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💼 | [Visit to online graduates] Ask the University of Tokyo graduates and recruiters What are the points of job hunting? ⑤ PwC consulting


Photo Kensuke Tsutsui (BT-Customer) Completed the Graduate School of Engineering in 18 years

[Visit to online graduates] Ask the University of Tokyo graduates and recruiters What are the points of job hunting? ⑤ PwC consulting

 
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In addition to consulting, the PwC Japan Group has employees with specialized knowledge in accounting audits, taxation, legal affairs, etc.
 

In job hunting, it is important to look at many companies before choosing a career path.This time, we interviewed 6 companies in various industries and graduated ... → Continue reading

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Accounting audit

Accounting audit(Kaikei Kansa,English: Financial audit, auditing)Company,andAdministrative agencyEtc.Accounting(Settlement), An organization with a certain degree of independenceauditAnd finalApprovalIs to do.In addition, it should be notedAccounting OfficeEspecially for auditing government agencies such as the national governmentBoard of AuditCall[1].


Overview

It is common for managers and executive rights holders to report certain matters such as their operations and accounting to delegates (shareholders and civil rights holders).If the content of the report is falsely displayed, the delegator will not be able to properly judge the ability of the trustee.Therefore, individuals and organizations with a certain degree of independence should confirm that there is no false indication (or a certain degree of smallness) in the content.auditThat is.Of these, auditing of accounting is called accounting audit (accounting inspection).

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Corporate accounting audit

CompanyAudits related to are carried out by the following three parties (three-way audit)[2]).

Listed companiesIn, all three-way audits are conducted[3], Three-way audits are expected to cooperate with each other.

The most important role in financial audit isCertified public accountantDone byFinancial statement auditIs.Certified public accountant audits are under the Companies ActLarge companyAnd listed companies under the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act[4], Its featuresExternal audit by professionalsIs to be[5].

Accounting reports are generally fair and valid accounting practices (GAAP, Especially in JapanCorporate accounting principlesOtherAccounting standardsEtc.) are required to be created.Financial statement audits are generally fair and valid auditing practices (GAAS, especially in Japan).Auditing standardsThe purpose is to express an opinion on the appropriateness of financial statements based on (etc.).

Accounting audits aim to eliminate "significant misstatements," not minor misstatements.The reason is realistically scrutinized[6]Examination because it is difficult to do[7]This is because it is realistic to do.In addition, since accounting reports are the basis for judgment by stakeholders, they need to contribute to the decision, but false statements that mislead the decision are called "significant false statements". , Will be focused and eliminated.

In addition, since audits are conducted by trial inspection (sample survey), each accounting processInternal controlMust exist.In the financial statement audit based on the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act, the managementInternal control reportIndependent auditor expresses opinion onInternal control auditAre done at the same time.The quality can be maintained by making the survey method more efficient or increasing or decreasing the number of samples according to the maintenance and operation status of internal control.By the way, internal control in accounting audit refers to all rules and operational status within a company, and is not limited to the establishment of rules and equipment.For areas where internal control is weak, the audit procedure will be strict (or scrutinize if there is none), so it will take more cost and time.

Accounting standards,Auditing standardsIs not a law, but it is clearly stated and published.Customary lawIs.The reason why it is not legalized is that it is extremely customary and academic, it is important to respond with a sense of speed in line with the changing times, and it is impossible to respond by law revision. This is because binding the methodology is harmful, as is the case with medical practice.The work of the clear cultureCorporate Accounting Council,Certified Accountants AssociationWill be done by.

Accounting audit of government agencies

Accounting audits of government agenciesPublic auditAlso called[8]..In the case of the country, the audit,Local governmentIn this case, it is generally called an accounting audit.Unlike accounting audits (private audits) for companiesAudit covers economic efficiency, efficiency and effectiveness (3E)Characterized by points[9].

In the case of the country, about the settlement of income and expenditureAccounting OfficePerforms an audit.The inspection report of the Board of Audit is submitted to the Diet by the Cabinet together with the settlement of accounts.国会Is supposed to approve the settlement of accounts (the Diet does not lose the authority to inspect), so the Board of Audit is in charge of auditing, but it does not approve the settlement of accounts alone.

In the case of local public bodiesAudit CommitteePerforms accounting audits in the same way, but the staff of the Audit Committee Secretariat, which conducts auditing practices, is not a normal person, unlike the Board of Audit, which is stipulated for independence.Personnel changeでHead officePlaced from.Also1998FromExternal auditHas also been introduced to strengthen accounting audits.

In the administrative agency, the head of the administration prepares the budget plan.ParliamentOnly enforced with the approval of.Therefore, the main factors are the discovery of fraud and irrationality and the purpose of use according to the budget.In addition, institutions such as incorporated administrative agencies, special public corporations, and national university corporations should be audited by accounting auditors appointed by certified public accountants and audit corporations.

footnote

  1. ^ Audit / Inspection / Inspection (Kiyomitsu Arai, Board of Audit, viewed February 2016, 2)
  2. ^ Hirotaka Tsukabe "A Study on Three-Sama Audit" "Bulletin of Niigata University of Management" No. 20, 2014 (Retrieved July 2016, 2)
  3. ^ Listed companies are public companies under the Companies Act, so they are obliged to appoint corporate auditors.Furthermore, the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act requires certified public accountants and audit firms to audit and certify financial statements, and it is necessary to improve internal control.
  4. ^ Article 436 of the Companies ActParagraph 2, Article 193-2 of the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act.In the case of corporate law audits, the certified public accountant or audit corporation is under the Companies Act.Accounting auditorHowever, it is not necessary to be appointed as an accounting auditor in the case of auditing only by the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act.
  5. ^ Audit & Supervisory Board Members' accounting audit responsibilities are not lost, and both have accounting audit responsibilities.
  6. ^ Investigate all accounting transactions
  7. ^ Sample survey
  8. ^ Shinichi Nagayoshi et al., "Introduction to Audit Theory, 2nd Edition", Chuokeizai-sha, 2015, pp.193-203
  9. ^ Shinichi Nagayoshi et al., "Introduction to Audit Theory, 2nd Edition", Chuokeizai-sha, 2015, pp.193-203

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