ship bomb that mounts a receiver on a guided weapon.Fritz XAnd poweredHs 293It was used for guided bombs, but its effectiveness was greatly reduced by British jamming, and later with the support of the US military.Britain has a large number after Germany's early successCommandoWas sent to collect missile radios.Then, when it came to equip British ships with jamming devices, German weapons were totally "useless."The German development team realized thisWired inductionHowever, by the time this type of system became available for combat, the battlefield had already moved to France.

German NavySince 1944, radio-controlled to attack enemy ships full of explosivesMotor boat,FL-Boote (ferngelenkte Sprengboote) Was operated.

Both the United Kingdom and the United States have also developed radio-controlled devices for similar purposes to avoid large anti-aircraft gun positions deployed around targets in Germany.However, none of these systems can withstand combat use, which is a large-scale use case in the U.S. military.(English edition)Then, it was a disposition that brought more danger to the user than the goal.However, the U.S. militaryAZON Guided bombs with the European frontChina Burmind FrontI got a certain effect.

Radio-controlled devices of this era have an overall electromechanical configuration, with small metal "fingers" or different.resonanceFrequency characteristics "LeadWhen each receives a specific frequencyrelayIt was a mechanism to operate one of them.And a variety of relaysActuatorActivated, which moved the control control surface of the missile.The radio transmitter of the control device transmitted different frequencies depending on the movement of the control stick.These were generally ON / OFF signals.However, the radio used to control the control surface of the US military Azon guided ammunition was completely proportional, and the ailerons were controlled only by the gyroscope inside the bomb, preventing rolling.

These systemssemiconductorIt was widely used until the 1960s, when wireless control was greatly simplified by the adoption of.Reed relayThe electromechanical system using the was replaced by a similar electronic circuit, and with the progress of miniaturization, it became possible to handle more control signals in the same size.In early controlsAmplitude modulation2 or 3 channels were at best using, but with modern equipmentFrequency modulationYou can use more than 20 channels by using.

After the war

After the war, those technologies spread and continue to the present day, but it was the forerunner of commercialization.1955Masudaya Saito Trading (currentlyMasudaya Corporation) Is for hobbyRadio control busMet.It was expensive at that timeTransistor,Vacuum tubeWithout usingSpark transmitterとCohera detectorHowever, it was still quite expensive judging from the income level at that time, and it was mainly exported and contributed to the acquisition of foreign currency.At that time, in JapanRadio ActAlthough the approval was successfully obtained, it took a long time to be approved in the United States, and it was released in the summer of the following year.The founders of Sony also disassembled and were surprised at the structure.In addition, Masudaya also operates with the sound of a dedicated whistle.SoniconWas also manufactured, and each was the company's main product at that time.TinplateIt was installed in buses, automobiles, robots, tanks, etc.


Classification by control method

Single type
Motor with ON-OFF signal,EscapementTo operate
Multi type
Read selectorMultiple channels can be operated by separating the tone signals with.Without using a read selector, etc.Logic circuitThere is also a format that realizes multi-channel.
(Pulse proportional)
A method that uses a magnet actuator to steer evenly to the left and right, but when turning, it is biased to either side, making it closer to proportional control.It is still used in micro RC planes.There is also a system in which the actuator is controlled by pulse modulation to perform perfect proportional control.
Low frequency signalCarrier waveProportional control was realized by putting it on.The torque near the stop position was weak, and it was difficult to adjust the interference between channels, so it did not spread.
Currently mainstream by the method usually called radio.Since the servo can be proportionally controlled according to the angle of the stick, it is superior to other methods.The width according to the steering angle is changed by changing the time constant of the pulse transmission circuit by the potentiometer linked to the stick of the transmitter for each channel.Square waveIs created, and the signal of each channel is transmitted at regular intervals in time series by the multiplexer. There is a time when there is no signal for a certain period of time due to the pacing type synchronization.At that time, if there is no signal on the receiving side for a certain period of time, it is reset and the signal is assigned from channel 1.The receiver distributes the incoming signals in chronological order for each channel and sends them to the servo.From the analog method that moves the servo so that the width of the square wave is equal by comparing the width of the square wave and the width of the square wave according to the steering angle of the servo in the servo, between the potential voltage by the microcomputer and the servo control input signal The position servo control software further improves the servo control accuracy and speeds up the operation response.
A method of sending angle information according to the length of the pulse width. Pulses for the number of channels are sent within a cycle of about 20 mS, and the position information of each channel is transmitted according to the width of each pulse.
Unlike the conventional proportional type that sends the servo angle information by the length of the pulse, the stick angle information is sent once.analog/デ ジ タ ルA method in which a converter converts a numerical value before transmission and a receiver decodes it into a pulse again. In recent years, servos have also been digitized, and many of them have high operation accuracy.Currently, the response is higher than the PPM method due to the progress of communication data compression technology.

Classification by radio wave modulation format

Classification by power source

  • EP (Electric Powered)-Electric
  • GP (Gas Powered)-Engine

Classification by purpose of use

For entertainment

In recent years, robots and other non-vehicles have appeared from aircraft, automobiles, ships, etc., and their forms are diverse.It is mainly divided into the following two types according to price and structure. (However, it cannot be divided exactly into two, and there are some overlaps.)

For toys
It is sold mainly at stores that sell toys.Many of them are already assembled and cannot be disassembled and maintained or replaced with consumables (some have all repaired parts and tune-up parts).The purpose is various, from children's toys to display models that are not intended for speed driving.
For hobbies
It is mainly sold at model stores.The purchaser can perform assembly, disassembly and maintenance, replacement of damaged / worn parts, and tune-up.The purpose was speed driving and aerobatic flightperformanceThe main purpose is to enjoy, and since the emphasis is on durability and performance, there is a tendency that details as a model are not created compared to the display model.There are competitions and clubs, and some have world championships.

Other than entertainment use

Industrial radio control
Used for pesticide spraying, pruning, aerial photography, overhead wire installation, disaster area surveys, sunken ship surveys, etc.
Space development, space utilization
Artificial satellite,Space probe,Space telescopeIt is used to remotely control such things from the earth.
For military use
Unmanned aerial vehicle..Used for information gathering and pinpoint attack missions.

In addition to military use, industrial radio-controlled models can be used as weapons, so purchase, disposal, resale, and import / export are strictly regulated.


  • Transmitter-Hobby transmitters usually use proportional methods, so in Japan, "PropoThe abbreviation "" is well established.
  • Receiving machine
  • The servo
  • Electronic speed controller (mechanical speed controller driven by servo is often attached to the vehicle side)
  • Power supply for battery boxes, etc. (For electric radio-controlled models, it may not be included because it is supplied from the main power supply by the BEC (Battery Eliminator Circuit) system)

Radio frequencies that can be used in Japan

Of the radio waves usedfrequencyIs called a band, and there are five bands assigned for this purpose by the Radio Law: 27MHz, 40MHz, 72MHz, 73MHz, and 2.4GHz.Since the number of controllable movable parts is called a "channel", it is presumed that even a single frequency is called a "band" for the sake of distinction.CareerIs correct to call.

By using different bands, it is possible for a large number of people to operate at the same time. The "band" is defined by the Japan Radio Control Safety Association.

27MHz band
12 bands (for ground and water)
40MHz band
8 bands (for ground / water), 5 bands (for air)
72MHz band
10 bands (for air)
73MHz band
Industrial: 3 bands (for ground and water), 7 bands (for air)
2.4GHzISM band
70 bands or more (for ground / water / air)

Major suppliers


Japanese radio (transmitter / receiver) manufacturer

* Japanese radio is most used by enthusiasts around the world.

Manufacturers of radio-controlled models or sets of transmitters / receivers and models

Japanese engine maker

Japanese motor manufacturer

Japanese manufacturer that sold related products in the past


The United Kingdom

The United States of America





Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu

Related item



注 釈

  1. ^ In particular,toy(Excluding toy fireworks, origami, kibigara, and Chiyogami.), Dolls, stamps, balls (toys), karuta, exercise equipment (excluding physical education equipment, gym equipment, starter pistols, skate shoes), baseball Equipment, mari, hardball, softball, tennis equipment, table tennis equipment, kendo equipment, judo equipment, bow, go equipment, shogi equipment, billiard equipment, singing, dice, squirrel, dice cup, diamond game, chess equipment , Checker equipment, Domino equipment, playing cards, flower cards, mahjong equipment.
  2. ^ "Radicon Magazine" is a trademark (Trademark Registration No. 4661074) separately owned by Yaesu Publishing Co., Ltd. in Japan.[5].
  3. ^ The power of a radio-controlled model yacht that is often played in ponds in Western parksWind power.


  1. ^ "Trademark registration 482788". Patent information platform. National Center for Industrial Property Information and Training. 2018/6/1Browse.
  2. ^ "For first-time users> Q & A> Trademarks> What is trademark infringement?”. Japan Patent Attorneys Association Kinki Branch. 2018/6/1Browse.
  3. ^ "Trademark registration 4881063". Patent information platform. National Center for Industrial Property Information and Training. 2018/6/1Browse.
  4. ^ "Trademark registration 4892934". Patent information platform. National Center for Industrial Property Information and Training. 2018/6/1Browse.
  5. ^ "Trademark registration 4661074". Patent information platform. National Center for Industrial Property Information and Training. 2018/6/1Browse.
  6. ^ HIROBO ALL PRODUCTS Catalog 2004-05.Hirobo Co., Ltd.
  7. ^ Tapan K. Sarkar, History of wireless, John Wiley and Sons, 2006 ISBN-0 471-71814-9 pages 276-278
  8. ^ "Archived copy”. As of May 2006, 11オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2006/12/30Browse.
  9. ^ Sarkar 2006, page 97
  10. ^ Gabet and his Torpille
  11. ^ "Coast Battleship No. 4 (ex-USS Iowa, Battleship # 4) --As a Target Ship, 1921–1923". Online Library of Selected Images: US NAVY SHIPS. Naval History and Heritage Command (April 2003, 4). 2012/5/21Browse.
  12. ^ Warship Mecha Development Story-Navy Technology Fighting ISBN 476980394X
  13. ^ Japan Robot War Report 1939 --1945 (pages 164-166) / (NTT Publishing:2007May)
  14. ^ Monthly Grand Power November 2011 Issue


外部 リンク


airplane(History,British: airplane, aeroplane, plane) Is in the airFlightIs a machine thataircraftOut ofJet engineInjection ofpropellerFrom the rotation ofthrustGain by accelerating forward, and by its forward movement and fixed wingLiftでGlideAnd say what emerges[1][2][3].

The shape isFixed wing aircraftEven though similar topowerAn aircraft that does not have a glide and can only glide unless towedグ ラ イ ダ ーCalled.

Second World WarThe period isJetSince it became the mainstream, it is limited to some special uses, research and ideas in the present age.

Some propeller planes have names such as biplanes, but they all represent the number of main wings.

The name of an airplane

JapaneseThe flightMachineThe expression "Mori OgaiIs "Ogura diary"1901(Meiji34) It is said that it was the first time that it was recorded in the article on March 3st.[Note 1].

Airplane flight principle

Simply put, an airplane isJet engineBy moving forward with a propeller or the like,WingsOn the other hand, it gains "airspeed", and thereby gains a lift greater than its own weight, and thus rises. Level flight is when the weight and lift of the plane are balanced.[6].

The lift that supports an airplane is空 気Of the flow of (orWindof)PowerIs a type of[7][Note 2].

The wind force does not change when a stationary object is hit by wind at a certain speed and when an object moves at the same speed in the opposite direction.[7].. For example, if a jet flies in the still air at a speed of 250 m/s, the wind is hitting the airframe from the front at a tremendous speed of 250 m/s. The power of the wind iswind speed OfSquareToProportionalIf you think that even a typhoon with a wind speed of 50-60 m/s has a huge power to destroy a house, you can imagine the strength of the wind that acts on a jet plane. The wing lift is the sameAngle of attackThen, the lift increases in proportion to the square of the speed, and at the same speed, the lift increases as the attack angle increases. When an airplane keeps a certain level and continues to fly horizontally, the lift balances with gravity, and the thrust of the propulsion device acts on the entire airplane.DragWe must try to balance each other. Therefore (when flying horizontally), the angle of attack is reduced when flying at high speed, the angle of attack is increased when flying at low speed, and the lift and gravity are adjusted to balance each other.[7].

In addition, if only the above description is made, it means that "when the attack angle of the wing is increased more and more, level flight is possible even if the speed is reduced", but at the stage when the attack angle reaches a certain limitstallPhenomenon occurs[7].. Therefore, there is a minimum speed at which an airplane can fly safely, which is called "minimum speed" or "stall speed".[7].. For example, it is generally about 200-250km/h for jet transport aircraft. So in this case (the former)ShinkansenYou can fly safely only at speeds above the maximum speed of[7].


平凡 社"World Encyclopedia(1988 version), the structure (or composition) of an airplane[Note 3]) AsWings,Propulsion device,胴体,Landing gear”[8].. According to "Basics and Mechanisms of Airplanes", we are shaping airplanespartsNumber of largePassenger planeIsAirbusIn the case of etc., it will exceed 300 million points, but if it is roughly classified as a structure, any aircraft willWing・It is divided into three parts of the tail[9].

It should be noted that the above is a description of a typical structure of an airplane, and there is a model having a structure different from that. For example,B-2BomberHas no torso and tail likeAll-wing aircraftHas been put into practical use (although a small number).

Aircraft structure

Aircraft(That is, the part that does not include the propulsion system)ConstructionThe types oftruss,beam, Rod, tubeWireThe fixed frame structure composed of etc. is attached as an outer plate, and the feather cloth basically does not bear the strength, but the fixed frame structure bears the strength.trussConstructionIs one of them. other than this,aluminumThe frame structure member of the frame (auxiliary material) was attached inside the alloy outer plate.Monocoque structure, Frame (auxiliary material), stringer (longitudinal member), longelon (strong longitudinal member) frame structural members were attached inside the aluminum alloy outer plateSemi-monocoque structureThere is[Note 4][Note 5] In addition, sandwich the core material between the two plate-shaped outer platessandwich-Shaped plate is used for the outer plate,rigidityThe weight can be increased, the weight can be reduced, and the number of man-hours can be greatly reduced by using less reinforcing material than ever before.Of the moving blade that is installed on the main wingSpoiler,flap,AileronUsed in[10][Note 6].



WingIt is,Kutta-Zukowski theoremDue to this, air circulation occurs above and below the blade, and apparently it has a cross-sectional shape in which the air flow is faster on the upper side of the blade than on the lower side of the blade. (The folklore that "the upper surface of the wing is more swollen than the lower surface, but the airflow passing through the upper side and the airflow passing through the lower side reach the rear end of the blade at the same time, the upper side airflow with a longer path becomes faster." (There is no basis for the assumption that the upper airflow and the lower airflow reach the rear end at the same time, and it is not possible to explain the rear flight and the flight of a paper airplane.)Bernoulli's theoremTherefore, the pressure in the upper part where the air flow is faster is lower than that in the lower part, and due to this pressure difference, an upward force (Lift) Occurs. Generally, the blade cross-section shape (Airfoil) Is swollen on the upper sideConvexThere are various airfoils depending on the flight speed and application. With airfoilWing plane shape(The shape of the wing seen from above) has a great influence on the flight characteristics. A slender planar shape is suitable for efficiently generating lift. The ratio of the length and width of the wing isaspect ratio”(Also called “aspect ratio”)2The larger the aspect ratio, which is represented by the blade area, the larger the lift-drag ratio (ratio of lift to drag) generated on the main wing, and the smaller the induced drag generated by the wing tip vortex of the main wing. Therefore, for high-flying airplanes, slender wings with a large wing aspect ratio are advantageous.[11].Tokyo UniversityAccording to the professorWright brothersThe aspect effect has been understood since the age of[12].. However, if you increase the aspect ratio too muchStrengthProblems come out

The longer the blade is, the more advantageous it is in terms of lift. However, it is inevitable that the load at the base of the blade is increased as a result. The wing of an airplane flying at high speedAir resistanceLess isSwept wingsIs adopted. In other words, if a sweepback angle is added, the velocity component at right angles in the vicinity of the speed of sound at the leading edge of the wing will decrease,shock waveThere is an advantage that the drag force can be reduced (from this advantage, swept wings are adopted in addition to the main wing). Furthermore, due to the relationship between lift and speed, supersonic aircraft require smaller wings because of their higher speed. For this reason,Supersonic aircraftIn delta wings with extremely small aspect ratio,Aussie wingsIs adopted. On the other hand, when the lift is emphasized, for example,Navigation machine, A spy reconnaissance aircraft that flies in an extremely narrow speed range at high altitude " U-2In ", a wing with a large aspect ratio is adopted.[13].

In order to achieve both strength and lightness, the wing structure often adopts a semi-monocoque structure like the fuselage described below.[14].

  • Wing spar: Wing bending of wingsloadとShearA member mainly responsible for force. Most small aircraft have one per wing. There are a few large machines and many more, and the auxiliary ones are called stringers.
  • Wing rib: A thin plate that is orthogonal to the girder, has a wing shape, and is necessary to hold the wing shape. It has the role of transmitting aerodynamic forces from the skin and stringers to the spar, but there is an auxiliary ossicle that does not have the role of transmitting aerodynamic forces to the spar only by holding the airfoil shape. Many are arranged in the spanwise direction.
  • Skin (skin): A thin plate that covers the surface of the rib. Take charge of torsional load.

Depending on the spar, wing ribs, and outer skinstressIt is a skin structureTorsion box structureIs composed of. The torsion box is a box-shaped structure that transmits a torsion load to the machine body, and is strong against bending, shearing force, and torsion. As a type, a structure with a front edge skin attached to one girderSingle girder stress skin structure, The front girder and the rear girder are arranged horizontally, and the outer plate is attached on the top and bottom between them.Double girder stress skin structure, The front girder, main girder, and rear girder are arranged horizontally, and the outer plates are attached above and below the girder.Double girder stress skin structure, A stringer is attached to the two-girder stress skin structure and the three-girder stress skin structure in the spanwise direction inside the outer plate, so that the stringer and the outer plate bear the bending load.Multi-stringer structureThere is. The wing spar is a structural member that transfers the load of the main wing in the fuselage to the fuselage.Carlisle MemberThe auxiliary girders are attached to the mounting fittings in the fuselage body, respectively. In medium and large sized machines, the carlisle member has a torsion box structure, and the left and right main wings are attached to it. In addition, aerodynamic forces such as lift generated on the wing are transmitted in the order of skin → wing rib → wing spar → fuselage.

The thickness of the spar, the thickness of the outer plate, and the material depend on that part.stressThe girder is thin and the outer plate is thin near the tip of the wing. Recently, a method of directly cutting these structures from a large metal rod has also been adopted. Since lift acts in the direction of bending the main wing upward during flight, a material that is strong against pulling is selected for the lower skin and a material that is resistant to compression is selected for the upper skin.FighterFor thin blades like, use materials in combination according to the stress applied to each placeComposite materialIs often used.

The torsion box inside the wing is sealed with a fuel resistant sealant.Fuel tankThis method is often used forIntegral tankCall. In addition, the wing is often equipped with landing gear such as an engine or main landing gear.Attack aircraftWeapons on the main wingbomb-missile,Increase fuel tankThe main wings are required to have sufficient strength in all cases, and the legs and the attachment parts of the armament are sufficiently reinforced.

Modern airplanes have one wing on each side (single leaf), except in special cases. In the rear part of the wing (rear edge)Aileron(Auxiliary wing) and front and rear of the main wing increase lift at low takeoff and landingflapAnd slatsHigh lift deviceIs equipped with. On the upper surface of the wing, to reduce the lift of the wing when applying the air brake during landing and gliding, and during flightSpoilerSome are equipped with. Also, in order to prevent drag increase due to vortex generation at the wing and fuselage joint, and to reduce resistance due to vortex flow generation at the wing tip,WingletSome also wear.

Control device (auxiliary wing, elevator, rudder)

The aircraft controls the attitude around the three axes of the aircraft (pitching,Yawing,rolling) Auxiliary wing which is the main control surface for changingElevator-RudderTo operateMain control deviceAnd the engine andthrottleOperation, flap, air brake,tab,Spoiler,SlatsOperate the auxiliary control surface such asCo-pilotIt is divided into The latter requires a display when operating them[Note 7].

In addition, the type of control deviceHuman-powered control device,Power steering,Booster control,Fly-by-wire controlIs roughly divided into Human-powered control devices are used in small and medium-sized aircraft, and cables (cables) are placed between the cockpit and the control surface.pulley, ま た はrodConnected by a link mechanism that uses a lever, etc.[Note 8]Since the control surface is operated only by human power, it has the advantage that it is easy to work and maintain and highly reliable. This includespulleyUseCable control systemUse push-pull rodsPush-pull rod control systemUse a tube called a torsion tubeTorsion tube control systemThere is. The rope control system is lightweight, has no play, is free to change direction, and is inexpensive. On the other handfriction,wear, Space is required,tensionHowever, the disadvantage is that it requires a large amount of growth. In addition, two lines are used between the cockpit and the control wing surface, and are used in a reciprocating type. If this is a single line, due to a sudden change in posture during flight,Acceleration of gravityThis is because the rope slacks when it is hung on the rope, and the control surface moves freely. The push-pull rod control system has little wear and does not stretch. On the other hand, it is heavy, playful, and expensive. It is necessary to remove the main wing etc. mainly for transportation, and adjustment can be simplified during assemblyグ ラ イ ダ ーUsed in. The torsion tube control system isleverIt is divided into a model and a gear model. The former was attached to the rear of the wingflapIt is used in the flap system that operates the. The latter is characterized by a small frictional force, and is used in places where there is a large change in direction.

Power steering devices are used in large aircraft that require large maneuvering power and in airplanes that fly in the supersonic or subsonic range. The main body of the airplane is linked via a link mechanism provided between the cockpit and the control surface.hydraulicOperated by high pressure hydraulic pressure supplied from the systemActuatorBy operating the control surface. The booster control device is a type of power control device.The booster control device is operated directly between the cockpit and the control wing surface via the same link mechanism as the human-powered control device. And boost the oil pressureActuatorThe force is applied to the control surface by.Fly by wireInstead of a mechanical link,Electrical wireTransmits the operation amount, and the input to the control device is the transmitter.electoronic signalsAnd the electrical signal is converted toAccelerationAnd a flight control computer that incorporates a sensor and computer to detect tiltThe servo-It is transmitted to the actuator and operates the control surface.


AileronOn the left and right edges of the main wing, on the rear edge,HingeAttached by. Ailerons are designed so that when one is raised, the other is lowered. For example, lowering the right side increases the left side in conjunction with it, and lowering the left side increases the right side in conjunction with it. For example, lowering the left auxiliary wing and raising the right auxiliary wing increases the lift on the left wing and decreases the lift on the right wing.MomentWorks. With this moment, the aircraft can be tilted to the right and the aircraft that was tilted too far to the left can be returned to the horizontal position. Also, in the case of a large jet aircraft, it is equipped with two auxiliary wings for low speed range outside the main wing and between the flaps on the inside for full speed range. In the case of, two ailerons are activated, when flying at high speed, the ailerons for the outer low speed range are locked, and only the inner aileron for the entire speed range operates. Both of them tilt the aircraft by operating the flight spoiler installed on the upper side of the main wing that tilts at the same time as the operation of the auxiliary wings. Further, the auxiliary wings are always used when turning the aircraft, and the auxiliary wings are used to tilt the aircraft before turning, and then the rudder is operated to turn.


What is equipped in the vertical directionVertical tail, What extends to the left and rightHorizontal stabilizerIs called. For the vertical stabilizer, the part fixed to the fuselage is the vertical stabilizer, and the movable part behind it is theRudder (or rudder)Call. The horizontal stabilizer is likewise a horizontal stabilizerElevatorIn general, the latter is designed with the mounting angle to the fuselage slightly above the horizontal in consideration of the washing flow from the wing (English: "down wash"). The tail is generallyMomentIt is placed far enough away from the wing to secure Most are installed at the rear end of the fuselage,Entertainment aircraft) Is also available. The structure of the tail wing is similar to that of the main wing, but it has less strength problems and is simpler than the main wing. An airplane without tails (both or only horizontal stabilizers) is called a tailless aircraft. There is also a system called a flying tail in which the entire horizontal stabilizer surface is movable without a fixed horizontal stabilizer. In this case, the horizontal stabilizer is a stabilizer (stabilizer + Elevator) is called. This methodWorld War IFrom the present to the present, it is often adopted in fighters that require mobility. On the other hand, since the entire blade surface is a moving blade and has high efficiency, it is often used in small aircraft because it has the advantage of requiring a small and light tail. For jet aircraft that fly from subsonic to transonic range, equipped with power control device,Trim tabCan not be used, and if the angle of the rudder of the elevator is set large, from the tip of the rudder surfaceshock waveOccurs, the steering force suddenly increases and the effectiveness of the rudder decreases.Therefore, the method of changing the steering angle of the horizontal stabilizer during flight to reduce the steering amount of the elevator is adopted.Adjustable stabilizerIt is called. In this case, the horizontal stabilizer is used for long-term pitch attitude stabilization (trim) and the horizontal stabilizer for short-term control.


In order to generate lift on the wing, it is necessary to use a propulsion device that overcomes the resistance of the air flow hitting from the front and gives the aircraft the speed necessary for flight.[8].

CurrentAircraft engineIt is,Reciprocating engine(diesel engineとgasoline engineOut ofpistonWith one),Gas turbine engine(So-calledJet engine) And roughly divided.

The reciprocating machine sets the engine output shaft speedDecelerationThen,propellerMost of them are driven by the forward lift force generated by each propeller blade. However, those of the gas turbine are as follows depending on the difference in the method of obtaining the propulsion force.

Among them, the turbojet engine is distinguished from the method that mechanically extracts the driving force from the turbine shaft.pure・It is also called “jet engine”. Each of them is properly used depending on its application, making the most of its characteristics.

Besides this,electric motorTurn the propeller with (motor)Electric aircraftThere are already flight examples, and the development of new models is progressing.Flying carThe type with the function as is also being studied.electricityIs installedPower InputOr combined with the engineGeneratorHybrid type obtained from[15]In addition to, attached to the aircraftSolar celluseSolar planeThere is also.

Turn the propeller with human strengthHuman powered planeAlso mainly for adventure andSports-It exists for entertainment purposes.

Other engines that have been adopted in the past include:Second World WarIn Germany from before to the end of the war,KruppとJunkersbyUpside down type (de)2 cyclesdiesel engine,Yumo 205 and Yumo 207Equipped withDornier Do 18(German version) AndBlom und foss BV 138,BV 222On the waterTransport aircraftWankel for small propeller planesRotary engine,Cruise missileV1Used forPulse jet engineBesides, the fighter that appeared in Germany at the end of the war,Me 163And an American supersonic experimental machinebellX-1Such asRocket engineIs an active technology for missiles, and for supersonic (compared to rocket motors) long-range missiles.Ramjet engineIs also an active technology. Of these, the diesel engine,Global warmingIn recent years, the possibility of revival has emerged because it is effective for prevention. For hypersonic long-range missiles and othersScrumjet engineIs under development.

How to count aircraft engines in Japan is "MoverIt is represented by "departure" derived from. this isPrewarIt is a custom from and still used today. A single-equipped aircraft is called a "single-engine" (abbreviated single-shot), and two aircraft are called "twin-engine" (twin-engine). Called 3 shots, 4 shots, and so on.

weightとvolumeWith a large reciprocating engine, the degree of freedom in the engine mounting position is low, and one of the odd-engined engines as well as the single-engined one is the nose, tail, parasol-type (post support high wing arrangement) main wing. It is placed on the centerline of the fuselage in plan view, such as above. Left-right asymmetrical aircraft (BV 141) But the fuselage side with a tail (cockpitThere is no) on the center line. Most of the twin engines and moreWingIt is located at the front edge. For reasons of strength, two engines were set in a group to install together (Dornier Do X), or a two-engine engine without increasing in order to pursue speed (Dornier Do 335In)tandemSome are arranged. In addition, two adjacent engines are connected by a gear, and two engines drive one propeller (Heinkel He 177) Was also seen. These were all born in Germany during the war. To that subspeciesStar engineThere are several examples of increasing the number of steps.

Reciprocating machineWright brothersThe method used from the first machine. CurrentlyHobbiesIn addition to riding inPhoto Summarized video,PesticideScatter,Acrobatic flight, Scenic flight,Water taxiIt is used for etc.

Small to medium size aircraft that take off and land frequently on relatively short distance routes have better takeoff and landing performance than jet aircraft.Turbo propThe machine is more suitable. For that reason, it is called a 10- to 50-seater airliner or in poor condition.AirfieldFor military operationTransport aircraftThere are many turboprop aircraft. Some of them are small aircraft, such as private aircraft, and have turboprop engines.

In modern times, medium to largePassenger planeAndMilitary aircraftOf which, the type that requires high speed (FighterEtc.) are all jet aircraft. Among them, pure jetexhaustEnergyでthrustA method to coverTurbo jetCall.noiseIs large,fuel Of消费There are also many. EconomyCruising distanceAt present, passenger planes that emphasize environmental performance have good fuel economy and relatively low noise.Turbo fanThe method is the mainstream. This is a system in which a fan is installed at the forefront of the engine and both the thrust obtained by turning this fan with the turbine shaft output and the thrust of jet exhaust are used.空港When you look at the engine of a jet airliner from the front, you can see well that a fan with many blades (fan blades) is spinning. For more informationJet engineSee.

Mounting on the aircraft

When mounting a piston engine on a single-engine aircraft, use the engine mount (engine mount) that is attached to the tip of the fuselage via a fire wall.Bolts and nutsMounted via a vibration absorbing rubber cushion or pad. In the case of multi-engine aircraft, the outer plate on the main wing,Cowling, A semi-monocoque structure consisting of a structural member, a firewall, and an engine mountNacelleThe engine is installed there. For jet engines, below the wing or at the rear of the fuselagePylonIn many cases, it is connected to the engine pot through the fire wall and the engine mount and arranged in parallel. Represented by jet fightersspeedとMotilityIn an aircraft that emphasizesAir resistanceReduction andmass (mass) Due to concentration, the engine is placed inside the fuselage, both single and multiple.

In the case of a piston engine mounted on a single-engine aircraft, it is surrounded by a removable cowling. When installing a large reciprocating engine or turboprop engine, some are covered with a cowl panel with a fire wall,HingeIt is possible to open the cowl panel by. Also,Air-cooled piston engineWhen equipped with, the cowling or the cowl panel is equipped with a cowl flap for cooling the engine, and when operated during flight, it is possible to flow air from the front through the cowl flap To cool the engine. The jet engine cowl panel is installed to allow the air flowing outside the engine body to flow smoothly and to protect the engine itself from damage, and the nose cowl at the tip and hinges on the top or bottom surface are removed. It is composed of a cowl panel and a fixed cowl panel.


On the body,pilotIncluding passengers/passengers/luggage (cargo) Is installed. Also stores the nose landing gear (typically for medium and larger aircraft)[Note 9].. furtherfuelSome are equipped with a tank and main landing gear. The cockpit part is "cockpit", the guest room part is "cabinThe underfloor compartment is called a "berry". For single-engine and three-engine aircraft, one engine is mounted at the front or the rear of the fuselage. There was nothing to call the fuselage on the first airplane, and the cockpit was a simple structure on a wooden frame.chairWas posted. After that, it became a structure in which a wooden frame was covered with a durable canvas, and now it is on the surface of the frame that is combined vertically and horizontally.AluminumAlloyCarbon fiber reinforced plasticThe mainstream is a semi-monocoque structure with a thin (CFRP) plate. Note that the air is thin (hence(I.e.Is lowoxygenPassenger planes that fly in high altitudes are partitioned by a circular front pressure bulkhead and a rear pressure bulkhead inside the fuselage.[Note 10]This keeps the area between them at a pressure altitude of 8000 ft or less.Pressurization". Therefore, in addition to the load during flight, the fuselage structurePressure vesselAs a result, the structure must withstand the internal pressure.

The body of the semi-monocoque structure is mainly composed of the following members.

  • Longitudinal material (stringer): Bending in the longitudinal direction of the bodyloadIt is a member mainly responsible forrigidityHave a role to increase. Even small machines have several, and large machines dozens on the circumference. Especially strong ones are called longirons.
  • Circle (frame): A member in the vertical direction of the fuselage that is orthogonal to the stringer and maintains the shape of the fuselage. A ring frame is inserted between the main frames to keep the body shape constant.
  • Skin (skin): A thin plate stretched on the outside of the frame. Part of tensile/compression load.

Landing gear

Currently, most of the models have a structure in which there are 3 legs with "legs (struts) + wheels" called a front wheel type. There is a small leg called nose gear (front leg) at the front of the fuselage, and a pair of main legs are arranged on the left and right slightly behind the center of gravity. The main wheels support 90% of the weight of the aircraft, and even more load is applied when landing, resulting in a lightweight and robust structure and cushioning.suspensionIs required. Today, many airplanes, except small aircraft, are equipped with "retractable legs" that fold the landing gear during flight to store it inside the fuselage, nacelle, and wing in order to reduce air resistance. The part to store isWheel wellIt is called. Also had a floatSeaplane,Amphibious aircraft, For snowy areasSkiSome are equipped with.

Used when landingbrakeIs hydraulicDisc brakeIs. For small machines, there is often one disc, but for large machines, there are many segmented rotor systems that use multiple disks.Anti-skid functionMany have. Also on the wheelsタ イ ヤSome large aircraft have four or eight wheel tires on one leg. Many tires are lined up to disperse the shock at the time of touchdown to withstand the shock. More unexpectedPunkThis is to prepare for. In any case, since it is used under severe conditions, its life is short, and tire replacement and rubber rewinding times are set for each model according to the number of landings.[16].

Facilities and personnel that support the operation of airplanes

Most fixed-wing aircrafttake off,landingHas a certain lengthRunwayis necessary.Vertical takeoff and landing aircraft,RotorcraftSince maintenance and refueling are indispensable, airplanes have facilities to support them.Airfield(private空港,Air force base) Based. Is the airplane assembly plant also adjacent to the airfield so that it can fly as it is after completion?[17], Often equipped with a runway.

LightweightMilitary aircraftThere are also examples of takeoffs and landings on rough terrain outdoors (during World War IIGran Sasso attackSuch).Seaplane,Flying boatIt is possible to take off and land on the sea surface and lake surface. AlsoAircraft carrierIt is,Carrier-based aircraft(Aboard) Can be operated.

AirplanePilot Thepilot, Technicians who inspect and repairAviation mechanicCall.

Airplane history

December 1903, 12 in the United StatesWright brothers Light flyerSantos Dumont flew the "1906-bis" in Europe on October 10, 22. This plane was the first aircraft to take off by its own means. At this time, the skeleton was generally made of wood and the wings were generally upholstered.[18].

Aircraft type

Even if we say "types of airplanes", they are just groupings for classification. Here, in accordance with existing introductory books, etc., the classification focusing on the purpose and size and the classification focusing on the appearance are shown.[19]Some examples of typical aircraft are added as supplementary notes.[20].

Pilot qualificationengineType of (ReciprocatingOrTurbine), number of engines (single or frequent), operating location (on land only)On the water) Are classified in 8 grades.

Classification by application

Commercial aircraft

  1. Training machine =Stearman Model 75
  2. Passenger plane
    1. Airbus[Note 11]=Airbus A320,Boeing 747
    2. commuter-Regional jet[Note 12]=De Havilland Canada DHC-8,Embraer ERJ 145
  3. Freighter [Note 13]
    1. Postal machine[Note 14]
  4. General aviation[Note 15]
    1. Agricultural machine=Grumman Agcat
    2. Business machine=Mitsubishi MU-2 Mooney
    3. Firefighting/disaster prevention machine [Note 16]
      1. Disaster prevention machine[Note 17]
      2. Aerial fire extinguisher
      3. Rescue plane
      4. Air ambulance[Note 18]
    4. Sports machine[Note 19]=Cessna 172,
    5. Racing machine
      1. Aerobatics[Note 20]=Pitts special
      2. Air raceMachine =Jibco edge 540
  5. Experimental machine
  6. Research machine

Military aircraft

In this paper, even unarmed aircraft that do not carry weapons are considered military aircraft if they are used for military purposes.

  1. Fighter=F-15 Eagle,Mirage 2000,MiG 21
  2. Bomber=Avro Balkan,Tupolev Tu-22M backfire,Rockwell B-1
  3. Reconnaissance aircraft=Lockheed SR-71
  4. Early warning aircraft=Grumman E-2A Hawkeye
  5. Early warning and control aircraft=E-3 (aircraft)
  6. Aerial commander =E-4 (aircraft),E-6 (aircraft)
  7. Transport aircraft[Note 21]=Kawasaki C-1,Lockheed C-130 Hercules
  8. Aerial refueling machine=Boeing KC-135 Strato Tanker
  9. Patrol aircraft=Shinmeiwa PS-1,Lockheed P-3C Orion
  10. Rescue plane
  11. Experimental machine
  12. Research machine
  13. testing machine[Note 22]
  14. ■(Multi-roll machine) =F-16Since then, fighter jets of major countries are becoming more versatile.

Government agency

Non-military international organization (United NationsEtc.), multinational joint operation (EUEtc.), central government agencies,Self-governing territory,Local government-MunicipalitiesAircraft such as. The mission may be part of a civilian or military aircraft.

  1. Government machine(For mobilization of key personnel.Japanese Government Machine,USAAir force oneSuch)
  2. Fire・Disaster prevention machine
  3. Aerial fire extinguisher
  4. Rescue plane
  5. Air ambulance[Note 23]
  6. Transport aircraft
  7. Warning machine[Note 24]
  8. Patrol aircraft[Note 25]
  9. testing machine[Note 26]
  10. Experimental machine
  11. Research machine
  12. Observation machine[Note 27]
  13. Map-ChartShooting machine for etc.
  14. Postal machine[Note 28]

Type classification by shape

Number of wings

Biplane-Monoplane-Triplane-Multiplane-Tandem wing aircraft

Wing position

Classification in monoplane. Detail isMonoplaneSee.

Low wings, Middle wings,High wings(Often used for transport aircraft because cargo can be easily taken in and out), parasol wings (Flying boatMany)

Wing shape

Classification in plane form =Rectangle/backward/forward/triangle/variable・Oval/Aussie.

Number of engines

In the case of a single shot, the jet aircraft is usually installed in the fuselage, and in the reciprocating machine, it is attached to the front or the end of the fuselage. In the case of twins or more, the position is mostly at the wing or the rear of the fuselage. Currently for light aircraft and some operations and trainingMilitary aircraftOther than that, considering the risk of failure, the engine is more than twin engines.
Single-engine, twin-engine,Three-engine・Four-engine/multi-engine.

Engine type

  1. Reciprocating
  2. Turbine(Turbo, turbofan, turboprop, ram, pulse)
  3. rocket[Note 29]=Sonic experimental machine Bell X-1-Me-163 Comet-Autumn water-Nutter■Nutter is an attack missile, but since it is a manned wing, it is illustrated as an airplane.
  4. electric motor

Propulsion method

Propeller planeClassification in.

Propulsion ceremony-Towable-Push-pull method

Landing gear

Front wheel type, tail wheel type, tail sled type, tandem type, float, hull (flying boat), sled

Classification by speed

Speed ​​of soundSubsonic speed, transonic speed (Mach0.75-1.25),Supersonic(Mach 1.25 or higher).[Note 30]

Classification by takeoff and landing methods

Vertical takeoff and landing aircraft, Short-range takeoff vertical lander,Vertical/Short-range take-off and landing aircraft, Short range take-off and landing aircraft, normal take-off and landing aircraft,catobarAircraft and short-range takeoff restraint landing aircraft (Aircraft carrierでcatapult,Arresting wire,Arresting hook, Aerial starter,SledgeLanding gear


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ On this day, the forest (at that time12th DivisionMilitary doctorDirector)Ryoichi YagamiIs "preaching the history of airplanes"[4].. However, the flight machine I was planning wasairshipIt is believed that it was possible that[5].. PrecedingChuhachi NinomiyaIs flyingDeviceWas used.
  2. ^ In addition, there is a rumor saying that the principle of why an airplane flies is not scientifically elucidated, but this is a mistake, and it was actually elucidated more than 100 years ago ( Broken link.Hiroyuki Yamanaka (May 2014, 5). "Is it true that I don't know why an airplane flies?" ”. Nikkei Business. http://business.nikkeibp.co.jp/article/interview/20140514/264597/ 2014/5/17Browse. ï¼‰
  3. ^ The "Encyclopedia of the World" is an encyclopedia for the general public, so it is dealt with in the chapter called "Structure", but "Structure" has various meanings. It may not be misleading to read "structure" as "composition".
  4. ^ The truss structure is also called "frame structure", and there is a platform truss structure in which longlons (strong longitudinal members) are connected by vertical and horizontal columns, and a longlon (strong longitudinal members) are connected by diagonal columns. ..
  5. ^ Since the monocoque structure and semi-monocoque structure are structures that share the strength between the frame structure and the outer plate.Stress skin structureIt is called.
  6. ^ For the material of the outer plate and the core material,Synthetic resinOr metal is used,loadSince the outer plate mainly bears, the core material has a structure that is weak against load. Moreover, the shape of the core material is foamed, wavy, or the like. A typical shape is hexagonalhoneycombThe shape (honeycomb) is used, and the one using this is called.
  7. ^ Display devices such as engine speed, tab trim rudder angle, and flap angular position are installed in the cockpit.
  8. ^ By moving the movement of the rope through the quad land and the torque tube, the torque tube that transmits to the push-pull rod, the bell crank that changes the direction of the push-pull rod movement, and the parts called sectors, There is a sector that transmits movement to the rope, and there is a cable drum that winds and unwinds the rope by turning the cable drum connected to the operating wheel.
  9. ^ Most landing gears on the landing gear of most modern airplanes are of the front wheel type with three fulcrum wheels. The main leg is usually attached to the main wing at the center of gravity.
  10. ^ A portion (wheel well) for accommodating the landing gear (landing gear) is constituted by a flat plate-shaped pressure partition wall after the body is cut out.
  11. ^ Originally Airbus was a category of wide-body airliners, but in recent yearsAirbusDue to the rise of the company, other companies' wide body aircraft are no longer being described as Airbus.
  12. ^ Air transport service routes that complement main air routes with small and medium-sized aircraft
  13. ^ Many aircraft have been modified passenger aircraft
  14. ^ MailAn aircraft used to carry. In modern times, there is no dedicated plane because it is loaded in the empty space of cargo planes and passenger planes. In some countries, the postal service is open to the private sector, and along with the parcel delivery service, the private sector operates it.
  15. ^ Aircraft used outside the air transportation business. Commercial aircraft used for aerial photography, news reports, sightseeing, and private use
  16. ^ A civilian aircraft that undertakes disaster prevention and emergency missions from police and fire departments.
  17. ^ Aircraft that confirms the disaster situation from the air.
  18. ^ Doctor helicopterThere are many.
  19. ^ Aircraft that is not for competition but for personal enjoyment such as sightseeing flight
  20. ^ There are many common aircraft for air race and acrobatics.
  21. ^ Generally, personnel transportation is also included in the mission.
  22. ^ Testing and certification for airports and radar facilities
  23. ^ Doctor helicopterThere are many.
  24. ^ Police/land国境security·drugImport warning etc.
  25. ^ In some countries patrol missions are carried out by government agencies other than the military.
  26. ^ Testing and certification for airports and air facilities
  27. ^ Observation target is ground, water, weather, space, etc.
  28. ^ MailGovernment-only aircraft for carrying. In modern times, there are no government mail machines.
  29. ^ There is a view that "airplane engines are limited to piston engines or gas turbine engines", so in that case equipment such as space shuttles equipped with rocket engines are outside the scope of aircraft (* missiles are excluded from the beginning. ). (Source: Naoki Nakayama, Akira Sato, "Basics and Mechanisms of Airplanes," Shuwa System, 2005, p. 12)
  30. ^ "Mach number" isSpeed ​​of sound(15 m/s on the ground at an air temperature of 1°C and 340.3 atmosphere. Approximately 1,225 km/hour) The speed is expressed as a ratio. All propeller aircraft are classified as "subsonic".Piston engineThis is because the maximum speed of is about Mach 0.55.


  1. ^ "Kojien] Fifth Edition p.2234 [Flight] Inside [Airplane]
  2. ^ 平凡 社"World EncyclopediaVolume 23, 1988 edition p.409-417 [Airplane] Item Author: Hidemasa Kimura/Introduction p.409-410
  3. ^ Hidemasa Kimura's "Basic Elementary Handbook" 1951,SankaidoJournal
  4. ^ Japan's first computer developed in the Meiji era "automatic counting board" IEICE Fundamentals and Boundary Society Fundamentals Review 2010 Volume 4 Issue 2 p.105-112, two:10.1587 / essfr.4.105
  5. ^ "Survey Report on Ryoichi Yazu's Mechanical Desktop Computer "Automatic Abacus"" (Kahaku History of Technology (Technology Systematization Survey Report)) P.286
  6. ^ Akio Kobayashi, "Principles of Flight with Paper Shoe", Kodansha, 1993 ISBN-978 4061327337
  7. ^ a b c d e f Heibonsha "Encyclopedia of the World" Volume 23 Revised 2007 p.412-421 [Airplane] [Principle of flight]
  8. ^ a b Heibonsha "Encyclopedia of the World" Volume 23 p.415-420 [Airplane] [Performance and structure]
  9. ^ Naoki Nakayama and Akira Sato, "Basics and Mechanisms of Airplanes"Hidekazu system 2005 p. 13 ISBN 4798010685
  10. ^ Hiroshi Fujiwara "Airplane structure" Japan Aviation Technical Association April 2012, 4 1rd edition 3st edition p1-p4 ISBN-4 902151-02-2.
  11. ^ Akio Kobayashi "Flying Principles Learned from Paper Drawing"Kodansha, 1993, 69 pages
  12. ^ Shinji Suzuki "Airplane Story"Chuko Shinsho1694, 2003, 126 pages
  13. ^ Seiichi Iida "Flying, its mechanism and fluid dynamics"Ohmsha,Year 1995
  14. ^ Naoki Nakayama and Akira Sato, "Basics and Mechanisms of Airplanes," Hidekazu System 2005, p. 14 ISBN 4798010685
  15. ^ "Electric aircraft pay attention to the next generation/No noise or vibration""Mainichi Shimbun" Morning edition September 2018, 9 (Forest of Science) Read September 13, 2018.
  16. ^ Mikitake Ishikawa "Japan Airlines Maintenance Manual" 1959 edition
  17. ^ MRJ exhibition facility, reservation open at the end of NovemberAsahi ShimbunDIGITAL (2017 October 10) Retrieved 31 September 2018.
  18. ^ "Telegram from Orville Wright in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, to His Father Announcing Four Successful Flights, 1903 December 17". World Digital Library (September 1903, 12). 2013/7/21Browse.
  19. ^ Naoki Nakayama and Akira Sato, "Basics and Mechanisms of Airplanes," Hidewa System, 2005, pages 18-24 ISBN 4798010685
  20. ^ The most popular illustration body, "Large View", was published by Kodansha in 1984.

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