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👩‍🎓 | Chubu University confirms honey component to help maintain bone health


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Chubu University confirms honey component that helps maintain bone health

 
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In addition, since maltobionic acid is an indigestible oligosaccharide, it was confirmed that it has an effect of improving bowel movements and an intestinal regulating function.
 

Professor Onishi Element of Chubu University and others, in collaboration with Sanei Saccharification Co., Ltd. (Aichi Prefecture), have the oligosaccharide "maltobionic acid" as a bone ... → Continue reading

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Constipation improvement effect

oligosaccharide

oligosaccharide(Oligosaccharide) isMonosaccharide Glycosidic bondCombined several bySugar OfOligomerso,Molecular weightIt is about 300-3000.

Oligo is a Greek word (ὀλίγος / Latin transcription olígos / Katakana reading "oligos"), which means less.OligosaccharidesSometimes called (shoto noui).There is no clear definition of oligosaccharides,DisaccharideThe above is an oligosaccharide[1][2][3],Trisaccharidethat's all(Trisaccharide,Tetrasaccharide, ……) is often used as an oligosaccharide[4][5]..There is a range of upper limits, but it is usually 10 sugars.[1][4].

Construction

Most of the oligosaccharides originally contained in natural animals and plantssucrose,Lactose,Trehalose,MaltoseThe amount of disaccharides such as those to which more sugars are bound than trisaccharides is small.Among the trisaccharides found in natureRaffinose,Panose,Maltotriose,Melezitose,Such.With tetrasaccharidesStachyoseEtc. are known.Also, as an oligosaccharide in which glucose is cyclically bound.CyclodextrinThere is.

Discovery and utilization

For over 100 yearsBreastmilkIt has been known that nutritional infants are less susceptible to diseases such as diarrhea than artificially nutritional infants, and even if they do, they are mild and heal quickly.1899,Pasteur InstituteFrom the stools of healthy breast-fed infants by TissierBifidobacteriaThe isolation of the bifidobacteria led to the progress of research on intestinal bacteria, and what was called bifidobacteria growth factor in breast milk was oligosaccharide.Various oligosaccharides have been discovered through numerous studies.

Source of ingestion

Human capitalBreastmilk1.2 inside[6] --Calculated to contain 1.3g / 100mL of oligosaccharides.This varies with time, with the amount contained in the first milk being 1.9 g / 100 mL, but decreasing to 0.9 g / 100 mL over the lactation period.[7]..It is said that there are about 130 types of oligosaccharides in breast milk.[7][8]Of these, 93 types of oligosaccharides have been structurally determined.[7]..As a structure,Galactose,Fucose,Sialic acid,glucose,N-AcetylglucosamineSugars such as are constituent monosaccharides[6]Most oligosaccharides have a chain length of 3 to 10 and a lactose end.[8]..The reason why oligosaccharides are contained in human breast milk is considered to be the role of infection protection.The pathogenEpithelial cellsInhibits adhesion by binding oligosaccharides before adhering to[7]LigandIs presumed to have a role as[8]. For example,Sialic acidOligosaccharidesPneumococcusWithInfluenza virusInhibits the adhesion of galactooligosaccharides and fructooligosaccharidesE.coliInhibits the adhesion of[8].

Humans do not have digestive enzymes that break down oligosaccharides.The reason why there are oligosaccharides in breast milk that the baby cannot digest is in the baby's intestines.Lactobacillus,Bifidobacterium,Bacteroides[9]Centered onIntestinal bacteriaIs grown and these intestinal bacteria are producedButyric acid,Acetic acid,Propionic acid,Lactic acidSuch asShort chain fatty acidsIs to create an environment that suppresses the growth of other harmful bacteria in the intestine.[10].

Physiological activity

From various studiesBifidobacteriaIt has been confirmed that it has the effect of increasing good bacteria in the intestines, and is expected to have various bioactive effects.healthy foodIt is used for.A substance that has the effect of increasing good bacteria in the intestine is called prebiotics.Expecting intestinal regulationFood for specified health useIt is used as.Since it is difficult to purify a simple substance at low cost, most of the commercial products are distributed as liquids.Prebiotics include lactose-fructose oligosaccharides and galactooligosaccharides (GOS),Fructo-oligosaccharide(FOS), Mannan oligosaccharide (MOS)and so on.

  • Raffinose high-purity powder is used for medical purposes as an agent for improving the preservation of transplanted organs.[11].
  • Fructooligosaccharide (raw material-sucrose) is known as a leader in intestinal bacterial researchTomotari MitsuokaWas confirmed to be excellent in the growth activity of bifidobacteria.[12].

Industrial manufacturing method

  • The component contained in the plant is extracted.
  • It is fermented using microorganisms and synthesized from starch, sugar and lactose as raw materials.
  • Decomposes plant polysaccharides by the action of enzymes.
  • acid,alkaliTo isomerize sugar with.

For example,AmyloseTheamylaseWhen decomposed withMaltoseAnd trisaccharidesMaltotrioseEtc. are obtained.The sugar obtained depends on the type of amylase.

Number

Lactose-fructose oligosaccharides (milk-fructose oligos, lactose sucrose)
It is a trisaccharide oligosaccharide in which β-fructofuranosidase is allowed to act as an enzyme using lactose and sucrose as raw materials, and fructose (fructose) is bound to the glucose side of lactose.Since it has a sucrose structure, it exhibits an elegant sweetness, has about half the calories of sucrose, and has a strong effect of increasing bifidobacteria in the intestine.Approved as a food for specified health use (Tokuho) for its intestinal environment improving effect and intestinal regulation effect[13]..Furthermore, the effect of increasing the absorption of calcium by lowering the pH in the intestine has been recognized, and the health claim of Double Tokuho combined with the above-mentioned intestinal regulation action has been obtained.There are reports of improving stools by improving the intestinal environment, enhancing immune function, and reducing pollinosis.[14][15].
Malto-oligosaccharide
The main components of malto-oligosaccharides are maltotriose (G3) to maltohepsaose (G7).polymerizationSome have different degrees, and the higher the degree of polymerization, the lower the sweetness.SugarSyrupIt has stable properties against moisture absorption and desorption compared to glucose, sugar, maltose, under certain concentration conditions.High fructose corn syrupCompared to, it is stable to heat and has less discoloration due to heating.Due to these characteristics, it is used for the purpose of adding richness, preventing coloring, polishing, and improving shelf life.As a function of prebiotics, the effect of suppressing spoilage bacteria in the intestine of maltotetraose (G4) is known.[16].
Branched oligosaccharide (isomaltooligosaccharide)
It has a mellow sweetness and high water retention, so it is effective in preventing crystal precipitation and moisturizing.In addition, it has the same solid content concentration as sugar, has a lower water activity than sugar, is effective in improving the shelf life of processed foods, and has excellent acid resistance and heat resistance.From the above characteristics,sweet sakeIt is used for soft drinks and breads.As a function of prebiotics, since it is preferentially used by bifidobacteria, lactic acid bacteria, etc., it has an effect of helping the increase of intestinal bacteria.Also,Caries fungusIt has been reported that it has the effect of suppressing the synthesis of insoluble glucan.[16].
Genthio-oligosaccharide
GentianIt is an oligosaccharide derived from, and is used in the field of masking the astringent taste of vegetables, cocoa, and the bitterness of chocolate because it has a unique richness and bitterness.As a function of prebiotics, since it is preferentially used by bifidobacteria, lactic acid bacteria, etc., it has the effect of helping the increase of intestinal bacteria.[16].
Nigero-oligosaccharide
It has a taste substance that is also contained in traditional Japanese foods such as sake and miso, and is characterized by a long-lasting mellow sweetness.In addition to having the effect of alleviating the irritation of salt, it also has the effect of improving the taste quality of high-sweetness sweeteners.In addition, it is effective in improving shelf life, suppressing fading of natural pigments, and improving the feeling of fruit juice.As a function of prebiotics, it is anti-similar to branched oligosaccharides.CariesIn addition to the sexual effects being clarified, experiments have shown that it has immunostimulatory effects and quality of life (QOL) Is said to be effective in improving[16].

Cell recognition

細胞 TheGlycoproteinOrGlycolipidCovered with, both help determine cell type[17].Lectin ThecarbohydrateToCombineToproteinIn particular, it recognizes a specific oligosaccharide.Lectin-bound oligosaccharides provide useful information for cell recognition.

Blood type determination

Blood TypeIs an oligo on the blood cellSugar chainIt is determined by the structure of.

If you mix different blood typesAntigen-antibody reactionByRed blood cellAggregation occurs.This is because if the sugar chain structure of the complex carbohydrate, which is a blood group substance existing on the erythrocyte membrane, is different, it is recognized as a foreign substance and agglutination occurs due to an antigen-antibody reaction.Therefore, the sugar chain structure on erythrocytes determines the blood type.ABO blood typeIn, the factor that determines A type is called A type substance, the factor B type substance that determines B type, and the blood group substance existing in O type is called H type substance. H-type substances are also present on the red blood cell membranes of A-type and B-type, and H-type substances are A-type substances and B-type substances.precursorIt is believed that it may be.In this way, H-type substances do not become O-type determinants, but are basic substances that are precursors of A-type and B-type.HumanIt is called an H-type substance by taking the acronym of. There are two types of sugar chain structures in H-type substances, L-Fucose-α (1 → 2) -D-Galactose-β (1 → 3)-N-acetyl-D-glucosamineIs called a type I sugar chain, and L-fucose-α (1 → 2) -D-galactose-β (1 → 4) -N-acetyl-D-glucosamine is called a type II sugar chain. The only difference between type I and type II sugar chains is whether the binding form of galactose and N-acetylglucosamine is β (1 → 3) or β (1 → 4). N-Acetylgalactosamine at the galactose residue of H-type substanceGlycosidic bondThe sugar chain formed is a type A substance, and the sugar chain to which galactose is bound is a type B substance. In AB type blood, both type A and type B substances are present on the blood cell membrane.[18].


footnote

  1. ^ a b 2 to 10 sugars:"Oligosaccharides”. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). 2016/4/25Browse.
  2. ^ 2 to 6 sugars:Masaru Iizuka "Science of Sugar"Asakura Shoten, 1996, 8 pages.ISBN 4-254-43511-8.
  3. ^ 2 sugars or more:Kenichi Hatanaka "Science and Engineering of Sugars"Kodansha, 1997, 6 pages.ISBN 4-06-139783-4.
  4. ^ a b 3 to 10 sugars:Eleanor Noss Whitne, Sharon Rady Rolfes (2015). Understanding Nutrition (14 ed.). Cengage Learning. Pp. 103. ISBN 9781285874340 
  5. ^ 3 to 6 sugars:"oligosaccharide, Encyclopedia Britannica". 2016/5/9Browse.
  6. ^ a b Lindsay Allen and Andrew Prentice (2005). Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition, Four-Volume Set (2nd ed.). Elsevier Ltd.. p. 327. ISBN 0-12-150110-8 
  7. ^ a b c d Taku Nakano, "Chemistry of Breast Milk Components -Carbohydrates-", Perinatal Medicine, Vol. 38, No. 10, Tokyo Medical Co., Ltd., 2008, pp. 1225-1229.
  8. ^ a b c d Lindsay Allen and Andrew Prentice (2005). Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition, Four-Volume Set (2nd ed.). Elsevier Ltd.. p. 242. ISBN 0-12-150110-8 
  9. ^ Rajilić-Stojanović, Mirjana; de Vos, Willem M. (2014). “The first 1000 cultured species of the human gastrointestinal microbiota” (English). FEMS Microbiology Reviews 38 (5): 996–1047. two:10.1111 / 1574-6976.12075. ISSN 1574-6976. PMC: 4262072. PMID 24861948. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4262072/. 
  10. ^ Written by Aranna Colin, translated by Machiko Yano, "9% of your body is bacteria" p242, etc., August 2016, 8, Kawade Shobo Shinsha,ISBN 978-4-309-25352-7
  11. ^ Sugar Bean Knowledge-About Oligosaccharides (1) Nippon Beet Sugar Mfg. Co., Ltd. Research Institute October 2004
  12. ^ Specified non-profit corporation-Japan Food Function Study Group Oligosaccharide
  13. ^ "Pearl Ace "Thanks to Oligo"". 2020/1/20Browse.
  14. ^ "New action on "milk fruit oligo" Confirmed by Hayashibara Biochemical Research Institute Suppression of pollinosis, etc.". 2020/1/20Browse.
  15. ^ "Takateru Fujita, "Effect of Intestinal Regulation / Ca Absorption Promotion W" Development of Milk Fruit Oligosaccharides, Biotechnology, 88, 362-363 (2010)". 2020/1/20Browse.
  16. ^ a b c d Keiji Kainuma, Yoshio Nakaku, Kenichi Otsubo, "Science of Corn" <Food Science> Asakura Shoten 2009 ISBN 9784254430745 pp. 174-178.
  17. ^ Voet, Donald; Voet, Judith; Pratt, Charlotte, Fundamentals of Biochemistry: Life at the Molecular Level (4th ed.), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., ISBN 978-0470-54784-7 
  18. ^ Hitoshi Iwase, Masatake Onishi, Makoto Kiso, Masatake Onishi, Yoshio Hirabayashi "Introduction to Sugar Chain Science"Baifukan, 1994, First Edition, pp. 43-48.ISBN 4-563-04539-X.

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