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Physiological calorie(Seiriki Netsyo, another namePhysiological energy value,Physiological energy amount,Heat of metabolism,Metabolizable energy amount) IsBiology Is absorbed and consumed with the activity ofCalorie(Energy). Obtained primarily from foods you consumeNutritionHeat quantity,motion,metabolismUsed for the energy consumed by.
In Japan, the unit used for physiological caloriecalorieIs commonly used as a noun to represent the amount of physiological heat (eg, low-calorie diet, calorie restriction, etc.).
Discovery of physiological heat
From the latter half of the 17th century, changes in the composition of the exhaled air and inhaled air of living organisms before and after burning an object空 気From the observation that it is similar to the change in composition,BreatheとcombustionThe relationship has come to be discussed. However, in this era, the composition of air was different from the modern understanding, so regarding breathing, (1674)hookThinking that the “air of salt stone” of (1665) is consumed,Priestley(1775) isPhlogistonThought to be the release of.Lavoisier(1777)oxygenConsumption ofcarbon dioxideIt is now considered that the consumption of oxygen by living organisms is equivalent to the consumption of oxygen by combustion, since the consumption of oxygen increases and the consumption of oxygen increases in proportion to exercise intensity. From this, the amount of heat that is an indicator of the amount of combustion is themetabolism) Was born, the concept of physiological calorie was established.
The validity of "burning" in the body was recognized as the need for body temperature maintenance for human life, and the ability to convert heat into movement isSteam engineIt was known by analogy with. laterEnergy conservation lawIs established,GlycolysisOf energy conversion in the living body分子The idea of energy that can be utilized by living organisms, that is, physiological calorific value has been recognized as a solid thing in modern times.
Also, separate sugars and fatsNutrientsAre differentNutritionIt was thought that sugar and fat of the same calorific value are equivalent in terms of calorie and can be exchanged, and physiological calorific value is considered to be an independent nutrition concept (Lubner's law of energy equivalence). Also, the nutrients that give physiological heatCalorieCall.
Definition and measurement of physiological heat
- oxygenDefinition from consumption.organic matterIt is estimated that if the oxygen is consumed in the body and burned outside the body, if the oxygen consumption is the same, the heat generation is also equivalent. Strictly speaking, it is measured in an airtight container, and for simplicity, it is calculated from the carbon dioxide concentration in exhaled air (Petten kofer, 1862). Even today, the amount of heat consumed by basal metabolism and exercise is often obtained by this method.
- Definition by the amount of heat obtained by burning food. Eat the same amount of food as the amount of heat obtained by burning the food in the airexcretionEstimate the amount of heat absorbed from food from the difference in the amount of heat obtained by burning things (Lubner, 1883). The nutritional calories of food are mainly measured by this method,digestionIt is corrected in consideration of the absorption rate. In Japan, it is measured for typical food ingredients,CuisineThe amount of heat displayed on, etc. is generally estimated from the amount of food material and the amount of heat per weight.
- Definition from the amount of heat released. Living organisms are placed in an adiabatic airtight chamber and the rise in temperature is directly measured to estimate the amount of heat released (Lubner,1894). Often used as an adjunct to measurements from oxygen consumption.
- Definition from molecular chemistry mechanism. In modern timesGlycolysisな どNutrientsOf energy conversion分子Since the physical mechanism is clear, the amount of heat obtained from the process can be estimated.
Energy conversion factor for food
The calorie (calorific value) calculation of food was calculated from the results of experiments conducted by Rubner and Atwater in the United States from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century.carbohydrate,Lipid-fat,proteinaboutAtwater coefficientIs widely used.
Atwater conversion factor is based on the physical heat of combustion (kcal/g·kJ/g) of each component, and the digestion and absorption rate in the human body (100% is not absorbed but part is excreted) and the amount of heat excreted (although it is absorbed, It is excreted without being used). Some of the protein was absorbedUrea,uric acidExcreted as.
|ingredient||Physical combustion heat||Digestion and absorption rate||Excretion heat||Conversion factor|
|Lipid||9.4kcal / g||95%||9kcal / g|
|protein||5.7kcal / g||92%||1.25kcal / g||4kcal / g|
|carbohydrate||4.1kcal / g||97%|
The Atwater coefficient is an average value for lipids, proteins and carbohydrates and is often used as a convenient coefficient, but the amount of heat varies depending on the ingredients of food. The same carbohydrates that are easily available,Vegetable fiber,Sugar alcoholThere are indigestible substances such asSmall intestineNot digested bycolonSome of them are decomposed and absorbed by bacteria, but some of them are not absorbed at all due to the difference in decomposition/absorption rate. JapaneseNutrition labeling standardsThen, the carbohydrate is divided into several stages.
|ingredient||Heat conversion coefficient||Remarks|
|Lipid/fat||9kcal / g|
|protein||4kcal / g|
|carbohydrate||Digestibility||What is absorbed by the small intestine, such as starch and sugar|
|Indigestible sugar||0-3kcal/g||Sugar alcohol,oligosaccharideな ど|
|ethanol||7kcal / g||Alcoholic beverages|
|Organic acid||3kcal / g|
The above is a total based on the values of digestion, absorption, and excretion for each food ingredient. However, when the energy conversion coefficient is calculated from the results of the human digestion and absorption test of food, the development by food ingredients is not performed. There is also. This method requires human experimentation on all foods, but in reality the foods are divided into groups and tested with representative foods (eg rice) and the values are applied to the foods within the group..
Meaning in nutrition
The calorific element that gives physiological calorieNutritionAmong them, the carbohydrates, fats, and proteins that were discovered and emphasized early onThree major nutrientsIt is called.
Harvard Medical SchoolInsisted that calorie counting in food energy should be stopped in October 2020.Careful calorie counting does not always give uniform results.How your body burns calories depends on the type of food you eat and your body'smetabolismAndIntestinesIt depends on many factors, including the types of organisms that live in it.Instead, it announced that it should focus on raw foods and healthy lifestyle practices..
On the other hand,digestionThe calories that have been absorbed but not consumed are mainlyAdipose tissueAccumulated inobesity,Adult diseaseInvite. Therefore, in modern times, the intake of calorie is restricted,motionIt is good to keep the body fat percentage constant by increasing the consumption of heat bySlimming)It is believed that[By whom?]. Also thisBeautyIntake and consumption of physiological heat have become a national concern in many countries, as they are closely related. The daily energy requirement (consumption) depends on the physical activity level.Basal metabolismIt will be about 1.5 to 2 times the amount. Detail isNutrition#From a nutritional perspectivechecking ...
Problems with names
In nutrition, physiological calorie is often referred to simply as calorie, but it is generally the unit.calorieIs a noun that expresses the amount of food energy. The calorie unit in food labelingcalorieからJulesIn addition to the amount of food energy,Physiological energy value,Physiological energy amount,Heat of metabolism,Metabolizable energy amountAlthough there is a movement to replace it with words such as, the results have hardly been achieved,Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare,Ministry of AgricultureIt is not uncommon for the word calorie to be used in public relations. In addition, although the term calorie is traditionally used, there is also a view that it is better to use the more general term energy because there are many metabolisms that do not involve heat as a mode of energy.
- (English:Bomb calorimeters) --Bomb calorimeter and explosive calorimeter. A device that measures the amount of heat generated by putting high-pressure oxygen and a sample in a closed container and burning them.
- Nutrition - Nutrients - Nutrition - Slimming-obesity(diet）