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👩‍🎓 | The Japan Association of National Universities proposes a new form of international exchange using digital technology


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The Japan Association of National Universities proposes a new form of international exchange using digital technology

 
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According to the Japan Association of National Universities, the proposal emphasized that the global travel restrictions caused by the corona sickness have had a major impact on the international exchange, study abroad, and acceptance of international students that each university has been working on.
 

The Japan Association of National Universities International Exchange Committee has put together a proposal entitled "Future International Exchange in the wake of the Corona Disaster", and each ... → Continue reading

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Study abroad

Study abroad(Ryugaku, Rugaku) ​​is other than your own countryCountryResident in (home stayEtc.)Academic・ Learning arts. Within 3 monthsShort-term study abroad, MoreLong-term study abroadSay. In a broad sense, to move a living base to a remote place in your own country and study academics and arts (Study abroad) May be included.

For those who are studying abroadStudents"(Ryugakusei, Rugakusho).

Overview

Origin of studying abroad- PersonalityStudy abroad as a completion

Westernto East MalaysiaWestFor academic training and learning from ancient times, regardless ofA humanIs actively moving, especially中 世InUniversityThe establishment and development ofPeople-cultureDifferentYouthIt was supported by our study abroad. furtherRenaissanceAfter that, study abroadEducationThe significance of the matter has come to be emphasized, and to foreign countriesTravelAnd the idea that education will be completed by studying abroadRousseauEstablished by[Source required]The number of people studying abroad has expanded.

Modernization and study abroad

ModernStudy abroad inWesternThen, while it still meant the completion of the personality as described above, in the past Japan etc.ModernizationFor a country aiming for, on behalf of the country, advanced文明With the added feeling of learning, I can feel the remnants of the current nuances of studying abroad. After returning to their home country, these international studentsPolitics-EconomyContributed greatly to the modernization of. Above allIndia,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,CambodiaEtc. oldColonyIn countries,Sovereign countryIt was held mainly by international students to[Source required].

In general,Country is developingIt can be said that the greater the gap in the degree of modernization with the country of study abroad, the greater the possibility that the knowledge gained from studying abroad will live, but the destination of study abroad is significantly higher than that of the home country.Advanced countryIn this case, it will be difficult to study abroad in cases where a system such as government-sponsored study abroad or company-sponsored study abroad is not in place in terms of study abroad costs. Also, if your country is in the developing stage, you can leave the country or enter the study abroad destination in the first place.lawThere are upper and de facto restrictions,Foreign currencyIn many cases, there are strong economic restrictions such as restrictions on taking out. However, in some countries, tuition fees are free or some foreign students are subsidized, so many students study abroad from developing countries.

GlobalizationAnd study abroad

And, as globalization progresses, study abroad from developed countries to developing countries is also seen, and today's study abroad is entering an era of mutual transportation and pluralism. Culture andsystem,Custom-common senseBecause it varies greatly from country to country, make sure to make a preliminary survey and plan when studying abroad.Culture ShockIt is said that it is necessary to prepare for such things, but on the contrary, because of that, the culture and system of your own country,ValuesIt is also an advantage of studying abroad that you can reconsider common sense, and it goes beyond the framework of modernization.Foreign languageLearning and variousNetworkFormation of theSelf-enlightenment,自己Study abroad motivated by training is increasing even in developing countries. For language study abroadAmerica,The United KingdomCentered onEnglishStudy abroad (in other countries)カナダ,フィリピン,アイルランド,New Zealand,Australia,FijiEtc.),FranceAtFrenchLearn,GermanyAtGermanLearn,Chugoku,TaiwanAtChineseIt is generally for the purpose of learning.

Study abroad

For studying abroad in JapancityThe students of the club are in JapanRegionIn addition to regular educationNATUREExperience etc.Study abroad in YamamuraAndGovernment office,Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricularSuch asStaffIs still in his current positionUniversityAnd inland study abroad dispatched to research institutes.

Study abroad system

Exchange student

  • High school student life experience study abroad
  • Based on inter-university agreement
    • Exchange student
  • Based on inter-institutional agreement
    • Exchange student

Study abroad at private expense

Study abroad at your own expense. It exists as a concept corresponding to government-sponsored study abroad, but it is also used as a concept when studying abroad at its own expense, as opposed to studying abroad where company employees are dispatched at the expense of the company.

Study abroad at government expense

Study abroad where the country bears the cost. This will be done to develop young bureaucrats as useful human resources for the country in the future. in Japan1966Since (a system that allows young bureaucrats who have been in the Ministry for less than eight years to study abroad for two years), more than 8 people study abroad every year. However, after studying abroad, it may be a problem to quit the institution and change jobs, or to stay in the field without returning to your home country. In Japan, if you retire in 2 at your own risk within a certain period of time, you will be obliged to repay the study abroad expenses.Law Concerning Reimbursement of Study Abroad Expenses for National Public EmployeesWas enacted.

Publicly funded study abroad

Study abroad by domestic and foreign foundations. Things that you can study abroad while you are in collegeRotary clubThere is also a system that allows you to study abroad after graduating from university. You can choose any course after studying abroad.

Study abroad in-house

Study abroad where companies send employees at their expense. Similar to studying abroad at government expense, there are problems such as changing jobs.

Study abroad on scholarships from foreign governments

Study abroad to apply through the embassies of each country. Negotiations are required even after selection, such as the university you are studying at or your major.

Study abroad from Japan

Island countryIsJapanThen, the history of studying abroad is old, and new knowledge and new technology have crossed the sea since ancient times.ContinentIt was brought back by studying abroad in Japan.

Ancient times

Ancient times OfJapanAtRice cultivation,Metalware,Text,BuddhismEtc. are mainlyMainland China-Korean PeninsulafromMigrantWas told by6st centuryFrom the endYamato kingshipHas begun to actively dispatch international students to China, and the absorption of new knowledge and new technology has begun in earnest. The first international student to be recorded is588ToBaekjeDispatched toGood faith5 youngNunSo, learn the law of reception590I have returned to Japan.

In Japan these days,shipbuildingThe technology of maneuvering and maneuvering was underdeveloped, and studying abroad was a big business at the risk of life.Nara periodLaterEnvoy,EnvoyStudents and academics who followedmonkThat's exactly why there are many people who couldn't reach their destination, or who learned their studies in a foreign country but couldn't return home for the rest of their lives. Followed by the envoy to SuiTakamuko no Kuroma,Minabuchi no ShoanThey lived in China for 20 to 30 years, and after returning to JapanRitsuryoku NationPlayed a major role in the construction of. Also, until the envoy to Tang is dispatchedSillaThere were many monks who went to. As a prominent student and monk dispatched with the envoy to Tang,Dosho,Kibi Mabi,Abe NakamaroThere is. In addition, "International student (Rugakusho)It was around this time that the word "" was born.

Heian periodAfter entering, short-term study abroad under the system became the mainstream, and the number of cases of returning to Japan with the envoy to Tang increased.ClearestとKukaiIt is,RooftopとEsoteric BuddhismTo the last envoy to Tang,Yen RenAccompanied. The cost of studying abroad at this time is in JapanImperial courtIt was paid by the Chinese side, and the living expenses in China were generally paid by the Chinese side. After the severance of the envoy to Tang in the middle of the 9th centuryEnchinYou can now see monks who travel to Tang on a merchant ship.

中 世からThe early modern period

12st centuryWhen you enter, the continentSouthern Song DynastyExchanges with the continent became activeBuddhismIncreased interest inHeavy source,Eisai,KakuaThe monks of each school studied abroad in the Southern Song Dynasty one after another. Especially after returning to Japan by EisaiNew religionThe activity had a great influence on the monks in the country, and thenDogen,AwarenessIt was decided to call for active study abroad.

MasterAfter that, the relationship with the continent is lost,14st centuryFrom the beginning, the travel of monks who study abroad became active, andLightThe heyday of the traffic of study abroad monks is approaching.Sesson YubaiFor a long timeZenThere were many learners. But,Muromachi PeriodWhen you enterPiratesFor countermeasuresNichimei TradingOther than that, travel to China is prohibited. afterwards,Sengoku-Azuchi-Momoyama Period OfTensho embassy,Red seal ship trade,Edo Period OfIsolationThe situation did not change in the system, but it was a window to foreign countries.Nagasaki(Dejima), The culture from overseas was introduced into the country, albeit in small detail. In the latter half of the Edo period, imported academics科学 Dutch studiesIt gradually spread as.

Modern

ModernStudying abroad in JapanBakumatsuBegins with1862ToEdo ShogunateFor the first time NetherlandsSend international students toEuropeWe are also dispatching to other countries. Also,Choshu,SatsumaThe hans such as the United Kingdom (British studentsSee) and sent young people to countries such as France and the United States. In 1866, the Shogunate allowed foreign travel to study abroad, and the number of international students at the end of the Tokugawa shogunate reached about 150.

Meiji EraWhen you enterMeiji government TheModernization, Aiming for WesternizationWealthy soldiers,Aquaculture industryAmong them, studying abroad has become one of the important national policies. The number of international students up to September 4 was 9 including 107 in the United Kingdom and 98 in the United States.[1].Iwakura MissionInternational students will accompany you during the dispatchjudicialSystemAdministrationInstitution, education, culture,Civil engineeringbuildingProfessors and engineers invited from overseas after importing technology (Hired foreigner) Was introduced and popularized.

Not only that, but since the Meiji era, the government has aimed to import excellent overseas systems, investigate advanced cases overseas, form international connections, and develop internationally accepted human resources. Expense study abroad has been institutionalized (Tribute studentreference). Of course, some people with a certain amount of financial resources and those who gained patrons chose to study abroad by studying abroad at their own expense. It is estimated that the total number of such publicly and privately funded international students in the Meiji era will reach about 2, and the total number of publicly funded international students and overseas researchers by the Ministry of Education between 4,700-1875 is about 1940.

As a prominent student with study abroad experience during this periodIto Hirobumi,Jun Inoue,Keitaro,Umeko Tsuda,Mt. Ooyama,Mori Ogai,Natsume Soseki,Nakae Chomin,Totaro Komura,Heihachiro Togo,Kosei Takahashi,Moriharu Miura,Juntaro Takahashi,Yuuki Hideki,Shinichiro TomonagaThere are

After World War II

Second World WarAfter that,Fulbright Scholarship ProgramAcademic study abroad and training study abroad byRotary clubThe institutionalization of study abroad for the purpose of experiencing overseas life and company-sponsored study abroad by large companies has made it possible for many people to go abroad. The purpose was to interact with people from overseas and to raise the academic research level, administration, and management ability. In addition, as a matter of course, there is a part that was institutionalized as a country in order to develop human resources who can be used as international people.Sankei ScholarshipPublicly funded study abroad such as French was also conducted.

Now

1985Plaza agreementAfter that suddenAppreciation of the yenIn response to this trend, studying abroad has become more familiar, and its purpose and motives are diversifying. So far, JapanHigher educationWas exceptionally lowBusiness Administration,Financial engineeringTo learnHarvard UniversityAt a business school of a famous universityMBA,research InstituteでPhDFrom academic ones for the purpose of acquiring, to language study abroad for the purpose of improving abilities only, and for the purpose of living abroadworking holidayIn addition, there are those for the purpose of acquiring qualifications for nursing and child English teachers. However, even though we have entered an era of multidimensional international exchange, studying abroad in Europe and the United States is still the mainstream. Also,Paris syndromeThere are also cases of complaints about adjustment disorders to the local community.

Private foundations andJapan Society for the Promotion of ScienceAlthough the study abroad subsidy is provided by the overseas research fellow system, the door is narrow and most of today's study abroad programs are privately funded. Due to the expansion of the study abroad market and the complexity of immigration standards in each country,Study abroad agentHave entered the market, and cheaper and safer study abroadhome stayHowever, at the same time, troubles caused by malicious study abroad agents are occurring. On the other hand, regarding government-sponsored study abroad, there is a problem that civil servants who studied abroad after the bubble period change jobs only a few years after studying abroad, and in June 2006, national government employees retired within five years after studying abroad. If you do, you will be required to refund the costStudy Abroad Expense Reimbursement LawWas enforced.

In addition, due to the revision of the law in 2001,National Health InsuranceIf you do, you will be able to claim the difference later for medical expenses covered by insurance outside Japan. However, you will have to pay the full amount once, and the price of medical expenses in Japan will be the standard. In addition, if you are studying abroad for a long period of one year or more, you must withdraw from the National Health Insurance.

Sexual damage problem

Ministry of education OfTobitate! Study abroad JAPANSo, international students are from local JapaneseSexual violenceInternational students are sexually assaulted, such as repeated cases of receivingsexual harassmentI often receive such things.Therefore, victims will gather in 2020WebsiteWe are conducting educational activities such as launching.Also, in 2021Yoshinori HakuiMinistry of educationHigher Education BureauThe chief announced that he would consider a response[2].

Study abroad in Japan

Modern to World War II

Accepting foreign students from abroad to Japan1883ToKoreaIt begins when Keio University accepts more than 40 international students from Japan.Sino-Japanese warSince then, the number of international students mainly from China has increased,Russo-Japanese WarLater, around 1906, the total number reached 1.Waseda UniversityThere was a faculty dedicated to Chinese students called the Qing Dynasty International Student Department.[3]Sino-Japanese warMost of the foreign students from China returned to Japan when the event started, but the invitation of foreign students from the colonies andSouthern Special International StudentThe national study abroad system, such as training leaders through the system, continued.

After World War II

After the warIn 1952, Japan returned to the international arena with the aim of providing educational cooperation to developing countries as part of international goodwill and international contribution.IndonesiaAccepted international students from the government, and in 1954Government-sponsored foreign student systemWas launched. International students dispatched from foreign governments were subsequently started by China in 1978.MalaysiaStarted in 1984, andBrazil,Thailand,SingaporeAnd so on.

Also, for international students who come to JapanJapan International Education AssociationWas founded in 1977 and was established in 1934.International Alumni AssociationAt the same time, support and subsidy activities have become active.

Plan for 10 international students and rapid increase in international students (1983-)

1983 yearsNakasone Cabinetby"21st centuryIn response to the so-called "" proposals in "Proposals for International Student Policy for International Students" and "Development of International Student Policy for the 6st Century" in June of the following year, policies for its realization came to be adopted.1990 eraAlthough it temporarily stagnated in the second half, it was mainlyAsiaThe number of international students from each country to Japan continues to increase rapidly (when looking at the figures for 2006 by nationality, China has 74,292 (63.0%), South KoreaThere are 15,974 people (13.5%), and the above two countries account for nearly 2% of the total). The total number of international students in 80 was 2006, from the Japanese government.奨 学 金Is paid to 10 people, which is about 9,869%.[Note 1].. Therefore, most of them are privately funded international students.

Most of the privately funded international students (84.4%)Part-time jobI am engaged in, and the occupation is "Restaurant business"(55.0%) was the most common, followed by"Sales-Sale"(16.5%)," Languageteacher”(8.9%)[5].. Under these circumstances, the quality of all international students, such as academic performance, has declined, and there are people who cannot obtain the degree that is the purpose of studying abroad.Purpose of workHowever, entering Japan with study abroad as a coverIllegal stayProblems such as are also pointed out[6].. At the end of 2003, the oldSakata Junior CollegeMany international students for part-time jobsCapital AreaMoved to (illegal)CustomsSince the reports of cases engaged in industry, social concerns about international students have increased. In June 2007, he ran a sex shopRitsumeikan UniversityChinese female international studentsImmigration Refugee Lawviolation(Illegal workArrested on suspicion of facilitating)[7].. As of January 2007, the total number of illegal immigrants was 1, while "studying abroad"Status of residenceThe number of illegal immigrants has reached 7,448 (composition ratio 4.4%).[8].

Regulations on foreign students (illegal immigrants) for work purposes

For the problem of illegal employment by foreign students,RegulationThere is. In order to prevent foreigners for work purposes from disguising themselves as international students, it is a regulation that does not allow foreigners to study abroad in the "second part (night part)" where "enrollment management" cannot be thoroughly implemented. this is,Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition ActLegal based onMinisterial OrdinanceThis is because it is stipulated that those who are enrolled in the curriculum that "goes to school exclusively at night" are not allowed to obtain or renew the status of residence of "College Student".

In this way, there are strict regulations such as not being granted a status of residence of "College Student" so that those who are working will not be disguised as international students for "second part (night part)" students who "go to school exclusively at night" It is provided,Ministry of educationIs thoroughly implementing "enrollment management" for international students and is instructing each university to comply with regulations. In fact, even Waseda University, which has accepted the largest number of international students in Japan, has been banned from accepting international students only in the second department of literature (night part).

Plan for 30 international students (since 2008)

Looking at the number of international students in advanced foreign countries, the United States has about 56 (2005), and the United Kingdom has about 36 (2005).GermanyThe number of students is about 25 (2005) and that of France is about 27 (2006), which is much higher than that of Japan. Therefore, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology has announced that it will further increase the number of international students and support them.International student 30 Million people planWas launched, and the outline was formulated in July 2008.[9].. According to the outline, "From motivation and information provision to arouse interest in studying in Japan, improvement of entrance examinations, admissions, and entrances to Japan, improvement of acceptance systems in educational institutions such as universities and society, employment after graduation / completion. The goal is to increase the number of international students accepted to 2020 by 30 by implementing a wide range of measures including support.

In order to realize this plan, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology selected a base university in 2009 for "overseas students" to work on "an environment that makes it easy for them to study abroad," and provided financial support to this "Internationalization Base Development Project ("Global 30) ”Was announced. Selected by the examination,Tokyo University-Kyoto University-Waseda University-Keio UniversityIt was decided to provide support by granting about 2 to 4 million yen a year for 5 years.

Study abroad in the United States

For information including culture and customsThe United States of AmericaSee.
About the education systemUnited States educationSee.
About the admission selection systemEntrance examination in the USASee.

The United States of AmericaThere are a large number of immigrants and international students from all over the world. Especially in graduate school, it is not uncommon for international students to make up the majority. Especially in recent yearsIndia,Chugoku, South Korea,Japan,TaiwanThere are many international students from Asia. The school year begins around September, but many departments and universities have multiple admission periods during the year. However, at the same time, the higher the quality of education, the higher the tuition fee tends to be, and in many universities, which are commonly referred to as first-class universities, the annual tuition fee exceeds 9 million yen in Japanese yen (graduate school as described later). Then, the situation changes completely depending on the field).

Although the evaluation is rigorous, it is also characteristic that there is room for negotiation in everything and various exceptions are often allowed. It is not uncommon for people to take multiple majors in parallel, and it is a characteristic of American universities that they can take various lectures regardless of their major or specialty. There are more repeaters, leavers, transferees and dropouts than Japanese universities (some departments have a graduation rate of 5% or less), and even if it is a 4-year university, those who graduate in 4 years as a whole It tends to be less.

Students are required to actively ask questions and discuss in the lecture (it is also important for the teacher to estimate the student's comprehension, and it does not have to be a high-level question), and they are grades. It is directly reflected in. When going on to graduate school, the grades of the undergraduate school also affect the selection process, and in the case of universities that are evaluated as above average, there is a system in place to drop out unless good grades above a certain level are maintained. In general, more than half of the enrollees drop out at some universities. For these reasons, you will be given a period of time to take a lecture and consider whether or not to take the lecture (since Japan does not have this system, many universities do not list "impossible" in their English report cards). This dropout / evaluation system has the negative side of creating a tendency for students to be reluctant to take advanced lectures and further widening the gap between those who are well-educated and those who are not. There is also.

Another characteristic of North American universities that is rare in Japan is that they have a dormitory system.FraternityIs organized.

To show sufficient English proficiency when studying abroadTOEFLMost universities and graduate schools require you to submit your score, but if it is determined that you do not have enough English ability to keep up with the contents of the university, you may be required or recommended to attend an English school attached to the university. .. Although such an English school is generally attached to a university, it is often an independent school as an educational institution, and even if the English school can achieve the required grades, it will become an attached university by itself. It is not always possible to enroll, so it is necessary to carefully check the admission requirements.

Not only studying abroad for university or graduate degree, but also short-term study abroad, language study abroad, orCommunity collegeThere are many study abroad programs. Also,Study abroad agentSome people use agents such as. For housing, those who enter the university dormitory,home stayThere are various people, such as those who use the university and rent an apartment near the university.

Various types for international students奨 学 金There is a system. In the United States, "scholarships" refer to those who are not obliged to repay, and those who are obliged to repay are called "loans" to distinguish them.

United StatesDaylight saving timePlease note that the time difference with Japan will be different between 3:2 am on the second Sunday of March and 2:11 am on the first Sunday of November, local time (some areas do not).

State UniversityAs mentioned in the section, there may be several independent state universities with different names in the same state, such as the University of California and the University of California. ..

US Security and Gun Society

For more information on securityUnited States #securityreference.

On average, the United States is not as secure as Japan, but it varies considerably from region to region. Relatively safe areas and dangerous areas are next to each other, and even in the same city, security may change considerably depending on the location and time of day. Most schools have an orientation on security information.

In addition, the United States is allowed to carry guns for the general public, and there are very few universities that regulate the bringing of guns to the premises, and mass shootings have occurred in the school. It may be fired just by entering the premises of another person's house without permission (the consciousness of the residents around here also varies considerably depending on the area).Japanese international student shooting deadAnd so on. Neighboring countryカナダAlthough ordinary people are allowed to own guns and have a high gun ownership rate, even in cities with a high population density, the incidence of gun crimes and accidents is extremely low compared to the United States.

US medical system and study abroad insurance

Regarding the application of Japan's National Health Insurance in the United StatesNational health insurance systemFollow.

The United States is currently like JapanNational health insurance systemIf you don't have any, and you want to get good medical treatment, basicallymedical insuranceIs only for private companies.

Medical billsIs very expensive compared to Japan,hospital,Insurance companyThere are many troubles with.

For example,ambulanceJust by callingJapanese yenIn addition to being charged an amount of tens of thousands of yen, it is not uncommon for an amount of tens of millions of yen to be charged when hospitalized due to emergency surgery, and there are many cases of bankruptcy. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is also calling attention to U.S. medical expenses[3].. For example, when performing cecal surgery in Japan, the surgery fee is 7 yen or less, and even if the hospitalization fee is included, it does not often exceed 30 yen.ニ ュ ー ヨ ー クでCecumIn the case of surgery, it costs an average of 240 million yen or more in Japanese yen, and the room fee at the time of admission is very high (however, the price difference between regions and hospitals is large).

Half of US personal bankruptcies are due to medical expenses, and most of the bankruptcies are private health insurance[4].. Medical insurance system for low-income earners if not urgentHMOIt is possible to receive treatment at a very low price due to such reasons, and it is below the standard for Americans.PoorIfMedicaidIt is possible to use a medical insurance system called (medicaid), but the quality of medical care is generally low and there are many restrictions. For example, in this case, if the medical expenses are low, a bonus will be given, or the burden on the hospital will be small, so contrary to the case of private medical insurance, there is a tendency to avoid doing the necessary tests as much as possible. In addition, you may have to wait for several months.

Generally, international students are obliged to take out medical insurance, but it is necessary to carefully check the contract details and select the insurance prepared and recommended by the university. Private sector at many universities in the United Statesmedical insuranceWith this plan, 3% to 5% will be borne by you, and the amount of compensation for treatment and relief costs will be 30.US dollarOften: Particular attention should be paid to the maximum burden of the insured (Out of pokets).

In the case of study abroad insurance of Japanese insurance companies, most of them have no out-of-pocket rate, and some of them have unlimited compensation amount, and they are covered from the time they leave Japan until they arrive at the university. Various plans are available to cover delays and losses of luggage at the airport, emergency temporary return costs due to ceremonial occasions and sudden illnesses, and compensation for damages and legal fees. However, some hospitals only accept insurance from affiliated insurance companies.

Study abroad at a graduate school in the United States

About admission selection for graduate schoolEntrance Exams in the United States #Graduate School Entrance ExamsSee.
For degrees, scholarships, and graduate education and examsUnited States Education #Graduate Schoolreference.

graduate School・ Systems, evaluations, and customs differ depending on the field. Also, there are a large number of international students.The United States of AmericaThe total number of international students to Japan is more than 55, of which about half are graduate students. Even if you try to study abroad with regular admission, there are examination venues in many countries, and in many cases you can basically prepare all the documents and examination results required for admission selection without entering the United States. However, face-to-face interviews may be required depending on the field or graduate school.

The doctoral program may be set up after the master's program or in parallel with the master's program (in this case, the doctoral program is a so-called consistent program, and those who aim to become researchers. Will enter the doctoral program immediately after graduating from undergraduate school), which is more common depends on the field. In the United States, graduate schools are the mainstream in university education, and universities with graduate schools are often larger than undergraduate schools. Also, compared to Japan, university faculties often place more emphasis on liberal arts than specialized fields, and many people change their major from graduate school.

As with universities, graduate school tuition is often considerably higher than in Japan, but in science fields other than medicine (natural sciences, engineering, etc.), almost all graduate studentsTA(Teaching assistant.. Accepting questions from undergraduate students and helping with lectures such as scoring reports. Sometimes I am entrusted with lectures) and RA (Research Assistant.. By working as a research assistant), the tuition fee is generally exempted and sufficient living expenses are generally paid. Many universities also have dormitories for graduate students. If you are a little lacking in English to teach students, some graduate schools have a position called Grading, which only grades reports. Also,カナダSince the admission selection system and examinations are unified, many volunteers include Canadian graduate schools as an option.

Study abroad in Australia

Australia is the second most popular destination for studying English-speaking countries after studying in the United States. In recent years, studying in Australia has become the only English-speaking country where you can work with an international student visa, and the number of international students from all over the world is increasing rapidly. Universities and graduate schools are more than double the rankings of Japan in the world university rankings, and the level of education is high. While there are many international students from China, South Korea, South America, etc., young people in the United Kingdom and the United States also tend to choose Australia, which has jobs and earns more than double the hourly wage of their own country. In particular, the number of working holidays from the UK and Ireland to Australia is reported in the UK to more than 5 a year. The number of Americans studying abroad at Australian universities is also more popular than Japanese students.

The school year begins around February, but many universities have three admission periods in a year, and the flexibility of admission, graduation, and flexibility is another factor that is gaining popularity.

Australian University System

It is a university system that is not very familiar in Japan and has no general education, and is the same as in the United Kingdom, so it can be said that it is a lean system where specialized study begins from the first year. You can graduate in 1 years, so even if you study English for 3 year and get IELTS and then enter university, you can graduate from university at the same time as or earlier than Japanese university students. You can also study and graduate from two majors called double major at the same time, so you are strong in the future. It is also a feature of Australian universities that you can take various lectures other than your major. Gap years are well established, with some local students going on a world trip or working for a year before enrollment, while others skipping and enrolling at the age of 1. Also, the big difference from Japan is that more than half of the universities enter at the age of 2 or 1, but many students in their 16s and 18s and 19s are also seen. Students who want to study are free to accept anyone regardless of age.

After graduation, you will be issued a so-called graduation visa, which allows you to work in Australia for three years after graduating from an Australian university. Since you can choose your favorite job or company, you can get a business visa or permanent residence visa from a local company within the last three years.

Admission Criteria for Australian Universities

Most universities and graduate schools require IELTS scores to be submitted in order to show sufficient English proficiency when studying abroad. IELTS can be obtained by attending a university-affiliated or private English school. Private English schools are recommended for those who want to save time and money, as private English schools can be admitted monthly for admission and scoring once a year, and if they have good grades, they can go on to school immediately. Anyone can study abroad because no English ability is required to enter an English school.

大学や大学院の学位取得のための留学だけでなく、短期留学や専門学校、語学留学でも現地で仕事ができるのがオーストラリア唯一の特徴で、2011年7月から英国では学生ビザは大学生以外働けないと規程が変わったため、英国で働くことは難しい。オーストラリアは一部地域を除き夏時間を採用しているため、現地時間3月第2日曜日午前2時〜11月第1日曜日午前2時の間は日本との時差が2時間、夏時間が終わると1時間オーストラリアの方が日本よりも早い。

Australian Security and Life

Gun control is strict and the number of murders is less than in Japan. However, there are many minor crimes such as pickpocketing and deduction.

Most of the study abroad insurance that can be taken out in Japan has no out-of-pocket expenses, and some of them have unlimited medical compensation.

Study abroad in the People's Republic of China

With the economic growth of the 2000s, the number of foreign students from China is increasing. Annual average is about 2[10].

Study abroad at government expense

Regarding study abroad from the People's Republic of China to foreign countries (national expense), from September 2007

  • Working for the country for 2 years after studying abroad
  • In case of violation, pay a penalty of 30% of the cost in addition to the full cost

The above is obligatory for international students[11].

As a result, the return rate of international students was 98% (according to research).[12].

Study abroad at your own expense

According to the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China announced in March 2009, the number of students studying abroad in the 3 years since the reform and opening up was 30 million, including own and government expenses, of which 139 million are still overseas. It became clear that the return rate of self-funded international students is low[13][14].

Those who have studied abroad are called "sea turtles". Initially, he was paid a large amount of money by using his language skills as a weapon, but gradually he was required to have abilities other than language skills. for that reason,Job shortageSome people can't get a job[15].

Study abroad in the People's Republic of China

With the economic development of China, the number of international students to China is increasing, mainly in Asia. It is also popular as a study abroad destination in Japan, and the number of study abroad students is the second largest after the United States.[16].

Study abroad in Europe

Of course, the situation differs depending on the country, but for exampleFranceIn, medical and educational expenses are covered by taxes, so medical expenses and tuition fees at hospitals and universities are free (however, registration fees etc. must be paid), which also applies to international students.GermanyIn the past, university tuition was free, but in recent years, it has been charged, although it is a small amount compared to Japanese tuition. The education system is often evaluated as very goodフィンランドThere are no tuition fees for both universities and graduate schools.

英国

The United KingdomIn the case of, the university tuition fee isEUIf you are a student from within the area, it is set to be about 20 yen per year, but if you are an international student from another country, you have to pay a high tuition fee of about 200 million yen per year. Must be (as of 2008). However, a bill for a deferred payment system for tuition fees was passed in 2004, and from the fall of 2006, university tuition fees can be paid after graduating from university and exceeding a certain income level.

Germany

GermanyThen.AbiturAs long as you have (the name is a qualification to complete secondary education, but it is a qualification equivalent to a high school graduation qualification in Japan), you can enter any university unconditionally in principle. Therefore, in Germany, it is rare that students concentrate on a specific university because it is not so valuable to graduate from any university, but students still concentrate on the departments of a very specific university. In the year of the university, the number of enrollees may be limited, pass / fail may be decided based on grades, and individual entrance examinations may be conducted.

France

FranceThen pass the unified entrance qualification testBaccalaureateAs long as you take it, you can basically enroll in any public school, and as mentioned above, the tuition fee is almost free. However, in FranceGrande Ecole"Prestigious schools" in educational institutions other than universities are often evaluated as having higher value, and most of the corporate management and senior government officials are from Grande école. There is. Grande école students are treated as national civil servants and are paid salaries. However, the tuition fee for a private school called the Grande école preparatory school, which prepares for the entrance selection for the Grande école, which is a very narrow gate, is high.

Study abroad in developing countries

Although studying abroad in developing countries is rare, the circumstances of studying abroad in developing countries that speak English as the official language are slightly different. It is being established in the position of studying abroad in developing countries where prices are low, specializing in language learning.

Fiji

FijiThe government recognizes only English as the official language, and the environment is different from the countries that have two official languages, their own language and English. In recent years, language schools that used abandoned school buildings in Fiji and sold hospitality peculiar to the South Pacific have expanded. Due to cheap living expenses and study abroad expenses such as tuition, 2 international students are going to study abroad in Fiji every year.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Excluding technical colleges and vocational schools, the total number is 93,804 and the number of government-sponsored international students is 9,312. ""Number of international studentsStatistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (as of May 2006, 5)

Source

  1. ^ Ryoma Tezuka, "Japanese who learned at Ratgars at the end of the Edo period and the beginning of the Ming dynastyResearch Report of the Japanese Society of English Studies 1967 Vol. 1967 No. 70 p.1-5, two:10.5024 / jeiken1964.1967.70_1
  2. ^ Report of sexual damage in "Tobitate! Study abroad" Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology goes to fact-finding surveyEducational newspaper
  3. ^ "Not listed in textbooks! Prewar Japan" p. 84
  4. ^ Each number is as of May 5 of each year. Includes international students in specialized training colleges. According to the International Student Division, Academic and International Bureau, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.
  5. ^ Japan Student Services Organization "17 Survey of Living Conditions of Privately-Funded International Students". Also,Aki WakabayashiSee also "Japan in a Salad Bowl: Walking in the Field of a Foreigner'Dependent" Society, Kobunsha, 2007.
  6. ^ Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications "Policy Evaluation Report on Measures to Promote Acceptance of International Students" January 17
  7. ^ "Illegal Resident Chinese Work at Esthetics, Arrest of Ritsumeikan University Students", Yomiuri Shimbun, June 2007, 6
  8. ^ Ministry of Justice"Press Release (February 19) Number of illegal immigrants in Japan'
  9. ^ Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology and others "Outline of "30 international students plan"'
  10. ^ "China becomes the world's largest exporter of international students" Searchina China Information Bureau, delivered on April 2008, 4
  11. ^ "Stop the brain drain! Government-sponsored international students are obliged to "thank you"'Record China, August 2007, 9
  12. ^ "Successful prevention of brain drain, 98% of government-sponsored international students return homeRecord China, October 2007, 10
  13. ^ "100 million Chinese students stay abroad: Ministry of Education of China", Record China, delivered March 2009, 3, viewed April 28, 2009
  14. ^ "30 years of reforms International students leaving Japan 139 million times National rate shortage Mitsunari", Henan Education Network Official Web Page (Chinese), Retrieved April 2009, 4
  15. ^ "<Difficulty finding a job>" Sea turtle "on the way home from study abroad, now completely treated as" seagrass "" Record China, delivered on March 2008, 3
  16. ^ [1]

References

  • Sankei Shimbun Development Office, "Study Abroad Guide" Sankei Shimbun Publishing Bureau, 1966 (enhanced revised edition, 1967)
  • Sankei Shimbun "Study Abroad Guide" Sankei Shimbun Publishing Bureau, 1970

Related item

外部 リンク

(Administrative agency)

(Study Abroad Grant Foundation / Incorporated Administrative Agency)

(Non-profit organization-NPO corporation)

Corona

CoronaWhat is (Corona)2019From the endEpidemic of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19)Is a term that refers to disasters and crisis situations caused by[1].

"CoronaOut ofコ ロ ナ"Is"New coronavirus'[2],MisfortuneIs a word that means "disaster" or "disaster" or "unfortunate event"[3]Then, it is a compound word that is put after various nouns[4](Other examples: water damage, war damage, etc.).

As the epidemic of new coronavirus infection spreads,2020(Reiwa 2nd year) It has been widely used in newspapers and online since the middle of March.[5][Annotation 1][Annotation 2].

New Word Award 2020 selected by Daijisen

Shogakukanby"New Word Award Selected by Daijisen In "2020", "Corona Sorrow" was selected as the runner-up,DaijisenA commentary by the editorial department was posted on the announcement site.

Served as a special selection committee member regarding the reasons for selectionMeiji UniversityMakirō Tanaka, a professor of the Faculty of International Japanese Studies, said, "It is a word that expresses the current situation in the world, and it is an important word for sharing the desire to overcome this, find a new lifestyle, and manage to survive. I made it the runner-up with support for that feeling. "

In addition, TanakaJapanese languageFrom this point of view, it is worth noting whether "○○ 禍" will be derived as a coined word component in the future.[6].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ In the online transmission by the administration, Such.
  2. ^ In newspaper reports,National newspaperAppeared on all 5 papers. Such.Block paperThen, Such.Prefectural paperThen, in what is evaluated as being equivalent to block paper, Such. In general prefecture paper,Such.

Source

  1. ^ Takishima, 2020, ll.1-2.
  2. ^ Takishima, 2020, l.2.
  3. ^ Takishima, 2020, l.1.
  4. ^ Takishima, 2020, ll.24-25.
  5. ^ Takishima, 2020, ll2-4.
  6. ^ "This year's new word award selected by the Japanese dictionary" Daijisen "is decided to be [Three Cs]! The runner-up is [Corona" (Press Release), Shogakukan, (July 2020, 12), https://kyodonewsprwire.jp/release/202011287823 2020/12/1Browse. 

References

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