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💼 | Sanjo City, Niigata Prefecture, increased PCR test cost subsidy for new coronavirus infection for students taking university entrance exams and job hunting


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Sanjo City, Niigata Prefecture, increased PCR test cost subsidy for new coronavirus infection for students taking university entrance exams and job hunting

 
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Under these circumstances, as a result of thinking about what we can do to support you, Sanjo City will support a part of the cost if you take a PCR test when you move for an examination or job hunting. did.
 

On the XNUMXnd, Sanjo City, Niigata Prefecture, subsidized PCR test costs for new coronavirus infections of students taking university entrance exams and job hunting ... → Continue reading

 Niigata economic newspaper

Niigata Prefecture's economic news, town news, corporate news, etc. are sent daily.


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job hunting

job huntingIs theOccupationA collective term for activities to get a job. For short,Job huntingIt is also called (shukatsu).

In particularStudent-unemploymentWhether or not you have a jobPart-time workerな どNon-regular employmentWho isCompany,Government officeEtcRegular employmentRefers to activities to be done. The activity for retirees to get a new job is sometimes called "re-employment activity"[1].

Overview

Job hunting is roughly divided into new graduates and existing graduates.The categories are as follows.

New graduate
Junior high schoolからUniversityUntil·graduate School Ofgraduate-CompletionProspective person does.
When graduated
Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricularAfter graduation, those who are not working do it. thisJob wandererSay. Have a working historyCareer changeFor applicantsMid-career hiringIs also included. In addition, especially those who are within 3 years after graduation (in principle, those who are not seeking dreams of getting a job with social insurance and have become job wanderers and are still looking for a job. It may also include people who are looking for a desired job type because they were unwilling to work because of a job type mismatch, or those who were newly graduated but immediately retired due to a job employment disagreement or job type mismatch. ),Second graduateSometimes it is said.

employmentAs a form, although not as good as it used to be (after the war until the 1980s), I will work for a new graduate until my retirement age.Lifetime employment system”Is deeply rooted, and since the work history is important even when changing jobs, the job hunting activity for new graduates and the place of employment have a great influence on their subsequent lives.

In many cases, to get a jobnotes,interviewConsists ofRecruitment testNeed to pass. Therefore, know-how such as examination preparation and interview preparation is born, and examination technology is becoming more sophisticated. In response to such a trend, it is not the skill of taking small examinations,CompetencyThere is also a growing movement to hire people based on model evaluations. Prioritize hiring people who are deeply involved with companiesRecruitmentThere is also.

Incidentally,Lawyer,Doctor,nurse, VariousProfessionalSpecial means or special means to get the job, such as athletesQualifications/Licenses・Some professionals are required to have the ability. For those professions, refer to the articles of each profession.

Job hunting in Japan

Employment as a public employee

government official-Local civil servantIn principle, recruitment will be based on competition tests. For the examination system and the flow up to recruitment,National civil service recruitment test-Recruitment test for local government employeeschecking ...

If you want to get a job as a civil servant, the first written examination is specialized and difficult, so unlike the job hunting activity in the private sector, the study for the written examination becomes the center of the job hunting activity. Depending on the local government or test category, some students may impose a more advanced written test as a secondary test. Therefore, some early students go to the preparatory school for exams from the first or second year, and some begin studying for the exam. In addition to general education at high school level, it depends on the employerlaw,EconomicsQuestions that include such matters will be given as "educational problems," and in addition, "specialized problems" will be given for each occupation. The liberal arts examination also imposes intelligence tests such as judgment reasoning, numerical reasoning, and text reading.Local governmentDepending onDisabledThere are places that have adopted the adoption frame. In many cases, beginner (3 types) tests are conducted.

For a period of time, due to the effects of the Great Recession after the bursting of the bubble economy in the 1990s, it was difficult to hire a private company, and many examinees focused on only one civil servant. There were many. However, as the recession continues, the number of local governments that do not hire may increase in some years due to the effects of financial difficulties.2001年からMinistry of educationIssued a notice saying that civil servants Ronin may be excluded from applicants for new graduates[2], Civil servant RoninneatAs the number of companies to deal with has increased, the number of examinees who have a private partnership or wholly limited to the private sector is increasing, and the number of examinees itself is decreasing.

Employment at a private company

Job hunting activities for students of secondary education

See belowJob hunting activities for students at higher education institutions, special training schools, and various schoolsUnlike new junior high and high school graduates,Employment Security ActBased on everythingPublic Employment Security Office(Hello Work) is obliged to post at school (middle school and high school studentsMinorAnd, from the perspective of suppressing the disruption of academics due to unregulated job hunting). Therefore, the actual application will be contacted with the company via the school.

Job hunting for junior high school students

in Japan,Labor Standards ActAccording to Article 56, Paragraph 1, "The first day after reaching the age of 153/31You must not use this until the end ofAdvancementSystem is strongAgeism and course principleIn many cases, the due date and the end date of the final year of junior high school are the same. Therefore, junior high school students who want to find a job3st year1/1(In some areas12/1The first opportunity for job hunting will be from the day when the employment screening is lifted. From early JanuaryEntrance examIt is held, but there are some places where only an interview is required and a departmental examination is also imposed.

For workers under the age of 18, pursuant to Chapter 6 of the Labor Standards ActyouthAs a result, it is necessary to equip offices with documents proving that they are young, and overtime work (overtime and holiday work) and late night work for girls under 18 and boys under 16 (night shift) Cannot be done or hazardous work is limited,National qualification-Business monopoly qualificationThis means that there will be enormous restrictions on labor and acquisition of qualifications, such as the inability to receive most of the

The range of occupations available for work is narrow and extremely limited, and does not require monotonous and high academic ability at work.Blue collarSimple workers in (construction industry, manufacturing industry, etc.) and some service industries (restaurant industry, etc.), success and motivation of work largely depend on individual skill due to merit system, and young people are favoredCraftsman(Especially traditional crafts and cooks,Eagle) And so on. Until the early Heisei periodHairdresser,BarberAlthough it was possible to become a junior high school graduate, as of 2015, it is no longer possible to become a beautician/barber at junior high school, and the method has been changed to enroll in a beauty school after graduating from high school. In addition, junior high school graduates may beTurnoverAbout 7% of junior high school graduates leave their jobs.

From the end of the war until the 40s (generally1950 era~60 eraGenerations born before) could not go on to high school even if their academic ability was high because their rural households had low incomes. It wasn't unusual. There was an idea that the boys and girls would actively seek employment in urban enterprises, hoping that they would be able to become financially independent by finding employment in urban enterprises. Under these circumstances, junior high schools also recruited students to hire students as a group. Mass-produced cheap productsHigh economic growthDuring the period, junior high school graduates who worked at low wages for a long period of time and acquired skills were a valuable force for companies called "golden eggs."

Since the Showa 40s,Securities recessionEconomy was sluggish, and the manufacturing industryAutomationThe demand for unskilled workers who had been borne by junior high school graduates has declined, the knowledge and academic ability of high school graduates or higher has been required even for blue collar workers, and the income doubling plan has increased the income of each household in rural areas. And high school enrollment efforts,Public transportDue to the maintenance of奨 学 金To increase high school enrollment,Oil shockSince then, as the economy has slowed down, companies have begun to refrain from hiring new middle school graduates (correctly those under the age of 15 to 18) who are often restricted by the Labor Standards Act.High school graduate or higherCame to impose an academic background.

In addition, the percentage of new graduates in junior high school to new employees is extremely low at less than 9% at present, as the high school enrollment ratio exceeds 10% and the educational background of new employees is increasing. Some professions require certain qualifications and licenses, so new junior high school graduates whose acquisition of qualifications and licenses is restricted by the minimum educational background and age[3]Is alreadySocially vulnerableTherefore, there is a high tendency to hire highly educated people who are high school graduates or higher, and job hunting is in a difficult situation, so for current middle school graduatesSocial minorityTherefore, it is not so common to get a job, but on the other hand, some workers start working immediately after graduating from junior high school to gain social experience as early as possible and for financial reasons. Some graduates of junior high school do not have more than the upper secondary education, so it is easy to become a socially vulnerable person with the knowledge of junior high school graduates.Corporate schoolWant to work for a company withPart-timeUniversity,Communication systemUniversitySome workers are enrolled in.

High school student job hunting

High school students who want to find a job3st year9/16From the day when the employment selection was lifted, all employees will be visited all at once to take the entrance examination, and will be offered a job offer after a few weeks of selection such as writing and interviewing. Also, in order to take the employment test, you must be screened for documents at school, and after taking into account your grades and normal living conditions, you will be asked to select candidates for the test. If they are rejected, they will try another company again and will be screened for documents at school. In the past, the “one-man-one company” system described below was an iron rule, so other companies could not be accepted until the selection results came out. Because of this, many students were unable to get a job offer even if they were willing to work.

1990年Until around 2, the employment rate exceeded 5%, and graduates of vocational (professional) departments such as commerce and industry should take full advantage of their academic background as commercial jobsClerk,SalesIf you are a graduate of an administrative profession such as工場It was usual to get a full-time employee in the current job that reflects what he/she learned in the vocational department, such as a technical job. In addition, there were not a few students who wanted to work until around 1990 at regular high schools, and boys were mostly employed in skills such as factories and production process jobs, and girls were mainly in office work, sales and service jobs. ..

But,Bubble burstLater, due to the hiring restraint of companies, university students who had been working as a general job until then became employment of the current job, or as a result of curbing the hiring of the current job itself, the overall offer rate was half of those who wanted to work. Employment of high school graduates has become extremely difficult, with some prefectures coming out (the national average job offer rate for high school graduates at the end of November 2004 was 11%). Also, even in vocational (professional) departments, there are many people who take simple labor jobs that junior high school graduates were in charge of before, and because there are many simple tasks that can not be utilized at school where they are employed, they leave. Tends to be easier[4].

For this reason, each prefecture has revised the “one-man-one company” system, which has been a long-established practice that allows schools to select only one company to take the test by lottery, making it possible to take multiple tests. Companies can choose from a large number of students, and students have the advantage of being able to decide their employment destinations on their own, but because the number of hires themselves is small, it does not necessarily lead to an increase in hiring.

In addition, there are regions where the “one-man-one company system” will continue for a limited time, and some companies in the region will simultaneously carry out entrance examinations on the same day. For this reason, when grasping the wishes of students in career guidance, some high schools have begun to offer hope to students in the form of "which company they want to work for" rather than the type of industry. However, since the number of hires themselves is small, it cannot be said that the companies that want to work can be employed.

Job hunting activities for students at higher education institutions, special training schools, and various schools

Vocational schoolRaw,Technical collegeRaw,Junior collegeRaw,UniversityFacultyRaw,graduate SchoolRaw etc.Higher educationWith studentsVocational schoolRaw,Various schoolsThere is no big difference in live activity.

Hiring activities of many companies were concentrated in the same period until the 1990s, but the number of hiring companies has increased since the middle of the 1990s, and the trend is now long.

The activity start time tends to be earlier, and four-year college students who are interested in clerical work are active for half a year to one year after the third grade winter season, and science and engineering students also tend to be early and long-term. Keidanren is currently a four-year undergraduate student,3st year3/1Ban, 4th year6/1Recruitment test startedIt has become.

Undergraduate students of the four-year university will take employment seminars from the fall of the third year to the beginning of winter, and from November, non-Keidanren non-member companies will start recruiting tests such as interviews. A major company that complies with the Keidanren Gentlemen's Agreement will start a company briefing session in March the following month and will start a recruitment test all at once on June 4. Around the beginning of July, there were initial job offers, and after August, local companies中小企业, The second recruitment of major companies was conducted, and recruitment was conducted in September for the purpose of supplementing international students, those who failed the civil servant examination, and those who declined the job offer, and many companies hold a job offer on October 9.

The primary test isSPI comprehensive inspectionThere are many companies that conduct an aptitude test, etc. and interview after the second test. Interviews are held multiple times, and the final interview is often attended by officers. In recent years, various methods such as group discussion and group work are increasing in addition to the conventional selection method. Previously specified at school when applyingResumeHowever, in recent years, in addition to the address, name, and motivation to apply, there are features such as requesting answers to problems, essays, drawings.entry sheetIncreasingly, more and more companies are requesting the submission of a final assessment and handling the finished evaluation as a documentary examination. Many small and medium-sized enterprises still request a resume.

For Japanese-English bilingual students enrolled in overseas universities and graduate schoolsBoston Career ForumEtc. were held in October, and students from Japan can participate.

Employment in research and development positions

Job hunting for research and development jobs is in addition to regular job hunting by free application.ManufacturerAnd various industries ask each major such as graduate school to recommend career completion for those who are planning to complete, and aspiring students apply for recommendationSchool recommendationAnd, there is professor recommendation due to the relationship between professors and other leaders and companies. Companies can stably secure human resources with specialized knowledge and research experience that meet a certain level, and students can concentrate on their studies and extracurricular activities while at school without spending excessive labor and time on job hunting. In addition, there are advantages for both sides, such as being able to find employment by utilizing research experience. However, unlike the secret offer of free application, it is difficult for the student to cancel the secret offer obtained by school recommendation. This is because school recommendation is established based on a certain kind of trust relationship between companies and universities, and the act of unilaterally declining secretly from the student side, that is, the university side, is the number of people who can recommend to that university after the next year. This is because it may affect

Bubble burstIn the past, a large/mid-sized company conducted a so-called job-hunting session for students at so-called difficult universities to lock in entertainment, and the recruitment test was completed in an instant (once a 15-minute chat interview). There were many things. However, after the burst of the bubble, the number of companies that cannot afford to train newcomers has increased, and in the relatively short period since joining the company,TurnoverThe phenomenon of increase in Therefore, in recent years, as a preparation for recommendation, measure how much the students' temperament and abilities match the human resources image that the company requires.Job matchingThe number of companies that are incorporating The introduction of job matching has made it possible for students who were conducting applied science research in college to perform more advantageous job hunting activities than before, but it is also said that students who were conducting science research and engineering research are said to be of the theoretical type. Students who are conducting research are less likely to be matched and are more likely to be frustrated with job hunting.

Since school recommendations are often distributed to graduate schools and majors rather than so-called undergraduates or departments, undergraduate students will be assigned the remaining recommendations after the graduate student has obtained the desired recommendation. Furthermore, even if an undergraduate student is lucky enough to get a recommendation to the company he/she desires, an undergraduate student who is not assigned to the laboratory during job hunting However, from the perspective of companies, there are many unclear points as targets for matching, so the benefits that undergraduate students receive from school recommendation are less than those of graduate students.

In recent years, companies that perform job matching multiple times,RecruiterThe number of companies conducting interviews is increasing, and the effort for obtaining school recommendations may be the same as the effort for job hunting by free application. As a result, more and more companies are making school recommendations, which are just free names that cannot be refused.

In addition, large-scale corporate enclosure activities for students, which were frequently conducted before the burst of the bubble, have been decreasing in both scale and number in recent years.

Job hunting from unemployed people, freeters, civil servants, vocational training facilities

Unemployed (including bankruptcies and restructuring due to the deterioration of business conditions at work) (employees, job seekers) andPart-time workerIs usuallyHello WorkTo get a job orJob trainingCan be recruited. If you wish to receive vocational training, enter the vocational training facility (Turnover trainingCarry outVocational development school,Vocational Development Promotion CenterEtc.) employment placement and employment consultation related to the training content (Career consulting) Can be received.

In the bubble era when the word freeter was born, it was used with the intention of “doing what you like without getting a regular job,” but now you can't get a job after graduating from school. , There are many cases of unwillingness to become a part-time job, so it is often used with unintended meaning. One of the factors used to do so is the reality that companies view freeters as being good, lacking in skills and experience, and bad if they consider them troublesome. Therefore, it can be said that job hunting for freeters and unemployed people is even more difficult than for new graduates who have support from schools, even if they receive vocational training.

Regarding awareness about freeters,Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare 2004年Employment management survey compiled in (16)[5]Although most of the company managers and personnel managers answered that it did not affect the adoption or rejection, the freeter experience was positively evaluated and the abundant experience, the spirit of challenge, and the skills cultivated in other industries were evaluated. Only 3.6% chose to hire. On the other hand, 30.3% of the respondents disliked Freeter's style due to its suspicious reaction, with a tendency to easily quit (7% of the negatively answered groups) and a sense of responsibility. There is also an opinion that there is doubt about long-term employment or that lack of leadership is a problem, such as “No (5%)”.

Furthermore, “If you do not experience the same workplace for more than 3 years, you will not develop all the necessary abilities” (mainly in big cities and large companies), “You should spend the same company for the rest of your life unless there is bankruptcy or business closure”, “Active duty” Some people have the concept that "(that is, when you are in school) you should decide to get a job" (centered on local and small businesses)Part-time jobIn the case where I have only experienced it, there are many cases in which it is only negatively evaluated and not seen favorably. In many companies, "only people with work experience (or ○ years or more, preferential treatment, etc.)" or "RestructuringExcessive job vacancies such as "only sackers (or preferential treatment)" are unrivaled cliffs for job seekers who have not gained long-term work experience at appropriate companies, and are not even allowed to gain experience. This situation has taken root as a background that does not lead to a decrease in freeters.

There are also employers who view freeters as a simple labor force, partly due to cost reductions caused by long-term recession on the part of companies. As a result, there are some cases in which employment education is neglected because Freeter will soon leave. In such a work environment, the part-timer himself is incapable of acquiring any skills. Moreover, since many freeters are forced to become freeters, they cannot find any value other than cash income in their jobs.stallSome clauses seem to be causing the phenomenon. this ispart timerIt is a phenomenon often seen by temporary workers such as, but as a result of the gap between the employer and the workers, it can be seen that there are mass-produced workers who have lost their willingness to work and responsibility.

Also, the job hunting activities of civil servants Ronin are in a difficult condition like Freeter. OriginallyPublic employee examinationIs a employment test, which is comparable to a private company recruitment test. However, unlike the employment examination for private companies, the examination period is concentrated from May to October in principle, so there is no choice but to suspend job hunting for private companies mainly during that period.[6].. There are many students and students who start studying immediately at school entrance exams, such as when entering university, so it may be late including the acquisition of qualifications. Often rejected due to lack of qualifications as a student. In addition, as long as there is a qualification for the test, anyone has the chance to pass it, so companies often have the impression that they will "take the upper age limit for taking the test" and are often rejected. And2001年As in (13), to strike up,Ministry of educationHas issued a notice that those who are graduating from civil servant Ronin may be excluded from the candidates for new graduates seeking employment.Part-time workerVirtually as well asneatBy treating it as a document, some companies are becoming more prominent because they are immediately rejected in the document screening and are not even interviewed. For this reason, once you become a civil servant ronin, it is very difficult to get out like a part-time jobber, and it is necessary to change the course to work with a private company when you were a student and to review the way of thinking about hiring civil servant ronin on the hiring side. Be done.

However, as a policy for the employment support for freeters,Job card system,Job Seeker Support TrainingWe are also encouraging companies to find employment there, but since this means employment with social insurance and it is related to the increase in labor costs, there are few movements to hire using these. Is. However, the hiring sufficiency rate of companies has not risen yet, and the demand for part-time workers is increasing year by year, and employment support by private companies has become active since 2016. Job hunting activities of part-time workers have changed significantly, such as employment support that incorporates a hiring flow without document screening.[7]

Job hunting for people with disabilities

handicappedJob hunting is roughly divided into two. One is to announce that you are a person with a disability to get a job (that is, use the quota for persons with a disability), and another is to work without disclosing that you are a person with a disability (using the same quota as an ordinary person). is there. The employment quota for persons with disabilities in companies isEmployment Promotion Act for Persons with DisabilitiesIt is based on the statutory employment rate defined by, and there are joint employment interviews and other events that target only persons with disabilities.

People with disabilities are often inferior in practical ability to healthy people (particularly seen in people with intellectual and mental disabilities), so training facilities run by the national or local governments or private In some cases, the employment training institutions and employment support establishments that are operated are used. In addition, each local government and Hello Work have a window for consultation regarding work for persons with disabilities. Also, for high school studentsSpecial schoolYou can also find employment via.

It is said that companies place the highest priority on "(what they need to do for work)" when hiring people with disabilities. In addition, restrictions on working hours, outpatient visits and medications are also emphasized. Companies often face costs and restrictions when hiring people with disabilities, so the tendency is mainly for people with physical disabilities who are able to work as well as for those with normal work, and for people with intellectual disabilities who have special support schools. However, the employment of mentally handicapped persons has been delayed.

Problems of job hunting activities

Unless otherwise noted in this article,Bulk recruitment of new graduatesDescribe the case based on.

Pressure on university life due to early and long term

Between 1973 (Showa 48) and 1996 (Heisei 8), companies and schools (mainlyUniversity-Junior collegeDuring this period, companies will not approach prospective graduates until a certain period of time so as not to hinder their studies.Employment agreementwas there. Some of them, such as “Aota-buy”, broke through the agreement and rushed to approach students, but they did show some deterrent effect.

However, after the agreement was abolished at the request of companies, job hunting tended to become earlier and longer. In many universities, in the 1,2st and XNUMXnd grades, students need to acquire the basic knowledge before entering the specialized fields.講義Mainly from the 3rd year, specializing in lectures andSeminarSince it will be started, lectures andgraduation researchI had to get out and do some activities. Based on this, there is an opinion that "the company should consider the timing of recruitment activities".[8][9][10].

In recent years, this tendency has also been increasing for technical occupations. On the contrary,Hokkaido University,Tohoku University,Tokyo University,Tokyo Institute of Technology,Nagoya University,Kyoto University,Osaka University,Kyushu UniversityIs organized by the Dean of the Graduate School of Engineering and the Dean of the Faculty of EngineeringKeidanrenWe strongly request that major companies such as graduate schools and major foreign-affiliated companies be able to regain an environment in which excessive recruitment activities and pre-employment training of companies are corrected and education and research at graduate schools are normally promoted. Requests for early and long-term job hunting and correction of student restraint by pre-employment training.[11].

In response to such requests from the university side, Keidanren responded to many companies including member companies in 2013 (Heisei 25).Shinzo AbePrime MinisterAt the request of (at that time), the ban on employment for graduates after 2016 (28) was postponed by 3 months, and the ban was lifted in March of the 3rd year of university, and the employment examination was decided after August 3 of 4th year of university.However, considering the pressure on the hiring schedule of companies and the physical burden of students due to the summer employment examination, the ban date has not changed for graduates since 8, and the employment examination has been started two months ahead of schedule since June 1, 2017th year of university. It became.As a result, after studying for three years, job hunting will be carried out in parallel with the thesis and graduation research, and it is expected that the early and long term will be suppressed and the pressure on university life will be relieved more than before. Is done.

However, while the ban and hiring have been delayed, before the ban (around August of the third year of university)InternshipHas been in the limelight because job hunting in Japan will be advantageous for employment.[12], 2016 (Heisei 28) For job hunting targeting graduates, the number of applicants for internships is rapidly increasing, coupled with the seller market[13].. Regarding this situation, I think you are using the internship to keep students underwater. Some people are worried that the students who are refraining from job hunting may be confused about the internship before the ban is lifted.[14].. On the other hand, there is also an opinion that the educational background will be more important due to the shortened period. Furthermore, as this agreement is only for companies belonging to Keidanren, there are some survey results that most companies do not comply with this new agreement (see table below).[15]There are even predictions that small and medium-sized venture companies will move ahead of schedule. Also, some people warn that job hunting has already started from such a flow[16].

Scheduled start time (%) of recruitment activities in 2016 (28)[17]
seasonWithin 2014
(Within 26)
123456789After October
Interview start time2.71.43.010.724.817.08.67.520.52.31.6
Scheduled start time1.60.70.43.611.516.016.59.325.97.47.2

In addition, when carrying out job hunting while living a university life, the financial burden on students is large because the expenses must be paid in parallel with school expenses and living expenses. In particular, when employment from a local university to a large city company, for example, when trying to find a job from a Hokkaido company to a Tokyo company, the transportation cost alone will be enormous. Therefore, in recent years, there is a movement that the university side subsidizes transportation expenses for students who are looking for jobs.[18].

Commercialization of job hunting

For job hunting in the Showa period, it was common for people without special recommendations or relationships to apply by looking at the recruitment vote posted on the job hunting section of the school. The thing that completely overturned this situation in job hunting was the university newspaper advertisement company (laterrecruit) Is a magazine "Invitation to Companies" published in 1962[19][20].

In "Invitation to Companies" (renamed to "Recruit Book" in 1969), only job advertisements collected from companies were posted and distributed to students for free. There is a postcard for requesting materials, and students can easily express their willingness to take the examination to the company by sending it. Companies can easily recruit students by paying a low publication fee to Recruit. As a result, Recruit succeeded in commercializing employment and recruitment activities. In 1996, Recruit's "RECRUIT BOOK on the NET" (currentlyRikunabi) Has started, and the stage of job hunting and hiring activities gradually starts from paper mediaインターネットHowever, the basic mechanism is the same. Similar employment from multiple companies nowPortal siteWas established, registered there, through the sites to express their intention to take an examination (called an entry) to companies, make company reservations and make appointments for entrance exams. Currently, there are many large companies that only offer job listing information to job hunting sites, and registering on job hunting sites is a common sense for students who want to be a clerical worker who is engaged in job hunting. Employment information business is longKeidanrenBecame the infrastructure that supports the recruitment of new graduates, which is the entrance to the Japanese style employment system[19].

Discovered in 1988Recruit caseHas been pointed out in the ruling, saying that the purpose of the company's political work is to work to maintain and comply with employment agreements.[19].

In order to survive the intensified competition due to the abolition of employment agreements, how to take an interview, how to write an entry sheet (described later), your strengths, aptitude,Career planSelf-examineSelf-analysisMany job hunting manuals have been published, and it has become so popular that large-scale bookstores can even create employment book corners.

In recent years, there are many organizations that are job hunting organizations that have found job hunting support, and there are some activities that encourage early start of job hunting, such as (paid) seminars for third year college students and second year college students. Be done. There are some courses (3 to 2) that require high entrance fees, but some courses are not worth the cost, so students should be careful.

Bias of aspiration

In the survey of job hunting for university students, large companies, which are said to be large and generally known, are ranked high. Also, among the major companiesGeneral trading companyAnd companies that have products and services for general consumers (Mega bankAnd insurance companies, electrical equipment, automobiles, etc.Manufacturer,Airlines,Travel club,MediaEtc.) is very popular. It has been pointed out that Japanese students have few opportunities to come into contact with the actual conditions of various occupations as a cause of such results. Since the contents of the profession (behind the scenes that cannot be seen from the surface of each profession) are unknown, the job is preceded by an image (received from drama and other fiction and TV commercials). It is a big misunderstanding that students think that such popular companies have a very high competitive rate for students even in the so-called "seller market" during a booming economy, and that "because they are seller markets, they can be easily entered into major companies."

From 2011recruitHas announced that it will stop publishing the "Ranking for Employment of University Students". The reason is that "the meaning of announcing a uniform ranking has diminished due to the diversification of students' values." "There is a big difference in attributes such as gender, humanities/science, and general/general positions. Is becoming more misleading for students."[21].

For example, in 2002 (Heisei 14)Nobel Prize in ChemistryAwarded,Shimadzu OfKoichi TanakaHowever, the first choice was a staple of the top companies in employment.SonyHowever, Sony was rejected, and the professor at that time generally suggested that the Shimadzu Corporation did not know the name of the person, and the person himself did not know about it.

Change in employment structure

バ ブ ルThe recession after the collapse caused a major shift in the employment structure of companies. After the burst of the bubble, many companies reviewed internal operations, specialized in core business for full-time employees, and easily adjusted employment for peripheral operations.Non-regular employee(Part-time job,Contract employee,(I.e.Etc.)RestructuringI went. As a result, demand for non-regular employees increased while demand for regular employees decreased. In addition, more and more managers want to assign excellent human resources to full-time employees who are entrusted with core tasks, and there is an increasing number of people who do not meet the standards even within the planned number of people.

Job wanderer

Due to the prolonged activity period, it is not uncommon for students to lose the meaning of working (or fail to find it) and to give up employment during the activity. Regardless of going on to senior high school, some of these students do nothing (cannot do anything) even after graduation (neat,Social withdrawalThere are many things that become freeters. The reasons for giving up activities on the way are as follows.

  • Bubble economyDue to the long-term depression after the collapse, students were forced to change to employment due to family circumstances while hoping to go on to further education.
  • There is little hiring of employees themselves (especially in the rural areas after the burst of the bubble economy. Due to family circumstances, many people are not able to move to large cities due to local employment requirements).
  • Even in companies with a lot of employee hires, their careers and skills cannot be matched well.

Therefore, there are many universities that open career development seminars immediately after admission and encourage students to find motivation for employment such as "What kind of work do you want to do?" and "What should I do for that?".

In addition, even those who are willing to find a job are unlucky (no relationship) and it is difficult to get a job offer, and there are people who are forced to find jobs for multiple years. Due to their lack of experience, even those who are hired mid-career are often excluded from the selection process from the beginning, and in the end they have no choice but to abandon their employment itself. Be at a disadvantage. Although graduates after the bursting of the bubble economy differed by region, there were few job seekers overall,PermanentLet aloneNon-regular employeeEmployment in is also in a difficult situation.

And once you become a job wanderer, it becomes more difficult to get out of it as you get older. As a result, those who have recently reached a highly educated neat or freeter (Educational refugees) Is not a few. In recent years, in order to avoid the position of job wanderer, those who have not been able to get a job offer will repeat the year to secure a frame for new graduates, or go on to vocational school, junior college, university, graduate school, etc. to find a job again. Is also increasing. However, this phenomenon has already begun to be seen in the late 1990s.[22].

Hiring female students

1999年After (11),Equal Employment ActHas been significantly revised,Disadvantageous treatment of female studentsThings were forbidden.

However, at present, there are more males than males in the employer ratio.[23].. As a reason to avoid female employees,marriage,birthDue toretirement,Childcare leaveIt is argued that the cost-effectiveness such as education costs will be lower than men because they are more likely to leave the workplace due to[24].

After the revision of the law, at the time of recruitment selection "Comprehensive work"When"General staffThe number of companies that divide students into "is increasing. Although recruitment selection is done in equality for men and women, actually female students are not hired even if they apply for general employment except for a few people who are motivated and excellent. There is a rush of female students.

To increase the ratio of women in employers,Positive actionIncreasingly, companies are adopting such as. Legally, it is likely that it is illegal to not hire female employees for the reasons mentioned above.[25].

On the other hand, in certain occupationsMale discriminationThere are also such jobs, and even if men apply for these types of jobs, they may be dropped in interviews, or they may not be even interviewed and may be dropped in document selection.

Recruitment

MajorAdvertising agency,TV stationSince many local companies in the region have celebrities and young children of influential people in their employees, and in many cases local people and residents are prioritized, the influential people of influential people are more advantageous than general hiring. Get a job offer atRecruitmentIt is said that there is a "," and the ratio of hiring due to the ratio of hiring will be discussed.

While "hiring by employment" has the advantage that students can find jobs smoothly, they need to be more careful due to their personal relationships after joining the company, and it may be difficult to change or retire compared to those who have joined the company in general. (Because most of the employment due to the relationship is because the student's relatives are closely related to the company, and the person introduced may be disadvantageous if they retire easily.) In addition, it is said that people who have joined the company because of poor relationship have little experience in job hunting because they often take only formal employment examinations, and if they lose their jobs due to bankruptcy, they are likely to struggle in job hunting activities.

On the other hand, "neighborhood" lacks impartiality and it is not always possible to collect excellent human resources, so it tended to be abolished as a thing of the past. Considering this, there are few companies who quit soon after getting employment, there are few problems such as leaking of secrets, and local companies in rural areas are able to avoid the outflow of young people to large cities as much as possible, and some companies are revisiting it again. ..

Duplication of unofficial offer

While some students struggle to find employment, job offers tend to concentrate on students who have many of the qualities companies demand. It is on a case-by-case basis what kind of legal effect the unofficial offer will have, but since it is generally accepted that the employment contract cancellation by the employee side is widely accepted, the unofficial offer is received from multiple companies and some of them decline. There is no problem. However, it has become a problem that some people have refused to inform themselves of refusal, or they declined just before starting work, which is contrary to social conventions.

Cancellation of offer

Contrary to the above case, the deterioration of the business condition of the company after the unofficial offer due to the economic downturn,bankruptcy(bankruptcy,Civil Rehabilitation Law(Until the 1990sReconciliation lawIs almost equivalent toCorporate rehabilitation lawIn some cases), the offer may be canceled. In particular, if there is such a situation just before joining the company, there will be no remedy at all, so restarting job hunting with a large handicap (Later) Forced to fall asleep[26].. In some cases, a company may try to sign a consent form to decline a job offerer, or may provide money in the form of an outright payment.

Although it is difficult to judge whether the deterioration of business management is a legitimate reason for canceling a job offer, if the job is canceled due to one-sided circumstances of the company, the job offerer can take the following legal measures.

Recently, it has been reported that instead of canceling the informal offer, postponement of the joining period and requesting transfer to an affiliated company are requested. In this case, since it does not correspond to the unofficial offer cancellation,Administrative guidanceIt is not covered by the above and is worried by experts as "evading compensation for unofficial offer".

内定の取り消しは毎年一定数起きているが、戦後では第1次オイルショック(1973~1974年)、バブル崩壊直後(1992~1993年)、1990年代後半の金融不安(1997~1998年)、世界同時不況(2008~2009年)の時期に突出して件数が多い。

In the middle of the 2010s, there were even cases where companies were forced to finish job hunting in return for giving a job offer to students (Owahara)[27].

Hiring low-educated people

As mentioned above, until the 1970s, local middle school graduates were employed for group employment, but as of 2017, many companies are excluding those who are preferentially hired by young people due to the nature of their jobs. In a companyHigh school graduate or higher], full-time full-time employees are required to have a four-year college graduate or above. Although high school is not compulsory, the high school enrollment rate exceeds 4%. This was a contribution to the high school recruitment movement in the 9s, and as a result, the false recognition that junior high school = high school recruitment took root, and those who received only compulsory education became social minorities. It is the result. Even simple laborers have high school graduates. Not all junior high school graduates want to find employment, but support is not available for employment support institutions for people with low education.Youth Employment Support AssociationHowever, the reality is that it is hardly maintained.

Job hunting in foreign countries

Chugoku

ChugokuThen, once the nation was taking care of employment after graduation from school,Reform and opening upAfter that, the students had to do their own job hunting. Due to the large number of students, job wanderers have become a social problem (see detailsEmployment ice ageSee).

Relationships are a powerful tool for job hunting. For this reason, there are also acts of buying and selling connections that are advantageous for job hunting. A popular job is a civil servant, which is said to be on sale for 8 RMB (about 120 million yen at the rate at the time of the press).[28].. Educational background discrimination is rampant[29].

StudentsAs for the former, it was once called “Kaigame” and was able to find employment under favorable conditions using a foreign language, but with the generalization of study abroad, it became impossible to find employment by itself, and it became necessary to do job hunting. .. Those who could not get a job after studying abroad are called "sea belts" (see detailsStudy Abroad #ChinaSee).

Initially, state-owned enterprises were popular as employment destinations, but when foreign-affiliated enterprises made inroads in succession, foreign-affiliated enterprises became more popular because of their potential. However, the popularity of state-owned enterprises has since increased.[30].. This tendency is influenced by the fact that when students consider their future potential, it is easier for them to succeed by making connections at a state-owned company and then re-employment at a private company.[30].

Western

アメリカ合衆国

アメリカ合衆国So, while college students rarely find employment while they are at school,InternOften participated in to promote the achievements, joint research between universities and companies and introduced by academic advisors, and there is no concept such as the rule of when to start job hunting. Students will apply to companies after graduating from university, but many students can leave a blank after graduation until they get a job. However, once it starts moving toward hiring, the subsequent movements are quick, and within a week to several months after the interview.オ フ ァ ーHowever, it is typical that a response is received within one week from the offer, and if hired, the employee joins within two weeks.

When applying,インターネット OfJob offerIt is mainly found through websites, job advertisements, and connections between friends, acquaintances, and families. In many cases, companies are hiring all year round, and when vacancies occur, they are recruited or recruited for expansion of work, and recruitment of new graduates according to the graduation time of a university like Japan And there is no concept of mid-career recruitment.

In the case of the United States, regardless of new graduates and mid-career, many companies are looking for human resources as immediate competence, and with regard to recruitment, past experience and majors at universities are emphasized. Also, because we have specific positions and we hire them to fill them, it is unlikely that we will be hired only by the number of heads like in Japan and will be assigned after training after joining the company.

Large companies sometimes fill out the required information on the web, but most companies use a fixed format.entry sheetThere is no such thing as, the most important thing is free-formResumeIs. In addition, the personnel manager is devoted to clerical work such as checking work qualifications and criminal record investigations, and does not say whether or not to hire (even interviews are rare). The hiring decision is made by the "Hearing Manager," who will report directly to the manager (if only hired), and will be based on the results of individual interviews with employees who will be future colleagues and the boss who is one step higher (Big Boss). It is common. The offer letter (mandatory by local law) with salary (annual amount, monthly amount, hourly wage etc.), job outline (manufacturing control, personnel, sales etc.), position, appointment of direct manager etc. is mandatory. It is usually issued in the name of a manager, but there are rare companies that issue it in the name of a high-ranking position such as a business manager or president.

UK

UKIn Japan, with the penetration of university rankings, companies that are trying to recruit only students from higher schools have begun to appear.[31].

ドイツ

ドイツStudents usually start job hunting after graduation. In many cases, practical training in companies is incorporated into part of university education. There are no special jobs for new graduates. Many new graduates often only have a fixed term employment contract for the first one or two years.

France

FranceCalled inInternshipThe system is substantial, and this will allow you to gain work experience and get a job. After the internship, it may be officially hired, but it is often only possible to conclude a fixed-term employment contract.

Reemployment support in Europe and America

Reemployment support may be added to the retirement condition when the number of employees is reduced[1].. The re-employment support service (outplacement service) was originally developed as a counseling service when Western companies dismissed employees.[1].

Reemployment support services (outplacement services) have also been introduced in Japan, but in Japan there is an idea that counseling is not enough in terms of corporate employment responsibility, so it is necessary to develop reemployment opportunities and to provide external services. Developed into a service that includes consignment[32].. In Europe and the United States, counseling and education are provided, but it is often not done until the finding of new jobs or mediation.[33].

South Korea

South KoreaSo, about 40 college graduates find jobs every year, many of themChaebolThe tendency to become a major corporation is increasing.

The background behind this is that there is a large disparity in wages among companies. Compared to full-time employees who work for large conglomerates, 6% or less of full-time employees in small and medium-sized enterprises, and less than 4% of non-regular employees such as part-time workers. As the age increases, the disparity increases, and the annual income for life is more than doubled. Therefore, there are many students who want to work for a large company as a new graduate.

In addition,ConfucianismIn Korea, where ideology is strong, it is common practice to carry out good filial piety even after adulthood, so many younger generations who think that joining a large company is a good filial piety also contributes to their aspirations.

However, since 2010, the employment situation has deteriorated, and employment for large companies has become an unprecedented narrow gate. Unlike job hunting in Japan, although there is a recruitment of new graduates, the age discrimination law enforced from 2009Age discriminationProhibition became mandatory, and it became relatively easy to continue working even after becoming a job wanderer, and as a result, there are many cases where activities are long-term. In South Korea, there is a strong tendency to place importance on achievements that utilize skills in addition to academic background, and due to the conspiracy of companies wishing for human resources who can immediately become competent, they stayed in order to accumulate achievements such as qualifications, volunteer activities, and scores for language tests. Some students are old. In addition, the fact that large companies are suppressing the number of domestic hires due to internationalization is one of the reasons for accelerating job hunting. Therefore, about 11 people can actually get a job.

As if to symbolize that, the unemployment rate of the young generation (2015 to 4.6 years old) is 15%, which is significantly higher than the domestic unemployment rate of 29% in 10.0, which shows the youth's difficulty in finding employment. The number of young people in poverty has increased rapidly due to failure in job hunting. They are called "Seven release generations" because even young people who give up the seven things of "love," "marriage," "birth," "home," "human relations," and "dreams" have emerged starting with the failure to find a job. Has been[34].

Document

Japan

The following table is for high school graduatesRecruitment ratioas well as the Employment rateIs the transition of. For details, see Labor Policy Research and Training Organization.New Indicator Utilizing Business Statistics-2006See.

Ratio of job openings to new graduates by prefecture by March
Years1992
(H4)
1993
(H5)
1994
(H6)
1995
(H7)
1996
(H8)
1997
(H9)
1998
(H10)
1999
(H11)
2000
(H12)
2001
(H13)
2002
(H14)
2003
(H15)
2004
(H16)
Hokkaido1.81.71.51.31.41.41.31.21.21.21.31.31.2
Aomori1.51.31.21.01.11.11.00.80.80.80.70.70.7
Iwate1.81.71.41.31.31.31.31.00.90.90.70.70.8
Miyagi2.82.51.91.71.51.51.41.11.01.11.11.11.1
Akita2.01.81.51.41.51.51.41.11.21.10.90.90.9
Yamagata2.72.42.01.71.61.61.51.20.91.00.90.90.9
Fukushima2.62.21.71.41.41.31.31.01.01.00.90.91.0
Ibaraki3.32.92.31.61.51.51.71.31.11.11.11.01.3
Tochigi3.33.02.21.71.61.61.71.41.31.31.31.21.4
Gunma4.03.93.12.32.02.02.21.91.71.51.51.41.6
埼 玉2.72.52.11.71.51.41.61.41.21.21.31.21.2
千葉2.62.52.01.51.41.31.31.31.01.11.21.11.2
Tokyo10.29.47.25.34.64.75.35.14.34.44.85.04.7
神奈川3.93.62.82.11.81.92.21.81.51.71.81.71.5
Niigata3.02.72.32.22.12.12.11.51.31.21.31.21.2
Toyama3.93.73.02.52.22.32.71.91.61.61.71.31.2
石川3.33.22.62.11.92.02.11.51.41.31.31.21.3
Fukui3.53.43.02.42.32.42.51.91.61.41.31.21.2
Yamanashi3.83.52.72.01.92.01.91.51.31.51.41.31.3
Nagano3.73.53.12.52.42.42.42.01.71.71.51.41.5
Gifu3.13.02.62.01.92.02.11.71.41.31.31.31.3
Shizuoka3.93.92.92.01.81.82.11.71.41.41.41.31.3
Aichi4.94.83.82.72.42.53.02.52.02.12.01.92.0
Triple3.12.92.41.81.71.82.01.51.21.21.11.11.1
Shiga3.83.22.51.91.81.72.01.41.01.11.00.91.0
京都3.53.32.52.01.82.02.21.81.51.51.41.41.5
Osaka4.64.33.52.62.22.52.92.51.91.91.91.72.0
Hyogo3.13.12.42.01.92.12.31.71.41.31.31.11.1
Nara2.11.91.91.61.41.61.51.31.21.21.01.11.0
和 歌 山2.22.11.71.41.51.31.41.00.80.80.70.80.8
Tottori2.12.01.71.51.41.61.61.21.11.10.80.90.8
Shimane1.81.71.61.51.51.51.41.11.01.00.90.80.8
Okayama2.62.42.11.61.61.61.71.31.11.11.01.11.1
Hiroshima3.63.52.82.31.92.02.21.71.51.41.41.51.5
Yamaguchi2.01.91.61.31.21.31.31.11.01.10.91.01.0
Tokushima2.22.12.01.81.81.61.71.31.21.21.00.90.9
Kagawa3.83.53.02.62.62.72.62.31.91.61.61.41.5
Atago2.62.42.11.81.81.81.91.51.31.21.11.11.1
Kochi1.41.31.21.11.01.11.00.90.80.80.80.60.6
Fukuoka2.42.51.91.51.41.51.51.21.01.11.01.01.0
佐賀1.81.81.61.41.31.21.10.90.70.70.70.70.7
Nagasaki1.41.41.11.00.90.90.80.70.70.70.60.50.6
Kumamoto1.91.81.71.31.21.11.00.70.70.80.70.80.8
Oita1.51.51.31.21.21.21.21.00.91.00.90.91.0
Miyazaki1.31.11.01.00.90.90.80.60.70.60.60.60.6
Kagoshima1.21.00.91.00.90.80.80.61.00.70.60.60.6
Okinawa1.10.80.60.40.30.30.40.30.30.40.40.50.6
National average3.33.12.51.91.81.81.91.61.31.31.31.31.3

Source: Labor market for new graduates (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare)

Employment rate of new graduates by prefecture in March (Source: Labor market of new graduates)
Years1992
(H4)
1993
(H5)
1994
(H6)
1995
(H7)
1996
(H8)
1997
(H9)
1998
(H10)
1999
(H11)
2000
(H12)
2001
(H13)
2002
(H14)
2003
(H15)
2004
(H16)
Hokkaido99.999.899.899.699.199.399.098.098.198.197.096.395.8
Aomori100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.899.198.496.594.495.4
Iwate100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.499.399.198.297.597.9
Miyagi99.999.798.597.295.897.295.190.691.492.690.890.893.1
Akita100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.798.699.496.697.899.2
Yamagata100.0100.099.999.599.699.298.898.598.398.196.395.797.2
Fukushima100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.8100.0100.099.097.998.5
Ibaraki100.0100.0100.0100.099.899.997.693.688.289.289.391.096.9
Tochigi100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.899.098.597.995.995.696.0
Gunma100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.699.699.791.998.498.8
埼 玉100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.598.798.197.3
千葉99.999.599.698.099.095.696.095.894.296.994.896.397.4
Tokyo98.097.094.795.794.094.693.192.688.189.992.396.497.0
神奈川100.099.8100.0100.098.699.399.794.399.698.996.597.692.5
Niigata100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.9100.099.999.999.9
Toyama100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.198.598.597.898.798.5
石川100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.096.799.499.597.998.298.1
Fukui100.0100.099.9100.099.8100.0100.0100.099.799.298.198.799.6
Yamanashi100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.097.095.598.494.9
Nagano99.9100.099.999.9100.0100.0100.0100.099.6100.0100.0100.0100.0
Gifu100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.999.698.098.197.097.899.0
Shizuoka100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.199.899.799.099.5
Aichi100.0100.0100.099.999.299.398.997.995.295.995.494.596.2
Triple100.0100.0100.099.8100.099.899.899.999.999.698.997.097.6
Shiga100.0100.0100.099.999.999.899.397.195.592.297.994.593.2
京都100.0100.097.897.997.198.297.595.093.795.295.495.096.9
Osaka99.799.999.999.999.899.899.698.296.396.695.794.795.3
Hyogo99.399.999.699.399.799.899.698.396.998.696.895.394.5
Nara100.0100.099.399.999.899.398.499.494.397.996.397.197.7
和 歌 山100.0100.097.798.297.297.996.795.293.393.491.589.994.3
Tottori100.0100.0100.0100.099.6100.0100.099.898.498.791.795.796.0
Shimane100.0100.0100.099.9100.099.9100.0100.0100.099.999.699.399.3
Okayama100.0100.0100.099.899.199.799.8100.097.396.293.293.397.6
Hiroshima99.798.996.794.994.293.293.788.788.383.287.287.492.9
Yamaguchi100.0100.099.999.799.699.799.999.999.999.898.098.699.0
Tokushima100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.894.794.896.6
Kagawa100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.8100.098.1100.0
Atago100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.999.499.998.297.6
Kochi99.599.798.997.497.596.591.587.086.687.590.191.191.3
Fukuoka98.696.991.195.195.895.693.992.588.689.088.288.886.8
佐賀100.0100.099.999.699.599.699.098.694.295.894.393.496.6
Nagasaki100.0100.099.898.899.197.998.095.992.090.991.891.293.8
Kumamoto99.899.397.197.496.797.295.691.690.692.588.393.194.3
Oita99.399.899.999.899.599.599.497.696.997.794.593.395.4
Miyazaki100.0100.0100.0100.099.499.799.899.599.498.898.097.899.1
Kagoshima99.699.898.297.997.896.297.295.991.590.689.192.494.1
Okinawa91.285.780.562.356.568.472.765.558.369.862.473.878.6
National average99.799.598.998.798.498.598.296.895.695.994.895.195.9

A work depicting job hunting

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footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c Akifumi Hayashi, Manual for Employment Adjustment, June 2009, p. 6
  2. ^ Source:Employment rate # Employment (unofficial) rate
  3. ^ Requires special knowledge and skillsNational qualification-Business monopoly qualificationIn Japan, there are many qualifications that cannot be taken because of being a "junior high school graduate", even if they are between the ages of 18 and 20.Driver's licenseAlthough it is not clearly stated in “No middle school graduation”, there is a minimum age limit, and especially in regions where public transportation is scarce, even a commute may require a driver's license with a private vehicle (BicycleAnd some companies do not allow commuting by motorcycle),scootersandOrdinary motorcycle(SmallIncluding limitations) Driver's license is 16 years old or older,Ordinary carLarge motorcycleSince a driver's license can only be obtained by those aged 18 or over, it cannot be obtained just before graduating from junior high school like high school prospects.
  4. ^ Among other things1990 eraAfter the burst of the bubble, the number of high school graduates in employment, which was the main place of employment for girls who graduated from commercial and ordinary departments until the beginning, dropped sharply after the bubble burst.
  5. ^ Summary of results Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  6. ^ Because the tests are concentrated and time is spent on the driving.
  7. ^ Freeter employment support service
  8. ^ J-CAST News "Job hunting Tabare demo" held in Tokyo 2 and Google connected students
  9. ^ DIAMOND ONLINE The reason why people don't grow is because of job hunting!
  10. ^ Every day jp job hunting: Student "Hunting from class" Started in the fall of 3rd year
  11. ^ Announcement on the statement of 8 University Engineering Dean Meeting
  12. ^ Directly adopted! ? Internships that are advantageous for employment
  13. ^ Intern rising rapidly in the job market Archived June 2014, 6, at Archive.is
  14. ^ Intern rising rapidly in the job market Archived June 2014, 6, at Archive.is
  15. ^ [University and employment] "Postponing" when employment starts, companies do not follow the schedule
  16. ^ Job hunting has already begun Warning to the XNUMX graduates whose selection time has been delayed
  17. ^ 2015/Company Survey on New Graduate Recruitment-Job Offer Trend Survey
  18. ^ Fukushima University: Granting XNUMX yen for job hunting transportation expenses to reduce student burden from this month / FukushimaDaily jp June 2011, 5
  19. ^ a b c The Yomiuri Shimbun February 2019, 2, morning edition Economics "Anatomy Business World Job Hunting Edition 9"
  20. ^ History of recruiting careers
  21. ^ Recruiting Welcome to the popular employment rankings listBusiness Media
  22. ^ Asahi Shimbun November 1997, 3
  23. ^ "Labor Force Survey"Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  24. ^ "Women's Statistical Discrimination and the Way to Eliminate It"Kazuo Yamaguchi2008/5
  25. ^ Sumitomo Electric damages claim case judgment (Osaka District Court, November 14, 11), etc.
  26. ^ Depending on the university, if you receive a job offer cancellation, you may be allowed to continue for one year without paying tuition, and you may be able to resume job hunting under the new graduate quota.
  27. ^ What is "Owahara" that is rampant in the seller market? Real information and job hunting quarterly news plus one for job hunting students | 東洋 経 済 オ ン ラ イ ン | Business site for new generation leaders
  28. ^ "The civilian examination fee is 120 million yen! "Connect and network" is very popular." "Record China" delivered on July 2008, 7
  29. ^ "The most common is "discrimination against educational background" and "No interviews except at famous universities" at the time of job hunting" "Record China" distributed on March 2008, 3
  30. ^ a b Rika Kashiwagi “[5] More students want a state-owned company to connect with others” “Nikkei Business Online” Nikkei Business Publications, May 2008, 5
  31. ^ "University rank "Caution for overtrust" Expert alerts OECD, National Impact Study" "Yomiuri Shimbun, delivered June 2008, 6
  32. ^ Akifumi Hayashi, Manual for Employment Adjustment, June 2009, pages 6-217
  33. ^ Akifumi Hayashi, Manual for Employment Adjustment, June 2009, p. 6
  34. ^ Yahoo! News Despair of Korea's seven generations who can not reach dreams, work, romance

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Polymerase chain reaction

Polymerase chain reaction(Polymerase Rensa Hanno,English: polymerase chain reaction) IsDNAA reaction or technique that amplifies a specific region of a sample by millions to billions of times. Take the initials in EnglishPCR method, Or simplyPCRIt is also called "Polymerase Chain Reaction" in English.

DNA polymeraseと 呼 ば れ る酵素Utilizing the function of, any cycle through a series of temperature changesgeneArea orgenomeCopy spaceExponentialTarget (Mouse arithmeticThe objective is to amplify from a small sample of DNA to a sufficient amount to study its details.[1][2][3].Medical,Molecular biology,Forensic medicineIt is a useful technology that is widely used in fields such asCarrie MarisInvented by (Kary Mullis)[4][5],Nobel PrizeWas awarded.

Since the PCR method was established,Sequencing, Experiments such as gene mutation induction become possible,Molecular genetics,Physiology,TaxonomyIn addition to being utilized in research fields such as, analysis of ancient DNA samples,Forensic medicine,Paternity testUsed inDNA typingIdentification of infectious agentsInfectionTechnology development related to diagnosis (Nucleic acid amplification test), etc. have advanced dramatically. Also, from the PCR methodReverse transcription polymerase chain reaction,Real-time PCR,DNA sequencingEtc. are derived and developed. Therefore, today the PCR methodBiology,Medical scienceIt is the basis of gene analysis in a wide range of fields including[6][7].

principle

The PCR method operates by a series of thermal cycles of raising and lowering the temperature of a DNA solution containing a mixture of reagents. In the repeated cycle of heating and cooling of this DNA sample, dissociation of double-stranded DNA, binding of primer,酵素Three reactions, DNA synthesis by reaction, proceed, and finally a large amount of DNA fragments in a specific region are replicated.

In the PCR method, in addition to the DNA sample to be amplified (template), a large amount ofPrimer(In the target DNA regionComplementaryShort single-stranded DNA with sequence (Oligonucleotide)) and free, a component of DNAnucleotideAndPolymeraseIs a type ofDNA synthase(DNA polymerase) ThreereagentTo use.

  1. The first step is to heat the double-stranded DNA of the DNA double helix at high temperature.DegenerationAnd physically separate into single-stranded DNA. The temperature at which denaturation occurs depends on the base composition and length (number of bases) of DNA, and generally longer DNA requires higher temperature.
  2. Next, the solution containing the single-stranded DNA is cooled, and the primer is bound to the complementary sequence site of the single-stranded DNA to partially form the double strand (annealing). When the cooling is rapid, it is difficult for long DNAs to recombine into double strands, but short DNA fragments (Oligonucleotide) Takes advantage of the fact that they can be easily combined. As a result, a primer is bound to a part of the target long single-stranded DNA. By keeping the primer overwhelmingly more than the DNA, the tendency of the DNA and the primer to bind becomes more predominant than the tendency of the DNA and the DNA to bind.
  3. Next, heat the solution slightly to remove this double-stranded DNA site.templateAsDNA polymeraseBy making the primer act as a starting point and releasenucleotideDNA that is complementary to the single-stranded part酵素Are synthesized. After the DNA is synthesized, the temperature is raised again to return to the first step, and this cycle is repeated from the first DNA denaturation to promote the amplification. As the PCR reaction progresses, the generated DNA itself is used as a template for replication, and the original DNA template isExponentialIs amplified toChain reactionAdvances.

As described above, the PCR method utilizes the difference in the rate of denaturation and annealing depending on the DNA chain length to repeat DNA synthesis simply by repeatedly raising and lowering the temperature of the reaction solution, and amplifying a partial region of any DNA. Is.

If the DNA polymerase used is heat-sensitive, the polymerase will denature along with the DNA at the high temperature of the denaturation step,DeactivationResulting in. Therefore, when the PCR method was first developed, DNA polymerase was added as an enzyme every time DNA was denatured, which was time-consuming and expensive.[8].. Currently,Thermus aquaticusTo sayThermophileIs a thermostable DNA polymerase derived fromTaq polymeraseBy using such as, it is possible to continuously proceed the reaction without adding an enzyme in the middle.

procedure

ready

The nucleotide sequences at both ends of the DNA region to be amplified are determined, and corresponding primers are artificially synthesized. At this time, the primer is a complementary sequence that binds to the 2'side of each strand of the double-stranded DNA to be amplified, and usually has about 3 bases. They are often custom made in the lab or can be purchased from a commercial biochemical supplier.

Reaction solution preparation

Amplification target DNA, primer, DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis material (Substrate)Deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP), And a buffer solution to create an optimal salt concentration environment in which the enzyme works, and a PCR device (Thermal cycler). For the buffer solution included in the distributed PCR reagent kit,BivalentCationIs often included[9].NormallymagnesiumIon (Mg2+), but PCR-mediated DNA mutagenesis is highmanganeseIon (Mn2+) Can also be used to increase the error rate during DNA synthesis.[10].Taq In the case of DNA polymerase,As a monovalent cationpotassiumIon (K+) May be included[11].. In some casesAmmonium sulfateMay be added.Ammonium ion(NH4+) Has the effect of destabilizing the weak hydrogen bond between the mismatched primer and the template base pair, and can increase the specificity.[11].

PCR cycle

  1. 94 reaction solution° CHeat to about 30 seconds to 1 minute to keep double-stranded DNA into single strands (Fig. 2).
  2. 60° CRapidly cool to a certain degree (slightly different depending on the primer) andPrimerAnneal (Fig. ②).
  3. No separation of primersDNA polymeraseReheat to the optimum temperature range for the activity of. Depending on the experimental purpose, its temperature is 60-72° CIt is set to a degree. This temperature is usually maintained for 1 to 2 minutes depending on the length of time required for DNA synthesis and the length of amplification (Fig. XNUMX).
  4. Up to this point is one cycle, and by repeating the steps from ① to ③, a specific DNA fragment is amplified.

When the PCR treatment is repeated n times, 1 double-stranded DNAn-Amplify 2n times.However, since the maximum of 2 cycles is usually performed, the term of XNUMXn is approximately negligible.If the number of cycles is further increased, the DNA polymerase loses its activity over time and reagents such as dNTPs and primers are consumed, so that the reaction is limited and the series of reactions is finally stopped.

Points to remember

The success or failure of this reaction depends on the base sequences of the DNA to be amplified and the primer, each set temperature and time during the cycle, and the like. If they are inappropriate, they may amplify irrelevant DNA sequences or may show no amplification. In addition, there is a possibility that mutation will occur during the synthesis process, so it is necessary to check the nucleotide sequence of the product depending on the purpose of use.

Application of PCR

Amplification and quantification of DNA

PCR is a technique for dramatically amplifying a region of target DNA, and even a very small amount of DNA sample may be analyzed by passing through PCR. This proves that only trace amounts of DNA are availableForensic medicineIt is especially important in such fields.Or, for example, tens of thousands of years agoAncient DNAPCR is also effective for analysis of[12].

Quantitative PCR(Also called real-time PCR, or simply qPCR.RT-PCRNote that the amount of a specific DNA sequence present in a sample can also be estimated by[13].. this is,Gene expressionIt is used for purposes such as quantitatively determining levels. In quantitative PCR, the abundance of the target DNA region that originally existed is quantified by measuring the concentration of the PCR product that is amplified during the PCR cycle in real time during the PCR cycle process. can do. There are two major methods, one is non-specifically retained between the duplexes.fluorescenceAnother method is to use a dye, and the other method is to use a probe to which a fluorescent label is added in advance and which encodes a specific sequence. In the latter method, fluorescence can be detected only when the probe and its complementary DNA are hybridized.

Combined real-time PCR and reverse transcriptionRT-qPCR(Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction), the method calledRNAIt is possible to quantify. In this technique, mRNA is the firstcDNAAnd the cDNA is quantified by qPCR. This method is often used to detect genes related to genetic diseases such as cancer and to measure expression levels.[14].

Application to biological research

PCRMolecular biology,GeneticsIt has been applied to various research fields including.

  • PCR can be used to selectively amplify and isolate specific DNA regions in the genome. Such use of PCR isSouthern blotting,Northern blottingIs widely used for the production of such hybridization probes and for DNA cloning that requires a large amount of DNA fragments derived from a specific DNA region.
  • PCRDNA sequenceIs often important in doing.. By various PCR, for example, a gene sequence or a DNA region to be analyzed can be extracted from a completely unknown genome and amplified.
  • PCRClassic experiments such as DNA cloningIt is often used in the process. For example, it is used when inserting a specific genomic region from a large genome into a vector. It can also be used to analyze or amplify DNA fragments already inserted in the vector. By partially changing the PCR protocol,mutationCan be artificially induced.
  • PCR is often used for research on ancient DNA. Most of such ancient DNA has been decomposed by ultraviolet rays and hydrolysis, and there is often only a trace amount of double-stranded DNA, so it is possible to analyze only by applying amplification by PCR. .. As an example of research that actually used PCR,NeanderthalsThe bone, 4 years oldMammothFrozen tissue ofエジプト OfmummyThere is a brain, etc.ロシアemperorAnd British KingRichard IIIIs being identified[12].. In some cases, it may be possible to restore the original DNA sequence to some extent by applying PCR amplification even to a DNA sample that has been considerably degraded.
  • Gene expressionPCR is also used to study the pattern. You can analyze body tissues and individual cells at various time-series stages to see which genes were activated/deactivated,Quantitative PCRCan also be used to quantify the actual expression level in detail.
  • PCRGenetic linkageIs also used for research. For example,Amplifies several loci from individual sperm simultaneously,MeiosisAfterChromosome crossoverStudies have been reported[15].. In this study, rare rare crossover events between very close loci were directly observed by analyzing thousands of sperm. Similarly, aberrant deletions, insertions, translocations, or inversions can be analyzed.
  • PCR can be used to induce site-directed mutagenesis of any gene or genomic region. By investigating these mutants, it is possible to elucidate, for example, the function of the protein, or to proceed with research for altering or improving the function of the protein.

Prenatal diagnosis

Whether a PCR is a carrier of a particular inheritance before the child is born, or actuallysickTest whether you are affected byPrenatal diagnosisCan be used for[16].Prenatal examinationDNA sample forAmniocentesisbyChorionic villus sampling, Or can be obtained by analysis of a very small amount of fetal cells circulating in the mother's bloodstream. PCR analysisPre-implantation diagnosisIs also essential and can test mutations in individual cells of the developing embryo.

Organ transplant tissue typing

PCROrgan transplantationEssential toOrganizational typingIt can also be used as a highly sensitive test.Blood TypeA proposal to replace the traditional antibody-based test with a PCR-based test against was also made in 2008[17].

Cancer genetic analysis

Many forms of cancer are associated with various types of cancer development.gene(Oncogene) ArrayWith variations, PCR technology could be used to analyze this mutation to tailor treatment strategies to patients. PCR alsoleukemia,LymphomaSuch asMalignantEnables early diagnosis of disease. It is being developed in the field of cancer research, and PCR is now routinely used. It has been reported that direct PCR assay of genomic DNA samples can detect translocation-specific malignant cells at least 10,000 times more sensitive than other methods[18].. PCR also allows the isolation and amplification of tumor suppressors. For example, it is possible to quantify single cells using quantitative PCR and analyze the abundance and combination of DNA, mRNA, and protein.[19].

Diagnosis of infectious disease

PCR aids in sensitive and rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases caused by bacteria and viruses[20].. In PCR,Mycobacteria ,Anaerobic bacteria, ま た はTissue cultureAssayAnimal modelfromウ イ ル スIt is also possible to quickly identify microorganisms that cannot be cultured or microorganisms that grow slowly. In addition, PCR diagnosis can distinguish between non-pathogenic strains and pathogenic strains by not only detecting infectious pathogens but also determining whether the bacterium has a specific gene[20][21].. On the other hand, various defects have been reported (Later).

  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Is a difficult target to discover and eradicate. The initial diagnosis of infection is the virus circulating in the bloodstream.antibodyHowever, the antibody does not appear until weeks after infection, the maternal antibody masks the infection of the newborn, and the amount of antibody does not change when treated with an HIV therapeutic agent. was there. Therefore, a high-sensitivity PCR method that can detect only one viral genome from over 50,000 cellular DNA samples was developed.[22].. This method enables early detection of infectious diseases, virus testing of donated blood, rapid infection testing of newborns, and quantification of antiviral treatment effects.
  • tuberculosis OfSome disease-causing microbes such as these are known to be difficult to sample from patients and grow slowly in the laboratory,cultureA lot of time and effort was spent in the base diagnosis. Tests by PCR can detect disease-causing microorganisms in samples, and from genetic analysisAntibiotic resistanceIt is possible to detect the presence or absence, etc., which may lead to the setting of an effective treatment policy and the evaluation of the treatment effect.
  • 家畜orwildThrough a group of animalsdiseaseBiology Diffusion and emergence of new toxic subtypes can be monitored by PCR testing.
  • By using a primer specific to the target sequence of viral DNA, viral DNA can be detected by PCR and also used for DNA sequencing. Due to the high sensitivity of PCR, virus detection may be possible immediately after infection and before the onset of disease[23].. Early detection may give the physician a significant lead time for treatment. The viral load contained within the patient can also be quantified by PCR-based DNA quantification techniques.
  • Social Services LizardIs caused by a bacterium called B. pertussis. This bacterium is characterized by a serious acute respiratory tract infection affecting a wide variety of animals and humans, leading to the death of many young children.Communicate and LizardBinds to cell receptors by two dimers and plays a role in cell immunityT lymphocyteIs a protein toxin that reacts with[24].. Since the sequence in the pertussis toxin gene can be detected by PCR, pertussis can be diagnosed very efficiently compared to the culture method.[25].

Application to forensics

PCR-basedDNA typing(Fingerprinting)Forensic medicineWidely applied in the field.

  • DNA typing is世界It is a technology that can uniquely distinguish one person from the entire population. Applying this technology, a small amount of DNA sampleCrime sceneIn some cases, suspects can be identified by collecting, analyzing, and comparing prisoners. A simpler method of use is to quickly exclude suspects during criminal investigations. Alternatively, test crime evidence decades ago to confirm the perpetration of convicted people, orImmunityIt also leads to doing.
  • Forensic DNA typing (forensic DNA typing) is an effective way to identify or exclude suspected crimes from the analysis of evidence found at crime scenes. The human genome has many repeat regions found within gene sequences or in noncoding regions of the genome. Specifically, up to 40% of human DNA is known to be repetitive[26].. There are two types of these repetitive non-coding regions in the genome, one called variable length tandem repeat (VNTR), which is 2-10 base pairs long, while the other is short tandem repeat (STR). It is called a repeat section of 100-2 base pairs. Then, PCR amplification can be performed using the primers flanking each repeat region. A statistically high probability of uniquely identifying each individual can be obtained by examining the size distribution of several STR fragments obtained from each individual.[26].. Furthermore, the complete sequence of the human genome has already been determined, and since this sequence information can be easily accessed from the NCBI website, various applications have been made. For example, the FBI has compiled a set of DNA marker sites used for identification, which are called the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) DNA database.[26].. This database can be used to statistically determine the probability that a DNA sample will match. PCR is a very powerful and important analytical tool for forensic DNA typing because it requires very small amounts of target DNA for analysis. For example,Hair follicleHuman hair to which is attached contains enough DNA, if any, to perform the analysis. Similarly, severalspermA skin sample from under the fingernails, or a small amountbloodCan provide enough DNA for definitive analysis[26].
  • On the other hand, on the contrary, due to the format with low discriminationDNA fingerprintingIt is,Paternity testIs utilized for.. In this case, the subject, such as the body of an unidentified human, is compared to the DNA of the expected relatives, ie parents, siblings, children, etc. To identify the biological parents of the adopted (kidnapped) child,NewbornOf the actual biological father ofConfirm (Or excluded) is also used.
  • AmelogeninGene-based PCR enables real-time male and female sex determination from forensic bone samples. This allows you to determine the sex of ancient specimens and suspected criminals.[27].

PCR technical limitations

PCR has many advantages: the principle and the actual work are very simple, the results can be obtained quickly, and they are very sensitive.Quantitative PCR(qPCR, quantitative PCR) also has the advantage of being able to quantify the targeted DNA region.On the other hand, PCR is also known to have various technical restrictions and limitations.

One of the technical limitations of PCR is that it requires a priori knowledge of the sequence of the target region in order to generate primers that allow selective amplification.[28]..That is, the PCR practitioner usually needs to know the sequence information before and after the target DNA region in advance so that the primer and the template bind properly.Therefore, in principle, it is impossible to perform PCR on a target whose sequence information is completely unknown.Also, like any other enzyme, DNA polymerase itself is prone to errors during DNA synthesis and may mutate the sequence of the PCR amplification product produced.[29].. Furthermore, since PCR can amplify even a small amount of DNA, amplification may occur based on erroneously mixed DNA, resulting in ambiguous or erroneous results.

Many techniques and procedures have been developed to avoid these problems and optimize PCR conditions.[30][31].. For example, in order to minimize the possibility that the sample will be contaminated by the contamination of foreign DNA, by using separate rooms for each step of reagent preparation and PCR processing/analysis, they can be spatially separated. Separation is effective[32]..In addition, it is effective to always use disposable new tubes and pipette tips with filters to operate samples and reagents, thoroughly clean the workbench and equipment, and always work in a clean space.[33].. Reconsidering primer design and investigating the types of buffers and polymerase enzymes is also important in improving the yield of PCR products and avoiding the formation of spurious products. To the buffer systemFormamideAddition of reagents such as may increase PCR specificity and yield[34].. Computer simulation of theoretical PCR results (Electronic PCR) has also been developed to support primer design.[35].

Characteristics of PCR in diagnosis of infectious diseases

PCR is a very powerful and practical research tool, and indeed, in many infectious diseases, the etiology sequencing has been elucidated using PCR. This method is knownウ イ ル スIt also helps identify unknown viruses and contributes greatly to understanding the disease itself. If the procedure can be further simplified and a highly sensitive detection system can be developed, PCR will becomeClinical examinationIt is believed that it will take an important position in the room[36].. However, the use of PCR in the diagnosis of infectious diseases has been pointed out to have various disadvantages as well as advantages.

利 点

  • Human capital OfgenomeOnly specific DNA fragments (hundreds to thousands of base pairs) can be selectively amplified from a sample containing a long DNA molecule such as (30 billion base pairs).[1].
  • The purpose can be achieved with a very small amount of DNA.
  • Amplification reaction can be completed in a short time[2]..The time required for amplification is as short as 2 hours or less.
  • Testing is possible by using primers specific for each pathogen while keeping the equipment (PCR machine) used in common.[2].
  • Even if the pathogen is dead (even if it loses its infectivity), it can be amplified if the target nucleic acid is preserved, and even dangerous pathogens can be inactivated before testing.[2].
  • Sensitivity can be increased by using Nested PCR, real-time PCR, etc.[2].

Disadvantage

  • When biomaterials such as organs and tissues are used as samples, the detection rate differs depending on the sampling site and pretreatment of the material, and even if the result is negative, the presence of pathogens in the living body cannot always be denied.[2].
  • There is a limit to the amplification of nucleic acid due to the decrease in reaction efficiency due to generation of reaction inhibitors, etc., and the result will be negative if the nucleic acid cannot be amplified to a detectable amount. Cannot deny the existence of pathogens[2].
  • Testing of biomaterials such as blood and feces may be affected by the inhibitory substances in the test materials, so purification work is required, but it is not said to be complete.[2].. In addition, the storage condition of test materials, the number of freeze-thaw cycles, and the methods and conditions for nucleic acid purification can have a large impact on test efficiency and test results.[2].
  • Contamination from positive controls during testing, contamination from previous tests and experiments, and contamination of reagents with nucleic acids can lead to false positives (contamination)[2].

History and background

With Kjell KleppeH. Gobind KhoranaEt al. used an enzyme assay with primers and a short DNA template.vitroIn 1971Journal of Molecular BiologyFirst published in (Molecular Biology Journal)[37].. This was to explain the basic principle of PCR, but it did not receive much attention at that time, and the invention of the polymerase chain reaction was generally found in 1983.Mullis penaltiesIs considered to be due to[38].

When Mullis developed PCR in 1983, heCaliforniaEmeryvilleSo the firstBiotechnologyA company that is one of the companies (Cetus Corporation) Was working. Mullis said, "One night,Pacific Coast HighwayWhile driving in the car, I came up with the idea of ​​PCR."[39].. When he was thinking about a new method to analyze changes (mutations) in DNA, he tried to amplify a partial region of nucleic acid by repeating the DNA synthesis reaction using the already known oligonucleotide and DNA polymerase at that time. Came up with[39].

Mullis named this method "polymerase-catalyzed chain reaction",Nature,ScienceI submitted it as a paper to a famous scientific journal such as, but it was not published. On the other hand, the PCR method itself was made by a colleague of Cetus.Sickle cell diseaseIt was applied to a rapid diagnostic method for inherited diseases. It was reported as "Enzymatic amplification of beta-globin genomic sequences and restriction site analysis for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia" in Science magazine, and it attracted the attention of scientists around the world before the original paper.[5].. Finally in 1987, Mullis's paper Methods in Enzymology Published as "Specific synthesis of DNA in vitro via a polymerase-catalyzed chain reaction."[40].. Later MullisScientific Americanso,"PCR can start with a single molecule of genetic material DNA and produce 1,000 billion similar molecules in the afternoon. The reaction is easy to perform. It requires a test tube, some simple reagents, and a heat source. It is only"[41].. DNA fingerprinting in 1988Paternity testFirst used in[42].

In recognition of this achievement, Mullis worked with his colleagues at Cetus in 7, seven years after demonstrating PCR technology.Nobel Prize in ChemistryWon[43].. In addition, “Enzymatic Amplification of β-globin Genomic Sequences and Restriction Site Analysis for Diagnosis of Sickle Cell Anemia” by RK Saiki and HA Erlich in 1985 (“Enzymatic amplification of β-globin genomic sequence for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia”). And restriction site analysis'')American Chemical SocietyReceived Chemistry Breakthrough Award in the History of Chemistry category[44][45].. However, some controversy remains regarding the contributions of other scientists to Mullis' work and whether he was the only inventor of the PCR principle, as described below.

PCR was initiallyE. coli5'-3' exonuclease activity was removed by subtilisin treatment of DNA polymerase IKlenow FragmentMost of them used to cause a reaction. However, this enzymecopyThis enzyme had to be added manually after each thermal cycle because it could not withstand the high temperatures required to separate post-cycling DNA double helices and deactivate the DNA polymerase.[46].. As a result, the initial steps of DNA replication were very inefficient and time consuming, requiring large amounts of DNA polymerase and continuous treatment throughout the process. The Cetus research group lives in a high temperature environment (hot spring) of 50 to 80°C to solve this drawback.Thermophilic bacteriumIsThermus aquaticus[47]As a thermostable DNA polymeraseTaq polymeraseWas purified and the PCR method using this was published in Science magazine in 1976.[6].T. aquaticusDNA polymerase isolated from ° C (194 ° F) Stable at high temperature, and maintains activity even after DNA denaturation[48]Eliminates the need to add new DNA polymerase after each cycle[49].. This has opened the way to the simplification and automation of PCR reactions, and has led to the development of a widely applicable method.

In this way, the Cetus Group (including initially Maris) played a large role in the application and development of the PCR method.

However, it was Carey Maris who first conceived this method and showed direction, so MarisNobel Prize in ChemistryWas awarded in 1993. PCR technologyMullis penalties PatentWas acquired and was assigned to work in 1983 when Mullis invented the technology.TaqThe polymerase enzyme is also patent protected.DupontThere were several well-known lawsuits related to this technology, including the unsuccessful lawsuits filed. Swiss pharmaceutical companyEf Hoffman La RochePurchased a patent right in 1992, but the patent right now expires[50].

PCR types and application methods

Conventional PCR
Normal PCR that repeats the reaction for 1 to 25 cycles with one set of primers[2].
Real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-Time PCR,Real-time PCR
A method of drawing an amplification curve in real time by emitting light from a nucleic acid fragment and detecting it using a dedicated optical instrument.It is used when quantitative rather than qualitative is required.[2].
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR,Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
A method in which RNA is converted to cDNA by reverse transcriptase and then PCR is performed.[2].
Nested polymerase chain reaction(Nested PCR)
A method in which the PCR product amplified by PCR is used as a template for the next reaction and another PCR is repeated using another primer pair.[2].
Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (Multiplex PCR,Multiplex PCR
A method to simultaneously perform PCR reactions for multiple target nucleic acids (DNA) in a single reaction tube[2].
Amplified fragment length polymorphism(AFLP)
A method in which genomic DNA containing target nucleic acid (DNA) is cleaved with a restriction enzyme, a short double-stranded DNA (adapter) is bound to the cleaved end, and PCR is performed using its complementary primer.[2].
Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP method
A method based on a completely different principle from conventional PCR[2][51].

References

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