Portal field news

Portal field news

in ,

🎁 | Kim Kardashian and Kanye West, 1 million yen for Christmas gifts! ?? 


Kim Kardashian and Kanye West give 1 million yen for Christmas gifts! ?? 

If you write the contents roughly
Kanye is known as a big fan of Turrell, and has had a huge impact on the footage of his Sunday service, and in the short film Jesus is King, Turrell's blockbuster "Roden" in Arizona.・ Crater ”was introduced.

Kim Kardashian and Kanye West spend $ 100 million on each other's Christmas gifts ... → Continue reading

 BANG Showbiz Japanese

BANG Showbiz is an entertainment news agency that delivers the latest celebrity news to media around the world, online and in print.

Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.


Coordinate: 34 degrees north latitude 112 degrees west longitude /34 N, 112 W / 34; -112

State of Arizona
Arizona State FlagArizona sign
(State flag)(State emblem)
State nickname: Grand Canyon State
The Grand Canyon State
Location in Arizona
State capitalPhoenix
Largest cityPhoenix
GovernorDoug Deucey
Official terminology(English)
 - Grand total
 -Water area
6th in the US
295,253 km²
294,313 km²
943 km² (0.3%)
 - Grand total
 - Population density
16th in the US
21.54 people/km²
Join US
 -Date of subscription

Time zoneUTC -7
STD -6 (Navajo(Residential place only)
latitudeNorth latitude 31° 20'-37°
longitudeWest longitude 109°3'-114°50'
East-west width500 km
North-south length645 km
 -Highest altitude
 -Average elevation
 -Lowest altitude

3,851 m
1,250 m
21 m
Abbreviation (ISO 3166-2: US)US-AZ
WebsiteArizona State Government
SenatorKirsten Cinema
Martha McSurrey

Arizona(British: State of Arizona [ɛərᵻˈzoʊnə, æráµ»-] ( Audio file),Navajo: hoozdo hahoodzo [xòːztò xɑ̀ xòːtsò]) IsThe United States of America OfSouthwestIt is inStateIs. For the area classificationRocky mountainsWestern andWestern United StatesCan be included in.world Heritage OfGrand CanyonKnown for having. originallycopperとCottonThe production of1980 eraIn the southSun beltIt developed as a corner of1990 eraUntil you enterHigh-tech industryCould not catch up with the development of. NowadaysHigh-tech industryIt is a big base ofCaliforniafromCompanyThe inflow is remarkable.

State capitalAnd maximumcity ThePhoenix cityIs. The second cityTucsonIs followed by eight cities in the Phoenix metropolitan area, namelyメ サ,Glendale,Chandler,Scottsdale,Gilbert,Tempe,Peoria,surprise,furtherYuma County OfYuma.

Became the state of the United States1912February 2th, the 14th state,Mainland usaThen it was the last state. Very hot summers and mild wintersDesertAlthough the climate is characteristic, the climate is much cooler in the northern pine forests and mountains than in the lowland desert.

Arizona is so-calledFour CornersIt is one of four states called.New mexico,Utah,ネ バ ダ 州andCaliforniaIs bounded byColoradoIs in contact with one of the Four Corners in the northeastern part of the state.メキシコ OfSonoraとBaja CaliforniaThey border each other, and the total length is 389 miles (626 km). It has the largest population of any inland state in the United States. In the stateGrand Canyon National ParkIn addition, there are many national forests, parks and protected areas. Over a quarter of the territory is federal trust[1],Navajo,Hopi,Tohono OdamとApacheIn addition, there are various indigenous peoples such as Yavapai, Kuchan, Hualapai, and Yuman tribes.landIt has become.

Languages ​​spoken at home (Arizona) 2010
Race Composition (Arizona) 2010
イ ン デ ィ ア ン

Origin of the state name

There are various theories about the origin of the state name.イ ン デ ィ ア ン OfPapago tribe Ofalĭ ṣonak [ˡaɺi ˡʂonak](Small fountain)[2][3][4][5],Spanish"Árida zona" (meaning arid zone), in Basquearitz ona(Good oak meaning)[6][7].AztecThere is a theory of "arizuma" (meaning silver pillar). It was called "Arizonac" during the Spanish rule, but only in the area near the Planchas de Plata silver mining camp in Sonora, Mexico. This means that the area is still inalĭ ṣonakIs supported by what is called[8].


Main article:Arizona History

1539から1542OverNueva Espana Viceroy(CurrentメキシコFrom)SpanishExploration was done. 1539,FranciscanA missionary, Marcos de Nisa, explored the area and met the Indians of the time, possibly the Sobipuri people. From 1540 to 1542,Francisco Vasquez de CoronadoThe expeditionary team entered the area while looking for Sibora.1692ToFather KinoVisited,1700ToChurch of St. XavierFounded and conducted missionary activities to the Indians. By the early 18th century, a series of missions had been set up and converted many Indians to Christianity in Pimeria Alta (now southern Arizona and northern Sonora). Alsoスペイン The1752ToTubac,1775ToTucsonThe fortified town (Presidio) was built in.

1821メキシコ スペインBecame independent, the current Arizona region became the northwestern border of Mexico called "Nueva California" or "Alta California"[9].. United States1848 OfAmerican ink warでMexico CityAnd claimed sovereignty over most of Northern Mexico, including the area that later became Arizona. The Convention of 1848 paid $1,500 million to the Republic of Mexico in exchange for its territory.1853of"Gadsden purchaseIn the United StatesHira RiverIt has a downstream area. Arizona was initiallyNew Mexico TerritoryWas managed as part of18613/16The southern part of the New Mexico territory has separatedUnited States of America OfTerritoryBecame[10].. September 1862, 2President of the United States of AmericaJefferson DavisStatementArizona TerritoryWas approved. This was the first time the officially named "Arizona" was used. February 1863, 2Washington DCA new Arizona Territory was declared in the region, which was the western half of the New Mexico Territory, and became the basis of the current Arizona Territory.

Initially, various names were considered, and “Gazonia”, “Pimeria”, “Montezuma”, and “Alizma” climbed up.[11],Abraham LincolnWhen the president signed the final bill, it was labeled "Arizona," and it became the name that continues to this day. "Montezuma" isAztec civilizationThe sacred name of the Pima in the Hilla Valley, but not the Emperor of the United States, is a sacred name, probably seriously considered for its emotional value before settling in Arizona, and finally dropped. It is believed that

Brigham YoungFrom the mid-19th centuryMormonismSent the people to Arizona. They established the towns of Mesa, Snowflake, Heber and Safford. It also settled in the Phoenix Valley (or “Sun Valley”), Tempe and Prescott areas. Mormons entered areas of northern Arizona and northern New Mexico, which were part of the former New Mexico territory.

1910-1920 Mexican Revolutionary eraUS-Mexico borderSeveral battles took place in the Mexican town across. Arizona residents joined one of several armies fighting in Mexico. Apart from the Columbus attack on Panchovila, New Mexico in 1916, the 1918 Battle of Ambos Nogales was the only significant battle between US and Mexican troops in the territory of the United States. This battle ended in a victory for the US military. An American garrison attacked Nogales after an American soldier was shot by a unit in the Mexican Federation. Mexican troops surrendered after both sides suffered significant losses. A few months earlier, there was a battle with the Indians. This lasted from 1775 to 1918Indian WarIt was the last battle of. Participating in this battle were US troops and Yakui Indians stationed at the border. The Yakui Indians used the land of Arizona as a base to attack nearby Mexican settlements as part of the war against Mexico.

Arizona19122/14Was promoted to the United States of America. This ended the territorial expansion of the continental United States. Arizona is the 48th United States state and the last state in Continental America.

The two biggest industries in Arizona were cotton cultivation and copper miningWorld DepressionIt was a difficult time at that time, but it was in the 1920s and 1930s that the tourism industry began to become such an important industry as it is today. At farms like KL Bar and Remda in Wickenburg, Flying V in Tucson and Tank Verde,Western pioneer eraIt provided an opportunity for tourists to experience the atmosphere and life of. Large hotels and resorts opened during this period, some of which still rank among the top attractions for tourists today. For example, the Arizona Biltmore Hotel in central Phoenix (opened in 1929) and the Wigwam Resort in western Phoenix (opened in 1936).

Second World WarWhen in ArizonaGermanとItalianAnd the POW campJapanese AmericanThere was a concentration camp. These were abolished after the war. The former site of the Phoenix area was acquired by the Maytag family after the war and is now the Phoenix Zoo.Japanese American concentration campsWas located on Mount Lemon, just outside Tucson, in the southwestern state. The POW camp was near the Hira River in eastern Yuma County. Because Japanese troops could invade the west coast during the war, all Nikkei residents in western Arizona were required to live in concentration camps.

There was also a Phoenix Indian School in Arizona. The school was one of the facilities established by the federal government to assimilate Indian children into Anglo-American culture. Indian children were often enrolled in this school against the will of their parents and family. Children were also forced to cut their hair and have English names in order to suppress their self-identification as Indians.[12].

The population of Arizona grew significantly after World War II,Air conditioning equipmentPartly contributed to the development of the sophomore and to be able to spend comfortably in the severe summer. According to the Blue Book of Arizona, published annually by the State Department of Arizona, the state's population was 1910 in 294,353, but by 1970 it was 1,752,122, nearly six times more than 60 years old. Initially, the average growth rate for every 6 years was about 10%, but after that it averaged 20%.

In the 1960s, a retired community was created. It created a society where the age of the villagers was limited to meet the needs of the elderly who wanted to escape the severe winters in the Midwest and Northeastern United States. Founded by developer Del WebbSun cityWas the first village in 1960, and it was the trend of such a society. Green Valley, south of Tucson, is a similar society, designed as a retreat for faculty in Arizona. Many elderly people visit Arizona every winter and stay only during the winter, and such people are called snowbirds.

1966,Miranda warningWas the trigger that was establishedMiranda v ArizonaThe ruling was presented by the Supreme Court.

In March 2000, it became the first state to legally elect on the Internet to nominate candidates for public office.[13].. During the 2000 Arizona Democratic Party preliminary round,Al GoreDefeated Bill Bradley, and the voter turnout has more than quintupled since 1996.

Three ships have been named "Arizona" in the U.S. Navy, but since the establishment of the state of Arizona,Battleship arizonaOnly.


Related item:county,river,(I.e.,State park,National park as well as the National ForestsList of

Arizona is one of the Four Corners statesSouthwestIs located in. It is the 50th largest of the 6 states in the country (5th is New Mexico and 7th is Nevada). Total area 113,998 square miles (295,253 km2Of these, about 15% is privately owned. Others are public forests and parks, state trusts and Indian settlements.

ArizonaCactusRich in dry plants likeDesertKnown for its landscape. Summers are hot and winters are mild. The southern part of the stateBasin and RangeWhile it is a desert in the north-central part of the stateColorado PlateauIs a highland covered with pine-like evergreens.

Like other states in the southwestern United States, Arizona has a variety of topographical features in addition to a desert climate. Since the northeastern part of the state is the Colorado Plateau, and the rest are also basin and range zones,(I.e.as well as the plateauOccupy more than half of the area of ​​the state. Despite its dry climate, 27% is forest[14].. This is the currentFrance,GermanyCorresponds to.The largest Ponderosa pine in the United StatesPonderosa pine) Is a growing place[15].

Cliffs about 600 meters (2000 feet) high,Mogoyon RimStands across the central part of Arizona and is the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau. Here in 2002The second largest forest fire in historyexperienced,

Arizona is part of the Basin and Range Zone of North America. This terrain was formed by prehistoric volcanic activity, followed by cooling and associated subsidence.

Grand CanyonIs a rugged, rugged valley in northern Arizona that was eroded by the Colorado River. This valley is one of the seven wonders of the world's nature and is largely contained within one of the earliest designated national parks in the United States, the Grand Canyon National Park.Theodore RooseveltThe president has visited here many timesマ ウ ン テ ン ラ イ オ ンWho hunted and enjoyed the scenery and advocated the designation of Grand Canyon National Park.

The valley is a multi-million-year engraved canal of the Colorado River that extends for 277 miles (443 km), is 4 to 18 miles (6-29 km) wide, and is 1 mile deep ( 1.6 km) or more. Nearly 20 billion years ago, the Colorado River and its tributaries cut through the sedimentary layers one after another, during which the Colorado Plateau rose.

Arizona is the best in the worldmeteoriteIt is one of the places where the traces of collisions are stored.Ballinger Meteor Crater(Simply called the “Meteor Crater”) is a huge hole in the center of the Colorado Plateau, about 25 miles (40 km) west of Winslow. The edges of the shattered boulders are about the size of a small house, some rising 150 feet (45 m) above the surrounding ground. The crater is nearly a mile (1 km) wide and is 1.6 feet (570 m) deep.

ArizonaSummertimeIs one of two states that do notHawaii), in the northeastNavajoDaylight saving time is implemented only at Indian settlements.


Arizona has a large area and a large difference in elevation, so various climates exist depending on the land. The areas of low altitude are mainly deserts, characterized by mild winters and hot summers. Winters are usually mild from late autumn to early spring, with an average minimum temperature of 60.° FIt is about (16℃). November-February is the coldest month with temperatures of 11° F(4°C) to 75° F(24°C), but frost is common. After mid-February, the temperature begins to rise, with warm winds during the day and cold winds at night. Summer is June to September, with dry heat and temperatures of 2° F(32°C) to 128° F(53℃), 128 in the desert° FMay exceed (53℃)[16].. The highest temperature ever recorded was recorded at Lake Havasu City on June 1994, 6 and July 29, 2007 7.° F(53°C). The lowest temperature ever recorded was recorded on January 1971, 1 at Holy Lake.° F(4°C).

Most of the area has a dry climate, so the temperature difference between day and night is large in the less developed areas of the desert, especially in summer.° F(28℃) may also open. The effect of partial heating (Heat island) Does not lower the minimum night temperature so much.

The average annual rainfall in the state is 12.7 inches (323 mm). The rainy season is twice a year, and the winter isThe Pacific OceanからCold frontWhen came, in the summermonsoonWhen it blows[17].. The monsoon occurs near the end of summer. July or August,Dew point temperatureRises dramatically in a short time. At this time, the atmosphere contains a large amount of water vapor. Dew point has risen to 81°F (27°C) during the Phoenix monsoon season[18].. Warm water vapor results in lightning, thunderstorms, wind and, briefly, waterfall-like rainfall. Often because of thisFlash floodCan occur and can be destructive. To prevent motorists from crossing a flood of water, Arizona enacted the Foolish Driver Act. In Arizona竜 巻,HurricaneAre rarely attacked by, but there are records that have occurred so far.

The northern third of ArizonaplateauThe altitude is much higher than that of the lowland desert, and the climate is generally cool, with cold winters and summers that are easy to overcome. The extreme value of the lowest temperature is unknown. Northern states andカナダA cold air mass from the° FThe temperature may drop below (-18 ° C).

Most days use 100 as an indicator of climate diversity.° FThere is both a metropolitan area that exceeds (38℃) (Phoenix metropolitan area) and a metropolitan area that drops below freezing for most days (Flagstaff metropolitan area)[19].


Population transition
Yearspopulation% ±
Source: 1910-2010[20]

Much of the 19th century, Arizona remained largely unpopulated[21].. According to the 1860 census, the Arizona County had a population of 6,482, of which 4,040 were Indians, 21 were liberated blacks, and 2,421 were whites.2006Currently, Arizona has increased by 213,311 people or 3.6% over the previous year,2000Population increased by 1,035,686, or 20.2% to 6,166,318[22][23].. This included a natural increase of 297,928 (564,062 births, 266,134 deaths) since the last census and an increase of 745,944 immigrants to the state. Emigration from outside the United States increased by 204,661, and domestic migration increased by 541,283. Water demand is distorted as the state population continues to grow[24].

The population of the Phoenix metropolitan area increased by 1991% between 2001 and 45.3, making Arizona the second fastest-growing state in the country in the 1990s.ネ バ ダ 州).[25].. The current population of the Phoenix metropolitan area is estimated to exceed 430 million.

ArizonaCenter of gravity TheGilbertThere isMaricopa CountyHas become[2].

Of the state population of 2010 according to the 6,392,017 Census, the race composition is as follows:[26].

2003CensusEstimates show that Arizona has the second largest Indian population of any state in the United States. The 2 Indians reported to live in Arizona account for more than 286,680% of this national population of 2,752,158 Indians. OnlyCaliforniaIs more Indian than Arizona, and Arizona isOklahomaA little more Indian than[3].. Indian language has the highest number of Indian-speaking people in the 48 continents, with 2005 Navajo-speaking households as of 85,00[27].. West Apache is spoken by 10,403 people[27].

The largest ancestor group in ArizonaMexican (21%),German descent,British,Irish descent,andAmerican IndianIs. The southern and central parts of the state are the largest Mexican-American region, with the exception of Yuma and Santa Cruz counties. The northern central and northwestern counties are populated by people of English descent. The northeastern part of Arizona is home to many American Indians.

Arizona in 2035 at the latestA state where the largest population is not a majorityIs expected to be. For the first time in 2003,HispanicMore Hispanics were born than any other Caucasian birth.

As of 2000, 5% of Arizona residents aged 74.1 and older are at homeEnglishTalking about 19.5%SpanishAre talking.Navajo0.6% in other Indian languages ​​and 0.5%GermanThis is the third most commonly spoken language with 1.9%.

49.9% of the population is male and 50.1% is female.

In 2010, the percentage of illegal immigrants was estimated to be 7.9%. This is the second highest number of states in the country after 8.8% in Nevada.[28].


5 out of 4 Arizona peopleCatholicandProtestantThe answer is that they are both Christians.MormonismThe population is also increasing.

The composition of religious population in Arizona is as follows:

Indian tribe

Apache,,,,Hopi,,,,Navajo,,,,,,,, and so onイ ン デ ィ ア ンA tribe is indigenous. Most of these tribes have the same language, so although they are actually different tribes, whites were indistinguishable and were collectively referred to as the Apache. At the bottom of the Grand Canyon, several tribes have lived since ancient times. Focused on tourismReservation placeThere are many (Reservation), and "Indian Casino" is also popular.

1850s in Californiagold RushAt the beginning of the day, the US federal government asked the Pima to provide food. The Pima continue to provide their food to tens of thousands of travelers heading to California via the San Tafe carriageway. However, when white immigrants from Britain and Mexicans began to emigrate, they diverted the stream of the Gila River into their fields. Animals such as deer and antelope, the prey of the Pima, were almost extinct by the migrants.

The Pima, who have become unable to hunt and gather, will rely on federal federal meals.Wheat flourとsugarAnd they are all nutritious. As a result, the majority of themobesitybecome,Diabetes mellitusBecame sick. The prevalence of diabetes is 19 times the average prevalence of Caucasians across the United States. In addition, the Pima people who lived the hunting and gathering life had abundant food, and their working hours per day were shorter than they are now. Since he started to rely on food distributed by the government, he has more exercise, has longer working hours, and eats much less. Regarding the health status of the Pima people in the mid-1th century,1846John Griffin, a surgeon who served in the US Army troops as they passed through the Pima land, John Griffin ) Is “active and good,” and John Bartlett, US Border Commissioner John Bartlett ) Is1852"In the Pima people, women have developed breasts and slender bodies," and in men, the bodies are too long, the limbs are thin, and the chest is narrow."[29].

1928, The US federal governmentCoolidge DamConstruction and blocking the Hira River destroyed agriculture in the downstream Pima reserves.

Navajo women make a livelihood of grazing sheep and goats on their reserves, but their livestock numbers are regulated by federal treaties and the surplus is drowned and slaughtered at the end of the year. White ranchers do not have such restrictions.

In the stateUniversity of ArizonaHas increased the number of Indian students annually to 2006 in 545, 2007 in 631 and 2008 in 730, with 2009 students in the fall of 792, the most Is a university with many students.

≪Tribes and tribal unions officially recognized by the US federal government≫

  • "Apache'
    • "Tonto Apache" * "Tonto" in Spanish means "dumb"
    • "San Carlos Apaches"
    • "White Mountain Apaches"
  • ""
    • ""
    • "Mojave Apaches (Yavapai)"
  • ""
  • ""
    • "Kaibab Paiute"
    • "San Juan South Paiute"
  • ""
  • ""
  • "Tohono-O Odam (Papago tribe)
  • ""
  • "Hopi'
  • "Pasqua"
  • "Hira River Tribal Conference"
  • ""
  • "Colorado River Indian Tribal Conference"
    • Mojave, Hopi, Navajo
  • "()"
  • "(Papago, Pima)"
  • "Navajo'

≪Tribes not officially recognized by the US federal government≫

  • "San Juan Paiute"
  • "Barrio Pascua ()"
  • "CherokeeUnion"

Indian Casino

Many casinos have been cut off from agricultural independence due to reserve policies, and Indian Casinos are economically the last trump card for them. Many tribal casinos are planned, and it is expected that the number will increase further in the future.

<<Arizona Indian Casino and Management Tribe>>

  • San Carlos Apache
    • "Apache Golden Casino Resort"
  • Tonto Apache
    • "Mazazzar Casino"
  • Colorado River Indian Tribal Conference
    • (Mojave, Hopi, Navajo)
      • "Blue Water Casino"
  • Salt River Indian Community
    • "Casino Arizona" (*Two casinos with the same name are operated)
    • "Talking Stick Resort"
  • McDowell Fort
    • "Fort McDowell Casino"
  • Hira River Indian Community (Pima and Maricopa)
    • "Lonely Mountain Casino"
    • "Wild Horse Trail Casino"
    • "New Wild Horse Trail Casino"
    • "Vie Cuiva Casino"
  • Mojave
    • "Spirit Mountain Casino"
  • White Mountain Apache
    • "Hon-Dah Casino"
  • Pascua Yaki
    • "Sun Casino"
    • "Sun Casino (Casino del Sol)"
  • "Tohono-O Odam (Papago)"
    • "Desert Diamond Casino" (*Two casinos with the same name are operated)
    • "Golden Hassan Casino"
  • Ak-Chin
    • "Haller's Ak Chin Casino"
  • Prescott Yavapai
    • "Bucky Casino"
    • "Prescott Resort"
    • "Yavapai Casino"
  • Yavapai-Apache
    • "Cliff Castle Casino"
  • Kokopar
    • "Cocopar Casino"
  • Kechan people
    • "Kechan Casino Resort"
    • "Paradise Casino"


2006 Gross Domestic Product (Gross state product) Was US$2,320 billion. If Arizona is an independent country, it has the 61st largest economy in the world[30].. This number isRepublic of Ireland,Finland, AndNew ZealandIs a bigger economy than countries like. Arizona is currently the 21st largest economy in the United States.

The per capita income for Arizona is (per capita income) 39th place in the United States at US$40,828, household income is $50,958, ranked 22nd[31].. The initial economy of Arizona is "five'C's":copper,cotton,牛,citrus,as well as climate(Tourism) Was dependent on. Arizona has once become the largest cotton producer in the United States. Even today, open-pit and underground mining is still widely used for copper, producing two-thirds of domestic production. Mine ownerFreeport McMorranIs famous.


The state government employs the largest number of employees in Arizona,WalmartIs the largest with 17,343 (2008). The unemployment rate in 2010 was 9.6%[32].. In ArizonaAmerican West AirlinesThere is a head office.

Nearly 70% of Arizona's land is owned by the United States government, and some of its public land is rented to ranchers and miners.


Arizona has five types: 2.87%, 3.20%, 3.74%, 4.72%, and 5.04%.income taxHave been collected. Arizonaconsumption taxIs 6.6%, but some places have added 2% depending on the county or city.

The tax rate for accommodation (hotels and motels) is 7.27%. Arizona does not impose state taxes on food consumed at home or on drugs prescribed by licensed doctors and dentists. However, some municipalities tax the food consumed at home.

All 15 counties in the state impose taxes. The Corporate Division also taxes commercial transactions, with the exception of hotels and motels, which is usually 1 to 3%. If these are combined, the maximum consumption tax will be 10.7%.


Autonomous driving of a carThe deregulation has been carried out in a related form related to, and the system utilizing the characteristics of the states, which have a lower population density than other states, is being operated.[33]. However,2018IsTempeThere was also an accident that a Uber car that was automatically driving at[34].


July 2020, 7 In the state,(English edition)The factory construction ceremony was held. It is planning a 400 million square foot factory site and will employ more than XNUMX engineers.


MajorInterstate highwayCrosses the state north-southInterstate highwayThere are Route 17 and Route 19, and east and west areInterstate 8,Line 10, Route 40 is crossing. A short section of the interstate highway runs from northeast to southwest, passing through the northwest corner of the state. In urban areas, there is a complex network of state roads and high standard roads. Ring 101 (Arizona State Road 101), for example, is part of Phoenix's vast expressway network.

High standard road

Interstate highway

I-8 (AZ) .svg Interstate 8|I-10 (AZ) .svg Interstate 10|I-15 (AZ) .svg Interstate 15I-17 (AZ) .svg Interstate 17I-19 (AZ) .svg Interstate 19I-40 (AZ) .svg Interstate 40

American National Road

US 60.svg US Route 60 |US 64.svg US Route 64 |US 70.svg US Route 70 |US 89.svg US Route 89 |US 66.svg US Route 66

US 91.svg US Route 91 |US 93.svg US Route 93 |US 95.svg US Route 95|US 160.svg US Route 160 |US 163.svg US Route 163

US 180.svg US Route 180 |US 191.svg US Route 191 |US 466.svg US Route 466 |US 491.svg US Route 491

Public mass transit

There is a public transportation system by bus in the urban areas of Phoenix and Tucson. Yuma and Flagstaff also operate public buses.GreyhoundConnects Phoenix, Tucson, Flagstaff, Yuma and small municipalities in the state.

Called the Valley Metro RailLight RailWas recently completed in Phoenix. It connects the city center of Phoenix with the nearby Mesa and Tempe cities. This line opened in December 2008.

In May 2006, voters in Tucson approved a regional transportation plan (a comprehensive bus transportation, train and road improvement program) and a half-cent increase in VAT to finance it. The center of this plan is the light rail train system (OregonPortland(Similar to that of), through the city center,University of ArizonaIt will connect the main campus to the Rio Nuevo planned area on the eastern edge of the city center[35].

Amtrak"Southwest Chief" runs through northern Arizona and stops at Winslow, Flagstaff, Williams, and Kingman. The "Texas Eagle" and "Sunset Limited" run through Central South and stop at Tucson, Maricopa, Yuma and Benson.


The airports where regular commercial flights operate are as follows.

  • Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport (PHX), Phoenix City, the largest international airport in the state)
  • Tucson International Airport (TUS), Tucson City
  • Phoenix Mesa Kateway Airport (AZA), Mesa City
  • Yuma International Airport (YUM), Yuma City
  • Prescott Civil Airport (PRC), Prescott City
  • Flagstaff Pullman Airport (FLG), Flagstaff City
  • Grand Canyon National Park Airport (GCN), a small but heavily-used single runway facility, mainly for tourists from Las Vegas

Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport is the 7th largest airport in the world and 17th in the number of passengers[36][37].

There are no other scheduled commercial flights, but as an important airport, Scottsdale Municipal Airport,Phoenix Deer Valley AirportThere is. Deer Valley Airport has two flight training schools and is the most used general purpose airport in the country[38].

Politics and law

Related item:List of Arizona Congressmen as well as the List of Arizona Governors

Capitol Complex

The state capital of Arizona is Phoenix City. The first Capitol Building, with its characteristic copper-colored dome, was opened in 1901 (construction completed in 1900 for $136,000) while the region was still a territory. Phoenix officially became the state capital in 1912 when Arizona was promoted to a state in the United States.

Arizona State House of Representatives (Arizona House of Representatives) And the Senate (Arizona SenateThe legislative building was opened in 1960, the executive building was opened in 1974 (the governor's office was located on the 9th floor). The original Capitol Building was converted into a museum.

The Capitol complex died in the 1970s while serving as governorWesley BolinIt was built in front of the scenic Wesley Bolin Memorial Park, named after the governor.Arizona (Battleship)(Attack on Pearl HarborA number of relics and memorials are located here, including the United States Navy battleship's anchor and signal mast, the Ten Commandments of Granite, and the Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum.

State legislature

Arizona LegislatureBicameral system(NebraskaExcept for each state legislature in the United States). There are 30 senators and 60 senators. There are 30 constituencies in the state, each electing one senator and two senators every two years.

The session of the Senate is two years. The parliament following the general election is called the first regular parliament, and the parliament held in the second year is called the second regular parliament. Each regular parliament begins on the second Monday of January and closes (called a sign die) before Saturday, the 2th day of the week when the regular parliament begins. Senate and House chairs may extend the session for up to 1 days in accordance with the rules. Effectively, the session can be extended only by the majority vote of the members present in each house.

As of 2011, the majority partyRepublican PartyAnd has controlled both houses since 1993.

Arizona Senators and Representatives have a two-year term and are limited to four consecutive terms, but there is no limit on the total number of elections. It is common for one legislator to run in another in the event of a term limit.

The fiscal year 2006-2007, which was approved by Congress in June 2006, was just under $6 billion. This budget, in addition to that used by state agencies, includes more than $100 million for income and property tax reductions, state employer salary increases, and additional budgets for preschool to grade 12 education. It was

State administration

ArizonaAdministrationIs headed by a governor elected every four years. There is no limit to the term of governor, but it is up to two consecutive terms. Arizona is one of the few states to not maintain a governor's office. The governor has lived in his private residence even after he took office, and the executive offices are all located in the executive tower inside the state capitol. The governor as of 4Republican Party OfJean Brewer.Barack ObamaOf the regimeUnited States Homeland Security SecretaryWas appointed toJanet NapolitanoFormer governor[39]Was received and was promoted from 2009. He was re-elected in the 2010 elections and will be working until January 2015. Arizona has four female governors, including incumbent Governor Brewer, which is the most recorded record in all 1 states.

In addition to the Governor, the elected officials are the Secretary of State, the State Treasurer, the State Prosecutor, the State Superintendent of Education, the State Mining Inspector, and five members of the Corporate Commission. All of these officers have a four-year term and are limited to two consecutive terms. However, state mining inspectors have no term limit.

Arizona is one of seven states that does not appoint a deputy governor. If the governor dies, is unable to work, resigns, or is exiled, the Secretary of State is the number one in succession. Next is the state prosecutor, state treasurer, and state superintendent. Since 7, four secretaries of state and one prosecutor-general have been appointed governors following this procedure.

State judiciary

The Arizona Supreme Court is the highest court in the state. It consists of a chief judge, deputy chief judge and three judges. The judge is nominated by the governor from a list of candidates recommended by the bipartisan committee, and is re-elected two years after the nomination. After that, they are elected every 3 years. The Supreme Court has jurisdiction over the cases sentenced to death, but almost all other appeal cases have been sent to the Arizona State Court of Appeal. The Supreme Court has jurisdiction over some conditions, including those related to state constitutions. State law can also be declared unconstitutional, but only when in court. The Supreme Court is located in the Arizona Supreme Court Building of the Capitol Complex (south end of Wesley Bolin Square).

The Arizona Court of Appeals is divided into two districts, an interim court in the state. District 2 is based in Phoenix, is composed of six judges, has western and northern jurisdiction, and includes the Phoenix metropolitan area. District 1 is based in Tucson, is composed of six judges, has jurisdiction in the southern state, and includes the Tucson area. Judges are selected in a manner similar to the means used to elect a Supreme Court judge.

Each county in Arizona has a superior court, which varies in size and organization, but is generally dependent on the size of the county.


Arizona is divided into political divisions designated as counties. It has 1983 counties since 15 and covers an area of ​​1,238 square miles (3,206 km2) To 18,661 square miles (48,332 km2) Is available.

Arizona County
County nameCounty seatYear established2010 populationComposition ratio (%)Area (km2)Composition ratio (%)
Apache County187971,5181.17%29,0559.84%
Kochise County1881131,3461.98%16,1075.46%
Coconino CountyFlagstaff1891134,4211.96%48,33216.37%
Hira County188153,5970.86%12,4224.21%
Graham CountySafford188137,2200.56%12,0204.07%
Greenley County19098,4370.14%4,7861.62%
La Paz County198320,4890.33%11,6893.96%
Maricopa CountyPhoenix18713,817,11765.34%23,8908.09%
Mohave CountyKingman1864200,1862.61%34,88711.82%
Navajo County1895107,4491.64%25,7948.74%
Pima CountyTucson1864980,26314.21%23,8008.06%
Pinal County1875375,7703.03%13,9194.71%
Santa Cruz County189947,4200.65%3,2061.09%
Yavapai CountyPrescott1865211,0332.82%21,0527.13%
Yuma CountyYuma1864195,7512.69%14,2944.84%
Total: 156,392,017295,254

Representative status of Congress

As of 2011, two members of the US Senate are occupied by Republicans. The House of Representatives has 2 seats, 8 Republican seats and 5 Democratic seats. As a result of the 3 census, the total number increased by 2000 seats.

Political culture

Results of the presidential election
YearsRepublican PartyDemocratic Party
201649.15% 1,240,65645.35% 1,144,709
201253.65% 1,233,65444.59% 1,025,232
200853.60% 1,230,11145.12% 1,034,707
200454.87% 1,104,29444.40% 893,524
200050.95% 781,65244.67% 685,341
199644.29% 622,07346.52% 653,288
199238.47% 572,08636.52% 543,050
198859.95% 702,54138.74% 454,029
198466.42% 681,41632.54% 333,854
198060.61% 529,68828.24% 246,843
197656.37% 418,64239.80% 295,602
197261.64% 402,81230.38% 198,540
196854.78% 266,72135.02% 170,514
196450.45% 242,53549.45% 237,753
196055.52% 221,24144.36% 176,781

Arizona was dominated by the Democratic Party from the time it was promoted to the late 1940s. Democratic candidates usually dominated Arizona during the presidential elections held during this period, with the exception of the 1920, 1924, and 1928 United States presidential elections, where Republicans prevailed nationwide. Was there.

In the 1952 presidential electionDwight D. EisenhowerSince choosing Arizona, Arizona has consistently picked Republican candidates, but in the 1996 electionsBill ClintonIt was an exception only when he controlled. In recent years, Republicans have also dominated Arizona politics. The rapidly growing suburbs of Phoenix and Tucson have become more Republican since the 1950s. During this period, many rural “Pinto Democrats” and conservative Democrats have come to support Republicans at the state and national levels. While Arizona supports Republicans at the national level, Democrats are doing well in statewide elections. In the 2006 election, the DemocraticJanet NapolitanoWas easily re-elected in the Governor's election.

August 2008, 3,John McCainWas nominated for a Republican candidate for the 2008 presidential election,Barry GoldwaterHe has since become a presidential candidate.

Arizona politics has long contended for two major counties: Maricopa County with Phoenix and Pima County with Tucson. Almost 2% of the state's population lives in these two counties, making up 2% of the voters. In addition, the number of legislatures is actually a majority.

Almost 60% of the state's population lives in Maricopa County, where most of the elected officials in the state live. The presidential elections since 1948 have consistently chosen Republican candidates. This includes Barry Goldwater, a 1964 native from Maricopa County. Goldwater couldn't even beat Arizona without a 2 vote in Maricopa County. Similarly, McCain in 2008 had an 8% difference in Arizona, but could have been close if there wasn't a 13 vote difference in Maricopa County.

By contrast, Pima County, where Tucson is, and much of the southern state is historically Democratic. The suburbs of Tucson tend to be Republican, but somewhat moderately Republican favored than the Phoenix area.

In the 2006 midterm elections, Arizona rejected amendments against gay marriage. This was the first time in any state in the country. Already gay marriage was legal, but the amendment would deny legal or financial benefits to unmarried homosexual or heterosexual couples.[40].. In 2008, Arizona enacted State Constitution Amendment No. 102, defining marriage as the union of a man and a woman.

In 2010, Arizona enacted the toughest illegal immigration law in the country, igniting discussions between supporters of the law and slanderers.[41].

Major cities and towns

Related item:en: List of cities in Arizona,en: List of cities in Arizona (by population)

Phoenix, the largest city in Arizona, is the state capital. The Phoenix metropolitan area has a total population of over 400 million. This metropolitan area includes the cities of Mesa, Glendale, Chandler, Tempe, and Scottsdale.

Tucson is the second largest city in Arizona, 110 miles (180 km) southeast of the Phoenix metropolitan area. The Tucson metropolitan area had a population of over 2 million in 2007. The University of Arizona is located here and is considered to be the prestigious school in the state along with Arizona State University in Tempe.

BoldfaceName of a cityIndicates that the population is over 100,000.

25 rich cities in Arizona

en: per capita incomeRanking by

1Paradise Valley, Arizona$ 81,29014Sedona (Arizona)$ 31,350
2en: Carefree, Arizona$ 62,43315Green Valley, Arizona$ 31,138
3en: Rio Verde, Arizona$ 58,78316en: Oro Valley, Arizona$ 31,134
4Tubac$ 46,64317$ 30,232
5Catalina Foothills, Arizona$ 42,00618$ 30,026
6Scottsdale, Arizona$ 39,15819en: Queen Valley, Arizona$ 28,886
7en: Cave Creek, Arizona$ 38,07020en: Corona de Tucson, Arizona$ 28,304
8en: Litchfield Park, Arizona$ 37,79321en: Elgin, Arizona$ 27,909
9en: Tanque Verde, Arizona$ 36,46722$ 27,312
10$ 35,01023Sun City, Arizona$ 25,935
11Sun Lakes, Arizona$ 33,39424New River, Arizona$ 25,932
12en: Fountain Hills, Arizona$ 32,23025en: Tortolita, Arizona$ 25,550
13Sun City West, Arizona$ 32,049See complete list of Arizona places

The Prescott metropolitan area includes Prescott, Sedona, Cottonwood, Camp Verde, and many other towns in Yavapai County with a total area of ​​8,123 square miles (21,052 km).2). With a population of 212,635, these towns make up the third metropolitan area of ​​the state. Prescott City (population 3) is located approximately 41,528 miles (100 km) northwest of the Phoenix metropolitan area. Located in a pine forest at an altitude of about 160 feet (5,500 m), much cooler than Phoenix, with summer maximum temperatures in the late 1,680s (80°C) and average winter temperatures of 27°F (50°C) ..

Yuma is the center of Arizona's fourth largest metropolitan area. It is located near the border with California and the border with Mexico. It is the hottest city in the United States, with an average high of 4°F (7°C) in July (Death ValleyJuly temperature will be 7°F (115°C)). 46% of the year is sunny. The Yuma metropolitan area has a population of 90. In winter, it attracts tourists from all over the country.

Flagstaff is the largest city in northern Arizona, with an elevation near 7,000 feet (2,100 m). There is a large forest of Ponderosa pine trees in the vicinity, which is in stark contrast to the rest of Arizona, where winter snow, beautiful mountains and deserts are common. Located at the foot of the San Francisco Mountains, the highest mountain range in the state, Humphreys Peak is 12,633 feet (3,850 m) high and is the highest peak in the state. There are many tourist destinations in the vicinity such as Grand Canyon National Park, Sedona, and Oak Creek Canyon, and the tourism industry occupies a large position. Historic American Route 66 is a highway running east to west. It has a population of 57,391 and has the main campus of Northern Arizona University.


Colleges and universities

State University

There are three state universities in Arizona, which are governed by the Arizona Board of Directors.

Community college

There is also an extensive network of two-year vocational schools and community colleges. Historically governed by state-wide committees, these colleges moved most of their jurisdiction to community college districts in 2002.[42].. The Maricopa County Community College District includes 11 community colleges in Maricopa County, making it one of the largest in the country.

  • Arizona Western College
  • Central Arizona College
  • Kochise College
  • Coconino Community College
  • Dine College
  • Eastern Arizona College
  • Chandler Gilbert Community College
  • Estelia Mountain Community College
  • Gateway Community College
  • Glendale Community College
  • Maricopa County Community College District
  • Mesa Community College
  • Mohave Community College
  • Northland Pioneer College
  • Paradise Valley Community College
  • Phoenix College
  • Pima Community College
  • Rio Salado Community College
  • Scottsdale Community College
  • South Mountain Community College
  • Yavapai College

Private universities and vocational schools

Most private universities are for-profit organizations and operate during the period of having multiple campuses.[43].. The only traditional (single-campus, non-profit, four-year) private university is Prescott College[44].

  • American Indian College
  • Apollo College
  • Art Center College of Design
  • University of the Arts Tucson
  • University of the Arts Phoenix
  • AT Still University
  • Brown McKee College
  • Collins College, Tempe
  • Embry Riddle Aeronautical Engineering University
  • International Baptist University
  • Ramson College
  • Midwestern University
  • North Central University
  • University of Ottawa
  • Phoenix Law School
  • Prescott College
  • Southwest Natural Medicine College
  • Southwestern College
  • Thunderbird School of International Management
  • Institute of Advanced Technology
  • Western Governors University
  • Western International University

Educational association

  • Arizona Association of Music Educators

Primary and secondary education

Public education in Arizona is divided into about 200 local school districts. School districts operate independently, but are often headed by elected district superintendents. The county superintendent is supervised by the Arizona Board of Education (one of the Arizona Department of Education) and the State Public Education Supervisor, a four-year term elected in even years without governor elections. In 1, the School District Relocation Committee was established, aiming to combine and integrate school districts.


Professional sports team

OUR TEAMSportsleagueNumber of wins
Arizona CardinalsfootballNFL2 times
Arizona DiamondbacksbaseballMLB1 times
Arizona RatlersArena footballArena football league2 times
Phoenix Coyote'sIce hockeyNHL0
Arizona SundogsIce hockey1 times
Phoenix MercurybasketballWNBA2 times
Phoenix SunsbasketballNBA0
Yuma ScorpionsbaseballGolden baseball league1 times

Spring camp

Arizona is a popular place for major league baseball spring camps and also has the nickname Cactus League. Another popular location is Florida, known as the Grapefruit League. The Glendale City-owned spring camp facility, which opened in 2009, is located in Phoenix and is now in use by the Los Angeles Dodgers. Now there are 15 teams doing spring camps in Arizona. The first spring camp in Arizona was in 1947 (Cleveland Indians and San Diego Padres) and has become a tradition.

Arizona DiamondbacksSalt River Fields at Talking Stick
Chicago Cubs
Chicago White Sox
Cincinnati Reds
Cleveland IndiansGoodyear Ball Park
Colorado RockiesSalt River Fields at Talking Stick
Kansas City Royals
Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim
Los Angeles DodgersCamel back lunch
Milwaukee Brewers
Auckland Athletics
San Diego PadresPeoria Sports Complex
San Francisco GiantsScottsdale Stadium
Seattle MarinersPeoria Sports Complex
Texas RangersSurprise Stadium

Besides, Japanese professional baseball team,Hokkaido Nippon-Ham FightersHas been camping in Peoria Sports Complex in Peoria for two years since 2016 and Salt River Fields in Scottsdale for two years in 2. Long time agoYakult SwallowsAlso had a spring camp in Yuma (1978-1999).

Besides the spring camp, the Arizona Fall League and the Arizona Winter League are held. The Fall League started in 1992 and is designed to give minor league players an opportunity to improve their skills and show their abilities in a match format in front of major and minor scouts and team officials.Michael JordanWas in the limelight when he started baseball at the Scottsdale Scorpions. The Winter League started in 2007 and is independentGolden baseball league4 teams are competing in a league. The match will take place at Desert Sun Stadium in Yuma, with the addition of two teams in California and a Sonora team in the 2 season.

Other sports

There are many golf courses in ArizonaPGA TourThere are also several events held, including the Phoenix Open at TPC Scottsdale and the Ritz-Carlton Golf Club in Marana.Accenture Matchplay ChampionshipIs famous.

College sports are thriving, with three state universities and several community colleges. The fierce competition between Arizona State University and the University of Arizona dates back to when Arizona was promoted to the state,NCAAIs the oldest of all[45].. The Territorial Cup was first awarded in 1889 and is recognized as the oldest trophy in national college football. Even today, both universities are awarded to the winners in the "Duel in the Desert" held each year.Bowl championship series OfmatchAre also being held. Originally held at Sun Devil StadiumFiesta bowlIs currently in GlendalePhoenix University StadiumIs being held in. The stadium had a BCS Championship game in 2007 and February 2008, 242th Super BowlWas held. The Insight Bowl is also held at Sun Devil Stadium.

Art and culture

Art and Museum

Located on the historic Central Avenue Corridor in Phoenix City, the Phoenix Museum of Art is home to the largest collection of world art in the southwestern United States. It collects over 18,000 pieces of modern and contemporary works and fashion designs from the Americas, Asia, Europe and Latin America, and holds exhibitions and international exhibitions. Since 1951, it has been commissioned by community education to host festivals, demonstrations, independent films and educational programs all year round. For children, we also offer an interactive space "PhxArtKids", a photo exhibition in collaboration with the Creative Photography Center, an outdoor sculpture exhibition and a meal at Acadia Farm.

Arizona is also recognized as the center of Indian art, and there are many galleries of works from ancient times to the present. The Hard Museum, also in Phoenix, is the main museum of Indian art. Characteristic exhibits include Navajo Hogan, a modern collection of marine allen nichols gems of 260 pieces, Barry Goldwater's collection of 437 Hopi Kachina dolls, a boarding school for Indians of the 19th century. There is an exhibition. The museum is visited by 25 people annually.

Sedona, Jerome andTubacIs known as a place for up-and-coming artists to grow, and there is a small art scene near big cities and state universities.


As a Hollywood movie shot in Arizona,Break through tomorrow's wall,U-turn,Waiting to Exhale,Just One of the Guys,Can't Buy Me Love,Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure,Scorpion King,The Banger Sisters,Used carandBaby thiefThere is. 1993 science fiction movieFire in the SkyThe filming was taken in Oregon, though it was based on an alien abduction that was actually said to have taken place in Snowflake, Arizona.

1977 yearsク リ ン ト · イ ー ス ト ウ ッ ドStarring/Director workGauntletThe climax of is set in Phoenix. 1984 movieStarman/Love/Space muchIn the suburbs of WinslowMeteor CraterIs set on the stage. Jeff Foxworthy Comedy Document FilmBlue Collar Comedy TourWas shot almost entirely at the Dodge Theater in Phoenix. 1960Alfred HitchcockDirected workPsychoIs not only filmed in Phoenix, but the hero is from there.

As a TV show shot or staged in Arizona,The New Dick Van Dyke Show,Medium Phantom Allison Dubois,Alice,The First 48,Insomniac with Dave Attell,US Police 24 o'clock CopsandAmerica's Most WantedThere is. 1974 movieAlice's loveIt is,Ellen Burstyn Academy Award for Best ActressWas awarded,Chris ChristophersonHas also appeared and is set in Tucson. Tv showAliceWas based on this movie, but it was set in Phoenix. 2008 movieTwilight ~First Love~Was filmed in Phoenix at the beginning and end of the scene.


Arizona has manyCountry and westernHas appeared in the lyrics. For example, Jamie O'Neill's hit song "There Is No Arizona".George Strait"Ocean front Property" sings as "ocean front property in Arizona" (Arizona is not facing the ocean) as a metaphor for deceptive people. band,ToursThe song "see you down in Arizona Bay" in the songLos AngelesMentions the possibility of someday sinking in the ocean.

"Arizona" is the title of a popular song recorded by Mark Lindsay. Also,Jackson brownとGlen FryProduced by the band,EaglesPlayed byTake it easyIs also mentioned in Arizona. The song has the following lyrics.

Well, I'm a standin' on a corner in Winslow, Arizona,
and such a fine sight to see
It's a girl, my Lord, in a flatbed Ford,
slowin' down to take a look at me
Standing on the street corner of Winslow, Arizona
Very nice view
Aw, at the flatbed Ford
It's the girl who slows down to see me

Arizona's up-and-coming music scene has been aided by emerging bands and prominent artists.Gin blossoms, Chronic Future, Roger Klein and the Peacemakers,Jimmy Eat WorldBegan his career in Arizona. AlsoPunk RockIn the band, JFA, Feeders,Sun City Girls,Meat papets, And more recently Authority Zero has begun operations in Arizona. AlsoEmoIn the genre ofBreath the fall,Scary Kids Scaring Kids,The main,Eyes Set to Kill, The Bread, Greenley Estates, and Stiletto Formal. But by artists like The Format and Fine ChinaIndie rockThere is also a scene.

Many musicians, singers, songwriters and guitaristsMichelle branchIs from Sedona. band,Linkin ParkLead vocals forChester benington, Former social distortion member and drummer Bob Stubbs lives in Arizona, and mashup artist DJ Z-Trip is from Phoenix. One of the notorious musicians in Arizona is shock rock.Alice CooperAnd contributed to the definition of this genre. Tours,A Perfect CircleAnd lead vocalist of PsipherMaynard James KeenanCalls the city of Jerome its present home. Other prominent singers include Marty Robbins from Country, Katy Lee from Folk,Fleetwood mac OfStevie Nicks, Sese Peniston, Rex Allen,2007 American IdolWinnerJordan sparksandLinda RonstadtThere is.

Mainly around PhoenixHeavy metalIs also known in the scene. The bands include Job for a Cowboy, Knights of the Abyss, Eyes Set to Kill, Breath The Fall and Abigail Williams. The band's Soulfly calls Phoenix home,MegadethHave lived in Phoenix for about 10 years.

Celebrities from Arizona

State symbols, etc.


  1. ^ All about Arizona. http://www.sheppardsoftware.comAccessed 2010-09-21.
  2. ^ Bright, William (2004). Native American Place Names of the United States.Norman:University of Oklahoma Press, pg. 47
  3. ^ http://www.jstor.org/pss/1496233
  4. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Arizona
  5. ^ McClintock, James (1916). Arizona, Prehistoric, Aboriginal, Pioneer, Modern:The Nation's Youngest Commonwealth within a Land of Ancient Culture. Chicago: The SJ Clarke Publishing Co.
  6. ^ Thompson, Clay (February 2007, 2). “A sorry state of affairs when views change”. Arizona Republic. 2007/3/3Browse.
  7. ^ Donald Garate, 2005, "Arizonac, a twentieth-century myth", Journal of Arizona History 46 (2), pp. 161-184
  8. ^ Saxton, Dean, Saxton, Lucille, & Enos, Susie. (1983). Dictionary:Tohono O'odham/Pima to English, English to Tohono O'odham/Pima. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press
  9. ^ Timothy Anna et al., Historia de México. Barcelona: Critica, 2001, p. 10.
  10. ^ "Arizona Ordinance of secession presented by the Col. Sherod Hunter Camp 1525, SCV, Phoenix, Arizona”. Members.tripod.com (July 2007, 7). 2010/7/25Browse.
  11. ^ http://www.pima.gov/cmo/sdcp/Archives/reports/Cult.html
  12. ^ "Archeology of the Phoenix Indian School”. Archeology.org (March 1998, 3). 2010/7/25Browse.
  13. ^ http://www.thegreenpapers.com/News/19991003-0.html
  14. ^ "Hardwood Forest Foundation: Experience: Arizona”. Hardwoodforest.org. 2010/7/25Browse.
  15. ^ "Prescott Overview”. Ncsu.edu (May 2002, 5). 2010/7/25Browse.
  16. ^ "Arizona Climate”. Desert Research Institute, Western Regional Climate Center, Reno, Nevada (December 2001, 12). 2011/5/26Browse.
  17. ^ United States Geological Survey (September 2005). “Hydrologic Conditions in Arizona During 1999–2004: A Historical Perspective (PDF)". 2006/3/20Browse.
  18. ^ http://www.wunderground.com/history/airport/KPHX/2006/7/1/CustomHistory.html?dayend=31&monthend=8&yearend=2006&req_city=NA&req_state=NA&req_statename=NA
  19. ^ "'' Mean number of Days with Minimum Temperature Below 32F''National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Retrieved March 24, 2007”. Lwf.ncdc.noaa.gov (August 2008, 8). 2010/7/25Browse.
  20. ^ http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/apportionment-pop-text.php
  21. ^ Arizona (state, United States). Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  22. ^ [1]
  23. ^ "Table 1: Estimates of Population Change for the United States and States, and for Puerto Rico and State Rankings:July 1, 2005 to July 1, 2006". 2006 Population Estimates. US Census Bureau, Population Division (December 2006, 12). As of January 22, 2007オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2006/12/22Browse.
  24. ^ "Arizona at a crossroads over water and growth". The Arizona Republic. March 9, 2008.
  25. ^ "Ranking Tables for Metropolitan Areas: 1990 and 2000." United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved on July 8, 2006.
  26. ^ http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_PL_QTPL&prodType=table
  27. ^ a b 2005 American Community Survey. Retrieved from the data of the MLA, 2010-07-13
  28. ^ Slevin, Peter (April 2010, 4). “New Arizona law puts police in'tenuous' spot”. Washington, DC: Washington Post. Pp. A4. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/graphic/2010/04/29/GR2010042904397.html?sid=ST2010042905051 2011/7/30Browse. 
  29. ^ Taubes, Gary (2010). Why We Get Fat. New York City: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-307-27270-6 
  30. ^ CIA-The World Factbook
  31. ^ "News Release (pdf) ”. 2010/7/25Browse.
  32. ^ Bls.gov; Local Area Unemployment Statistics
  33. ^ "Autonomous trucks start operation on highways in Arizona Uber”. CNN (July 2018, 3). 2018/3/19Browse.
  34. ^ "Uber self-driving car crash kills passersby in Arizona”. AFP (July 2018, 3). 2018/3/19Browse.
  35. ^ "Tucson: Streetcar Plan Wins With 60% of Vote”. Lightrailnow.org. 2010/7/25Browse.
  36. ^ World's busiest airports by traffic movements
  37. ^ World's busiest airports by passenger traffic
  38. ^ "Deer Valley Airport”. Phoenix.gov. 2010/7/25Browse.
  39. ^ “Ariz. GOP would gain if Napolitano gets Obama post”. Associated Press. KTAR-FM. (November 2008, 11). http://ktar.com/?nid=6&sid=994469 
  40. ^ "Arizona stands alone against marriage ban-Queer Lesbian Gay News”. Gay.com. 2010/7/25Browse.
  41. ^ Archibold, Randal C. (April 2010, 4). “Arizona Enacts Stringent Law on Immigration”. The new york times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/24/us/politics/24immig.html 2010/6/23Browse. 
  42. ^ 2002 Legislature-HB 2710, which later became ARS 15-1444
  43. ^ College Navigator-Arizona National Center for Education Statistics, US Department of Education
  44. ^ College Navigator-Four-Year Schools in Arizona National Center for Education Statistics, US Department of Education
  45. ^ Knauer, Tom (November 2006, 11). “What is the Territorial Cup?”. The Wildcat Online. http://media.wildcat.arizona.edu/media/storage/paper997/news/2006/11/22/UaVsAsu/What-Is.The.Territorial.Cup-2507222.shtml 2007/4/2Browse. 
  46. ^ http://www.azsos.gov/public_services/kids/kids_state_songs.htm

Related item


  • Bayless, Betsy, 1998, Arizona Blue Book, 1997-1998. Phoenix, Arizona
  • McIntyre, Allan J., 2008, The Tohono O'odham and Pimeria Alta. Arcadia Publishing, Charleston, South Carolina.ISBN 978-0-7385-5633-8).
  • Miller, Tom (editor), 1986, Arizona: The Land and the People. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.ISBN-0 8165-1004-0).
  • Officer, James E., 1987, Hispanic Arizona, 1536-1856. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.ISBN-0 8165-0981-6).
  • Thomas, David M. (editor), 2003, Arizona Legislative Manual. In Arizona Phoenix, Arizona, Arizona Legislative Council. Google Print. Retrieved January 16, 2006.
  • Trimble, Marshall, 1998, Arizona, A Cavalcade of History. Treasure Chest Publications, Tucson, Arizona.ISBN-0 918080-43-6).
  • Woosley, Anne I., 2008, Early Tucson. Arcadia Publishing, Charleston, South Carolina.ISBN-0 7385-5646-7).

外部 リンク


Back to Top