A savior in case of trouble!Convenience store rice recommended by midwives for breast milk
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Millet rice is a mixture of brown rice, foxtail millet, millet, and glutinous wheat in white rice, and also contains dietary fiber, minerals, and vitamins.
Mr. Enomoto, a midwife and lactation consultant, talks about convenience store rice that is good for breast milk.Charcoal ... → Continue reading
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Wikipedia related words
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Dietary fiberIs a person'sdigestive enzymeBydigestionHard to befoodIs a general term for indigestible ingredients contained in. Many of themplantsex,Algaesex,FungiSex foodCell wallIt is a component that makes up theGlucomannan,InulinThere are not a few that behave nutritionally as dietary fiber. Chemically, it is often a polysaccharide of carbohydrates.
Traditionally, it has been considered useless without being digested. Later I found out that it was useful,JapaneseThe target amount to be ingested is set by the dietary intake standard of.. However, as is clear from the definitionNutrientsis not.
Human capital OfDigestive tractIs on my ownStarch,glycogenCan not digest many polysaccharides other thancolon内 のIntestinal bacteriaDislikefermentationBy,Short chain fatty acids,methane,carbon dioxide,hydrogenBe decomposed into. 83% of short chain fatty acidsAcetic acid,Propionic acid,Butyric acidThe production ratio is 60:20:20. Most of the short chain fatty acids produced are absorbed from the large intestine. Acetic acid serves as an energy source for the host, propionic acid is used as a source of gluconeogenesis in the liver, and butyric acid is preferentially used as an energy source for colon cells... Most of the dietary fiber is cellulose,celluloseThe utilization capacity is unexpectedly high, and it is said that powdered cellulose can be decomposed and utilized almost 100% via intestinal bacteria. Starch produces about 4 kcal/g of energy, while dietary fiber produces energy by fermentation degradation by intestinal bacteria, the value of which is not constant, but the effective energy is considered to be 0 to 2 kcal/g. .. The desirable intake of dietary fiber is 19 g/day or more for adult males and 17 g/day or more for adult females... Dietary fiber is converted into a degradable product that can be absorbed by humans by intestinal bacteria in the large intestine, so it has the characteristic of being absorbed as energy in the body after a long time after eating, contributing to the leveling of energy absorption. There is. The function of the large intestine is predicated on the presence of dietary fiber, and its deficiency leads to dysfunction of the large intestine. Dietary fiber NSPSometimes called (non-starch polysaccharide).
1918, A doctorJohn Harvey KelloggIs "home addiction"Based on the theory of self-poisoning that the poison that bacteria make from undigested protein in the intestine damages health, the bacteria easily propagate in undigested meat, but dietary fiber stimulates the intestine. Because it makes it more activeVegetarianWas recommended.
However, on the other hand, nutrition has been recognized as a "food waste" and has been recognized as useless for many years. For example, the founder of nutritionSaiki RitsuIt is,brown riceHad a lot of nutrients, but there was a lot of undigested material, so the efficiency of digestion and absorption was poor, so I recommended the rice that had been polished to a certain degree.
George Oettle of South Africa in the 1960s was doing a study on the relationship between dietary fiber and colon cancer. In 1967, Malhotra, India, reported high dietary fiber intake reduced cancer risk.
Around 1970, BurkittDeveloped Ottle's researchLancetResearch reportAnd the theory that low dietary fiber would increase the risk of intestinal illness became widely known. Burkitt co-authored with Hugh Trowell in 1975, "Refined Carbohydrates and Diseases-Effects of Dietary Fiber"Published and is ungrained grainWhole grainDietary fiber was beneficial and this was confirmed by scientific studies.
In Japan, the "2000th revised Japanese nutritional requirements in 6"The target amount has been set for the intake amount.
Classification and type
It can be roughly divided into (SDF: soluble dietary fiber) and (IDF: insoluble dietary fiber).It may be classified by viscosity or fermentability.
- Pectin -Is an intercellular adhesion substance in the cell wall of plants,fruitIncluded in
- Guar beans enzymatic degradation product - Thickening stabilizer(Food additiveUsed as)
- Glucomannan -A stored carbohydrate of konjac potato,KonjacIngredients for solidified konjac are mostly insoluble dietary fiber
- Polydextrose(British: polydextrose)-Chemically synthesized artificial water-soluble dietary fiber
- Fructan - Rakkyo,Jerusalem artichoke,ア ー テ ィ チ ョ ー クIncluded inFructoseIt is a polymer of molecules.Inulin,Levan, Is also included in fructan.
- Inulin - Burdock,Jerusalem artichokeな どAsteraceaeStored carbohydrates in plant roots and rhizomes
- Gum arabic - AcaciaGum arabic(Senegal acacia), or its relativesbarkDried secretions from wounds
- Indigestible dextrin
(Water-soluble dietary fiber contained in seaweed)
- Agarose - SeaweedOut ofRed algaeIs a major constituent of the cell wall of erythrocytes and is extracted from red algaecold dayThe main component of
- Sodium alginate - SeaweedOut ofBrown algaeIs a major component of the cell wall ofKombuIncluded in
- Carrageenan -Such asRed algaePolysaccharides abundant in
Insoluble dietary fiber
- cellulose,Hemicellulose,Lignin -PlantCell wallIs the main component ofVegetablesIt is often obtained from plant foods. It is estimated that the Japanese consume an average of 15 g/day of dietary fiber, of which 12 g is insoluble dietary fiber and most of it is cellulose..
- Kitchen,Chitosan - crustaceanShell ofFungiMain components such as cell walls of
Having the characteristics of both insoluble and water-soluble dietary fiber
- Resistant starch(Indigestible starch)
When melted, it turns into a gel, which slows nutrient absorption.
Viscous dietary fiber
- Guar gum
Non-viscous dietary fiber
Fermentable dietary fiber
- Guar gum
- Fructooligosaccharide (FOS)
Non-fermentable dietary fiber
Insoluble dietary fiber contained in vegetables, grains, beans, etc. promotes peristaltic movement of the large intestine.
As the effect of dietary fiber,Dyslipidemiaprevention,constipationprevention,obesityprevention,Diabetes mellitusPrevent, regulate lipid metabolismArteriosclerosisPrevention ofColorectal cancerPrevention of othersIntestinal bacteriabyVitamin BIt was confirmed that the groups were synthesized and the elimination of toxic substances in food was promoted. By analyzing the dietary fiber intake of the elderly people of the longevity district and the intestinal microflora of the same person, when the intake of dietary fiber is high, useful bacteria in the prime of working age (BifidobacteriaEtc. are dominant and harmful bacteria (C. perfringensEtc.) was suppressed. In addition, this useful bacterium prevents intestinal rot,ImmunologyIt was found to have effects such as strengthening, protection against intestinal infection, and promotion of intestinal motility.
2003 years,who(WHO)United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO) ``Eating, nutrition and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases ''(Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) Reported lowering the risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease, such as vegetables and fruits and brown rice.Whole grainIs recommended to be taken from.
2007 year 11 month 1 dayWorld Cancer Research FundとAmerican Cancer Research AssociationCancer Prevention Report Analyzed From Over 7000 Studies bySuggests that it may have implications for the prevention of colon and rectal cancer.
Relationship with dietary fiber intake was examinedLifestyle-related diseasesAre various,Myocardial infarctionOnset and death ofDiabetes mellitusThere are many research reports that have a negative association with the onset of. It is also a strong risk factor for cardiovascular diseaseblood pressureAndserum(Orplasma）LDL cholesterolA negative association has also been suggested. further,obesityThere are also many epidemiological studies that have been linked to. on the other hand,cancer, Especially the large intestine (colonAndRectum) Recent studies on epidemiologic studies do not always match the association with cancer.. "Ingestion of dietary fiber was touted as a healthy and healthy diet, reducing the risk of various illnesses, including heart disease, diabetes, diverticulopathy, and constipation." Despite what he believed, dietary fiber had little effect on reducing the risk of colorectal cancer.".
- Obesity prevention
- Water-soluble dietary fiber swells in the stomach to enlarge the food bolus, increase viscosity, prolong the residence time in the stomach and give a feeling of fullness, and insoluble dietary fiber increases the number of times of chewing food and secretes saliva and gastric juice. The effect is shown by encouraging and enlarging the bolus.
- We conducted a dietary survey of female students aged 18 to 20 and found thatGI valueThe higher the group (relatively representing the speed at which carbohydrates are digested and converted to sugar)Body mass index(BMI) (value indicating the degree of obesity) was high, and the BMI value was lower in the group with a higher dietary fiber intake..
- Cholesterol elevation suppression
- Water-soluble dietary fiber is effective, water-soluble dietary fiber suppresses absorption of dietary cholesterol, promotes catabolism, metabolism and excretion of cholesterol,bile acidIt promotes metabolism and excretion by inhibiting reabsorption from the ileum.
- Suppression of blood sugar rise
- Water-soluble dietary fiber creates a viscous solution that slows food transfer from the stomach to the small intestine. In addition, it has a diffusion inhibitory action, water absorption/swelling action, adsorption action, etc., and the ingested food is digested in the stomach, slowly transferred and adsorbed, and the absorption rate becomes slow, resulting in slow absorption of glucose and blood glucose. Suppress rise in value.
- Water-soluble dietary fiber contained in ripe fruits (indigestibledextrin) Is suppression of rapid rise in blood glucose level after mealEffects have been reported.
- PectinWas taken with food, blood glucose elevation was suppressed and insulin secretion was also suppressed.. PectinSugar beet,ヒ マ ワ リ, Red sea bream (Orange),grapefruit,lime,LemonOrAppleIt is often contained in fruits such as.
- Glucomannan TheKonjacIt is a water-soluble dietary fiber that is abundant inglucoseWhen taken simultaneously, glucomannan had an inhibitory effect on blood glucose elevation. This may be due to inhibition of glucose diffusion due to the viscosity of glucomannan.cellulose,PullulanNo effect was observed in. Although pullulan is highly viscous, it is digested by digestive enzymes in the human body..
- Sodium alginateIs mainlyBrown algaeincludePolysaccharideIt is a kind ofblood sugarHas the effect of suppressing the rise,DisaccharideStudies have shown that the inhibitory effect of degrading enzymes was also effective in suppressing blood sugar elevation.. Also, for ricecold dayWhen added and ingested, the maximum after eating compared to cooked rice onlyBlood glucose levelDecreases,GI valueHas been found to decrease.
- Of soluble fiberInulinAbout Jumbo Riki (odorlessgarlic,Jumbo garlic) Dry powder (Inulin(60% content) was given to diabetic model rats with food, and the elevation of postprandial blood glucose was suppressed... When inulin was administered to 2 women with type 49 diabetes, fasting blood glucose levelsGlycated hemoglobin(HbA1c),MalondialdehydeIs observed,Superoxide dismutaseThe activity ofAntioxidantIncreased ability was recognized.
- Next plant (Jerusalem artichoke,Dahlia,Burdock,ア ザ ミ,Dandelion,Yam,ア ー テ ィ チ ョ ー ク(Korea)Chicory,onion,garlic,AgaveContains a high concentration of inulin, which is a water-soluble dietary fiber.
- OatMost of the soluble fiber inβ-glucanIs. About β-glucan derived from oats in bloodcholesterolPrice increase suppression effect,Blood glucose levelRise suppression effect, blood pressure lowering effect, defecation promoting effect,ImmunologyA large number of reports have been reported, mainly in Europe and the United States, of function regulating effects.. OatsoatmealIs used for.
- barleyContains abundant water-soluble dietary fiber, most of which isβ-glucanIs. Blood from ingesting barleycholesterolPrice increase suppression effect,Blood glucose levelRise suppression effect,BMIValue reduction effect is reported(Barley riceSee also). β-glucan is a plant,mushroomIt is included in many kinds.
- It is a water-soluble fiberGuar gumWhen taken with food, blood sugar rise is suppressed,InsulinSecretion was also suppressed.
- Production of hydrogen gas and antioxidant effect
- Fiber that is indigestiblelactoseIntake ofIntestinal bacteriaBy exhalationfartIncreases gas production and emissions to. The gas produced is hydrogenmethaneHowever, methane is not produced unless there is a methane-producing bacterium due to individual differences. The correlation between the amount of hydrogen in fart and exhaled breath is as high as 0.44.α-glucosidase inhibitorIs a diabetes drugAcarboseThe absorption of carbohydrates is suppressed and the intestinal bacteria in the large intestinehydrogenHowever, taking acarbose may suppress cardiovascular accidents.High blood sugarIn addition to suppressing the increase of hydrogen gas, an increase in hydrogen gas was observed during exhalation.antioxidant effectIs supposed to be a mechanism to suppress cardiovascular accidents.. Various studies have reported the antioxidant effect of hydrogen, and intestinal bacteria produce hydrogen from indigestible dietary fiber and the like. In a mouse experiment in which hepatitis was induced using concanavalin A, hydrogen produced by normal enterobacteria was compared to that in mice in which antibiotics were used to suppress hydrogen production by the enterobacteria. It was found to suppress liver inflammation.
- Promotion of defecation
- Insoluble dietary fiber increases stool volume in the colon and rectum and promotes defecation.
- Emission of dioxins
- DioxinsSince it also has the effect of adsorbing and excreting dioxin, it is suggested that increasing the rate of excretion from the body by 2 to 4 times can prevent the effects of dioxins on health..
Fiber of typical food
|Wakame||乾||68.9 g||9.0 g||59.9 g|
|Hijiki||乾||60.7 g||22.5 g||38.2 g|
|Kombu||乾||36.5 g||7.4 g||29.1 g|
|Kanpyo||乾||30.1 g||6.8 g||23.3 g|
|Seaweed(Susabinori）||乾||26.4 g||10.8 g||15.6 g|
|Rakkyo||Living||21.0 g||18.6 g||2.4 g|
|Kiriboshi-Daikon (Dried Daikon Radish Strips)||乾||20.7 g||3.6 g||17.1 g|
|Azuki||乾||17.8 g||1.2 g||16.6 g|
|Soybean||乾||17.1 g||1.8 g||15.3 g|
|shallot||Living||11.4 g||9.1 g||2.3 g|
|Wheat||乾||10.8 g||0.7 g||10.1 g|
|Okara||Living||9.7 g||0.3 g||9.4 g|
|barley||乾||9.6 g||6.0 g||3.6 g|
|Oat(Oats,oatmeal）||乾||9.4 g||3.2 g||6.2 g|
|CobwebbingNatto||Living||6.7 g||2.3 g||4.4 g|
|Moroheiya||Living||5.9 g||1.3 g||4.6 g|
|Burdock||Living||5.7 g||2.3 g||3.4 g|
|Okra||Living||5.0 g||1.4 g||3.6 g|
|Japanese buckwheat noodles||Dried noodles||4.3 g||0.8 g||3.5 g|
|Shiitake mushroom||Living||3.5 g||0.5 g||3.0 g|
|brown rice||乾||3 g||0.7 g||2.3 g|
|Pumpkin||Living||2.8 g||0.7 g||2.1 g|
|Bamboo shoot||Living||2.8 g||0.3 g||2.5 g|
|carrot||Raw, peeled||2.5 g||0.7 g||1.8 g|
|sweet potato||Living||2.3 g||0.5 g||1.8 g|
|cabbage||Living||1.8 g||0.4 g||1.4 g|
|onion||Living||1.6 g||0.6 g||1.0 g|
|Apple||Living||1.5 g||0.3 g||1.2 g|
|potato||Living||1.3 g||0.6 g||0.7 g|
|Japanese radish||Living||1.3 g||0.5 g||0.8 g|
|White rice||乾||0.5 g||0 g||0.5 g|
- ^ a b c Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare,(PDF) "Japanese Dietary Intake Standards" (2010 edition)』, viewed on July 2016, 7
- ^ Keith A. GARLEB, Maureen K. SNOWDEN, Bryan W. WOLF, JoMay CHOW, translated by Yasuto Tashiro, ``Application of fructooligosaccharides as fermentable dietary fiber to medical foods"Intestinal Bacteriology Magazine, 2002 Volume 16 Issue 1, p.43-54, two:10.11209 / jim1997.16.43
- ^ All about food science 4th edition by Kenkakusha PMGAMAN/KBS HERRINGTON Nobuko Nakahama Supervised by Atsuko Murayama / Hiroko Shinagawa December 2006
- ^ John Harvey Kellogg Autointoxication ,1918
- ^ James C. Whorton "Vegetarianism", Encyclopedia of Food History in Cambridge <4> Nutrition and Health, Contemporary Issues, Asakura Shoten, March 2005.ISBN 978-4-254-43534-4.. Pages 229-244. The Cambridge world history of food, 2000
- ^ Noriki Saeki "Rationalization of Nutrition" Aichi Standard Rice Milling Promotion Committee, 1930.
- ^ Malhotra SL (1967-08). “Geographical distribution of gastrointestinal cancers in India with special reference to causation”. good 8 (4): 361-72. PMC: 1552547. PMID 6039725.
- ^ DENIS BURKITT – A LIFE OF SERVICE by William Reville, University College, Cork
- ^ Burkitt DP. "Related disease--related cause?" Lancet.2(7632), 1969 Dec 6, pp1229-31. PMID 4187817, two:10.1016 / S0140-6736 (69) 90757-0
- ^ Burkitt DP. "<3 :: AID-CNCR2820280104> 3.0.CO; 2-N Epidemiology of cancer of the colon and rectum." Cancer 28 (1), 1971 Jul, pp3-13. PMID 5165022
- ^ BURKITT DP, TROWELL HC Refined Carbohydrate Foods and Disease: Some Implications of Dietary Fiber, 1975. ISBN 978-0-12-144750-2
- ^ Leonard Marquart et al. Whole Grains and Health: An Overview Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 19, No. 90003, 289S-290S (2000). PMID 10875599
- ^ About the nutritional requirements of the 6th revised Japanese (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare)
- ^ Kyoichi Kobayashi, "Flower lacquer and lactic acid bacteria”Journal of the Japanese Society of Lactic Acid Bacteria” 2002 Volume 13 Issue 1 p.53-56, two:10.4109 / jslab1997.13.53
- ^ a b c d e Yumiko Yoshie, "Food nutritional study on dietary fiber of seaweed"Journal of the Fisheries Society of Japan, 2001, Vol. 67, No. 4, p.619-622, two:10.2331 / suisan.67.619
- ^ Keisuke Tsuji, Bunpei Mori "Science of dietary fiber" p22, September 1997, 9, Asakura Shoten,ISBN-4 254-43512-6 C3361
- ^ a b "Textile/other classification system”. Linus Pauling Institute (Micronutrient Information Center). 2018/11/28Browse.
- ^ Kazuhiro Okuma, Isao Matsuda, Yasuo Katsuta, Yuka Kishimoto, Keisuke Tsuji "Development of Indigestible Dextrin" "Journal of applied glycoscience" Vol. 53, No. 1, Japan Society for Applied Glucose Science, January 2006, 1, Pages 20-65, NOT 10016738765.
- ^ Yukio Nakayama, "Structure and function of dietary fiber"Health and Hygiene" 1991 Volume 35 Issue 1 p.32-37, two:10.11468 / seikatsueisei1957.35.32
- ^ Of the daily requirement of 600 mg taken orally as an average of healthy people, the amount absorbed from the intestinal tract is about 350 mg/day, the amount that is shed along with epithelial cells from the intestine is about 200 mg/day, and about 150 mg/day as urine, About 450 mg/day is excreted as stool.Dietary fiberBesidesPolyphenolAlso inhibits calcium absorption from the intestinal tract; Makoto Shimizu, “Calcium absorption/metabolism and bone health”, “Food and health: Ingredients and functions of foods”, The University of the Air, p.157, 2006.
- ^ Product information for food for specified health uses -"Health food" safety and efficacy information (National Institute of Health and Nutrition）
- ^ Report of a Joint WHO / FAO Expert Consultation Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases 2015.
- ^ Read NW, Timms JM, ."Constipation: is there light at the end of the tunnel?" Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl;129, 1987, pp88–96. PMID 2820050
- ^ World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (2007). Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Amer. Inst. For Cancer Research. ISBN 978-0972252225 Japanese abstract:Food, nutrition, exercise and cancer prevention,World Cancer Research FundとUS Cancer Research Organization
- ^ "Health Effects of Eating Fiber". 2010/6/8Browse.
- ^ Association between dietary fiber intake and glycemic index (GI) and obesity: a cross-sectional study of 18 female students aged 20 to 3931 years
- ^ Masako Fujita, Satomi Nagaya "Effects of Different Foods on Postprandial Blood Glucose," Bulletin of Gifu Women's University, 32, 2003-03-30, pp131-136NOT 80015987150
- ^ Kazuhiro Okuma, Isao Matsuda, Yasuo Katsuta, Yuka Kishimoto, Keisuke Tsuji "Development of Indigestible Dextrin" "Journal of applied glycoscience" Vol. 53, No. 1, Japan Society for Applied Glucose Science, January 2006, 1, Pages 20-65, NOT 10016738765.
- ^ Yukio Nakayama, "Structure and function of dietary fiber (1) Chemical structure and analytical method"Health and Hygiene" 1991 Volume 35 Issue 1 p.32-37, two:10.11468 / seikatsueisei1957.35.32
- ^ Jenkins, DJA, Lees, AR, Gassull, MA, Cochet, B. and Alberti, GMM: Ann. Intern. Med., 80, 20 (1977)
- ^ a b c Oku Tsuneyuki, Fujita Atsuko, Hosoya Norimasa,Comparison of glucomannan, pullulan, and cellulose inhibitory effects on blood glucose elevation Journal of Japan Society of Nutrition and Food Science, 1983, Vol. 36, No. 4, p.301-303, two:10.4327 / jsnfs.36.301
- ^ Sadako Nakamura and othersInhibitory effect of alginate small molecule degradation products by alginolyticus SUN53 on rat small intestinal mucosa disaccharide hydrolase"Journal of the Dietary Fiber Society of Japan" Vol.12 (2008) No.1 P9-15, two:10.11217 / jjdf2004.12.9
- ^ Hatsue Moritaka, Yukiko Nakanishi, Masako Fuwa, etc.Effect of agar on thermal and sensory characteristics and glycemic index of cooked rice”Journal of Japanese Society of Cooking Science, 2012, Volume 45, Issue 2, p.115-122,NOT 110009437800, two:10.11402 / cookery science.45.115
- ^ Ayumi Uchida and othersEffects of Jumbo Riki on blood glucose level and liver function in pathological model rats"Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol.55 (2008) No.11 P.549-558, two:10.3136 / nskkk.55.549
- ^ Effects of high performance insulin supplementation on glycemic control and antioxidant status in women with type 2 diabetes. Pourghassem Gargari B, et. Al., Diabetes Metab J. 2013 Apr; 37 (2): 140-8. two: 10.4093 / dmj.2013.37.2.140. Epub 2013 Apr 16.
- ^ a b Shigeki Araki, Kazutoshi Ito, Seiichiro Aoe and others,Current status of barley physiological effects and health claims"Research on Human Life and Culture, Vol. 2009, No. 67, 5, p.235-251, two:10.5264 / eiyogakuzashi.67.235
- ^ Jenkins, DJA, Lees, AR, Gassull, MA, Cochet, B. and Alberti, GMM: Ann. Intern. Med., 80, 20 (1977)
- ^ Keisuke Tsuji, "Health effects of dietary fiber"Bifidus" 1995 Volume 8 Issue 2 p.125-134, two:10.11209 / jim1987.8.125
- ^ Junichiro Irie, Yutaka Ito, "Intestinal environment and cardiovascular disease”Heart” 2012 Volume 44 Issue 12 p.1498-1503, two:10.11281 / shinzo.44.1498
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Hada Kamugi(Nude wheat,English: Naked barley, hulless barley,scientific name : Hordeum vulgare there. nudum) IsBarleyGrain ofNakedOne of the systematic names focusing on (easiness of peeling of fruit and skin), barleyVarietyOf the fruit (穎果) Does not adhere to the skin (inner and outer lemmas) and easily separates, so the skin can be peeled off and smooth fruits can be taken out just by rubbing.VarietyIt refers to a group.On the other hand, since the fruits are adhered to the skin, the cultivars that do not peel off even if they are rubbedKawamugiIt is called (skin barley).In terms of classification, Hadakamugi is a kawamugi that is close to the original species of barley.mutationOf barley made by fixingVariantIs.HadakamugiCultivarMost of the ears have 6 florets lined upRojo barleyThen, two florets are lined up on the earNijo barley(mainlybeerBecause it becomes a raw material forBeer wheatMost of the cultivars (also called) are kawamugi.Like rice, Hada Kamugi has varieties other than glutinous varieties.Rice cakeThere is.Hadakamugi is edible家畜 OffeedIs cultivated for.
Cultivated areas of the world
Barley is one of the oldest cultivated plants, first, when traced back the originProgenitorCultivation of kawamugi close toSouthwest AsiaIt started around 7000 BC, and then the cultivation of Hadakamugi, a variety of Triticum dicocum, started around 6000 BC.archeologyResearch has revealed.Historically, HadakamugiEast Asia(Japan,Korean Peninsula),HimalayaRegion (Tibet,ネ パ ー ル),AfricaNortheast Chinaエチオピア) Has been cultivated as one of the main edible grains.EuropeThen,Japan AlpsRural andベルギー,ノルウェーWas the main production area of Hadakamugi.In other barley cultivation areas, triticum dicocium has been mainly cultivated.In recent years, the main production areas of Hadakamugi in the world have beenAmerica,Australia,カナダ,チ ェ コ,GermanyAnd so on.
Cultivation area in Japan
In Japan, Hada KamugiEhime,KagawaCentered onShikokuとKyusyuIt is mainly cultivated in.Ministry of AgricultureAccording to the statistics ofHeiseiThe yield of Hadakamugi in Japan in FY19 was 14,300 tons, with Ehime accounting for 41.1% of the total by prefecture, followed by Kagawa with 17.0%.
|Ranking||Prefectures||Yield (t)||Percentage of the whole country (%)|
Acreage in Japan
The planted area of Hadakamugi in Japan isMeiji10 in the 40shaIt was a stand.The best wasTaishoInitially 70 ha, but gradually decreased after thatShowaThe acreage in the early 30's was maintained at 50 ha.After that, the planted area of Hadakamugi decreased rapidly, falling below 45 ha in 10 and below 61 ha in 1.HeiseiIt hit a minimum of 6 ha in 3,230, but has recovered slightly since then, and the planted area of Hadakamugi produced in 19 is 4,020 ha.
Use in Japan
In Japan, Hada Kamugi is suitable for food because it can be easily peeled and the fruits can be taken out.Second World WarFrom beforePolished wheatIs distributed for food,押麦(Peel the barley exodermis and heat it with steamrollerFlattened withWhite riceMix inBarley riceOr roast and grind into flourHatai powderOr to (parched barley flour), infusion of those roastedbarley teaIt has been consumed as a daily meal by making it into a meal.Before the Taisho era, when pressed barley became popular, Hadakamugi, which is harder to boil than rice as it is, is called "Emashi barley" that has been boiled and soaked in water in advance.MortarRoughly ground in the shape of groat barley to make it easier to boilPorridge,PorridgeComplementing the shortage of rice that is cooked and eatenStaple foodWas one of the.
However, in recent years, the demand for hadakamugi for barley rice, which is inferior to cooked rice, has been limited to a small amount, and instead.Barley miso(soyAnd fermented barleymiso) Is highly evaluated, and most of the production is used as a raw material for wheat miso.In addition, the mainstream of the milled barley that is distributed is cut from the conventional pressed barley along the black striation line (black line of wheat grains derived from the abdominal groove, which is the path of water and nutrients when wheat seeds are formed).Cut wheatAnd cut it with black striations and peel it into rice grains to make it easier to mix with rice.Rice grain wheatIs changing to.
In Oita prefecture, etc.酎 焼 酎It is also used as a raw material for the product and has been highly evaluated.
In Tibet, roasted hadakamugi is ground into powder.TsampaIt is called the traditional staple food of Tibetans.TibetansTsampaNija (TibetanでButter teaAdd and kneaddumplingEat what you have shaped.AlsofermentationLet meliqueurAnd drink.
Hadakamugi is mainly used in Europe and the United Statespig,ChickenIt has been used for feed such as, but recentlyDietary fiber Ofβ-glucanThe health functionality of Hadakamugi is attracting attention, such as containing a large amount of food, and new demand for food is emerging.
Barley is included in the grain compared to rice and wheatPolyphenolSystemTanninHigh content of (astringent ingredient).The main polyphenols contained in barley areCatechin,ProanthocyanidinsIs.Polyphenols reduce the whiteness of milled barley and are the main cause of the inferior taste and whiteness of barley rice compared to cooked rice.One of the problems with barley riceCooked riceLater discoloration (decrease in whiteness) becomes more pronounced as the amount of polyphenols contained in the rice grains increases.
The polyphenol content of wheat grains is reduced by using low polyphenol varieties or by milling.The polyphenol content of Japanese hadakamugi varies depending on the variety, but it is lower than the world average.However, varieties with excellent taste have been cultivated and cultivated with preference.Paddy riceIn contrast, improving the taste by reducing polyphenols has so far been less emphasized in the cultivation of hadakamugi.Of barleygeneSome resources have very low polyphenol content and can be used in the future.
The existing cultivars of Hadakamugi cultivated and cultivated in Japan are all six-row barley in terms of row sex classification.In addition, most of the hadakamugi cultivated in Japan have low plant height.fertilizerIt is hard to fall down even if you give a lot ofSemi-dwarfIndicateVortex geneBandai Hadaka is the only Japanese cultivar that has a swelling barley with a vortex barley and has a parallel gene that increases the plant height.
For the main breeding organizations of Hadakamugi in Japan,Agricultural Research Institute(Former Tokai Kinki Agricultural Experiment Station, Former China Agricultural Experiment Station, Former Shikoku Agricultural Experiment Station, Former Kyushu Agricultural Experiment Station), Tottori Agricultural Experiment Station Tohaku Branch and Kagoshima Agricultural Experiment Station Kanoya Branch were integrated in 36. The breeding ground isAgricultural Research InstituteIt is only.2005 varieties of Hada Kamugi with agriculture and forestry numbers have been cultivated up to 34 Toyonokaze.
The past cultivation of cultivars of Hadakamugi in Japan has the following main tendencies.
- From late varieties to middle varieties and early varieties due to early paddy rice cultivationEarly biochemistryMovement.
- Related to fertilization and land use efficiencyHigh yieldMovement.
- Pursuing lodging resistance following the transition to mechanical harvestingCulmMovement.
- Grain appearance quality and wheat milling qualityQuality improvementMovement.
- High protein and high for glutinous wheat varieties and feedlysineVariety etc.VersatileMovement.
|Breed name||Agriculture and forestry number||Old systematic name||Year of birth, developer, etc.||Original variety||Features||Links|
|Toyonokaze||Naked Wheat Agriculture and Forestry No. 34||Shikoku Naked No. 100||2005 NARO||9123 series 90 x Shikoku Naked No. XNUMX (later Ichibanboshi)||High yield.Slightly round grain.The polishing time is short, the sizing rate is high, and the quality of wheat is excellent.Both the sugar content and lightness of miso are high, and the suitability for miso processing is excellent.||Ministry of Agriculture|
|Mannenboshi||Naked Wheat Agriculture and Forestry No. 33||Shikoku Naked No. 98||2001 NARO||Shikoku Naked No. 83 x Senbon Hadaka||High sizing rate.Genbaku, good Tsubuzoroi of pearling.Large, somewhat circle grain, soft, pearling quality is good with high whiteness.Strong against lodging.||Ministry of Agriculture|
|Daishimochi||Naked Wheat Agriculture and Forestry No. 32||Shikoku Naked No. 95||1997 NARO (former Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Shikoku Agricultural Experiment Station)||Senbon Hadaka x (Senbon Hadaka x Mochi Mugi D) F2||Mochi wheat variety."Slightly early", which is slightly slower than Ichibanboshi in both heading and maturity.The lodging property is "strong".The yield is "slightly high".The color is "purple" and the grain size is "slightly small".The milling yield is "medium", which is comparable to that of Ichibanboshi, and the whiteness of milling is higher than that of Hinodehadaka, which is "slightly large".||Ministry of Agriculture|
|Ichibanboshi||Naked Wheat Agriculture and Forestry No. 31||Shikoku Naked No. 90||1992 NARO (former Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Shikoku Agricultural Experiment Station)||Shikoku Naked No. 58 x 697R system XNUMX||Early life.Strong resistance to stripe dwarf disease.Stable and high yield.Excellent suitability for milling.The lodging resistance is a little stronger than that of Sanuki Hadaka.||Ministry of Agriculture|
|Cornus||Naked Wheat Agriculture and Forestry No. 30||Shikoku Naked No. 79||1989 NARO (former Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Shikoku Agricultural Experiment Station)||Nampuu Hadaka x (Nampuu Hadaka x Hiploly) F1||Bare wheat for feed.High protein and high lysine varieties.The heading period is "extremely early" and the maturity period is "early".Strong resistance to stripe dwarf disease.||Ministry of Agriculture|
|Senbon Hadaka||Naked Wheat Agriculture and Forestry No. 29||Shikoku Naked No. 58||1980 NARO (former Shikoku Agricultural Experiment Station)||Kikai Hadaka x Shikoku Naked No. 28||Short culmseed.Autumn-sown early-maturing varieties.It has strong lodging resistance and is highly suitable for machine cutting.Yield is stable and high yield.Strong against barley stripe dwarf disease.||Ministry of Agriculture|
|Hayate Hadaka||Naked Wheat Agriculture and Forestry No. 28||Shikoku Naked No. 56||1978 NARO (former Shikoku Agricultural Experiment Station)||(Akagami Riki x Ichihayasei) F1 x Saga Naked No. 1||Very early species.The maturity period is 4 days earlier than Kikai Hadaka.Has excellent lodging resistance.Very high yield for a very early student.Strong moisture resistance.Vulnerable to powdery mildew.The grain color is yellow.Relatively good quality as a very early species.||Ministry of Agriculture|
|Biwairo Hadaka||Naked Wheat Agriculture and Forestry No. 27||Shikoku Naked No. 53||1978 NARO (former Shikoku Agricultural Experiment Station)||Yunagi Hadaka x (Nijo Naked x Yunagi Hadaka) F1||It has strong lodging resistance and is suitable for mechanization.The yield is high.High-quality varieties with high whiteness of raw wheat and refined wheat and good yield of refined wheat.Middle-aged species.Suitable for bare wheat cultivation areas in western Japan except southern Kyushu.||Ministry of Agriculture|
|Kikai Hadaka||Naked Wheat Agriculture and Forestry No. 19||Tokai Naked No. 22||1962 Agricultural Research Organization (former Tokai Kinki Agricultural Experiment Station)||Nakata Hadaka x Saga Naked No. 1||Strong culm and extremely strong lodging resistance.It is a mesophyll species.Strong against white astringent disease and stripe dwarf disease.Yield is higher in multi-row sowing than in red god power and four stone barley.||Ministry of Agriculture|
|Hayajiro Hadaka||Naked Wheat Agriculture and Forestry No. 18||Saikai Naked No. 7||1958 Agricultural Research Organization (former Kyushu Agricultural Experiment Station)||White wheat No. 8 x Saga naked No. 1||The maturity period is 3 to 5 days later than Hashiri Hadaka, and 10 days earlier than Akagami Riki.A short culm with a culm length of less than 80 cm.The culm is not very thick, but it is strong and hard to fall down.Large grain rich yen with good quality.||Ministry of Agriculture|
|Shirahime Hadaka||Naked Wheat Agriculture and Forestry No. 17||Shikoku Naked No. 11||1958 NARO (former Shikoku Agricultural Experiment Station)||Ehime Naked No. 2 x Red God Power||The maturity period is slightly earlier than or similar to that of Akagami power.The strength of the culm is less than that of Ehime Naked No. 1, but it is much stronger than the power of Akagami.Good quality.||Ministry of Agriculture|
|Yuunagi Hadaka||Naked Wheat Agriculture and Forestry No. 16||Shikoku Naked No. 10||1957 NARO (former Shikoku Agricultural Experiment Station)||Akagami Riki x Kagawa Naked No. 1||The maturity period is the late life of red god power.Strong against white astringent disease, barley stripe dwarf disease, and small rust.It is vulnerable to cloud disease and not very strong against Fusarium head blight.Quality Good quality.||Ministry of Agriculture|
|Hinode Hadaka||Naked Wheat Agriculture and Forestry No. 15||Sanin Naked No. 4||1957 Tottori Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station Tohaku Branch||Akagami Riki x Saga Naked No. 1||Heading and maturity are very early species one week earlier than Akagami Riki.Strong culm and strong lodging resistance even in high fertilizer cultivation.High yield as a very early species.||Ministry of Agriculture|
|Shiroshinriki||Naked Wheat Agriculture and Forestry No. 14||China Naked No. 7||1957 National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (formerly China Agricultural Experiment Station)||(Red God Power x No. 2 Kumashima) F1 x Red God Power||It is similar to the red god power in the long culm and long ear species, but there is no coloring of the fluff and awns immediately after heading as seen in the red god power.The lodging resistance is about the red god power, but it is hard to be frustrated.Yield is about the same as Akagami Riki or high yield.||Ministry of Agriculture|
|Yamate Hadaka||Naked Wheat Agriculture and Forestry No. 13||Sanin Naked No. 3||1956 Tottori Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station Tohaku Branch||Tokushima Rinko No. 83 x Saga Naked No. 1||Heading, maturity raw in two to three days earlier than Akakami force species.Rich in 耐肥 resistance, lodging resistance even in the multi-fertilizer condition is strong.Yield is stable and high yield.Also suitable for high fertilizer cultivation.||Ministry of Agriculture|
|Shiranui Hadaka||Naked Wheat Agriculture and Forestry No. 12||Saikai Naked No. 3||1955 Agricultural Research Organization (former Kyushu Agricultural Experiment Station)||Takeshita x Ichihaya||Heading and maturity are 6 to 7 days later than early naked, and 3 to 4 days earlier than No. XNUMX Kumashima.There is little overgrowth of foliage, and the culm is not thick, but it is strong against lodging.The yield is high for a mesophyll species.Good quality and good quality.||Ministry of Agriculture|
|Hayaure Hadaka||Naked Wheat Agriculture and Forestry No. 11||Saikai Naked No. 2||1955 Agricultural Research Organization (former Kyushu Agricultural Experiment Station)||Akagami power x early life||Heading, maturity is two to three days slower fast-growing species than the early naked.It is a fairly high yield for early-maturing species.The ripe color is good.Good quality.||Ministry of Agriculture|
|Minami Hadaka||Naked Wheat Agriculture and Forestry No. 10||Shikoku Naked No. 5||1955 NARO (former Shikoku Agricultural Experiment Station)||Kodama No. 13 x Ehime Naked No. 2||The maturity period is 4 to 5 days earlier than Akagami Riki, and a little earlier than Ehime Naked No. 1.It is resistant to small rust and white astringent disease, and has strong moisture resistance.Good quality.||Ministry of Agriculture|
|Hashiri Hadaka||Naked Wheat Agriculture and Forestry No. 9||China Naked No. 5||1955 National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (formerly China Agricultural Experiment Station)||Shirochinko x Kobinkatagi||Very early life.Strong culm.Those who are strong against cold weather in early spring as an extremely early child.Fusarium head blight, atrophy disease, and moisture resistance are strong.||Ministry of Agriculture|
|Tsukuba Hadaka||Naked Wheat Agriculture and Forestry No. 8||North Kanto Naked No. 5||1953 NARO (former Kanto Higashiyama Agricultural Experiment Station)||Aizu Naked No. 3 x Ehime Naked No. 1||The feature is that the leaf blades look slightly inward and thin like a sword.Vortex, short culm species.The stock is closed and the ears are well aligned.A mesophyll species whose maturity is later than that of Ehime Naked No. 1.Strong against small rust and white astringent disease, but weak against stock rot.Cold resistance is relatively strong, but snow resistance is weak.||Ministry of Agriculture|
|Bandai Hadaka||Naked Wheat Agriculture and Forestry No. 2||Association No. 46||1950 NARO (National Agriculture and Forestry Azumi Agricultural Improvement Laboratory)||AizuNaked No. 3 x Nakaizumi native||It has strong snow resistance and is suitable for general field action in small and medium snow areas and double cropping of paddy fields.Strong against small rust and brown rot, but slightly weak against cloud spot disease.Good quality.The plant height is average, and the culm is "medium".Low fertilizer and high yield.||Ministry of Agriculture|
|Marimo Hadaka||-||Hokkai Spring Naked No. 13||1966 Hokkaido Kitami Agricultural Experiment Station||Sanadamugi x Northern No. 3||Akanmugi-shaped Hadakamugi of spring-sown kawamugi.Suitable for cultivationAbashiriKamikawa..Slightly late at maturity.Strong culm.Yield is higher than Kitami Naked.Slightly resistant to small rust and udonco disease, and resistant to cloud pattern disease.Good quality.||Hokkaido|
|Mishima Hadaka||-||Naked Mishima||1937 Nagasaki Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station||Mikuriya x Shimabara Naked||Late life.It is a recommended variety in Nagasaki Prefecture, and the popular areas are fields and paddy field back cropping areas in the prefecture.Very good for miso processing.Slightly long rod, weak lodging resistance.Autumn seeding.Those who have strong resistance to major diseases.Yield is not very high, but stability is high.Genmai is a little small but good quality.||Nagasaki|
Among the grains of the Gramineae family, it is contained in rice and barley.StarchThere are not only sticky (rice cake) varieties with less stickiness, but also sticky (rice cake) varieties with a lot of stickiness.Rice cakeIs called.Lucky varieties are among the components of starchAmyloseMochi wheat has a relatively high content ofAmylopectinContent ratio is high.Mochi wheat has a very long history, and was cultivated in Southwest Asia by about 3,000 BC, after which.EurasiaIt has spread throughout the country and northeastern Africa, but currently only glutinous wheat is cultivated in East Asia such as Japan.Since the native varieties of Japanese rice cakes have violet ears, the rice cake fields during the harvest season are dyed in a unique violet color.
In Japan, mainly paddy rice in Shikoku, Chugoku, and KyushuGlutinous riceIt was widely cultivated until the early Showa period, mainly in areas where it is difficult to catch rice, and as a substitute for glutinous rice, wheat rice andMochi,dumplingIn many cases, it was consumed in-house.After that, it was gradually stopped being planted, but recentlyDietary fiberIt is being reviewed as a health-conscious ingredient due to its large number of foods."Kusumochi Nijo", which was registered as a variety by the National Agriculture and Food Research Organization in 2017,Cooked riceIt has been commercialized by multiple food manufacturers for use in mixing and cooking...In addition to adding to cooked rice and rice cakes and dumplingsnoodles,Rice crackersSuch asJapanese sweets,Bread,ク ッ キ ー,Roll cake,Castella,Retort curryVarious new applications are being developed.
Amylose-free rice cake
There is a difference in the stickiness of glutinous rice and conventional glutinous rice, and while glutinous rice has an amylose content of almost zero (amylose-free), glutinous rice contains about 5% amylose and starch is slightly ". It is "hard".However, Hada Kamugi is not only a native cultivar, but also a strain with almost zero amylose content obtained by mutation and glutinous rice (Shikoku Naked No. 97)Etc.), and there is a possibility that the use of amylose-free glutinous wheat for regional specialty foods will expand in the future by taking advantage of its high glutinousness.
Low polyphenol rice cake
In addition, the National Agriculture and Food Research Organization is promoting the cultivation of glutinous wheat lines into which the proanthocyanidin-free gene has been introduced, using overseas beer wheat lines having the proanthocyanidin-free gene obtained by mutation as mating parents...Originally, mochi wheat feels soft and sticky when cooked.Compared to glutinous varieties, it has an excellent texture and taste when cooked as barley rice.If a low polyphenol glutinous wheat line suitable for cultivation in Japan is created and the problem of high polyphenol content of glutinous wheat, which is the main cause of inferior taste and whiteness of barley rice compared to cooked rice, is solved, white rice There is a possibility that white and delicious barley rice that does not turn brown even after being heated during cooking and keeping warm after cooking may appear on the Japanese table in the future.
- ^ a b Koji Yonekura and Tadashi Kajita (January 2014, 1). “Japanese name of plant-Scientific name index YList". 2017/8/12Browse. Search for "Hadakamugi".
- ^ Anna Michalová (2000) "Minor Cereals and Pseudocereals in Europe" L. Maggioni and O. Spellman (compilers), ECPGR Report of a Network Coordinating Group on Minor Crops International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, pp.56-66.
- ^ a b "Momentum to expand domestic rice cake / Commercialization of three Agricultural Research Organization training companies" "Japan Agricultural Newspaper』May 2019, 11 (6 pages)
- ^ "For special rice cake curry / Retort pouch sales in Kagawa, Zentsuji City, etc.""Nikkei MJMarch 2018, 3 (convenience store food side)
- ^ Shikoku Agricultural Experiment Station "Amylose Free Naked Wheat Shikoku Naked No. 97" Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research Information Center, 7
- ^ Hitoshi Matsunaka, Masaya Fujita, Masayuki Takayama, Yoshinori Doi "Cultivation of high quality bare wheat varieties such as stickiness" Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Technology Council Secretariat "Emergency Development Project for New Wheat Variety" Research Results 397, pp.53-55, December 2002
- Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries "Wheat-Technology Development for Higher Quality-" "Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research Literature" No.23, March 12