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👍 | Keisuke Honda announces withdrawal from Botafogo on his Twitter account


Photo Keisuke Honda (Reuters = joint)

Keisuke Honda announces withdrawal from Botafogo on his own Twitter

 
If you write the contents roughly
He thanked his teammates and fans for spelling out in Portuguese, "I made the decision for personal and professional reasons."
 

Former Japan national football team Keisuke Honda will leave Botafogo (Brazil) on his Twitter account on the 30th ... → Continue reading

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Portuguese

Portuguese(Portugal, Local Guide [puɾtuˈgeʃ]/[poɾtuˈges], Portuguese language) Is mainlyPortugalas well as the BrazilAnd in 9 other countries and regionsOfficial terminologyIs the language used as.Profane latinDeveloped fromRomanceOne of theSpanishAlong withIndo-EuropeanItalicBelong to.

スペインWritersCervantesDescribed Portuguese as a "sweet language"BrazilPoetOravo VillacIs "LatiumThe last, crude and beautiful flower of the flower. "

Portuguese isAge of Discovery OfPortuguese maritime empireIt spread to the Asia-Africa region with the growth of.It is the first European language to spread in Japan, and some of the words that have become established as loanwords from ancient times are derived from Portuguese.As a typical example, "BreadThere isSengoku periodWas transmitted with Christianity.

Speaker distribution

Portuguese distribution
Map of the portuguese language in the world.png
Portuguese-speaking areas
country or regionNative speakers
speakerpopulation
(2005)
Africa
アンゴラ[Table 1 1][Table 1 2]60%About 80%11,190,786
カーボベルデ[Table 1 3]4%72%418,224
Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu[Table 1 4][Table 1 5]Unknown14%1,416,027
Mozambique[Table 1 1]9%40%19,406,703
Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu[Table 1 4][Table 1 3]50%95%187,410
Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu[Table 1 4][Table 1 3]50%95%523,040
informal:
Namibia[Table 1 4][Table 1 6]20%20%2,030,692
Republic of South Africa[Table 1 6]2%2%44,344,136
Asia
Japan[Table 1 7]00.21%127,214,499
東 テ モ ー ル[Table 1 4]Unknown15%1,040,880
People's Republic of China(Macauincluding)2%3%1,395,380,000
informal:
Daman and Diu, India[Table 1 4]10%10%Unknown
Gore, India3-5%5%Unknown
Europe
Portugal100%100%10,566,212
informal:
Luxembourg[Table 1 6]14%14%468,571
Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu[Table 1 7]4-13%4-13%70,549
France[Table 1 7]2%2%60,656,178
スイス[Table 1 7]2%2%7,489,370
American states
Brazil98-99%100%194,000,000
informal:
パラグアイ[Table 1 7]7%7%6,347,884
Bermuda[Table 1 7]4%4%65,365
ベネズエラ[Table 1 7]1-2%1-2%25,375,281
カナダ[Table 1 7]1-2%1-2%32,805,041
Netherlands Antilles[Table 1 7]1%1%219,958
The United States of America[Table 1 7]0.5-0.7%0.5-0.7%295,900,500
  1. ^ a b Official Statistics, Mozambique-1997; Angola-1983
  2. ^ PortuguesePidgin languageAnd simple Portuguese are used as a common language for communication with other tribes.30% of Angola people only understand Portuguese.Other people also speak PortugueseSecond languageAnd
  3. ^ a b c PortugueseCreole languageNumber of speakers
  4. ^ a b c d e f Government, Catholic Church Prediction
  5. ^ Most of the Portuguese Creole speakers
  6. ^ a b c Public Portuguese education
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j From the number of immigrants

The Portuguese-speaking population is about 2 million.PortugalHas a population of about 1000 million, but has a population of about 2 million.Brazil OfOfficial terminologyBecause it is, the speaker population is large. 81% (about 2 million) are in Brazil, the remaining 5,000 million are distributed in Portugal and its former colonies, with the seventh or eighth largest speaker population in the world.It is also one of the few languages ​​spoken across multiple continents.Currently in PortugueseOfficial terminologyThe following countries and regions are mentioned.

These 6 countriesPortuguese official language African countries(Países Africanos de Língua Oficial Portuguesa,PALOP).However, although the main official language of Equatorial Guinea is Spanish, Portuguese was added to the official language in 2007 due to its history of being Portuguese territory.

The above Portuguese-speaking countries and regions with a large number of Portuguese speakers are combined.Ruzofonia(Old name of PortugalLusitaniaIt is called "the world of Lusitanian (Portuguese)").1990 eraSince then, cooperation has been strengthened under the initiative of Portugal.Eight of the Portuguese-speaking nations, excluding Macau and Equatorial Guinea1996ToPortuguese CommunitiesHas formed a cooperative system in political, economic and cultural cooperation and the spread of Portuguese.2006The first tournament was held in Macau, and has been held once every four years since then.Portuguese-speaking GamesExchanges such as are also actively carried out.Literature in PortugueseIs also popular, and many literary works have been produced.Jointly selected by Portugal and Brazil for works written in PortugueseCamões PrizeIs considered to be the most prestigious literary award in the Portuguese world.

BesidesCaribbeanIn the islands of Portugal and African countries, the official Portuguese language, Portuguese was formed by contact with local languages.Creole languages (Crioulos) Is spoken alongside Portuguese in some areas.As a Creole language based on Portuguese, NetherlandsAreaWest Indies OfArubaBonaireAndCuracao(ABC Islands) Spoken inPapiamentoAnd of Cape VerdeCape Verde Creole, Guinea-BissauGuinea-Bissau Creole, Sao Tome and Principe Forro, Angolar, Principense, Equatorial Guinea's Annobonese, MacauMacaneseand so on.other than this,European UnionIt is also treated as the official language of.

The main language closest to Portuguese is neighboring Spanish.Portugal1129ToLeon KingdomA nation independent of the Portuguese, the current Portuguese ancestorsDouro riverNorthern Portugal north and adjacent northwestern Spainガ リ シ アIn ancient Rome, which is a regionProvinceWas spoken inProfane latinIs.Therefore spoken in GaliciaGalicianIs very close to.Galician is now the official language of Galicia, and the difference between Portuguese and Portuguese, especially spoken in northern Portugal, is small.However,16st centurySince then, the central region of Portugal has been the capital from northern Portugal.LisbonMoved to the central and southern part of Portugal centered on the Portuguese, and in this process the current Portuguese progenitor was established.Currently, the Iberian Portuguese standard is based on the Central and Southern Portuguese dialect.[1].

dialect

  • Iberian portuguese —— Refers to Portuguese spoken in Portugal. Also known as "Portuguese Portuguese"[2].
  • ――Because it was a Portuguese colony until the 1970s, it is closer to Iberian Portuguese than Brazilian Portuguese, but it also has its own words.
  • Brazilian Portuguese ――In Brazilian Portuguese, there are many pronunciations, words, and usages that are different from Iberian Portuguese.However, in Japan, where the connection with Brazil is overwhelmingly stronger than that of Portugal, this is often taught.[Source required].. Sometimes abbreviated as "Brazilian"[3].


Phonology and notation

There are some differences in grammar and wording between Brazil, which has the largest population in the Portuguese-speaking world, and other countries.Considering the difference, the characteristics of Portuguese are described below.

vowel

Portuguesevowel
Front tongueMiddle tongueBack tongue
i(ɨu
Half narroweɐo
Semi-wideɛɔ
Widea

If two symbols are lined up, the one on the right isRounded lips, LeftNon-rounded lips.

  • In Portugal, the ending e, which tends to sound like i in Brazil, isNon-rounded vowelbecome.
    • Example: tarde- / ˈTaɾdɨ /(Pt), / ˈTaɾdʒi /(Br)
  • No many vowelsStressIn the departmentNarrow vowelsbecome.The following is the pronunciation of the non-stressed part.
    • a: / ɐ /
    • e: beginning of word / i /, Other positions/ ɨ /
    • i: All positions / i /
    • o: At the beginning of the word o, ho- / ɔ /, Other positions- "honesto" and its derivatives / u /
    • u: All positions / u /
      pronunciation / pɾuˈnũsiɐ /, elemento / ilɨˈmẽtu /
    • In Portugal, the ending e and o may not be pronounced.
  • Stressful / ɐ / Written as a or â and often appears before nasal sounds.

Diphthong:

  • ai: / aj /
  • ei: / ɐj /
  • êi: / ej /
  • éi: / ɛj /
  • oi: / oj /
  • ói: / ɔj /
  • ui: / uj /
  • in: / aw /
  • I: / ew /
  • EU: / ɛw /
  • iu: / iw /
  • In Portugal, ei is pronounced like "ai".
    • Example: não sei / nɐ̃w̃ sɐj /
  • ou was a diphthong, but is now usually pronounced as a single vowel / o /. (In Brazil, this is not always the case, for example, some people pronounce the verb soubesse as / su'bεssi /, while others pronounce it as ou in every word.)

Nasal vowel

  • / ĩ /
  • / ẽ /: in
  • / ũ /: A
  • / ɐ̃ /: An
  • / õ /: on
  • In Brazil, the pronunciation of ã is the nasal vowel of the back tongue a (dark a), while in Portugal it is the nasal vowel of the front tongue a (bright a). / ɐ̃ / It is represented by.
  • ão, ending-am / ɐ̃w̃ /
  • ãe, ãi / ɐ̃j̃ /
  • ãe / ẽ j̃ /
  • o / õj̃ /
  • ui / ũj̃ /
  • Like FrenchNasal vowelHowever, the double nose vowel is unique to Portuguese.
    • good morning /bõ di.ɐ /(Pt), /bõ dʒi.a/(Br)
    • muitas e stações / mũj̃tɐz iʃtɐsõj̃ʃ /(Pt), / mũj̃tas estas õj̃s /(Br)

consonant

Portugueseconsonant OfIPA[4][5][6]
Lip soundDental consonant/
Gum sounds
Tongue spinePosterior gum noise
LabializationLabialization
nasalmnɲ
Pop soundUnvoiced soundptk()
Voiced soundbdɡɡʷ()
FricativeUnvoiced soundfsʃ
Voiced soundvzʒ
Approaching soundHalf voweljw
Side soundlʎ
R soundShaking sound/Fricativeʁ
Repellant soundɾ

If two symbols are lined up, the one on the right isVoiced sound, LeftUnvoiced sound..網掛けはShadingToneThe part that is considered impossible.

  • Ti and di, or te and de at the end of the word are pronounced chi and di in Brazil, but remain ti and di (or tou and do) in Portugal.
  • The s and z at the end of the syllable are pronounced shu in Rio and Portugal.
  • R is almost the same as Spanish.That is, r at the beginning of the word and rr at other positions / r / And r other than the beginning of the word is / ɾ / Pronounced in.However, in Brazil / r / The [x, h] Pronounced (originallyVoiced uvular fricativeAnd it was also pronounced in the devoiced [χ]), so especially in the notation of Brazilian sounds / x / Is used.In recent years, there is a tendency to pronounce in Brazilian style even in Portugal.
  • C and p at the end of syllables in Portuguese spelling (old orthography only) are omitted in Brazilian spelling.Many of these are not read in either Portugal or Brazil.Also, in the case of the new orthography, these consonants are not written even in Portugal.Brazilian spellings that do not fall out are always pronounced, but in Portugal they are not constant.Also, the vowel before this consonant is always a in Portugal, even in the non-stressed part. /to/, / ɛ / is / ɔ / Read in.
    • Example: acção (Portugal), ação (Brazil)/ aˈsɐ̃w̃ /
  • The ex- at the beginning of the word before the unvoiced consonant is read as "ech" or "eich" in Portugal.
    • expôr / ɨʃˈpoɾ / or / ɐjʃˈpoɾ /
  • Hard palate sound ch / ʃ /, j / ʒ /, lh / ʎ /, nh / ɲ / The stressful e in front of is in Portugal / ɐ / Read as.
  • qu is in Portugal before the front vowel (e, i) / k / and /Also read as /, but in Brazil // Is written as qü. /ɡʷ / The same applies.[Source required]
  • L at the end of the syllable is the so-calleddark LIt is pronounced as (dark L), but in Brazil it is sometimes pronounced as u.
    • Pt: Portugal / puɾtuˈɣaɫ /
    • Br: Brasil / bɾaˈziɫ /, / bɾaˈziw /
  • In Portugal, as in Spanish, / b /, / d /, / g /Open vowelFricatives between [β], [ð], [ɣ] become.If there are nasal vowels before and after, there is no fricative.
  • In front of e, i, c is / s /, g is / ʒ /Pronounced with.
    • engineer / ẽʒɨˈɲɐjɾu /

Stress

  • The position of stress is always in the 1st to 3rd syllables from the end of the word.If there is no accent sign etc., it is in the second place.Consonants l, r, z and i, u vowels at the end of the wordNasal vowelIf there are diphthongs with, ã or til, stress is placed at the end of the word.If stress comes to other syllables, it will be accented.The presence or absence of s at the end of a word does not affect the change in stress position.
  • In Spanish, a, e, o are called strong vowels, and i, u are called weak vowels, but in Portuguese, they are "all strong vowels".That is, the suffix that means "-gaku" is -logia, but the stress is in -gi-.

Example 1 "Technology"

  • Po tecnologia "TechnuruTheA (TechnoroTheA) ”・ ・ ・ The position of the accent is shown in bold.The same applies below.
  • Stecnología "Technología"HiA ".If there is no accent mark, "Techno"RussiaHere. "

Example 2 "History / Story"

  • Po história "ChairGrear".If there is no accent mark, "IstReA ".
  • Su historia "ChairGrear"

Example 3 "Police"

  • Po polícia "PuReShea ".If there is no accent mark, "PuriSheaA ".
  • S policía "PolySheaA ".If there is no accent mark, "PoReShea ".
  • Although non-standard, words with accented syllables ending in s or z (eg in the São Paulo dialect) may be pronounced with an i in Brazil.
    • Example: vocês / voˈsejs / boy / xaˈpajs / português / portug'ejs / inglês / ingl'ejs /

Phonological support

Many of l after p and b changed to r.

  • Example (comparison with Spanish)
    • blanco (west) -branco (po) "white"
    • playa (west) -praia (po) "beach"

The alphabet

New Portuguese Orthography

As mentioned in the consonant section, there are many words written in different spellings in Portugal and Brazil,20085The Portuguese parliament passed a bill over the next six years to change the spelling from the current one to the Brazilian one.[7][8]..The unusual situation of the former colonial notation being followed by the former colonial powers reflects the economic, cultural and academic influence of Brazil's overwhelming population in the Portuguese-speaking world. is there.In Brazil, it was promulgated as a presidential decree in September 2008, and after the transition period until the end of 9, this new orthodox law will be adopted after 2012.According to this orthography, the spelling will be as follows except for some words.

  • The word traditionally spelled ôo becomes simply oo (eg vôo (flight)> voo)
  • When stress comes to the diphthong ei or oi, the traditional accent marks are no longer needed (eg Coréia (Korea)> Coreia, apóio (support)> apoio)
  • Consonants that were written even though they were not pronounced in Portuguese are no longer written (eg acção (behavior)> ação)
  • In the Brazilian style, the traditional diaeresis is abolished and qüi, qüe, güi, güe are replaced with qui, que, gui, gue.

However, even after the enforcement of the new orthography, there are still differences between Portuguese and Brazilian spelling. When stress comes to o and e before m and n, ó and é are used in Portugal and ô and ê are used in Brazil, reflecting the difference in pronunciation between the two countries.Example: Antonio (personal name): António (Portugal), Antônio (Brazil)

grammar

  • Nouns and adjectives are gendermatchTo do.Plurals, like other Western Romance languages, end with -s or -es.However, -al, el, etc. ending with l change -l to -is, -ais, -eis, etc., but -il becomes -is if the ending syllable has stress, otherwise -eis.Also, -ão is basically -ões, but some can be -ães or -ãos.For the feminine form, as in Spanish, change the masculine form to -a if it ends with -o, and add -o if it ends with a consonant. The feminine form of -ão is -ã or -ona. If the number of syllables increases as a result of adding -es or -a, the accent marks that were in the singular may disappear.Words ending with a nasal vowel with the spelling m are -ns.
  • As a second-person pronoun in PortugalParent name Tu (singular) and vos (plural) remain, but in Brazil they are mostly replaced by você (s), which is the inflection of the third person.Therefore, when studying in Brazilian style, you only need to learn four verb conjugations instead of six for each tense.However, there are some confusions between the second and third person (grammatically) for the same person, such as using the second person object te.Also, immigrants from southern BrazilアルゼンチンOften use vos as the second person singular pronoun for bluntness.
  • In English, the present progressive form expressed by be + present participle is expressed by estar + present participle in Brazil.On the other hand, in Portugal, it is called estar a + infinitive.
    • Examples: Sandra está cantando. (Brazil), Sandra está a cantar. (Portugal).Both meanings are "Sandra is singing"
  • There is a subjunctive future that was not in Latin (this tense is medieval)Galician,Old SpanishIt was used in, but now it remains in some maxims and is not used in daily life).
    • Example: Liguem-me quando vocês chegarem à França. (Call me when you arrive in France)
  • InfinitiveThere is a "" with a personal ending in.In regular verbs, it has the same form as the subjunctive future.
    • Example: É natural ficarmos tristes após a morte do nosso melhor amigo. (It is natural for us to mourn the death of our best friend)

vocabulary

For reference, the Portuguese word for foodLatin, And indicate English words.Portuguese, Latin, English, and Japanese in that order.

Portuguese tooSpanishalikeArabicLoanwords from, but less than Spanish.ReconquistaWas completed early in PortugalMuslimThe forced conversion and expulsion of the Spanish were carried out earlier than in Spain, and along with this, the Arabian loanwords were also exiled.Even now, the Portuguese point to the Spaniards, saying, "Spanish people like himMoors"It's a mixed race with", he said, which can be soaked in a sense of superiority (similar feelings can be seen in the reaction of residents in other parts of Spain to Andalusia and Murcia).

Portuguese greetings

  • Bom dia. --Good morning
  • Boa tarde -. Hello
  • Boa noite. --Good evening, good night (used for both)
  • Durma bem. --Good night
  • Tchau. / Adeus. --Goodbye[9]
  • Passe bem. / Fique bem. --How are you?[9]
  • Até a manhã. --See you tomorrow[9]
  • Obrigado. (Male) / Obrigada. (Female) --Thank you
  • Tudo bem? --How are you? (Also used for greetings such as "How are you?" (Like How are you? In English))
  • Tudo bem. / Bem. / Mais ou menos. / Mal. / Tudo mal. --I'm fine / Good / OK / Bad / Worst
  • (Há) Quanto tempo! --It's been a long time (short for Quanto tempo não o vejo!)
  • Quem está a falar? (葡) / Quem está falando? (Haku) ――Which one? (When you receive a call, etc. Translated literally, "Who is talking?")
  • Quem é você? --Which one? (When you encounter a stranger)
  • Socorro! --Help!
  • Pare com isso! --Stop!
  • Vem cá! --Come here!

Japanese and Portuguese

16st centuryPortuguese in the middleTanegashimaDrifted to (Traditional gun).Since then,JesuitsbyChristianWith missionMelaka-MacauWithNanban trade(mainlyKinkiからKyusyuIn rural areas), the Portuguese played a major role.Portuguese is one of the earliest Western languages ​​to come to Japan, along with the artifacts that entered this era.nounetcJapanese(Many of the idioms of foreign names peculiar to Japanese such as the Netherlands and the United Kingdom are derived from Portuguese).English,FrenchForeign words that have flowed in since the 19th century are exclusivelyKatakanaWhile it is written in Portuguese, many of the borrowed words derived from Portuguese are written in kanji and hiragana, which suggests deep penetration.Adnan (AgostinhoMr. Konishi),Naoyasu Naito,Hosokawa GarashaThe baptismal name of Christians at that time is also derived from Portuguese.

1603から1604OverNagasakiPublished by the Jesuits inJapanese-Japanese dictionaryIs the oldest published Nippo Jisho dictionary, and is a valuable resource for understanding the Japanese vocabulary and pronunciation at that time.

From the end of the 16th centuryManilaTrade andFranciscan-Dominican societyThrough missionary activities such asSpanishThe contact with was also close.Therefore, in PortugueseSpanishSince there are many words of the same origin and the same shape, it is difficult to determine which one originated, and there is a high possibility that they spread from both at the same time.

Example of borrowing from Portuguese to Japanese

JapaneseKanji AtejiPortugueseRemarks
AlheitoYuhei Sugaralféloa"AlfeninThere is also a theory that it is derived from "(alfenim)".
The United KingdomGeelyInglez
IlmanIrumitsu, Irimitsu, YumanbrotherAssistant Master, Taira Monk.Under the batteren.
Horatiooratio
NetherlandsThe NetherlandsThe Netherlands
organorgan
Kapparaincoatlayer
PumpkinpumpkinpumpkinLocal names such as "bobura" and "bobora" are also said to be derived from "abóbora", which means pumpkins and melons in Portuguese.
Castellacastella
KapitanKobitancapitão
Karutaplaying cardsletters
Carmela/キ ャ ラ メ ルcandy
GearmanDiamondOriginally the same as the original meaningdiamondMeansKirikoIt comes from using it for crafting.
ChristianKirishitancristão
GreeceGreece
キ リ ス トChrist
CruzKurukocross
Collegiocollege
croquettecroqueteDutchThere is also a theory that it is derived from.
KonpeitoKonpeitoconfeito
SarasaMore yarnsaraça
PomeloPomelo, thank youzamboa
Soap bubblesoap
Jibanundershirtgibão
WateringWatering canjarroThere is a different theory.
Seminaryoseminar
tobaccotobaccotobacco
Charmelacharamela
WaistcoatcheckThere is also a theory that it is derived from the English word "jacket".
Deusgod
TempuraTempura, TempuratemperoThe ritual of fasting meat performed by Jesuit missionaries at that time, and eating at that timeVegetarian foodThere is also a theory that it is derived from the fried food "Têmporas" similar to.
Galvanized irontutanaga
トルコEarth ear oldTurkish
Novitiatenoviciado
BatterenBantenren, Hatenrenfather
Batterabateira
BreadNoodle noodlesbread
BancoboothbenchPoint to the stoolKyushu regionDialect.
BidroglassMarbleIs also the etymology.
Biscuitcookie
BurmaBurmaDutchThere is also a theory that it is derived from.
Velvetvelvet
pinpintThose who mean "the number of dicing eyes" and "the best thing".Pin entertainerIs derived from this.
flaskjar
SwingbalanceThere is also a theory that it is derived from the onomatopoeia "burari" and "buran".
Verandabalcony
Bolocake
ボ タ ンopen
PontochopontineIt is also said to be derived from "ponta" which means "tip (pointed terrain like a cape)".
Quincequince
CloakmantleDutch "mantel" firstDerivedThere is also a theory.
mummymummymyrrh
Knittedhosierysocks
the mallmogul
RachaRasharaxa
Rambikistill
Rosaryrosário

Comparison with Spanish

Details: en: Differences_between_Spanish_and_Portuguese

Portuguese is the sameIberian Romance OfSpanishIt is a language very similar to.Similarities can be seen everywhere, such as similar pronunciations and spellings, and common meanings of words and vocabulary.

SpanishQuoted from the expression of.

  • "Buenos días" = Good morning. (Until you eat lunch)
  • "Buenas tardes" (Buenas, Tarudesu) = Hi (during the day there is).
  • "Buenas noches" = Good night.
  • "Hola" (Ola) = Hello.

By comparison, there are considerable similarities in spelling.However, while Spanish greetings use the plural as described above, Portuguese uses the singular.

Speakers of Spanish and Portuguese can understand both languages ​​and are generally able to communicate with each other.In Brazilian broadcasts, the presidential speeches of Spanish countries are broadcast without translation.Uruguayリ ベ ラAnd BrazilSantana do LivramentoAround the border with, a mixed dialect of Portuguese and SpanishFrontierisoIs being spoken.

The main points regarding the differences between Spanish and Portuguese are listed below.

Difference in pronunciation

  • In Portuguese, there are two pronunciations of e and o (é / ê, ó / ô: in Portugal, an ambiguous voweled e is added), but in Spanish, there is one pronunciation (Japanese e and oya). (Same pronunciation as o).
  • In PortugueseNasal vowelThere is, but not in Spanish.
  • In Portuguese, ch is pronounced as Sha, but in Spanish, it is pronounced as Cha.
  • In Portuguese, in addition to the above ch, s and x before the ending and plosive/ ʃ /This sound appears frequently in Portuguese, but does not exist in Spanish phonemes.However, in the Castile region, it is a little closer to [ʃ] because the tongue is concave when pronouncing / s /.
  • In Portuguese, ge / gi / j, which is the pronunciation of Ja line, is a sound close to the sound of Ha line in Spanish (a sound not found in Japanese, not the same sound as Ha line in Japanese).
  • In Portuguese, l at the end of a syllable sounds like u, but in Spanish, no such change has occurred.
  • The Portuguese lh retains the pronunciation of the Lya line, but the Spanish ll, which originally had the same pronunciation, is the Ja line or the Ya line in almost all dialects. Difficult. In Buenos Aires, it has changed to Sha line).
  • In Portuguese, the beginning r and rr, which are pronounced in the Ha line, are pronounced in Spanish with a curly tongue.
  • There is no pronunciation of the line in Spanish, and s and z are pronounced of the sa line (Brasil is pronounced "Brazil" and Venezuela is pronounced "Venezuela").
  • In Spanish, the pronunciation of v and b is indistinguishable and always the pronunciation of b, but in Portuguese it is as distinct as Italian and French. (Cape VerdeCan be written as "Cape Verde" in Spanish and "Cape Verde" in Portuguese[10])
  • In Spanish, x is pronounced s (before or at the beginning of a consonant) or ks (before a vowel), but in Mexican place names it is pronounced in the Ha line (México Mexico, Oaxaca Oaxaca, etc.).
  • Consonant alternations may occur between Portuguese and Spanish with synonymous words.
    • l and r: "white" is branco in Portuguese and blanco in Spanish. "South" is sul in Portuguese and sur in Spanish. "saberIs sable in Portuguese and sabre in Spanish.
    • b and v: "Book" is livro in Portuguese and libro in Spanish. "Vanilla" is Portuguese for baunilha and Spanish for vainilla.
  • In both Portuguese and Spanish, k and w are used only for loanwords. y is used only for loanwords in Portuguese, but is often used in Spanish (pronounced ya or ja).

Difference in grammar

  • The second-person singular tu, which is no longer used in Brazil, is widely used in Spanish-speaking countries (excluding Colombia and Costa Rica, and in some regions such as Argentina and Central America, vos is used instead of tu). , The parental second person plural vosotros / -as is not used in Central and South America, but exclusively in Spain.For this reason, there are effectively four inflected forms (eu, ele / ela, nós, eles / elas) in Brazilian Portuguese.In addition to this, the Portuguese language of Portugal adds the second person singular, and the second person plural is virtually rarely used, so there are five verb conjugations.There are five conjugations in Spanish-speaking Latin America (yo, tú, él / ella / usted, nosotros / -as, ellos / -as), and in Spain there are additional verb conjugations corresponding to vosotros / -as. ..In other words, there are a total of six inflected forms, one for the third person and the other for the plural.In recent years, mainly in northern and southern Brazil and Rio de Janeiro, there has been a phenomenon in which the inflected form uses the third person while using tu, although it is not grammatically correct.In Portuguese, the general nouns o senhor and a senhora are sometimes used as the second person for superiors.
  • The verb circumlocution for the present progressive tense is represented by estar a + infinitive (eg estou a cozinhar) in Portuguese Portuguese, but in Spanish it is in the form of estar + present participle (eg estoy cocinando) as in Brazilian Portuguese. It is represented by.However, in Spanish, the present form often expresses the meaning of the present progress, and it is not used as often as in English.
  • In Portuguese, the past perfect conjugation (tivera, tivera, tivéramos, tiveram) is the subjunctive past -ra form in Spanish.In Spain, both tuviera, tuvieras ... and tuviese, tuvieses ... (-se form) are used, but especially in Latin America, only the -ra form is used.
  • In Portuguese, the subjunctive future (eg, quando vier ao Japão (if you come to Japan)) is often used, but in Spanish, the subjunctive future is not used except in ancient language.

Nowadays, young people are studying Spanish in Brazil and Portugal, especially in Spanish-speaking countries.パラグアイ,アルゼンチン,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIn such places, the enthusiasm for learning Portuguese is increasing.It is said that it is much easier to learn than learning English.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ "Encyclopedia World Words 141" p459 Shigeki Kaji, Yumi Nakajima, Toru Hayasi ed. Taishukan Shoten April 2009, 4 First Edition First Edition
  2. ^ "Tokyo University of Foreign Studies Module | Portuguese". www.coelang.tufs.ac.jp. 2020/9/7Browse.
  3. ^ ""Brazilian" trivia spoken in Brazil | Translation company Arc Communications”(Japanese). www.arc-c.jp. 2020/9/7Browse.
  4. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995): 91)
  5. ^ Sobre os Ditongos do Português EuropeuCarvalho, Joana. Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto. Page 20. Quote: A conclusão será que nos encontramos em presença de dois segmentos fonológicos / kʷ / e / ɡʷ /, respetivamente, com uma articulação vocálica. Bisol (2005: 122), tal como Freitas (1997), afirma que não estamo ramificado. Neste caso, a glide, juntamente com a vogal que a sucede, forma um ditongo no nível pós-lexical. Esta conclusão implica um aumento do número de segmentos no inventário segmental fonológico do português.
  6. ^ Bisol (2005: 122). Quote: A proposta é que a sequencia consoante velar + glide posterior seja indicada no léxico como uma unidade monofone mática / kʷ / e / ɡʷ /. O glide que, nete caso, situa-se no ataque não-ramificado, forma com a crescente em ní vel pós lexical. Ditongos crescentes somente se formam neste nível. termos, um segmento complexo.
  7. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7405985.stm
  8. ^ http://www.afpbb.com/articles/-/2704072 "People are confused by unifying the notation in" Brazilian style "in Portuguese-speaking countries." AFPBB March 2010, 03 Retrieved June 02, 2015
  9. ^ a b c In Brazil, "Tchau." Is often used as a greeting for "goodbye." "Adeus." Is a "goodbye" greeting in Portugal and means eternal farewell in Brazil, so you should refrain from using it. "Passe bem." And "Fique bem." Are greetings such as "Good morning" and are a little formal. The literal translation of "Até a manhã." Is "until tomorrow," if you have decided to meet again. "Até semana que vem." For "again next week" (literally "until the coming week").
  10. ^ Cabo Verde is originally Portuguese (meaning green cape), but it is the same Cabo Verde in Spanish.In both Spanish and Portuguese, Cabo means "cape" and Verde means "green".

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