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💳 | Surprising benefits of linking smartphone payments to debit cards


Surprising benefits of linking smartphone payments to debit cards

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Debit cards are debited on the spot, giving you the feeling of spending money.

There are various payment methods for smartphone payment, but the mainstream method is to register a bank account or credit card ... → Continue reading

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debit card

debit card(British: debit card) IsDeposit accountIt is a payment card linked with.Financial institution(Typicallybank) Issuance, and when you settle with this card, the price will be immediately deducted from your account. "David" is "David" in EnglishDebit"Meaning of.


Withdraw money in real time from a preset deposit account such as a bank.Cash cardThere is a type that uses itself as a payment method and a type that issues a debit payment card separately.

Unlike credit cards, in principle you can use it within the range that does not exceed your account balance,Overdraft,Card loanSome financial institutions offer an automatic borrowing service when they are asked to approve payments that exceed the balance.

In the case of cards that do not use overdrafts or card loans, many cards other than the JCB brand are not examined when issuing the card (all JCB brands are examined).However, since identity verification is required to open an account, it cannot be owned anonymously.

Card typePayment typeRemarks
credit cardPost-settlementExamination required
debit cardInstant paymentMany cards are unexamined
prepaid cardPrepaidNo examination, no account required

Since it cannot be used more than the deposit amount in the account, there are cases where a debit card is held for children's pocket money.In addition, we will provide a debit card service for pocket money that allows parents to specify and manage available stores.FintechVentureAlso exists[1][2].

Debit card type

Comparison Chart

Debit card typePayment mechanismRegion / number of affiliated storesRemarks
International brand debitBy VISABy VISA3800 million locations worldwide"" And "PLUSIs a sister brand
MasterCardMasterCard3810 million locations worldwide"Maestro"Or"cirrusIs a sister brand
JCBJCB2700 million locations worldwideAlso connected to the "Cirrus" network
Other major debitsUnionPayChinese UnionPay5000 million locations worldwide (includingPeople's Republic of China300 million places)Discover cardAnd mutual liberation of member stores
EFTPOSMember financial institutionAustralia-New ZealandAbout 82 places
interacMember financial institutionカナダ45 places"Google Pay"When"Apple Pay","Samsung PayCan also be used
J-DebitMember financial institutionJapan45 placesThere is a limit to the available time

International brands such as VISA and MasterCardcredit cardNot only that, it also provides a wide range of its own brands and payment mechanisms to debit and prepaid card issuers.Therefore, as a general rule, member stores of each brand can make payments without distinguishing them from credit cards.However, check the balance each time you use it (referred to by credit cardCredit inquiry) Is required, so transactions in the form of not checking the balance (ImprinterSettlement bytoll roadTollhousegas stationIt cannot be used by paying with (payment of monthly utility charges).

International brands (VISA, MasterCard, etc.)

In North America, Europe, Australia, etc.Cash cardMost of the (English: ATM cards, Bank cards) are equipped with international brand payment functions such as VISA and MasterCard as standard, and can be used as debit cards.

As a result, debit cards are becoming more widespread and used in these countries.The United States of AmericaFor example, among card payments (prepaid, debit, or credit card payments with international brands), debit cards are the most popular on a payment basis, accounting for 35% of non-cash payments. (20% credit, 5% prepaid)[3].

Also, when making a payment with such a debit card, withdraw cash from your account at the cash register (Cash out) In some countries the service is provided.

In some countries such as Australia, when paying with a debit card, the user chooses whether to pay using a savings deposit, a checking deposit, or a credit card.

Country status



South Korea

  • Direct payment card

Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea)

Prepaid electronic money "Practical profit" started in 2005 but appeared after thatNare(Issued by the Trade Bank of the Democratic People s Republic of Korea) is highly popular[4]、実利は主要な決済手段になっていない。ナレにも銀行口座紐付けカードがあるとみられるが実態は不明。かつては国際ブランドの加盟店も見受けられたが(ホテル、百貨店等)、1990年代以降、理由は不明ながら使えなくなっている。

  • Profit(Northeast Asian Bank, 2005)



21st centurySince then, the number of international brand cash cards with debit functions is increasing.

The issuerBrand (payment mechanism)Card nameAnnual membership fee (yen)Overseas handling office workFee (%)[5]3D secureExaminationOther
Suruga BankBy VISASURUGA VISA debit cardFree3.000YesYesCompatible with JR Central and JR West's smart EX payment methods.
Rakuten BankBy VISARakuten Bank VISA Debit Card(Former Rakuten Bank debit card)Free / 2,160 / 5,4003.080YesNoneGold cardExists.For VISA / JCB duplicate contracts[6], The card you applied for earlier becomes invalid. From March 2018Visa Touchless (Visa Contactless)powered by
Japan Net BankBy VISAJNB Visa debitFree3.020YesNone[7]JNB Star will be given when making payments with a personal account other than Famima T Card. Compatible with JR Central and JR West's smart EX payment methods.

After November 2018, 11 Visa Contactless installed from account opening application

Resona BankBy VISAResona Debit Card (Original / JMB)Free[8]2.500YesNoneEquipped with Visa Contactless from October 2017 issue
Aozora BankBy VISAAozora Cash Card PlusFree2.570YesNoneAs a cash card, IC is not supported.
Saitama Resona BankBy VISAResona Debit Card (Original / JMB)Free[8]2.500YesNoneEquipped with Visa Contactless from October 2017 issue
Mitsubishi UFJ BankBy VISAMitsubishi UFJ Debit (VISA)Free3.000YesNoneCompatible with JR Central and JR West's smart EX payment methods.
Kansai Mirai BankBy VISAResona Debit Card (Original / JMB)Free[8]2.500YesNoneEquipped with Visa Contactless from October 2017 issue
AEON BankBy VISAAEON debit cardFree1.600YesYesThere is a backup service that allows you to reimburse the usage amount up to 10 yen when the banking system is stopped or when the deposit account balance is insufficient. Equipped with Visa Contactless.
Ryukyu BankBy VISARyugin Visa debit card[9]500+ taxUnknownYesNone
Sony BankBy VISASony Bank WALLETFree1.760[10]YesNone[11]Supports foreign currency deposit (10 currencies) settlement. If you shop at a VISA member store and pay the full amount from your foreign currency savings account, there is no fee. "Takashimaya Platinum Debit Card (annual membership fee 30,000 + tax)" will be recruited from October 2017, 10. Equipped with Visa Contactless from September 9, 2019. Compatible with JR Central and JR West's smart EX payment methods.
Sumishin SBI Net BankBy VISABank card with Visa debitFree[12]Depends on the payment methodYesNone[13]Supports foreign currency deposit (US dollar) settlement.Equipped with Visa Contactless
Hokoku BankBy VISAHokkoku Visa debit card[14]By contract3.0 (tax included)NoneEquipped with Visa Contactless
Sumitomo Mitsui Banking CorporationBy VISASMBC debit(Debit card with international brand (Visa))Free3.0YesNoneInternational cash card serviceIt cannot be issued to the account that issues the corresponding card.In this case, it is necessary to cancel these services or issue them to a separate savings account. Visa Contactless on July 2017, 7iDIssued "SMBC Debit" equipped with a non-contact IC payment service. Started handling VISA debit integrated cash cards from March 2018, 3
West Japan City BankBy VISANCB David (Visa)[15]Depends on usage amountFreeUnknownUnknown
Joyo BankBy VISAJOYO CARD Debit (Visa debit card)[16]1,0803.000YesYes
Hokuriku BankBy VISAHokugin Visa Debit[16]1,080UnknownUnknownNone
Hokoku BankBy VISAHokkoku Visa Corporate Debit Card[17]Classic Free / Gold 1st ¥ 5,400, 2nd and subsequent freeUnknownUnknownNoneIt is also possible to issue a "Northern ETC card" with no annual membership fee
Mizuho BankBy VISAMizuho Business DebitFreeUnknown○NoneFor corporations, sole proprietors, and voluntary organizations.Up to 10 cards can be issued.The card issuance fee is free for each card (1 yen + tax for the second and subsequent cards). Equipped with Visa Contactless
Shiga BankBy VISA"Shigagin" Visa debit card[16]1,250+ taxUnknownUnknownUnknownMust be an individual or sole proprietor who holds a Shiga Bank savings account aged 15 or over at the time of application
Fukui BankBy VISAFukui Visa debit card[16]1,000+ taxUnknownUnknownNone
Resona BankBy VISAResona Business Debit Card[18]Depends on usageUnknownYesNoneEquipped with Visa Contactless.Debit cards for corporations and sole proprietors
Saitama Resona BankBy VISAResona Business Debit Card[18]Depends on usageUnknownYesNoneEquipped with Visa Contactless.Debit cards for corporations and sole proprietors
Kansai Mirai BankBy VISAResona Business Debit Card[18]Depends on usageUnknownYesNoneEquipped with Visa Contactless.Debit cards for corporations and sole proprietors
Hokkaido BankBy VISADogin Visa David[16]540+ taxUnknownUnknownNone
GMO Aozora Net BankBy VISABank card with Visa debitFree3.02YesNoneEquipped with Visa Contactless
Aichi BankBy VISAAichi Bank Visa David[16]1,000+ taxUnknownUnknownNone
Japan Post BankBy VISAJapan Post Bank Visa debit card (with prepaid function)Free4.0YesNoneFrom January 2019, 1, debit charge function, Visa Contactless, maximum usage limit setting, IC chip, and overseas ATM withdrawal will be added to the prepaid card mijica.
Daiko BankBy VISADaiko Visa debit card[16]1,000+ taxUnknownUnknownNone
Chukyo BankBy VISAChukyo Visa debit card[16]1,000+ taxUnknownUnknownNone
Iwate BankBy VISAIwagin debit card Saku Saku![16]1,000+ taxUnknownUnknownNone
SMBC Trust BankBy VISAGLOBAL PASS ®(Multi-currency Visa debit integrated cash card)FreeUnknownUnknownNoneSupports 18 currencies. Equipped with Visa Contactless and "iD" contactless IC payment services.
Mitsubishi UFJ BankBy VISAMitsubishi UFJ-VISA Business DebitFreeUnknownUnknownNone
Yamanashi Central BankBy VISAMy Debit (Yamanashi Chuo Bank Visa Debit)[16]1,100UnknownUnknownNone
Chiba BankBy VISATSUBASA ChibaginVisa debit cardFree / Gold 11,000 / Platinum 110,000UnknownUnknownNoneEquipped with Visa Contactless.
Chiba BankJCBChibaginSuper card <debit>[16]432/1,350/10,8003.000Unknown
Ogaki Kyoritsu BankJCBOKB Debit Card (JCB)1,0803.000Unknown
North Pacific BankJCBNorth Pacific-JCB David[19]5403.000Unknown
Rakuten BankJCBRakuten Bank Debit Card (JCB)Free3.080YesFrom April 2015, if the debit card is not settled and payment is not completed, the credit information will be registered with the Japan Credit Information Reference Center Corp. (jicc).
Rakuten BankJCBRakuten Bank Business Debit Card (JCB)[20]1,0803.080Yes


Yamaguchi BankJCBYM David JCB1,250+ tax / 10,000+ taxUnknownUnknown
Momiji BankJCBYM David JCB1,250+ tax / 10,000+ taxUnknownUnknown
Kitakyushu BankJCBYM David JCB1,250+ tax / 10,000+ taxUnknownUnknown
Toho BankJCBToho BankAlways debit card (JCB)FreeUnknownYesFrom October 2017, 10, we started recruiting "JCB watching mail" services.
AEON BankJCBAEON Bank CASH + DEBITFree1.600YesWAON Equipped as standard
Fukuoka BankJCB
  • Debit + nimoca
  • Debit + SUGOCA
  • Debit +
[22]Depends on contract and usage statusUnknownUnknownnimoca You can choose whether or not to install it.At the time of application, an account for which a cash card to be linked is issued is required, but it can also be used with an Internet branch account. From August 2017, 8, Debit +SUGOCAStarted recruiting.
Seven BankJCBSeven BankCash card with debitFree3.000YesNanaco installed type and non-installed type can be selected.
Ehime BankJCBHimegin JCB Debit[23]1,350UnknownUnknown
West Japan City BankJCBNCB Debit (JCB)[24]Depends on usage amountUnknownUnknown
Mizuho BankJCBMizuho JCB Debit1,080 (tax included)3.4YesAnnual membership fee is exempted if payment is used more than once a year.
Kiyo BankJCBKiyo JCB Debit Card[25]General 1,000+ tax / Family 500+ taxUnknownUnknown
Hokuriku BankJCBHokugin JCB Debit[16]1,080UnknownUnknownNone
XNUMX BankJCBXNUMX JCB DebitGeneral 1,250+ tax / Gold 10,000+ tax4.6Yes
  • For general cards, the annual membership fee will be reduced or exempted depending on the usage status.
  • The cash withdrawal fee in local currency at overseas ATMs is the sum of the administrative fee of 108 yen (tax included) set by the Bank and the fee specified by the ATM to be used.
Akita BankJCBOnly One Debit1,080 (tax included), 1 (tax included) added per family card issuerUnknownUnknown
  • The annual membership fee for the first year is free.
  • For general cards, the annual membership fee will be reduced or exempted depending on the usage status.
Okinawa BankJCBOkigin JCB Debit[26]Main member 500 (family member 250)UnknownUnknown
Nagoya BankJCBMeigin JCB Debit[26]Main member 1,080 (family member 540)UnknownUnknown
Kumamoto BankJCBDebit +[27]General main member 1,350 (family member 432) / gold 10,800UnknownUnknown
Shinwa BankJCBDebit +[27]General 1,250+ tax / Gold 10,000+ taxUnknownUnknown
Mitsubishi UFJ BankJCBMitsubishi UFJ Debit (JCB)FreeUnknownUnknown
Kyoto BankJCBBank of Kyoto JCB Debit[28]Main member 1,250+ tax / Family member 400+ taxUnknownUnknown
Juroku BankJCBJCB Debit[26]1,080UnknownUnknown
Ikeda Senshu BankJCBThe Senshu Ikeda David (JCB)[26]Main member 1,000 / Family member 400UnknownUnknown
Bank of ChinaJCBDreamy Debit Card <JCB>[26]Main member 1,250 / Family member 400UnknownUnknown
Hiroshima BankJCBHIROGIN Debit[29]General 1,250 / Gold 10,000UnknownUnknown
HachijuniJCB82Debit[26]Main member 1,350UnknownUnknown
Kagoshima BankJCBKagin JCB Debit[26]Main member 1,250 / Family member 400UnknownUnknown
Awa BankJCBAwagin JCB Debit[16]1,000+ taxUnknownUnknown
Hokuriku BankJCBHokugin JCB Business DebitUnknownUnknownUnknown
Tochigi BankJCBTochigin JCB DebitUnknownUnknownUnknown
Higo bankJCBHigo Bank JCB Debit Card[30]Depends on contract and conditionsUnknownUnknown
Saga BankJCBSagin JCB Debit[31]Depends on contract and conditions3.000Unknown
Sumishin SBI Net BankMasterCardMiraino David (Mastercard)[32]By contractUnknownUnknownMasterCard contactlessEquipped with functions.You can apply even if you have a corporate account. Compatible with JR Central and JR West's smart EX payment methods.
Tomato bankMasterCardTomato Mastercard debit[16]1,000+ taxUnknownUnknownEquipped with MasterCard contactless function
Rakuten BankMasterCardRakuten Bank Debit Card (Mastercard)FreeUnknownUnknownEquipped with MasterCard contactless function


In 1999Fuji BankBecame the secretary-generalNTT Data-JTB-Postal savings-Ogaki Kyoritsu Bank-Tokyo Sowa BankThe Japan Debit Card Promotion Council was established jointly with other companies, and since March 2000, "J-Debit(J David) ”is provided.Of financial institutions that are members of the councilCash card(Approximately 2011 million cards as of 4) is regarded as a debit card, and like Maestro, funds are immediately withdrawn from the deposit account by entering the PIN code of the cash card in the PIN pad."Card", "J debit", "JD" are recorded in the subject column at the time of withdrawal, and "Kana notation of member stores" is recorded in the description column.

Financial bangExpected to spread as one ofJTB-Consumer electronics storeEach companyMatsumotokiyoshi-e-collect·Domesticlife insurance(Initial insurance premium payment) ・ Klepico (TaxiIn-vehicleCredit reference terminal),Postal savings·All ofCity bank-Second regional bank-Credit union-Labor union-JA Bank, MostLocal bank-Trust bankIt has been available since 2000, but among the major banksTokyo Mitsubishi Bank-Mitsubishi Trust Bank-Japan Trust BankとAozora BankWas initially unavailable without participation (as of 2016)Mitsubishi UFJ BankIs a security type IC card and Disney design[33]Available except[34],Mitsubishi UFJ Trust and Banking CorporationAozora Bank is not available[35][36]. Also,All over HokkaidoAnd part of Tokushima PrefectureAgricultural cooperativeOr smallFisheries cooperative, Occupation / EthnicityCredit cooperative, Established since 2000A new form of bank(Many institutions cannot be used on the Internet or distribution).

Depending on the financial institution used, J-Debit transaction history may be added to the preferential service, or fraudulent use insurance may be attached.

CAFISCorresponds to useCredit reference terminalCredit card merchants who have a credit card can handle it at the same time by concluding a contract with a J-Debit merchant.In addition, it takes a minimum of 3 business days from the withdrawal account → settlement between financial institutions → payment of sales proceeds, and the payment is quicker than credit cards and brand debit cards via acquirers, and merchant fees tend to be suppressed.Point CardIn many cases, the return rate is based on cash payment.

The available time is entrusted to each financial institution, and the usage time on the user side is generallyConvenience store ATMIt is the same as the withdrawal time of.When using it, there is a core time, and basically there is an agreement on the minimum usable time zone, so usuallyNationwide cash serviceThe minimum operating time is available, but the withdrawal account or the financial institution of one of the member stores is in maintenance.Account systemIf you stop, it may become unavailable even during the day.

Since the corresponding cash card is used as a debit card as it is, there are no restrictions on the age and attributes of the user (it is considered to be an illegal withdrawal if used by a third party other than the family).However, since around 2006, the amount of J-Debit that can be used has been included in the daily withdrawal limit (about 1 to 50 million yen) due to the suppression of fraudulent withdrawals, so it is a high amount that cannot be handled by credit cards such as insurance premium payments. If you wish to make a payment, you need to raise the withdrawal limit at the counter of the financial institution.In addition, since brand debit cards began to be launched in Japan from this time, the total amount handled has been declining since it peaked at 100 billion yen in 2005.

The Japan Debit Card Promotion Council regularly carries out campaigns, but the number of member stores has peaked at about 45.Usage rate is low compared to credit cards and electronic money[37][38].


convenience store OfLawsonOriginally, as a J-Debit member store, I intended to handle cash cards issued by all financial institutions that are members of the Japan Debit Card Promotion Council, but this was not realized due to various problems such as the fee rate paid to member financial institutions, and the fee rate. In 2001, we formed individual alliances with the following financial institutions that cleared such problems.POS cash registerIt has been equipped with a PIN pad since the time of renewal.Therefore, Lawson simply refers to it as a debit card.

  • Yucho Bank, Ogaki Kyoritsu Bank (20172/28End of handling), Towa Bank, Shimane Bank, Saikyo Bank, Shinkin banks nationwide[39]

2015In the walletTipIn the name ofJCBprepaid cardIs issued.


  • EON --Partnership with VISA Electron


In mainland China (the so-called continental area), debit cards are widespread in almost the entire population.UnionPay offers both credit and debit, and is increasing the number of affiliated stores all over the world, and it is highly called as a "new international brand" due to its network and transaction volume.However, in terms of payment methods in everyday situationsQR code settlementIs the most popular in the worldAlipay,WeChat paymentThe development of is remarkable.

  • CUP(Union Pay) --Debit alone issued 57 billion copies, far exceeding the mainland population (as of the end of December 2016).Transaction volume in China 12 trillionCNY(Approximately 9 billion euros) (including credits)[40][41].


  • Smart Pay- Hokkaido BankIn partnership with, it can also be used at some affiliated stores and ATMs in Japan.


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ "Green Light children's debit card, cashless pocket money only at stores that can be used”. Digital Innovation Lab (November 2017, 11). 2018/12/13Browse.
  2. ^ “Children's debit card cashless pocket money”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2017, 12). https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXMZO24581840T11C17A2EE9000/ 2018/12/13Browse. 
  3. ^ [1] (PDF)
  4. ^ Electronic payment card that can be bought in Japanese yen, PC with removable keyboard such as Surface Book-Visit the latest IT situation in North Korea
  5. ^ For JCB, the rate to add to the designated rate (1.6%)
  6. ^ If you apply for JCB debit, which was issued later, it will be replaced with JCB, and the existing VISA debit will be discontinued after a lapse of time regardless of the expiration date.Conversely, if a JCB debit user applies for this card, JCB debit cannot be used either.
  7. ^ "JNB Star Program”. Japan Net Bank. 2016/8/2Browse.
  8. ^ a b c With JMB, 2+ tax if there is no usage record for the second year or later and for one year.
  9. ^ Free for the first year. From the second year onward, you can use it for 2 yen a year and get free the next year."Overview of Ryugin VISA Debit Card (PDF)”. Bank of the Ryukyus. 2016/3/20Browse.
  10. ^ When a foreign currency account holder makes a purchase at a VISA member store, assists from yen (when the balance of the foreign currency savings account is insufficient due to overseas shopping or withdrawal of overseas ATMs, the shortage is automatically made from the yen savings account. If you can use the service of applying and withdrawing money, you will be charged the exchange cost prescribed by Sony Bank instead of 1.760%. (Example: 1 sen per US dollar)
  11. ^ "Sony Bank WALLET (Visa debit card)”. Sony Bank. 2016/8/2Browse.
  12. ^ "Bank Card with Visa Debit-Product Overview Manual”. Sumishin SBI Net Bank. 2016/3/20Browse.
  13. ^ "Bank Card with Visa Debit-For Overseas Use”. Sumishin SBI Net Bank. 2016/8/2Browse.
  14. ^ "Product Information | Hokkoku Visa Debit Card | Convenient Use | Hokkoku Bank”. Hokkoku Bank. 2016/5/28Browse.
  15. ^ Free for the first year, 1,000 yen (excluding tax) for the following years.Free annual membership fee for the following year with a usage amount of 1 yen or more for the previous year
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Free for the first year and if the conditions are met
  17. ^ "About the start of handling of Hokkoku Visa corporate debit cards" (PDF) (Press Release), Hokkoku Bank, (November 2017, 11), http://www.hokkokubank.co.jp/other/news/2017/pdf/20171124.pdf 2017/11/25Browse. 
  18. ^ a b c Main card: 1,000+ tax (free for the first year), subcard: 500+ tax, annual membership fee for the following year is free if you use each card at least once a year
  19. ^ Free in the first year
  20. ^ "Rakuten Bank Business Debit Card (JCB) Issuance Start Notice" (HTML) (Press Release), Rakuten Bank, (March 2016, 3), https://www.rakuten-bank.co.jp/press/2016/160328.html 2017/11/25Browse. 
  21. ^ “Start issuing JCB branded debit cards for sole proprietors” (HTML) (Press Release), Rakuten Bank, (March 2017, 11), https://www.rakuten-bank.co.jp/press/2017/171120.html 2017/11/25Browse. 
  22. ^ Free for the first year of general cards, 2 yen + tax for the second and subsequent years.It will be free depending on conditions such as setting up a mobile phone charge deduction account.Gold card is 1,250 yen + tax
  23. ^ Annual membership fee is free for the first year
  24. ^ Free for the first year, 1,000 yen + tax from the next year onwards.Free annual membership fee for the following year with a usage amount of 1 yen or more for the previous year
  25. ^ The annual membership fee for the first year is free.The annual membership fee will be free if the prescribed conditions are met in the next fiscal year as well.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g The annual membership fee for the first year is free. Conditionally free from the second year onwards
  27. ^ a b For general cards, the annual membership fee for the first year is free. Conditionally free from the second year onwards
  28. ^ The annual membership fee for the first year is free.Conditionally free annual membership fee for the following year
  29. ^ For general cards, the annual membership fee for the first year is free. Conditionally free from the second year onwards
  30. ^ General Free for the first year, Free for the second and subsequent years (2 family members 1,375) / Gold 440 Free for one family member (11,000 per person from the second person)
  31. ^ General There is a condition that it will be free for the first year and free for the second and subsequent years (2)
  32. ^ General card is free. PLATINUM 10,800 (tax included).
  33. ^ If you do not issue a new system, temporarily disable it, or do not make it available for the time being after the new system starts operating
  34. ^ ""J-Debit Navi Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ”. Japan Debit Card Promotion Council. 2016/8/21Browse.
  35. ^ ""J-Debit Navi Financial Institution Search Results List Other Financial Institutions 1”. Japan Debit Card Promotion Council. 2016/8/21Browse.
  36. ^ ""J-Debit Navi Financial Institution Search Results List Other Financial Institutions 2”. Japan Debit Card Promotion Council. 2016/8/21Browse.
  37. ^ "About the recent status of J-Debit service (PDF)”. Japan Electronic Payment Promotion Organization, Japan Debit Card Promotion Council (December 2011, 12). 2019/10/8Browse.
  38. ^ [2] (PDF)
  39. ^ "debit card". Lawson. 2017/7/28Browse.
  40. ^ Current status of cashless society in China --China UnionPay
  41. ^ Announcement of "Bank Card Industry Development Report" 66 billion UnionPay cards --"People's Network Japanese Version" May 2018, 5

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