Attention on Twitter "#Tweet in Japan" Overseas
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This tag is also attracting attention overseas, and you can also see posts in foreign languages on Twitter.
Around the 2nd of the new year, the hashtag "#Tweet in Japan" suddenly became a trend on Twitter. → Continue reading
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A foreign language is a language used in a foreign country. For exampleFrenchForEnglish,Spanish,Russian,Arabic,Chinese,JapaneseEtc. are foreign languages.AlsoEnglishmanForFrench, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, etc. are foreign languages.JapaneseFor, English, French, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, Chinese, etc. are foreign languages. However, even though it is JapaneseNikkeiThe situation is different forJapanese BraziliansForBrazilian Portuguese(Brazilians often call it "Brazilian" on a daily basis. Brazilian stylePortuguese) Is not a foreign language. Especially for Japanese Brazilians II and III, Brazilian is their own language.Japanese Peruvian For the second and third generations and beyond, Spanish is their own language.
The concept that contrasts with "foreign language", that is, the language of the home country is "home language" or "Mother tongue".
How difficult it is to understand a "foreign language" depends on the depth of the linguistic relationship between the home language and the foreign language. For exampleSpanishFor me, English, French, German, Italian, etc. are certainly "foreign languages" by definition, but of these, Italian, Spanish, and French are "foreign languages", but I don't have to learn anything in particular. But I understand the general meaning of what is being said. Spanish speakers can understand the approximate meaning by listening to the Italian broadcast, even if they have not learned at all, and Italian speakers can understand the approximate meaning by listening to the Spanish broadcast. Even French people can understand the outline of broadcasting in Italian and Spanish. Because Italian, Spanish and French are allRomance languagesIs the word of the Roman EmpireLatinIn a vast area dominated by the empiredialectIt has its roots, and it still has common traces and similarities in French, Italian, and Spanish.vocabularyThis is because there are many vocabularies with exactly the same shape.However, there are high hurdles to speaking, for example, it is difficult for Spaniards to speak Italian correctly (such as Italians speaking Spanish correctly) without learning well.Therefore, when Spanish and Italian communicate for the time being, rather than forcing them to speak the other's language full of mistakes, they speak their own native language, and the other person hears it and understands the approximate meaning. In addition, if you repeat the process of responding in your native language and getting the other person to understand you, communication will generally be established. (Similarly, in East AsiaKanji culture areaOf these, in areas where Chinese characters are still widely used, Chinese characters were used.WritingIs established as it is.For example, even Japanese people who have never learned Taiwanese can often understand it to some extent by writing what they want in Chinese characters and showing them what they want.Taiwanese and Japanese are completely foreign languages in terms of voice level and word order, and even though they are quite different, there are still a considerable proportion of them that are visually similar at a simple vocabulary level, thanks to the use of Chinese characters. Thanks. )
Foreign language learning
Foreign language learning is practiced in Europe. It is common for British to learn French, German, Italian, Spanish, etc., and for French to learn English, German, Italian, Spanish, etc.
It is said that the United States is one of the developed countries with a particularly low desire to learn a foreign language. As the United States has exerted influence over a wide area of the world by military and economic power, many areas where American English is spoken tend to end up in American English, and as a result, learning a foreign language. There are a large number of Americans who do not have it, or who have no knowledge of foreign languages.
Foreign language learning in Japan
The Japanese have chosen the language to study, taking into account the world situation at that time, mainly the countries with which Japan interacts.
During the Heian period, exchanges with China, a major power on the continent across the sea, were very active in Japan, and it was common to learn Chinese language. So-calledChinese languageHowever, some of the educated Japanese have learned and mastered Chinese pronunciation and grammar. Among them, the one who was outstandingly good at learning a foreign languageKukaiIs. Kukai was fluent in Chinese, had few grammatical mistakes, and was able to write Chinese poetry smoothly. When I was studying abroad in China in 804, when the ship I was boarding was hit by a storm and finally reached the coast of China in the form of aground, the Japanese official (Ambassador to Tang) who was boarding the ship was in Chinese. Was not used well, but Kukai spoke instead and survived the predicament, and Kukai took the place of writing a petition to the Secretary of Fuzhou to ask for help. The text (Chinese) of the letter was so beautiful that the secretary who received it was impressed and welcomed the party with special treatment and provided various conveniences.
The Edo ShogunateSakoku policyExceptionally when layingDejimaInstalled, firstPortugalBecause I traded withPortugueseThere were many people who learned. As a result, Japanese has a vocabulary influenced by Portuguese (Foreign words) Remains. For exampleKaruta,Bidro,ボ タ ン,Swing,Bread,tobacco,KonpeitoAnd so on. Later, they started trading with the Netherlands, and most of the people learning foreign languagesDutchI decided to learn. BakumatsuThen mainlyDutchWas being learned. For exampleFukuzawa YukichiLearned Dutch, worked as a Dutch interpreter, made connections with foreign countries, and obtained information from overseas. But with Japan米 国 US-Japan Amity and Trade TreatyFukuzawa's autobiography (""Fukuo Autobiography]) Etc. are written.
The people who came to power during the Meiji RestorationWestern EuropeThere were people who expressed various opinions about which country's system to imitate.The United Kingdom,FranceThere were people who said that the various systems should be adopted. These people were especially learning English and French. AlsoGerman EmpireSome people said that various systems should be adopted. Such a personGermanWas learning. There were several directions. For exampleHosei UniversityEstablished in 1880 as its predecessorTokyo Law Gakusha(Later Tokyo School of Law) and opened in 1886Tokyo Buddha SchoolHe also played a role in learning French and bringing French law to Japan. Also, for example, it was established in 1883.School of EducationThen, German was learned, and German law was also introduced to Japan.
Ito HirobumiEtc. take power,German EmpireAs a result, learning German became popular in Japan because we decided to proceed with modernization in the direction of imitating. At this time, people who studied medicine mainly learned from German medicine and learned German, so there are still many German words in medical terms, such as "Kranke" for patients. However, the most learned language of this era was due to the need to incorporate the British system and information that owned the world's largest colony.British EnglishMet. (In this era, when it comes to learning "English", British English (British English) was the mainstream.) Also on the north side of JapanロシアThere was also exchange and trade in one of the neighboring countries, soRussianResearch on learning and systems was also conducted as it was.
- Under World War II
English was banned as a "hostile language" by the militarized government and could not be learned.
- After World War II
With the arrival of the US military and Japan coming under the control of the United States, English became popular. After that, Japan was treated as an ally of the United States and continued to be strongly influenced by the United States (not British English).American EnglishLearning and education of the people have become popular. In school education, English is one of the subjects of the subject "foreign language", but most schools choose English. This tendency has become even stronger since the introduction of the "foreign language activity" framework in the educational curriculum.
From the Showa periodHyosung AcademyIn junior high school and high school, French education is provided consistently.
Second World WarLater, because Japan was strongly influenced by the United States, English was increasingly selected as the "first foreign language."Showa periodThrough, as a "second foreign language"French,GermanThere were many university students studying such things. However, many people who specialize in Western history, Western philosophy, Western art, etc. learned French and German with an emphasis on English equivalent or more than English in order to read important books in their academic fields. ..
Until the middle of the 20th century, it took more than a month to study abroad in Europe and the United States.boatBecause the monetary value (exchange rate) of the Japanese yen was very low and the cost of staying in the area was high,Study abroadWas difficult.
Already in this eraNHKIntroductory courses on major foreign languages are held on TV and radio broadcasts in Japan, and it was extremely common to use them to learn at the introductory stage.
- Heisei period
In the Heisei periodprimary schoolEnglish education began to be carried out from.
PublicSecondary education(Junior high school,high school,Secondary school), In principleEnglishIs being learned. However, in some high schools, in addition to (or instead of English) EnglishFrench,German (Standard German),Chinese(Mandarin Chinese),KoreanThere are a few schools where you can learn foreign languages such as. For exampleHyosung AcademySo, I am still teaching French in junior high school and high school..
As for the ratio of the number of test takers for the center test, the number of test takers in 2011 was 519538 in English, 392 in Chinese, and 163 in Korean..
When it comes to collegeForeign language departmentIf you have a university, you can study various languages at the faculty of foreign languages. Universities that specialize in foreign languages may be able to learn many different languages. For exampleTokyo University of Foreign StudiesSo English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Chinese, Korean, Mongolian,Indonesian,Filipino,Vietnamese,Lao,Cambodian,タイ 語,Hindi,Urdu,Arabic,TurkishIn some cases, you can learn more minor languages, such as languages that ordinary people have never heard of even their names (language names), with materials and teaching materials.
From French literature department, French department, German literature department, German language department, Spanish language department, etc. of universities in JapanFrench-German・ There is a history of producing a large number of human resources who can practically use Spanish, for example, in Japan.trading companyAs an employee of, or as an expatriate of a TV station, or in JapanForeign-affiliated companiesEmployees, orMinistry of Foreign AffairsHe has been hired and is active as an employee of Japan, which supports Japan's economic and political activities around the world.
University students who do not specialize in foreign languages and literature generally learn two foreign languages for about two years. The curriculum is often organized that way. Many universities distinguish the foreign language they learn from "first foreign language" and "second foreign language".
You can easily learn a foreign language even if you are not a student.Introductory courses in major foreign languages are still held on NHK TV and radio broadcasts, and courses in major languages are available for free at the Open University of Japan, and recently.インターネットYou can touch voices and texts in various languages via the Internet, and there is a way to watch TV broadcasts in each country via the Internet.If you want to learn directly from a native teacher, there are many learning facilities in Japan.For example, in French, you can learn from French people at facilities (Tokyo, Yokohama, Kyushu, etc.) of "Anstitut Francais Japan", an organization affiliated with the French government... Also a long-established French school in Kanda, TokyoAthens FrancaisBut you can learn from French people and even get the qualifications you need to enroll in a French school.Also, for example, in Spanish, you can learn from Spanish at the Cervantes Cultural Center, an organization affiliated with the Spanish government... If you speak Italian, you can study at the Italian Cultural Institute, an organization of the Italian government (Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Italy)... If you speak German, you can study at the German Cultural Center, an organization affiliated with the German government..Hokkaido・ There are also Russian language educational institutions in Hakodate, etc... There are also facilities in Japan that teach minor languages. There are many schools in Japan that teach various languages and government-affiliated schools in each country.
With the explosive growth of smartphones in the 2010s, most people now carry their smartphones with them at all times, but it's free for learning foreign languages.AppsHas been produced and published in large numbers.for exampleAndroidIf it's a smartphoneGoogle PlayIf you search by entering your favorite language name in the search word (for example, if you search by entering "Learning Spanish" etc.), a list of apps will be displayed, so select it by referring to the evaluation from the user etc. If you install it with, you can start learning a foreign language immediately. Most Android apps are free to use (most Android apps are set up to be free if you allow small ads to appear on your screen from time to time. If you don't like ads, you pay. Just buy the app.)
In the past, studying abroad was a high hurdle, but from the latter half of the Showa era to the present of Reiwa, it is easy to fly overseas with cheaper airfares, and the yen is considerably stronger than in the middle of the 20th century. Therefore, the hurdles for studying abroad have been lowered, and it has become very common to improve language skills by studying abroad in a country where the language is spoken when the language has been acquired to an intermediate level in Japan. There is.
Heisei periodTo become and,People's Republic of ChinaHoping to be useful for work etc. against the background of increasing economic powerChineseThe number of people learning is increasing.again,South KoreaIncreased cultural exchange with (NHK "Winter sonataThe trend of Korean dramas in Japan, starting with the broadcast ofKoreanAgainst the background of music trends)KoreanThe number of people learning is increasing.Both Korean and JapaneseAltay languageSince the order (arrangement) of the subject, object, and predicate is almost the same, there are similarities in the vocabulary using Kanji (although they are quite different at the basic vocabulary level), so it is comprehensive. Judging from the above, Korean is one of the foreign languages that is relatively easy to learn.
From a linguistic and sociological point of view (in terms of emotions), especially in countries that have been invaded by different races, there are negative emotions and exclusionary attitudes toward foreign languages due to experiences of linguistic oppression. In the case of Japan, which exists to a certain extent but has no history of being a linguistic victim, there is almost no such feeling, and it is said that it tends to have a strong admiration for foreign languages..
When it comes to whether the Japanese are statistically good at foreign languages,スイスCompared to countries where it is natural for most people to speak 3 to 4 languages, Japanese people are still not very good at languages.However, in Italy, most Italians speak only Italian, and most Italians are not good at even English, so the evaluation of whether they are good or bad at foreign languages depends on the country / people to be compared.
- Foreign language education,語
- Second language,Second language acquisition
- Foreign language side effects
- Foreign language university
- English class
- Foreign words,Loanword
- Mother tongue,Language acquisition,Common misconceptions about language learning
- Interpreter,翻 訳
- List of languages with the most native speakers
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