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👶 | I was planning to give birth in Fukushima prefecture 10 years ago.I experienced the Great East Japan Earthquake when I was 7 months pregnant ... #Since then I have been


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I was planning to give birth in Fukushima prefecture 10 years ago.I experienced the Great East Japan Earthquake when I was 7 months pregnant ... #Since then I have been

 
If you write the contents roughly
When a natural disaster occurs, families with babies and pregnant women are really in trouble.
 

The Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on March 10th, 3 years ago.At that time, my mom, who was 11 months pregnant and lived in Tokyo, was at that time ... → Continue reading

 Baby calendar

The Baby Calendar provides daily information on topics related to pregnancy, pregnancy, childbirth, childrearing, infertility, and information useful for daily life that supports pregnant women, pregnant women, mothers raising children, and dads. I will. It is full of information taught by professionals in the fields of pregnancy, childbirth and childcare, such as registered dietitians and midwives.


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Natural disasters

Natural disasters(All the time,British: natural disaster) Is criticalNatural phenomenon(Natural hazard, egweather,volcanic eruption,Earthquake,Landslide, Etc.) is a phenomenon that causes damage to human life and human social activities.

Under Japanese law, "natural disaster" is defined as "damage caused by storms, heavy rain, heavy snowfall, floods, storm surges, earthquakes, tsunamis, eruptions and other abnormal natural phenomena" (Disaster Reconstruction Life Support ActArticle 2 No. 1).

A mere natural phenomenon develops into a “natural disaster” with human damage,disasterLocal social conditions have a large impact on the expansion of[1].

Disaster and hazard

As to why a natural disaster occurs, it follows to the following formula.

Disasters occur when hazards meet vulnerability.[2]
"Disaster occurs when crisis encounters vulnerability'

Vulnerability of society (vulnerability to disasters)Disaster preventionNo plan or appropriateCrisis managementIf it is not done, it will be even more serious and will cause more human, economic and environmental damage. The ultimate amount of damage depends on the number of people who support the victims and prevent the disaster from spreading, and the amount of resilience from the disaster. [3].

"disaster"("Disaster") and "hazard"("Crisis", "phenomenon") have different meanings.UNESCOEarth Science Program[1]Then,Natural hazard"(Natural Hazard, natural phenomenon) and "Natural disaster(Natural Disaster) is defined as[4].

"Natural hazardIs the atmosphereGeology-HydrologyIt is a naturally occurring physical phenomenon that is caused by an event that rapidly or slowly attacks a range of solar system scale, global scale, regional scale, national scale, or local scale. Includes earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, tsunamis, floods and droughts.
"Natural disaster“(Natural disaster) is the result or impact of a natural hazard. It means disruption of social sustainability and disruption of economic and social development.

Even if a "natural phenomenon" such as a natural disaster (natural hazard) occurs, if there is no vulnerability in that place (for example, if no one lives in the area where the disaster occurred), "natural disaster" (natural disaster)・Disaster does not occur. If there is no human activity or society in the environment, the natural phenomenon is just a phenomenon and no one can be damaged, so it is neither a "crisis" nor a "disaster". Therefore, the "natural" of the "natural disaster" (naturalThere are some objections to the part[5].

A natural disaster is a disaster ("Man-made disaster)),Natural disasterAlso called. However, what is actually called a "natural disaster" is not appropriate because it has a large impact on human damage due to human causes such as vulnerability of society.EarthquakeIs a natural phenomenon, but due to the collapse of fragile buildings and the lack of helpEarthquake disasterExpands. Is a natural phenomenon(I.e.Will increase the risk of sediment-related disasters by deforestation of forests and the damage caused by inundation by living in lowlands. It is a natural phenomenon opposite to heavy rainDroughtIs that due to social inequalities and government missteps, food is secured in cities and the armed forces, while food is out of reach of the rural poor.famineExpand to the disaster. If the policies to supply food and employment to people who are short of food because of droughts are put into action by democracy incentives and functioning properly, there will be no famine disaster, but there is no need to listen to the voices of the poor. In authoritarian regimes and anarchies, droughts can easily spread to famine[6].

Natural phenomenon

"Natural hazard" (crisis due to natural phenomenon) refers to the threat of a phenomenon that has a negative impact on human society and the environment. Many natural hazards occur continuously. For example, earthquakes cause tsunamis and droughts cause starvation and illness.

1995May 1Happened toHyogoken Nanbu Earthquake"Is a "natural hazard" (natural phenomenon), but it was caused as a result, and continued to cause large-scale human and economic damage for several years.Great Hanshin-Awaji EarthquakeIs a “natural disaster” (natural disaster).

The term "natural hazard" is used to refer to a threat that may occur in the future (for example, an expected earthquake or flood in the event of heavy rainfall). Disaster) is used in connection with social events that have occurred in the past or are occurring at the present time.

Examples of natural disasters

Geology

Volcano

Volcano OferuptionCauses various natural disasters. Due to the eruption itselfEmpty shakeIn addition,Volcanic ash,Volcanic bomb,pumice,ScoriaSuch asVolcanic debrisAccumulates in the surrounding area, damaging crops and buildings, and polluting the atmosphere. Also, the volcanic ash in the atmosphereairplaneIt will cause serious damage to transportation and economy, such as making operation difficult.2010Toアイス ランド OfAiyafiyatra YorktleHappened ineruptionin the case of,Continental europeIs banned from flying over a wide area, affecting hundreds of thousands of feet (Traffic paralysis due to eruption of Aiyafiyatra York in 2010)[7].. In the case of a very large, so-called catastrophic eruption, volcanic ash spreads into the atmosphere.Sun lightInterrupt theParasol effectbyVolcanic winterIt can also lead to cold periods, called For example, Indonesia, which is thought to have occurred 7 to 7 years ago,Toba volcanoThere is also a theory that the eruption of the city lowered the temperature by an average of 5 degrees Celsius and pushed humanity to the point of extinction.[8].

Lava flowThe flow velocity is slow and people are not swallowed directly, but when swallowing the surrounding land it solidifies as it is to become rocks, so it becomes unusable if agricultural land or residential area is swallowed[9].. Volcanic gas is hotcarbon dioxide,Sulfur dioxide,Hydrogen sulfideIt contains a lot of toxic gases such asoxygenIs low in inhalation of toxic ingredientsLack of oxygenIt is not uncommon for humans to die from it.Pyroclastic flowIs very fast above high temperatures and often kills many people if it occurs. The accumulated ash flows at a stretch with rain etc.MudflowSimilarly, direct damage is also large and it is very dangerous along with pyroclastic flow[10].

In addition to these direct ejecta,Mountain collapseIf it happens, many lives are often lost. Furthermore, if a mountain collapse occurs near the sea, a large amount of sediment remains.(I.e.Cause a huge damage to the opposite bank. As for the tsunami caused by this mountain collapse,1792 OfUnzendakeBy the eruption ofMeishanCaused a mountain collapse,HigoTsunami struckShimabara very Higo troubleAre known[11].

Earthquake

EarthquakeDisaster caused byEarthquakeCalled. First of all, in addition to causing huge damage due to the shaking of the earthquake itself, the terrain itselfUpheaval,SedimentationOrCrackOrGround subsidence,Liquefaction phenomenonCauseBuildingTo damage[12].. When an earthquake occurs, a fire is often generated due to this impact. But above all, the biggest disaster associated with an earthquake is(I.e.Is. Tsunamis associated with earthquakes often cause great damage and occurred in 2011Great East Japan EarthquakeIn Japan, it is said that about 9% or more of the deaths were due to the tsunami.[13].. Tsunami is not only directly damaged by buildings and human lives, but also on the land where the tsunami leftSalt damageBring[14].

Sediment disaster

Sediment disasterMany of these are caused by earthquakes and heavy rain,Landslide,LandslideSuch asSlope failure,Earth and stone flowIs included[15].. Slope failure depends on the depth of the collapse partDeep collapseとSurface collapseIt is further divided into.In the case of a large-scale landslide, the mountain itselfMountain collapseAnd a large amount of sediment blocks the river channel.Natural damMay form[16].

Other

Other geological disasters include:groundwaterThe ground sinks due tosoakingCauseGround subsidenceAndLimestoneErosion in the quality strata and sudden collapse of the surfaceSink hole(Doline), soil and groundErosion,deep(I.e.From the bottom ofcarbon dioxideOver a wide area by ejecting a large amount ofasphyxiacauseLake water explosionand so on[17].

weather

Storm and flood damage

Disasters due to wind and rainfall often occur at the same time,Storm and flood damageIs collectively called.

Flood damageThe major causes ofTropical cycloneThere is. Tropical cyclones depend on where they occurtyphoon-Hurricane-CycloneHowever, it is common that strong winds and heavy rainfall cause damage to residential areas. Disasters occur not only by typhoons, but also by heavy rainfall. If a large amount of rain is concentrated in some areas,Torrential rainと 呼 ば れ る[18].. What is a heavy rain caused by cumulonimbus clouds that suddenly occur in unpredictable placesGuerrilla heavy rainSometimes called, but not official weather terms[19].. That the land is submerged by heavy rain洪水There are two types of floods: flood water that overflows from the river and overflows the levees, and flood water that overflows inside the levees because the water inside the levees cannot drain into the river. Such inundation often occurs in cities where the ground is hardened with concrete or the like and the rainfall must be treated with sewers.Urban floodTo say[20].. Usually, a flood takes some time to both increase and decrease water, but suddenly a large amount of water is suddenly generated when there is a large amount of rainfall much faster than the ground absorbs rainwater or when a natural dam caused by a landslide collapses. May be swept away and washed away. thisFlash floodThe area of ​​flooding is narrow and the water can be drawn quickly, but it often causes a large amount of damage because it often rushes without warning. The damage of flash floods is particularly high in desert areas, where there is often a large amount of rainfall at once.[21].

Wind damageIn addition to the above low pressure and strong winds such as typhoons,Down burst,竜 巻Such asGustMany are due to. Above all, the duration of a tornado is as short as 1 hour at most and the damage range is narrow, but the fast wind speed of about 50 km/h reaches 400 km/h, which causes great damage to the area on the track.[22].. The most common occurrence of tornado isNorth AmericaHowever, it is occurring in other parts of the world. These low pressures also affect the sea, and by lowering the pressure,climaxcause. Unlike the high tide where the sea level rises, the high waves are as their name implies.波Generated by high winds due to low pressure[23].. High tide and high waves,Secondary vibration TheEmbankment,PortDestruction ofErosion,soaking, Of the shipAgroundcause[24].. In addition, by spraying seawater and wind on crops and plantsSalt damageAlso occurs[25].. Strong wind in the desertDustAccompanied bySandstormGenerateYellow sandDrop sand to a distant place such as[26].

Other

snowDisaster caused bySnow damageIs collectively referred to asBlizzard(Blizzard) ・Visibility impairment due to snowstorm (White out) AndSnowfallObstacles to traffic, snowfall, damage to buildings and goods due to the weight of snow,avalancheIs included[27].. A lot of snowfallHeavy snowIt is called as, and causes a lot of damage due to traffic disruption. In addition, when rainwater in a supercooled state collides with the ground or trees,Rain iceHowever, this also causes a great deal of damage to traffic and the power grid. From winter to springFreezeOrFrostIt is called freezing and frost damage when the rain falls. Descending(I.e.Causes damage to buildings and damage to agricultural products, and it is not uncommon for large hail to die if it hits the human body directly.[28].Thunder TheLightningDirect death, structural damage and fire, as well asPower transmissionElectric shock to the facilityGuided lightningCause electrical damage by[29].

It is also one of the disasters that the temperature and precipitation are significantly more abnormal than usual. Anomalyhigh temperature Theheat wave,Intense heatIt occurs in the summer and is calledheatstrokeCause. Abnormal high temperature in winterWarm winterCalledSki resortIt causes great damage to industries that require snowfall. Anomalylow temperatureOccurs in the winterSevere winterAnd,HypothermiaIn addition to being prone to occur, the snow damage described above is also likely to occur. Abnormal low temperature in summerCold summerCalledCold injuryCause poor growth of crops[30].. When the amount of precipitation is abnormally high, it causes flooding as described above, butLight rainIn the case ofDroughtIt causes damage to life and industry and impacts on ecosystems due to water shortage. Cold damage and drought drastically reduce crop yields, oftenfamineHas triggered[31].

Due to abnormal dryness or lightningForest fireIf it occurs, it will cause great damage to the ecosystem, human life and industry. Even in wet Japan, there are about 26 wildfires per year on average over five years from 30 to 5.[32], It occurs all over the world, but especially in areas with severe dryness such as California and Australia. Wildfires may last for a long time and occurred in September 2019Australia forest fireKept burning for half a year until it was put out by the heavy rain in February 2020[33].

Biology

Biological disasters include various types of damage caused by the abnormal occurrence of living things. Above allLocust grasshopper,Grasshopper grasshopperSome of suchLocustKindPhase mutationWhen it occurs, it will become a large swarm that exceeds hundreds of billions, and sometimes it travels a distance of several thousand km or more,Herbal natureEat up everything[34]. this isDamageIs called, and causes huge damage to agriculture and the economy.

またDiseaseThe damage caused by the occurrence of is also regarded as a natural disaster caused by living things.Plague,measles(Measles),tuberculosisHas historically caused many fashionable seasons. AlsoSpanish cold,New coronavirusWell asウ イ ル スIt is an epidemic caused by. Strictly speaking, viruses are currently regarded as "non-cellular organisms" or "biological entities" rather than organisms,Mimi virusThere are some similarities between bacteria such as bacteria, and the similarities between retroviruses and transposons, the border between viruses and organisms is very vague, and the virus itself is likely to be an artificial classification. In addition, it is considered to be a natural disaster caused by living things, including the degree of social impact caused by the disease.

Along with global warming, diseases caused by mosquito-borne viruses and protozoa are also at stake, as seawater temperature rises in the seas near Japan and climate changes.

Astronomical phenomenon

As a natural disaster caused by astronomical phenomena,Small object falling/collisionIs mentioned first. When a huge meteorite collides, a small celestial body may pass through the atmosphere or decompose.shock waveOccurs when it falls and is hugeMeteorite hole,craterYou can This shock causes a large amount of dust to be rolled up, resulting in the interruption of sunlight and a sudden change in the climate, which causes what is called a tsunami when it falls into the sea. For example, 6600 million years agoCretaceousHas been cooled by the collision of a huge meteorite,(I.e.The theory that the extinction of the[35].. Besides this, the explosion on the sun surface (Sun flare)'S powerfulCorona mass release(CME) andSolar stormAnd is released by thisElectromagnetic wave-Particle beam,Solar energy particle beamThere is concern over the impact on space aliens due toDellinger phenomenon) AndMagnetic stormAlso occurs[36].

Events at the time of disaster

As events that occur during many disasters,infrastructure-life lineThe fragmentation and breakdown of In addition to being physically shredded, it may cause a control system failure or a power outage. Also, in the event of a disaster, restrictions may be deliberately imposed because of securing supply and prioritizing important applications.

Disaster prevention/prediction and warning

In order to prevent natural disasters and take emergency measures against disasters that have occurred, variousDisaster preventionPolicies are in place. For example, as a flood countermeasure,damAnd riverEmbankmentThe basic policy is to contain the water that has increased due to the flow of water in the river channel and swiftly discharge it into the sea.[37].. To prevent sediment-related disasters, prohibit development in high-risk areas in advance,Sabo damThe construction of[38].

When significant natural disasters are predicted, governments in some countriesalarmTo warn the vigilance. In Japan this workJapanese Meteorological AgencyIs in charge, depending on the alert levelWarning,alarm,Special alarmThere are three stages. It used to be only warnings and warnings, but from August 3, 2013, special warnings will be announced when a particularly serious disaster is predicted. There are also frost warnings that call attention to frost damage and do not have warnings.[39].. In principle, it is impossible to predict an earthquake, but P waves (Initial tremor) And S wave (Major movement) Arrival speed, andSeismographEmanating fromRadio waveIn Japan using the time lag ofEarthquake early warningSystem has been put in place, and slightly (several seconds to tens of seconds)[40]) It became possible to alert people quickly[41].

In addition to this, we mapped the damage and its extent predicted by natural disasters.Hazard mapHas been prepared for various disasters such as earthquakes, floods, and landslides.[42].

Damage caused by natural disasters

Germany'sMunich reinsuranceAccording to the company's annual report, the number of deaths due to natural disasters in 2010 was about 29 (of whichHaiti earthquakeThe death toll is estimated to be 22) and the economic loss is estimated to be 1,300 billion dollars. This is the 1980-5th worst number since 6[43].

According to statistics from 1900 to 2006, there were 1000 earthquakes, 127 meteorological disasters, 82 volcanic disasters, 15 landslides, 14 snow damages, and 2 wind damages. Has become[44].. While the number of deaths due to natural disasters has been declining due to the implementation of various disaster prevention measures, the number of residents suffering from unsuitable areas has increased due to population growth and migration, which has led to an increase in the number of victims themselves.[45].

In the event of a natural disaster,Developed countryIn this case, the damage caused by the disaster prevention measures was reduced in advance, and in the process of recovery, new disaster prevention measures were taken in response to the new problems discovered during the disaster. While the number of damages tends to continue to rise and decrease, in the case of disasters in developing countries, disaster prevention measures are inadequate and the damages expand. And there is a tendency for negative movements such as new disasters and further damage.[46].. As a result, the death toll of natural disasters is overwhelmingly higher in developing countries.[47].

Natural disasters and international law

Regarding support in the event of a natural disaster,Geneva ConventionbyInternational Red Cross/Red Crescent MovementThere isDisability Rights ConventionArticle 11 states thatInternational humanitarian law,International human rights lawIncludingInternational lawAccording to the obligation ofArmed conflict,humaneTake all necessary measures to rescue and protect persons with disabilities in the event of a disaster, including in emergencies and natural disasters." In December 1991United Nations General AssemblyAddress and coordinate humanitarian crises such as natural disasters and conflicts by resolutionUN agencyAsUnited Nations Humanitarian Affairs Coordination Office(OCHA) has been installed[48].

Natural disasters and society

Since the beginning of civilization, natural disasters have had a great impact on society and have had various effects.Mesopotamian civilizationInTigris RiverとEuphrates RiverFloods often caused great damage, which was unpredictable and sudden,big floodCame to produce the myth of[49].. These flood myths are widely distributed throughout the world. In Japan, when a disaster occursChangeDue to drought and plague923 OfEnkiからExtensionBegan to be widely used[50], The Meiji governmentIchigen systemIt continued until it was decided that it was one yuan per Emperor.

Related item

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Human Injury Caused by Social Disparity and Natural Disasters-Focusing on the damage caused by the Indian Ocean Tsunami in Thailand-, Tadashi Nakasu, National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention No.69, August 2006
  2. ^ B. Wisner, P. Blaikie, T. Cannon, and I. Davis (2004). At Risk-Natural hazards, people's vulnerability and disasters. Wiltshire: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-25216-4 
  3. ^ G. Bankoff, G. Frerks, D. Hilhorst (eds.) (2003). Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters, Development and People. ISBN 1-85383-964-7 
  4. ^ http://www.unesco.org/science/disaster/about_disaster.shtml More quotation
  5. ^ D. Alexander (2002). Principles of Emergency planning and Management. Harpended: Terra publishing. ISBN 1-903544-10-6 
  6. ^ Amartya Sen"Overcoming Poverty" pp.112-114 Shueisha, 2002
  7. ^ http://www.afpbb.com/articles/-/2718762 "Icelandic eruption disrupts European skies, bans all flights in Britain" AFPBB April 2010, 04 Retrieved March 15, 2020
  8. ^ https://natgeo.nikkeibp.co.jp/atcl/news/18/031400115/?P=1 "Ancient super huge eruption, human beings survived this way" National Geographic 2018.03.14 Read March 2020, 3
  9. ^ "Basic Earth Science 2nd Edition" p186 Yuji Nishimura Ed. Asakura Shoten November 2010, 11 Second Edition First Edition
  10. ^ "Basic Earth Science 2nd Edition" p185 Yuji Nishimura Ed. Asakura Shoten November 2010, 11 Second Edition First Edition
  11. ^ "Basic Earth Science 2nd Edition" p187 Yuji Nishimura Ed. Asakura Shoten November 2010, 11 Second Edition First Edition
  12. ^ "Basic Earth Sciences 2nd Edition" p194-196 Yuji Nishimura Ed. Asakura Shoten November 2010, 11 Second Edition First Edition
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  14. ^ http://jssspn.jp/info/nuclear/post-23.html "Tsunami-related information (2020): Salt damage caused by tsunami and storm surge (3)" Japan Society for Soil and Fertilizers, viewed March 28, XNUMX
  15. ^ "Basic Earth Sciences 2nd Edition" p199-200 Yuji Nishimura Ed. Asakura Shoten November 2010, 11 Second Edition First Edition
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  21. ^ "Illustrated Mechanism of Extreme Weather and Countermeasures against Natural Disasters" p64 by Gerry McCall Translated by Noriko Naito Hara Shobo July 2019, 7 31st edition
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  23. ^ https://www.kodomonokagaku.com/hatena/?989d10945af54bad03babf0b28945a40 "What is the difference between high waves, tsunamis, and storm surges?" Children's Science Seibundo Shinkosha, viewed March 2020, 3
  24. ^ http://www.mlit.go.jp/river/kaigan/main/kaigandukuri/takashiobousai/02/index.html "Is the storm surge scary?" Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, March 2020, 3
  25. ^ http://jssspn.jp/info/nuclear/post-23.html "Tsunami-related information (2020): Salt damage caused by tsunami and storm surge (3)" Japan Society for Soil and Fertilizers, viewed March 28, XNUMX
  26. ^ "A book that understands the weather of the sea well" p204-205 Akira Mori 枻Publisher March 2012, 3 First edition First edition
  27. ^ http://www.bousai.go.jp/kohou/kouhoubousai/h27/81/special_01.html "Special Feature: Preparing for Heavy Snow-What kind of disasters will occur in the event of snow damage?" (27 public relations magazine "Disaster Prevention" Winter Issue (No. 81)) Japan Cabinet Office, viewed March 2020, 3
  28. ^ "Illustrated Mechanism of Extreme Weather and Countermeasures against Natural Disasters" p61 by Gerry McCall Translated by Noriko Naito Hara Shobo July 2019, 7 31st edition
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  33. ^ https://news.yahoo.co.jp/byline/morisayaka/20200211-00162510/ "All wildfires are settled by heavy rain for the first time in 30 years Australia" Sayaka Mori Yahoo News February 2020, 2 Viewed March 11, 2020
  34. ^ "Encyclopedia of Africa", Heibonsha,ISBN-4 582-12623-5 February 1989, 2 First edition, first printing p.6
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外部 リンク

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Natural disaster commentary/record/flash

 

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