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🥾 | Shigenori Amano = Father of Tetsuto Amano = Fighter of the North Fuji Maneuver Area


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Shigenori Amano = Father of Tetsuto Amano = Fighter of the North Fuji Maneuver Area

 
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We negotiated with the former Army and allowed them to admit to the "North Fuji Exercise Area".
 

Shigenori Amano is backed by a large sign that says, "A forest miscellaneous compensation money that does not have a bundle of grass and soda is a heron." XNUMX, Kitafuji ... → Continue reading

 Nikkei newspaper


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North Fuji Exercise

Imperial Japanese Army

Imperial Japanese Army(Dainippon Teikokurikun, Dainihon Teikokurikun,Old font : Empire of Japan 󠄁 Army) Is1871(Meiji4 years)- 1945(ShowaUp to 20 years)JapanExisted in軍隊It is an organization.Known asJapanese Army,Imperial Army,army.

After dismantlingJapan Ground Self-Defense ForceTo distinguish fromFormer Japanese Army,Imperial Japanese Army,Old armyIs also used.

Name

Imperial Japanese ArmyThe name is a foreign name or an external communication document,公 文書To some ofMeijiIt has been used since the 10s.As an example,1918(Taisho 7) at that timeMinister of ArmyKenichi Oshima(Terauchi Cabinet)ButThe United KingdomkingGeorge VDedicated toCongratulationsIn "His Majesty the British Emperor, Minister of the Army Yori Congratulations (January XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX:XNUMX pm power generation)"Japanese Army-Imperial Army-Imperial Japanese ArmyEach name is used[1].

BritishThe name isImperial Japanese Army,Japanese Imperial Army,Japanese ArmySuch.Of these, it corresponds to the "Imperial Japanese Army (Imperial Japanese Army)"Imperial Japanese ArmyThe name and name of1913(Taisho 2nd year)British Army Ministry(Current:Department of DefenseArmy Department)William Cunningham GreeneBritish Ambassador to JapanviaMinister of Foreign AffairsNobuaki Makino(Second Yamamoto Cabinet), A new model of JapanType XNUMX carbineIsType XNUMX carbine1 Used in English texts requesting donations[2].

Overview

Imperial Japanese ConstitutionBefore the enactment, its position was still insufficient, but after the constitution was enacted, the military power was constitutionally.CabinetIndependent and directly fromEmperor OfCommandershipIt was supposed to belong to.Therefore, the Army and Navy (Japanese army) Is the commander-in-chiefMarshalThe only Emperor of Japan, about the Imperial Japanese ArmyMinister of Army(Minister)・Chief of Staff(President)・Superintendent of education(General Manager) Is at the highest level except the emperor (direct slave), and these areThree Army SecretariesWas called.In addition, to the three secretariesArmy generalNoArmy Lieutenant GeneralIs appointed, so even though the position itself is the highest rank of the Imperial ArmyclassIn itself, the highest ranks are not necessarily appointed, and in particular, many Army lieutenant generals are appointed to successive Army Ministers and Inspectorate General of Education.

Assistant to these three secretariesorganAlso called "Ministry" or "Central"Ministry of Army-Chief of Staff-Inspectorate General of EducationTwo ofOfficial(Government office) is set up, and the Minister of the Army (Ministry of the Army)Military administration-human resources, The Chief of Staff (General Staff Headquarters)Military decree-Strategy-mobilization, The Inspectorate General of Education (Inspectorate General of Education)EducationWas in charge of each.In addition, as the second-ranked junior equivalent in the order of the three institutionsUnder Secretary of the Army(Under Secretary, Ministry of the Army)Deputy Chief of Staff(Deputy head, General Staff) ・General Manager of Inspectorate General of Education(General manager, Inspectorate General of Education).

1938(Showa 13) December, for expansion / independence of air power and flexibility of commandInspectorate General of AviationIs newly established.Inspectorate General of AviationMainly headed by (general manager)Aviation schoolI was in charge of education for the Army Air Force[3]..Aviation-related schools (partly) at the end of World War IISupplementary school(Excluding)軍隊Inspectorate General of Aviation was abolished,Aviation GeneralWas reorganized into.

The General StaffWar time-IncidentOccasionally established as the Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy (corresponding to the highest headquarters in foreign forces)OmotoInImperial Headquarters Army DepartmentIt is the existence that creates the continental life that is issued in the name of Generalissimo, but this does not mean that the Chief of Staff becomes the so-called Commander-in-Chief of the Army (corresponding to the Commander-in-Chief of the Army and the Commander-in-Chief of the Army).The Inspectorate General of Education (Inspectorate General of Education) is in charge of the education of the Imperial Japanese Army.military police-accounting-health-Legal affairs,Armor-aviation,Staff-IntelligenceSchools, etc. related to specific duties such as the Ministry of the Army, the General Staff Headquarters, the Inspectorate General of Aviation, and their respectiveOuter officeIs under the jurisdiction of.

design

Military flag

The predecessor of the Imperial Japanese ArmySoldiersBefore the inauguration1870June (May 6), as a symbol of the new Imperial Japanese ArmyXNUMXth Article Rising Sun FlagWas the designArmy national flagAdopted, and further1879In (Meiji 12), the Rising Sun Flag, which partially revised the specifications of the Army flag,Military flagIt has been established as.

This military flagRegiment flagAsInfantry regimentCavalry regimentAlthough it was given to only by Generalissimo (Emperor), the design of the Rising Sun Flag was widely recognized and used by both military and civilians as a "symbol of the Imperial Japanese Army."In addition, the Imperial Japanese Army was the first in Japan to devise and adopt the so-called "Rising Sun Flag" that uses the design of the Asahi.

Ministry of the Army enacted march

Parade march

1886(19th year of Meiji),Charles Leroux Ministry of MilitaryComposed on behalf ofMarch..Composed by myselfMilitary song"Sword corps"When"Fuso songBased on the two songs of ""Parade march("Fuso Uta") ”was produced.The premiereArmy corpsMilitary bandIn performanceRokumeikanIt was done in.This song is1902After the second revision of (Meiji 35), it became the current form.Next year1903It is enacted as a formal march of the Ministry of the Army, which was reorganized and established by the Ministry of War in (Meiji 36).1889(Returned to Japan in 22).

Mainly various armiesSpectator ceremony(Gift-Tencho-Army beginning), It was performed in the parade at the military parade of divisions.Also, each private sectorLabelInrecordWas converted intoNational schoolIt was also popular in the private sector, as it became a theme song for performing arts music.

"Army march marchIt is also known as "Army", but the title of "Army" cannot be confirmed before the war.[4]..English translations include "Army Defile March" Fusouka "".

Military parade march

The composer and year of composition are unknown.A march used to divide the walking unit.

Equestrian troop march

The composer and year of composition are unknown.Motorized infantry unit-Armor-Mechanized artillery unit-Draft artillery unit-Flight unitA march that was performed during a shunting march / flight.

"Koji", a march on the foot

The composer and year of composition are unknown.Cavalry unitIt was played during the march of the branch.gallop(Canter and gallop) type march.

cap badge

In the early days of the Imperial Japanese ArmyAsahi Rising SunThe design of "EmblemCalledcap badgeWas used for, but later generalDivisionPersons belonging to (general soldiers) and the ArmyMilitary affiliationIs "Five-pointed star"Pentagram" with the design of "(Pentagram)"KonoeWith the title ofKonoe DivisionThose who belong to the unit belonging to the "Star badge"SakurabaI used the one covered with "" as a cap badge.However, the officer's associate officer has a "first-class cap" with the Order of the Rising Sun as a cap badge.Formal wearAs a "cap" to be worn from time to time, non-commissioned officers who belong to the ceremonial unit also use "service clothes" similar to the cavalry officer's associate officer's cap (cap) until the Second World War. ing.

Military uniform

Gallery

weapon

system

組織

The organization of the Imperial Japanese Army is a government officeOfficial-TroopsIs an organization軍隊-GeneralTo train or re-educateDedicated to pre-school and extra curricular(Implementation school / supplementary school) ・ Responsible for hygieneArmy hospitalAnd does not belong to any of theseSpecial agencyIt was divided into.

Class: 19 (Showa 1944)-At the time of abolition

Army military rank: 1944 (Showa 19) August 8-abolished
classMilitary departmentEach part
Engineering DepartmentAccounting departmentMinistry of HealthVeterinary departmentMilitary bandLegal department
military policeMain accountConstruction techniqueMilitary doctorDrugdentisthealthVeterinarianVeterinarianBusinessLegal affairsLawOffice work
Marshal
Marshal GeneralMarshal Army General (Honorary Position)
generalArmy general
Lieutenant generalArmy Lieutenant GeneralArmy Vice AdmiralArmy Chief GeneralLieutenant General of Army ConstructionArmy Surgeon GeneralArmy Lieutenant GeneralLieutenant General of Army DentistVeterinary General of the ArmyArmy Legal General
Major GeneralMaj. Gen. ArmyMajor General of Army TechnologyMajor General of the ArmyMajor General of Army Construction TechnologyArmy GeneralstabsarztArmy Rear AdmiralRear Admiral of Army DentistRear Admiral Veterinary ArmyRear Admiral of Legal Affairs
ColonelArmy ColonelArmy Kempeitai ColonelArmy Technical ColonelArmy ColonelArmy ColonelArmy Army ColonelArmy Drug ColonelArmy Dentist ColonelArmy Veterinary ColonelArmy Legal Colonel
Lieutenant colonelArmy Lieutenant ColonelLieutenant Colonel ArmyArmy Lieutenant ColonelLieutenant Colonel of the ArmyLieutenant Colonel of Army ConstructionLieutenant Colonel Army SurgeonArmy Lieutenant ColonelLieutenant Colonel Army DentistLieutenant Colonel Veterinary ArmyLieutenant Colonel of Army Legal
MajorArmy MajorArmy MajorArmy MajorMajor of the ArmyMajor of Army Construction TechnologyArmy MajorArmy MajorMajor Army DentistArmy Hygiene MajorMajor Army VeterinarianArmy Veterinary MajorArmy Military Band MajorArmy Legal MajorArmy Legal Affairs Major
CaptainArmy CaptainArmy Captain KempeitaiArmy Technical CaptainArmy CaptainArmy Captain Construction TechnologyArmy Army Medical CaptainArmy Drug CaptainArmy Dentist CaptainArmy Hygiene CaptainArmy Veterinary CaptainArmy Veterinary CaptainArmy military band captainArmy Legal CaptainArmy Legal Affairs Captain
LieutenantArmy LieutenantArmy LieutenantArmy LieutenantLieutenant of the ArmyLieutenant of Army ConstructionLieutenant ArmyArmy Lieutenant DrugLieutenant Army DentistArmy Hygiene LieutenantLieutenant Army VeterinarianArmy Veterinary LieutenantArmy military band lieutenantArmy Legal LieutenantArmy Law Lieutenant
LieutenantArmy EnsignSecond Lieutenant ArmyArmy EnsignArmy EnsignArmy EnsignArmy EnsignArmy EnsignArmy Dentist EnsignArmy Hygiene EnsignArmy Veterinary EnsignArmy Veterinary EnsignArmy military band lieutenantArmy Legal EnsignArmy Law Ensign
Warrant OfficerWarrant OfficerWarrant Officer Army KempeitaiArmy Warrant OfficerWarrant Officer of the ArmyWarrant Officer, Warrant OfficerArmy Warrant OfficerWarrant Officer of the Army Veterinary AffairsWarrant Officer Army Military BandArmy Warrant Officer
SergeantMaster Sergeant ArmyArmy Chief Master SergeantArmy Master SergeantArmy Master SergeantArmy Master SergeantArmy Master SergeantArmy Veterinary Master SergeantArmy military band chief sergeantMaster Sergeant of the Army Law
SergeantArmy SergeantArmy Kempeitai SergeantArmy SergeantArmy SergeantArmy Sergeant Construction SergeantArmy SergeantArmy Veterinary SergeantArmy military band sergeantArmy Law Sergeant
corporalArmy CorporalCorporal Army KempeitaiArmy Corporal TechnologyCorporal of the ArmyArmy CorporalArmy Corporal HygieneArmy Veterinary CorporalArmy military band CorporalCorporal of Army Law
CaptainArmy CaptainArmy Kempeitai CaptainArmy Technical CaptainArmy Hygiene CaptainArmy military band captainArmy Law Secretary
Private soldierArmy senior soldierArmy Kempeitai Senior SoldierArmy Technical Senior SoldierArmy Hygiene Senior SoldierArmy military bandArmy Legal Affairs Senior Soldier
First class soldierArmy First ClassArmy Technical First ClassArmy Hygiene First Class
Private soldierArmy PrivateArmy Private PrivateArmy Hygiene Private

Combat occupations and in the Imperial Japanese Armymilitary policeTheMilitary department(Heika), the back support occupationEach part(Kakubu) and put togetherArmy DepartmentIt was called (Heikabu).Infantry-Artillery-Cavalry-Engineer Department-Logistics Officer-Aviation DepartmentThe military division of1940(Showa 15) Due to the amendments on September 9th and 13th, the military police were abolished except for the military police, and they were collectively referred to as "army department".Fixed color"(Waffenfarbe) Was also abolished.In addition, this is just abolishing the conventional military division, and the name and occupation of "military", which means the battle occupation in a broad sense, is further subdivided.Type, And each part and each part "Fixed colorIs alive.Except for a short period at the beginning of the construction (Saigo TakamoriArmy Marshal), in the Japanese ArmyMarshalIs not a classMarshalGiven to the Admiral of the Army and Navy lined up intitle(Marshal Army General).In the Imperial Army, a second lieutenant from a generalOfficer, Warrant OfficerAssociate officer, From Master Sergeant to CorporalNoncommissioned officer, From captain to privateSoldierWas called.generalThe general is the shinninkan, and the lieutenant general and major general areRoyal officer,Officer-Lieutenant TheCommander, Warrant officers and non-commissioned officersjunior officialAnd these aremilitary attacheBarrelOfficialWhen appointed to these classes, they are called officers.Soldiers are a duty of the peoplemilitary serviceBecause it is a rank given to the military by the military, it is not called an officer rather than an official[5]..Army Preparatory Officer School[6]・ Students such as Army Children's School and Army Boys' Flight Soldier School are not assigned a class.

Incidentally,1932Until it was revised in June (Showa 7), it was a non-commissioned officer and a graduate of a soldier ("first-class soldier" is "first-class graduate", "second-class soldier" is "second-class graduate") Until it is revised, "Warrant Officer" will be changed to "Chief Master SergeantWas called.Also, in February 1932 (Showa 7), the equivalent government system of each department was abolished and it became equivalent to the military department ("Equivalent officer of each department" is "officer of each department"), and the class name became the same ("Army military doctor"). "Warrant Officer" is "Army Warrant Officer", "Army First Class Drug Positive" is "Army Drug Colonel", "Army First Chief" is "Army Chief", and "Army Senior Hoist Iron Chief" is "Army Veterinary Medical Affairs" "Warrant Officer", "Army First Class" is "Army Army Chief", "Army Senior Nursing" is "Army Hygiene Senior", etc.). "Hyocho" was newly established in September 2 (Showa 1940). "Warrant Officer" is a class (a non-commissioned officer who is treated as an officer who is a judge) appointed by a senior non-commissioned officer.Apprentice officer(The rank is Sergeant Master Sergeant)CadetIt is positioned completely different from the students (class is sergeant) of the Imperial Japanese Army Air Academy, the Imperial Japanese Army Air Academy, and the Imperial Japanese Army Air Academy.

GenerallyPacific War(Great East Asian War) The following are examples of assistant positions for units and commanders.

Rank insignia

Below is1938It was revised in (Showa 13)Showa 13 system[7] OfRank insignia(Lapel).The geology of the lapel pinScarletNotWhitebecomeLegal Department Officer (Legal Officer)Common to all military departments exceptClothesGeneralissimo wearing the army general's rank insigniaChrysanthemum flower crestWith the rank of the Marshal Army GeneralMarshal emblemTo the right abdomenMarshal swordTo use.Army Preparatory School, Army Childhood School, Army Boys'Aircraft School, Army Boys' Tank Soldier SchoolstudentStudents who are not assigned a rank, such as, use a plain rank badge without a star badge (in boy aviation soldiers, the geological color is not scarlet.Light navy blue).

Recruitment / life

Officers promoted the Meiji Restoration during the founding periodClanFromSamuraiWas the center,Feudal clanAfter the establishment of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy (formerly known as the Imperial Japanese Army Academy, the Imperial Japanese Army Academy, and the Imperial Japanese Army Academy) in order to avoid arbitrary appointments by the Imperial Japanese Army Academy and establish a modern military officer training system, basicallyOld junior high schoolOr entered the Army Officer School (preliminary course) through the Army Childhood SchoolOld high schoolAfter receiving the same general education and basic military education asCadetAfter graduating from the Imperial Japanese Army Academy, he proceeded to the main course of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy and received specialized military education.Apprentice officerThroughLieutenantWas on the way to becoming an active military officer in the Army.In the initial stageArmy corpsThere is also a way to enroll in the Imperial Japanese Army Academy after being appointed as a non-commissioned officer (non-commissioned officer).Nobuyoshi MutouThere was also an example of becoming a Marshal Army General. In 1938, the Imperial Japanese Army Air Academy was newly established, specializing in the training of officers who are aviation personnel.

1917(Taisho 6nd year)Lieutenant candidateBut,1920This was revised in (Taisho 9)Ensign candidateA system has been established, and after passing a selection test for excellent warrant officers and non-commissioned officers such as warrant officers, chief officers, and sergeants, they are enrolled in the Imperial Japanese Army Academy and the Imperial Japanese Army Air Academy to receive officer education and take command of the unit. HaveCommanderThere was a system in which a senior active officer (second lieutenant) was appointed (in the Army, in the Navy).Special OfficerOr excessiveMilitary decreeThere is no such system).

theseActive dutyIn addition to the system that can be appointed as a military officer1883From (Meiji 16)Governmentof,1889Government from (Meiji 22)privateRegardlesssecondary schoolThose who have an educational background of graduation or higherOne-year active system (one-year volunteer)And then1927After (2)Class A executive candidateToVolunteerHowever, I received an education for about a year at an army reserve officer's school.Reserve roleThere was also a way to become an officer.In World War II, when a large number of personnel were mobilized and became a total war, the number of these reserve officers exceeded the number of active officers (from the Imperial Japanese Army Academy).Furthermore, in 1939, among these reserve officers, special volunteer officers (meaning those who were appointed by Royal Decree No. 8 of 12. (Although there are those who volunteer to engage in military service), the selected people are enrolled in the Imperial Japanese Army Academy and educated, and the role type is changed from a reserve officer to an active officer.Special volunteer officer studentThe system has begun, and along with the above-mentioned second lieutenant candidate system, many commanders, captains and field officers have been produced.

SoldiersConscription, LaterMilitary service lawbased onConscription systemWas satisfied by.Volunteers and talented people in peacetimeMilitary service periodSome people chose to become non-commissioned officers as professional military personnel without being discharged (maturity discharge) even after the passage of time.Highly educatedBecause the person is deferred from drafting while attending school[8]After graduation, you will be subject to a draft inspection, but compared to low-educated recruits, you will be older in addition to the difference in knowledge, so it is difficult to handle as a receiving unit and actuallyEnrollmentI didn't have much to do.However, from around 1940, when the Sino-Japanese War prolonged and the front line expanded, due to the shortage of troops, these highly educated people actually entered the military service.Those who have an educational background of secondary school graduation or higher are after (active)ConveningAfter (reserve / conscription)Executive candidate-Special executive candidate-Special pilot apprentice officerThere is a way to become an officer or non-commissioned officer, especiallyStudent campSometimes manystudent-StudentUsed these.At the end of World War II, the application for executive candidates was half-forced, but for those who have a career other than military personnel, it led to a longer period of military service, and after a certain number of years after graduation, a reasonable social status. Not a few of them did not volunteer.

Brief history

Foundation period

The origin of the Imperial Army isMeiji RestorationAfter1871(Meiji4 years)Satsuma-Choshu-TosaUnder the direct control of the emperor, which was drafted and organized fromSoldiersIs (Ministry of ArmyIs officially launched1872(Meiji 5) of JulyMinistry of MilitaryDue to reorganization).Against the background of this forceAbandoned DomainWas carried out.After that, the GoshinpeiKonoeIt was renamed.At that pointSamuraiWas the center of the soldiers, but in the futureConscription systemWas aimed at armament by.In this early imperial armyMasashiro OmuraIs the Ministry of WarDaisukeMainly laid the foundation of the military system, aiming to shift from the military system by the samurai to the national military system by the conscription system.By advocating this modern military reform, Omura came to be described as a central figure in the construction of the Imperial Japanese Army.[9][10]..After Omura was assassinatedYamagata YuhoSucceeded1874(Meiji 7) In MayConscriptionWas promulgated in April of the same yearTokyo ZhendaiThe first conscription soldier was enrolled in.

However, Konoe has a conscription system.samuraiTo blasphemy and frustrate,Conquest theorybySaigo TakamoriA large number of officer graduates resigned after Shimono.Initially, domestic security was maintained and rebels were suppressed (Saga no Ran,Kamikaze Ren,Southwest WarOthers) and so on.Initially, the Ministry of War in 1871Tokyo-Osaka2 piecesZhentaiPut and be lateZhenxi Zhendai,Tohoku ZhendaiWas installed.After changing with the Ministry of the Army1873In (Meiji 6), there were 6 nationwideMilitary tubeIt was divided into (Tokyo, Sendai, Nagoya, Osaka, Hiroshima, Kumamoto), and one pedestal was placed in each to suppress the rebels.1888In (Meiji 21), 6 pedestals remain as they areDivisionReorganized into, each1th Division-2th Division-3th Division-4th Division-5th Division-6th DivisionReorganized into the old town plateauGuardAnd KonoeKonoe DivisionNextForbiddenGuardianimperial carriageIt was decided that the service would be the main task.

Expeditionary period

1874 yearsTaiwan troopsSince then, the function as an expeditionary force has been gradually strengthened,French-French warWas victorious and attracted worldwide attentionPrussia Army OfMeckelMajor Chief of Staff1885(Meiji 18) Army War College教授Invited as, and received the advice1886(Meiji 19)Mt. Ooyama 巌The reforms were promoted.During this period, the Imperial Japanese Army changed drastically,1888(Meiji 21)French armyThe reorganization was carried out from the base system, which emphasized the defense of the base, to the Prussian system, which emphasized the active defense of operating a highly mobile division by incorporating logistical support units.

1894(27th year of Meiji)Sino-Japanese warAt the beginning of the war, there were seven permanent divisions, but after the Sino-Japanese War189831 permanent divisions (Meiji 6)7th Division-8th Division-9th Division-10th Division-11th Division-12th Division) Was added.

It broke out after the victory of the Sino-Japanese WarRussian EmpireWithRusso-Japanese WarThen,ManchuriaThree months after the start of the war, as the local general headquarters that controls all Army units in the direction1904(Meiji 37) General army in JuneManchurian ArmyIs organized[11], To the general commanderMt. Ooyama 巌Marshal Army GeneralChief of StaffToKodama GentaroThe general took office.

Russo-Japanese WarBattle of the Yalu River-Siege siege-Liaoyang Battle-Battle of Shaho-Kuromizodai BattleSuch asBattleIn, the Imperial Army suffered a great deal of bleeding, but in many placesRussian Imperial ArmyDefeat.Lvshun Port closure operationFailedBattle of the Yellow SeaInLushun Fleet OfShipThe Navy, who missedLvshun FortressAgainst the Imperial Army under attackTwenty-three highlandsStrategy ・ Requested bombardment of the Lushun Fleet from the same area.After a fierce battle, occupied the highlands on December 1904, 12.XNUMX cm howitzerAttacked and completely destroyed the Lushun Fleet with (XNUMX cm howitzer), laterBattle of the Sea of ​​JapanIt has made a great contribution to the Navy's complete victory in.1905(Meiji 38) It was held from March 3th to 5th, betting on national luck.Mukdenkai BattleTo commemorate the victory inArmy Day(March 3) was enacted.

In the Russo-Japanese War, all divisions were dispatched to the battlefield and there were no divisions remaining in the mainland, so in April 1905 during the war, four divisions (13th DivisionOthers) has been newly published.Annexation of Japan and South KoreaAfter that,Former Korean EmpireMilitary personnelKorean soldierWas incorporated as.Also,Korean PeninsulaTwo divisions were dispatched to Korea in turn for defense,Xinhai RevolutionAfterRepublic of ChinaIncreased need for increased security due to turmoilYusaku UeharaThe Minister of the Army adds two divisionsSaionji public aspirationprime ministerFrom that confusionSecond Saionji CabinetWill eventually collapse.After that, the request of the Ministry of the Army passed1915Two divisions (in the south) guarding the Korean Peninsula in (Taisho 4)第 19・ To the north20th Division)ButOrganizationIt was decided to be done.

World War I period

Taisho eraWorld War IToJapan-UK AllianceBased onAlliesParticipated as1914Hostile in (Taisho 3)Central allies OfGerman Empire leaseWas in ChinaQingdaoThe navyBritish ArmyCapture with (Japan-Germany War-Battle of Qingdao), As a result, it becomes a victorious country.Imperial Army has a large number of officersWatching warriorAs the main battlefield of World War IEuropeDispatched to, investigated in detail, and set an example until thenGerman armyCause of defeatTrench warfareRepresented byTotal warAs a result of advancing the research ofresourceAs a means to annihilate the enemy's main force in a short period of time under the poor national power with poor foundationPenetration tacticsWith the breakthrough of the trench linetank-aircraftEmphasis on support operationstrategy-tacticsAnd equipment will be prepared.

Also, just before the end of World War I1918From (Taisho 7), the previous yearRussian RevolutionBy内 戦Rushed intoRussia-Soviet Union Socialist RepublicJapan dispatches troops with the Allies as a war againstSiberian troops) Japan put in the largest force in the Allies,1922Until (Taisho 11)Bolshevik OfLabor and Agriculture Red Army,PartizanFight with.

Disarmament

Worldwide since 1922disarmamentFollow the flow ofYamanashi HanzoandIssei UgakiThird disarmament under the Minister of the ArmyYamanashi disarmament-Ugaki Disarmament) Was held, and 4 divisions (13th Division,15th Division-17th Division-18th Division) And many army local childhood schools were abolished, and one-third of the normal organization (about 3 soldiers) was reduced.

1925In the Ugaki military contraction (Taisho 14), the aviation military department became independent with the aim of modernizing the Imperial Army at the same time with a budget that could be afforded.Army Automobile SchoolArmy Communication SchoolAnd 2 new army flight schools, 1 tank regiment and 2 anti-aircraft regimentsFlight RegimentIn order to secure the number of mobilized troops in an emergency while reducing the number of people in peacetime due to the new formation ofSchool trainingIt was decided to establish a system and assign active army officers to schools above junior high school (school-assigned officers).

Early Showa period

In the Showa periodCommandershipIndependence政府Deviating from the control of the above, the behavior of arbitrary dedication becomes remarkable.Also,XNUMX incidentLaterMinister of the Military Active military systemCreated a cause of political turmoil, such as repeating the collapse of the cabinet with the shieldSecond World WarIt is often criticized for having rushed into a reckless war that led to.CommunismFrom a sense of cautionSoviet UnionThe largestVirtual enemyMainly asMainland ChinaTo make a strategy plan inThe United States of AmericaOften collided with the Navy, which was a hypothetical enemy.

Furthermore, aiming to secure the resources necessary for total warManchurian Incident-Rozobashi incidentIn the region where modernization has not progressed, a large number of troops have been dispatched to mainland China.WarlordDefeated in various places,Shinbu GakkoExperienced studying abroad and working in the Imperial Army after graduationChiang Kai-shekLeadNational governmentI urged him to submit, but Chiang Kai-shekCommunists and compromisesBecause he announced a thorough fight, it is the largest base of Chiang Kai-shek's power according to the order of Emperor Showa.ShanghaiI tried to make a decisive battle in (Second Shanghai Incident).

Chiang Kai-shek who resisted thisNazi Germany supportIt is a direct elite unit in response toUnited States Central CommandI tried to annihilate the Imperial Army dispatch unit, but the Imperial ArmyMatsui IshineDefeat this under the command of the general.After this, the local troops who ignored the orders of the central (Imperial Headquarters / Staff Headquarters) were allowed to run alone, and the National GovernmentcapitalIsNanjingFallen (Nanjing Strategy).It is a day-to-day neutralization work between the Army Central and the National Government.Trautmann workOn the contrary, the Navy (U.S. MitsumasaNavy Minister) And the government (First Konoe Cabinet) Was disrupted, resulting in a missed ceasefire.Since then, ChinaFrontExpandsEndurance battleGet stuck in the mud.

In Kitaman since the mid-1930sManchuria(Japan andSoviet UnionandPeople's Republic of MongoliaBetween国境Small due to demarcation problemBorder conflictIs happening1938(Showa 13) Large-scale in JulyZhang Gufeng IncidentIt led to.The Battle of Lake Khasan itself was carried out by the 19th DivisionSoviet armyThe attack was repelled and the border line was defended and secured, and the result was a painful division between the Japanese and Soviet troops maintaining the status quo.1939(Showa 14) Outbreak in SeptemberNomonhan caseWas a great conflict that far surpassed the Battle of Lake Khasan the previous year, but was pushed to the border line claimed by the Soviet Union in front of the Soviet army with strong troops, except for the southern region, and the ceasefire was stopped.

In the great powers such as the United States during this periodAutomobileThe industry has made dramatic progress, and the mechanization level of each country's army has overtaken Japan, and by the time of the Nomonhan incident, it was a latecomer.Large purgeIt was revealed that he was overtaken by the Soviet Union, which had been declining in military function.In World War IIGerman armyDeployedBlitzkriegDue to the influence of the above, the mechanization of each country has further progressed, and Japan, which has been in an international isolation situation since the worsening relations with the United States and the Manchurian Incident, is in a situation where it is difficult to recover from technical delays and secure resources. , From traditional cooperation with the United States and the United KingdomNazi Germany,Italy kingdomInclined for a way to the alliance withJapan-German Defense Agreement,Japan-Germany Ikoku Military Alliance).

In October 1939KantoWith the exception of (Manchuria), the China Expeditionary Army, which is the general army that controls the army forces in the direction of China, was formed, but excessive dispatch of troops to China exhausted national power, and relations with the United States from conflicts of interest over the Chinese continent. Not only made it worse, but also of the stationed troopsFoodPriority is given to securing and carelessRequisitionFailed to manage the occupied territories in North China due to repeatedChinese Communist PartyBy the United States, which allowed the expansion of its power and relied on many resources and technologiesEconomic sanctions・ It was the cause of inviting.theseSino-Japanese war(Chinese incident) Prolonged and the expansion of the front line led to the expansion of divisions one after another.1937From (Showa 12), a special division in the XNUMXs was established based on the absence division (XNUMX).101th DivisionEtc.) Also, since August 1940, eight permanent divisions have been established.ManchuriaAs the scale of the front expanded, a front army was established above the army.

World War II

1941(Showa 16) March,southThe Southern Expeditionary Army, which is the general army that controls the army units, was formed, and on December 12, the Japanese armySouthern strategyUnder the ArmyMalayLanding on (Murray Operation), The NavyHawaiiSurprise (Attack on Pearl Harbor), In the United States and the United KingdomDeclaration of warJapan is World War II (Pacific War/Great East Asian War) Participated in the war.

Fumifumi YamashitaIn Operation Malayan, where armored units and motorized infantry were put in along with the aviation unit under the lieutenant general and blitzkrieg was carried out.Hosaku ShimadaLeaded by MajorType XNUMX medium tank-Type XNUMX light tankContinued to make good progress, led by the night attack ofBattle of Singapore,Battle of Hong KongDefeat the British troops.It was Japan's most important goal in the Pacific War,PalembangBig oil fieldHave a zone NetherlandsAreaIndonesia(Dutch East Indies) Then,Hitoshi ImamuraUnder the lieutenant generalDutch East Indies CampaignIs doneDutch armyDefeat each one, "Sky God SoldierThe most elite toutedParatroopers-1st Teishin ShudanbyparachuteDescent and new machineComplete battle "Falcon"WithAir extermination battlePlayed an active part inTateo Kato"Kato Hayabusa Combat Team" led by Lieutenant ColonelFlight 64th SquadronAndFlight 59th SquadronBy the work ofPalembangoilfieldRefineryOccupy,crudeThe Imperial Japanese Army achieves the significance of the opening of the Pacific War, which is to secure a resource zone (Operation Palembang Airborne).Burmese battleBut the US Army, the British Army,British Indian ArmyDefeat the Chinese army,1942(Showa 17) In MarchBurmaSuppress the whole country.Philippines Strategy BattleThen.Douglas MacArthurCommandingUnited States Army Forces of the Far EastDespite the resistance of the sword, he was also active in the Battle of Hong Kong.artilleryThere is also a large firepower ofCorregidor Fortress Strategy BattleVictory through.

Succeeded in controlling the colonies of Britain, the Netherlands, and the United States, and achieved the greatest strategic goal of securing a resource zone, but the Navy's first strike on Pearl Harbor resulted in the United States entering the war.1943From the middle of (Showa 18), gradually the Pacific Ocean islandsCommand of the sea-Air superiorityThe mainland of Japan suffered from chronic resource and food shortages.Eventually, when the Allied Forces launched a counterattack on the ground, the ground troops that had lost their poor supply were destroyed.CrushContinued in various places (Battle of Guadalcanal Island,Battle of Attu,Saipan battle,Guam battle).Burma Campaign,Battle of New Guinea,Bougainville Island BattleEtc. have become a muddy endurance battle until the end of the war.Philippines Defense CampaignIs called the "Philippines Campaign" and a large force of the Army and Navy is put in, following the Navy.特別 攻 撃 隊Was also introduced, but suffered a big defeat.

As mentioned above, in Japan, where resources are scarce, basic industrial power is poor, and there are no strong allies in the vicinity, the production capacity of weapons and supplies and their supply capacity are proportionally weak, so more than the war dead in battle. The result was starvation, war wounds, and war illness.At the same time, food collection from the occupied territories led to hunger in the territory, and underground organizations were born to cooperate with the Allied forces in various places, calling for the opposition of locals who initially welcomed Japan as a liberator from Western colonial rule. It was.

on the other hand,Battle of Peleliu,Battle of Iwo Jima,Battle of OkinawaThen each commander-in-chief (Kunio NakagawaLieutenant General,Tadamichi KuribayashiGeneral,Ushijima ManGeneral)StaffDue to their excellent command and the brave battle of the local defense unit, they fought well and caused great damage to the Allied Forces, caused more damage to the U.S. Army on Iwo Jima than the Japanese side, and in the Battle of Okinawa, the Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Forces in the direction of Okinawa.Simon B. Buckner, Jr.The lieutenant generalField Heavy Artillery 1st Regiment OfType XNUMX XNUMX cm howitzerBy the bombardmentWar dead(This will be the highest rank killed in action in the U.S. military as of 2017)[12].

1945From the beginning (Showa 20), the mainland of Japan was exposed to a large-scale air raid, the people's lives were destroyed, and the ability to succeed was rapidly lost.The ages of those who are drafted and called are also expanded to young and old (Uprooted mobilization),Mainland decisive battleA large number of rapid divisions were added in preparation for (Coastal Deployment Division,Mobile Strike Division).In addition, much of the industrial infrastructure was destroyed, new weapons were not developed, and inferior labor-saving weapons were manufactured, and various types of weapons were produced together with the Navy.Special weaponsWas developed, and a large number of special attack units were organized and introduced.In addition, in preparation for the mainland decisive battle, it also serves as a home frontbamboo spearMilitary training was carried out in which civilians such as women and children used primitive weapons. In aprilFinal strategyThe First General Army, the Second General Army, and the Air General Army were formed for this purpose, aiming for endurance battles in mountainous areas.NaganoMatsushiroWith the Imperial HeadquartersImperial PalacePreparations were made to move.

National Athletic Meet due to defeat (Emperor System) Was afraid of disappearing, the Japanese government went through a neutral countryPeace negotiationsThe Soviet Union, which was one of them, suddenly gave priority to political transactions with the United States at midnight on August 8.Japan-Soviet Neutrality TreatyDeclared the destruction of the war and declared war as "Japan refused the Potsdam Declaration and received a request to participate in the Allies." The battle started at midnight on the 9th,Manchurian Empire,NanabattaInvaded (Battle of Karafuto).

The Kwantung Army, once touted as the strongest of the Imperial Army, has been weakened by the repeated extraction of troops to the south, and even abandoned the protection of many Japanese residents.Soviet armyI tried to delay the invasion ofAgainst GermanyWhile being shattered into sophisticated Soviet armor, air power, and mechanized infantryHiroshi NemotoLieutenant GeneralMongolia GarrisonDefendMengjiang-North ChinaIn the direction, he succeeded in withdrawing with Japanese residents while repelling Soviet troops.Also,Kiichiro HiguchiLieutenant General5th ArmySubordinate91th DivisionDefendShimori IslandThen,Type XNUMX XNUMX cm cannonFighting with the success of the garrison centered onBattle of Shimori Island).Kwantung Army on the Soviet border defended by the 15th Border GarrisonFortress,Tiger Head FortressThen, the secret weapon of the Imperial Army, which is the largest gun of the Japanese ArmyTrial XNUMXst sword cannonVarious weightsFarming・ HeavyHowitzerResponded and fought for more than two weeks against the Soviet army, which attacked with more than 10 times the strength, until it fell on August 8, which was the last fierce battlefield of World War II (Battle of Tiger Head Fortress).After the war, the Soviet armyCaptiveMany of the soldiers who becameSiberia,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euDetained in the camp and abused by polar labor, many died.

At the time of the defeat, there were thousands of operational aircraft remaining, but transportation from the southern oil fields became difficult and fuel was depleted. The number of experts has also decreased, these aircraft as wellComplete medium tank-Type XNUMX medium tank-Type XNUMX Ho-I tank-Type XNUMX Ho-Ni TankAnd so ontankEtc. were preserved for the mainland decisive battle.Inside the Imperial Army, while seeking the end of the war, it showed the intention of continuing the war, but it was used by the Soviet invasion and the United States.Atomic bombDecided to surrender before the destructive power of.Some Army officers oppose this and try a coupMiyagi incidentWoke up, butShizuichi TanakaGeneralEi AnanIt failed due to the opposition of the general and suppression.

Dismantling of the Imperial Japanese Army

Potsdam DeclarationAfter acceptance, the army units in each region that stopped combat activities became the Allied forces that have jurisdiction over the area.SurrenderAnd under its controlDemobilizationI will be engaged in business.However, for some time after the war, troops scattered around the country remained unreachable and continued to resist, and the Allied forces were hunting for remnants.Also,Vietnam Revolutionary War-Indonesian Revolutionary War-National warThere are many military personnel who cooperated and participated in independence movements and civil wars (Residual Japanese soldiers).

Ministry of the ArmyFirst Demobilization Ministry,Veterans AdministrationAfter that, the army and navy's remaining work processingMinistry of Health and WelfareLaterMinistry of Health, Labor and WelfareWill be in charge.The General Staff HeadquartersLand Survey Department TheMinistry of InteriorAfter working at the Geographical Survey InstituteGeographical Survey InstituteAs for the Army HospitalMilitary doctorと と も にNational hospital(Current:National Hospital Organization), State-ownedMedical institutionIt continues to the present.Ministry of the ArmyMilitary Affairs BureauBecause he was familiar with the location, name, personnel, etc. of the demobilization unit, he was in charge of the demobilization work by changing the name to the General Affairs Bureau of the XNUMXst Ministry of Demobilization, and the Operations Division of the General Staff Headquarters was the Historical Department of the XNUMXst Ministry of Demobilization (later). It was preserved as the Historical Research Department).In the historical facts department, while preparing for the creation of war history, we were conducting strategic research centered on the war against the Soviet Union.[13].

Immediately after the defeat, the Japanese government and former military seniorsWorld War ILater in GermanyHans von SeeckThe shogun wentWehrmachtHe was secretly trying to leave the core of the re-arming, referring to the reconstruction method of.1935(Showa 10), GermanyAdolf HitlerbyRearmament declarationIn the next few years, he rebuilt the Defense Forces with top-notch equipment and morale, but the secret is that the permissible security forces are consolidated by a small number of elite selections, all executives are educated, and clever preparations for future expansion. It was in the method.Following the wisdom of Seeckt, the Army is in Miyagi (Imperial Palace)'S mission is to protectKonoe DivisionWas planned to be a base for future re-arming.The Japanese government has about 4,000 people to preserve the Imperial Guard division.Imperial Police GuardAnd decided to set up a royal guard corps to keep the army elite alive.1945(20) At the end-of-war processing meeting on August 8, about 29 police officers under the pretext of "securing the security necessary to carry out the end-of-war processing of the government in an orderly and prompt manner." Retaining power (three times that time) and 25 armed gendarmerie units,Minister of ArmyIt was decided to put it under the command and supervision of.About one-third of the police force and the armed military police unitmachine gunIt was supposed to be armed with the following firearms to give it mobility, and its scale was planned to far exceed the army's force in peacetime.The idea was amended to reduce the number of regular police officers to more than 10 and plans to deploy 18 to 6,000 armed police for riot control and disaster preparedness in early October. The plan isAllied Supreme Commander General Command Could not be realized due to the opposite of (GHQ)[14][15].

Among the GHQ, G2Charles WilloughbyThe Maj. Gen. was in favor of these Japanese government plans,Seizo ArisueWhen the lieutenant general asked, "I want you to leave at least the Imperial Police Guard," he apologizes for saying, "I say it clearly, but I can't do anything about it."[15].1946In March (Showa 21), the Imperial Army closed the curtain when the GHQ ordered the dissolution of the Imperial Police Guard and the Imperial Palace Guards, but at this time, more than a hundred guards said, " I want you to protect the Imperial Palace because you don't have to pay. "Blood certificateWas submitted, but this has been rejected[15].

Relationship with the Ground Self-Defense Force and the Air Self-Defense Force

However,1950(25) Founded in AugustPolice reserveThere are many non-commissioned officers (cadets at the time of defeat andArmy Preparatory Academy(Including those who were students) enlisted, and the next day1951(Showa 26) In June, the Imperial Japanese Army Air Academy58th graduate245 of the former active Army officers who were ensigns of the Army at the time of the defeat in the first termExecutive candidateOn October 10st of the same year, the recruitment was expanded to include former field officers of the Army Commander and below, and 1 former field officers and 405 former junior officers joined on December 12th.Security forcesBefore the reorganization to1952In July (Showa 27), he was in a leading position in the Sino-Japanese War (China Incident) and the Pacific War (Greater East Asia War) at the center of the Ministry of the Army and the General Staff.Shigeru Sugiyama(36th term of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy, later the 2nd generationChief of Ground Staff)・Ichiji SugitaTen former Army colonels, including the former Army Colonel (37th Army, later the 3rd Chief of Staff, Ground Staff), joined the army, and at the same time, many former Army officers, including the former Army Lieutenant Colonel, joined the army. The successor to the Corps and the National Safety ForcesJapan Ground Self-Defense ForceJapan Air Self-Defense ForceIt became the core and left the influence of the former Army and the former Army Air Force to the Japan Air Self-Defense Force.

As an example, successive chiefs of staff of the landChief of Flight Staff-Chairman of the Joint Staff StaffMost of the important positions of the Self-Defense Forces are from the former Army, and in the Air Self-Defense Force, where many people from both the former Army and Navy were enlisted, the chief of staff of the Air Self-Defense Force was 11 from the former Army, 5 from the former Navy and from the former Army. Make up the majority.The last former Army and Navy graduate of the Self-Defense Forces was an army captain who was a cadet at the time of the defeat and was trained in the 60th term of the Imperial Japanese Army Air Academy.Shigehiro Mori(Joined the National Police Reserve in September 1950), Mori is the top of the Air Self-Defense Force as the 9th Chief of Staff of the Air Force, and the top of the Land, Sea, and Air Self-Defense Force as the chairman of the 17th Joint Staff Council.

In the Air Self-Defense Force, it was the army and the main battle groupHattori TakushiroEven a former army officer close to a former colonelAir Defense Command Commander,Air Defense ForceCommander, Deputy Chief of Air Staff,Air Staff OfficeAlthough he held important positions such as the Chief of the Defense Department, the Ground Self-Defense Force treated former Army officers close to former Colonel Hattori coldly, and many of them were treated coldly.Division leaderI have finished my career at.on the other hand,Makoto MatsutaniThe Army / Early Peace faction centered on the former Colonel and the Tripartite Pact questioners of the information department such as Colonel Sugita are of the Ground Self-Defense Force.General ManagerI got an important position above the class[16].

Major former Army center soldiers who joined the Ground Self-Defense Force and the Air Self-Defense Force

  • Army / Early Peace Treaty[17]
    • Makoto Matsutani Colonel of the Army, 35th term of the Army, Chief of the War Guidance Division, Secretary of the Army Minister (Anan),Northern Director·general
    • Lieutenant Colonel of the Army, 41st Army Academy, War Guidance Division,China dispatch armyChief of Staff, Eastern Army Chief of Staff
    • Lieutenant Colonel of the Army, 42st Army Academy, War Guidance Division,71th DivisionStaff, Northern Army Chief of Staff, Landlord
    • Lieutenant Colonel of the Army, 45th Army Officer, War Guidance Team Member, Second General Army Staff, Northern Army Chief of Staff, Army General
  • Army / Early Peace Cooperators / Anti-Mainstream[17]
    • Ichiji Sugita Colonel of the Army, 37th term of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy, Chief of Information Department (UK and US),Prime Minister Secretary(Prince Naruhiko Higashikyu), Chief of Staff, Ground Staff

Warlord / Militarism Thought

1878(Meiji 11) In August, the elite guardsmen are said to revolt.Takebashi IncidentHappened and shocked the military and government.Also,Freedom Civil Rights MovementTo prevent the Imperial Army from being affected byMilitary officerWas issued.Here, the virtues of "loyalty, etiquette, courage, faith, and spartanness" were raised, and political non-interference was sought in it.However, among the army officers, the officials, especially those who work centrallyOfficialsIt also has the side of the mechanism, and in the old daysSatsuma Domain-Choshu clanAnd other clan or other clanShogunateThere was a conflict with the native.After the establishment of the modern officer education system, between military departments / Army War College and non-graduates / factions (Imperial schoolDiscipline) It was a situation that was likely to cause innumerable internal conflicts such as conflicts between each other.In addition, in the Showa period, local troops located in foreign areas such as the Kwantung Army had problems such as acting without sufficient control of the central staff (General Staff). November 1945, 11, the last Minister of the ArmySadamu ShimomuraThe general is the 89th after the defeatImperial AssemblyAtTakao SaitoRepresentativeIn response to the question from, on behalf of the Imperial Japanese Army, the problems are summarized as follows.

"As for the outbreak of militarism, the Army had a misconception about what was right as a soldier, especially those who were in leadership positions. I believe that it is the root, ... Some believe that against the background of the power of the army, others have taken advantage of the force and have taken so-called selfish and domineering measures, especially What I cannot forgive is the unjustified political disposition of the army ... I am at the end of the Army, and I sincerely apologize to all the people for this point through the Parliament ... Due to the sins of the Army in the past, as Mr. Saito asked, I would like to express my deep sympathy for not eradicating the achievements of the purely loyal soldiers, especially for the spirits of many warriors. I would like to ask you for your help at this time. "(" ... "is omitted.[24]

This was a summary by the Minister of the Army just before the dismantling of the Imperial Japanese Army.In this way, the Army leader clearly apologized to the people for making mistakes in the correct behavior as military personnel and for engaging in political activities that were prohibited by military personnel, and all military personnel made mistakes. Instead, he petitioned not to deny that there were also purely loyal soldiers and ended the speech.

In addition, I was present immediately afterU.S. MitsumasaThe Navy Minister was also asked to answer, but Yoneuchi refused to ask Saito's question because it was not in the minutes, and he was indignant at the venue.

Imperial Japanese Army seen by the U.S. military

The Punch below the Belt (August 1945), a manual for war against Japan created by the U.S. Army for soldiers.[25]Then, the Imperial Army is evaluated as follows.

As for the weaknesses of the Japanese Army Many of the weaknesses of Japanese tactics stem from the fact that the division's weapons are inferior to Western standards.Foreign soldiers who see the Japanese army for the first time are easily misunderstood because of their sloppy march, clothing, and non-military behavior.Nothing shines in the equipment, and there are no theoretical strengths in tactics.However, it has excellent durability and execution ability.[26].

The outstanding military strengths of Japanese soldiers are that they must obey orders and continue to fight until they are killed, even if they are ill or injured.endurancestaminaCan withstand the toughest situations, can live outdoors with minimal supply, and is very skillful in shielding, camouflage, and concealment.It's a tough enemy, but it also has its weaknesses.It's been harshly dominated from an early age that the situation has changed, having never learned how to think for oneself, being unresponsive, and sticking to a plan once made. However, they cannot exert their spontaneity and imagination, and as a result, they are at a great disadvantage when they are surprised.[26].

The Japanese army prefers cowardly hands.In the history of war, no army is suitable for Japan in terms of disbelief and slyness.It is an introduction and countermeasures of the "strategy" that the Japanese army sends out. "Strategy"Is classified into four patterns. ①SurrenderPretending to be, (90) pretending to be injured or dead, (4) pretending to be a member of our army, (1) pretending to be a friendly civilian. "It's all about letting us be alert, killing, prisoning, confusing, and destroying materials and equipment," and at least XNUMX% of the tricks reported from the battlefield so far are those four tricks. Is said to be one of[26]..In addition, these manuals were made for recruits, and while they studied and conveyed Japanese military tactics, they also had the purpose of instilling contempt and hatred.

Another example is the evaluation of the US Marine Corps at the time of the Battle of Peleliu: "The Japanese army succeeded in implementing long-term delay and bloodshed tactics by inflicting a great deal of sacrifice on the US military. The enormous cost incurred in the war sounded a big alarm to the Allied forces traveling in the Pacific toward Japan. It was overwhelmingly dominant in the sea and air, four times as much as the huge amount of gunfire and bombing including Napalm bullets. Despite the difference in strength, each death of one Japanese soldier required the death and injury of one American soldier and 4 heavy and small firearm ammunition. The battle was sulfur a few months later. It led to a superbly commanded defensive tactic of the Japanese on the island and Okinawa, "said Colonel Nakagawa, who succeeded in a long-term stalemate on Peleliu, causing as much bleeding as possible to the U.S. military. , Evaluates that the strong resistance of the Japanese army became the outpost of the later battles against Peleliu and Okinawa.[27].

According to the official US Marine Corps activity report released after the war in Okinawa, "(Japanese soldiers) are well-trained and well-controlled Army soldiers, especially their high morale and physical ability. "The Japanese soldiers always fought with strong and witty tactics and never surrendered," and so on.[28]..The reason why the Japanese army was able to fight well in the Battle of Okinawa is that the knowledge of the island defense line has increased, ironically, the distance between the mainland of Japan and the battlefield is relatively short, the logistics and transportation are relatively good, and it is blessed with equipment and firepower. It was because it was.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ armyUnder SecretaryRyuichi Yamada "Congratulations with His Majesty the Emperor of England", February 1918, 2,Asian Historical Materials Center (JACAR), Ref.C02030531300
  2. ^ Foreign Minister Makino Nobuaki "15.British Nyori 1913th Year Cavalry Gun Donation, August 8, 29, Japan Center for Asian Historical Records, Ref.B07090270800
  3. ^ Inspectorate General and below, executives1910 eraAlso serves as an executive of the Army Aviation Headquarters that exists from
  4. ^ National Police AgencyIs simply used for the march under the name "Fuso Uta" or "Branch March"
  5. ^ For Army Kempeitai,Police officerPolice officerReceived treatment as a judge from the equilibrium with
  6. ^ Become a cadet at the time of graduation
  7. ^ Only the captain newly established in 1940 (Showa 15) is a 15 system
  8. ^ System of postponement of enrollment, in 1943graduate SchoolSpecial research students and science and engineeringTeacher training schoolThe grace period was abolished for liberal arts students due to the postponement of enrollment of current students.
  9. ^ Local Great People Study Group (October 2012, 10). “"Father of the Army"”. Diamond Co., Ltd. 2017/6/18Browse.
  10. ^ "History Group Image-Gakken Digital History Museum- "TOKYO Bronze Statue Map-Around Yasukuni Shrine" Masujiro Omura”. Gakken. 2017/6/18Browse.
  11. ^ The later front army was not organized, and the general army directly enslaved the army.
  12. ^ U.S. Army MinistryEdited by Hokama Shoshiro, "Okinawa-The Last Battle between Japan and the United States," Kojinsha, 2006 (new edition)
  13. ^ "Iwanami Lecture Asia Pacific War <7> Domination and Violence" Iwanami Shoten p.412
  14. ^ "Iwanami Lecture Asia Pacific War <7> Domination and Violence" Iwanami Shoten p.410
  15. ^ a b c Ikuhiko Hata "History of Japan Rearmament" 文藝 春秋 p.44
  16. ^ Tomoyuki Yamamoto "Study of the End of the War of the Japanese Army" Fuyo Shobo Publishing p.248
  17. ^ a b c Tomoyuki Yamamoto "Study of the End of the War of the Japanese Army" Fuyo Shobo Publishing p.266-268, etc.
  18. ^ Hattori TakushiroAt the recommendation ofTojo HidekiMarried to Mitsue Tojo, daughter of
  19. ^ a b c d e Hattori organizationFrom
  20. ^ Tomoyuki Yamamoto has Kato as the 1st Division Commander, but be careful because it is the 13th Division Commander.
  21. ^ Tomoyuki Yamamoto has Takeshita's final post as the 4th Division Commander, but be careful because he is the director of the Ground Self-Defense Force executive school.
  22. ^ a b c Miyagi incidentInvolved in
  23. ^ Tomoyuki Yamamoto uses Hara as an assistant air general, but be careful because he is a first-class air general.
  24. ^ The full text of the relevant part is "Sadamu ShimomuraSee #Imperial Diet Answers.
  25. ^ The title means one of the boxing offenses, hitting below the belt line.It suggests that Japanese soldiers are enemies who use cowardly means.
  26. ^ a b c Toshiya Ichinose. All of the "cowardly Japanese army" Imperial Army tactics manual that the U.S. military feared (Bunshun library
  27. ^ Gayle, Gordon, BGen USMC. “BLOODY BEACHES: The Marines at Peleliu". 2015/12/23Browse.
  28. ^ Harras (2007), 249.

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