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The concept of collaboration isAmerica OfIndiana University Ofpolitics教授(Vincent Ostrom), Inspired by Victor Fuchs's work, written in 1977Comparing Urban Service Delivery SystemsAs the main concept inCo-productionIt was born by using the term.English: CoMeans "common, common ..."ProductionIt was born in combination with, and when it was translated as collaboration, it became established as Japanese.
- Inspired by Vincent Ostrom by Victor Fuchs
- Professor Vincent Ostrom was inspired by Victor Fuchs in two ways:
- First of all, the production and supply side of public services is considered to be the role of the government, but if the government takes the initiative in fulfilling that role in a unified manner, there will be a limit to improving productivity, resulting in It is impossible to improve productivity.
- The second point is that in the production process of public services, "regular producers = civil servants" and "consumer producers = general citizens who consume public services" cooperate and cooperate to improve productivity.
Concept of collaboration
In recent years, this concept of collaboration has been based on Japan.Local autonomyIn the field oftown planningIt is one of the concepts advocated as indispensable for the efforts of.For exampleRegionTo solve the problem ofAdministrationIf you have a problem that cannot be solved by itself, orCitizenWhen there are problems that cannot be solved by themselves, we will complement each other's shortages and work together to solve the problems.Alternatively, collaborative community development is promoted when it is considered that collaborative efforts are more efficient in terms of service supply and administrative management.
Subject of collaboration
Approximately, the main body of collaboration in town development is the citizens.In general, the terms administration and citizen are often used.However, citizens are not necessarily limited to local residents, but NPOs, companies, etc.Corporate citizenIn the sense that it is a member of the region, the administration is also a citizen named an administrative citizen.It is essential that collaboration be equal to each other in responsibility and action, and it is desirable for the government to be involved in collaboration from the perspective of citizens as a member of the community.Therefore, it can be said that collaboration means that all citizens cooperate with each other and contribute to community development independently.
Creating a collaborative system
The elements that make up the concept of collaboration are as follows..
- Sharing goals
- Setting goals that each entity can share.
- Ensuring parallelism and equality between subjects
- Each collaborating entity ensures autonomy and autonomy with each other and is not controlled by other entities.
- Ensuring complementarity
- Each entity complements each other's abilities and resources so that goals are achieved efficiently and effectively, producing greater and new results through synergistic effects.
- Sharing responsibility
- Since it is a goal achievement activity through the collaboration of multiple actors, the actors involved have a corresponding responsibility for the results.
- Establishing the principle of coexistence (respect)
- The actors who collaborate are different in terms of ability, resources, know-how, scale, special skills, etc., and their way of thinking and approach are different, but if they respect each other's differences, it will be efficient and effective to achieve the shared goals. It becomes.
Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake
As an early example in Japan, town development has been promoted through collaboration between the government and citizens, mainly in Kobe City since the 1970s, but the significance of collaboration has been reconfirmed.Great Hanshin-Awaji EarthquakeMet.Rescue of the victims by police and fire departments could not keep up, and of the 35000 people in need of rescue, 27000 were rescued by the citizens themselves or with the help of their neighbors.With this earthquake, the recognition that the autonomy and solidarity of the entire region is indispensable in Kobe City has spread, and disaster prevention town development by self-help, mutual assistance, and public assistance has been promoted.In other words, the significance of collaboration in which citizens work together with the government to solve local problems was reconfirmed, and it became an opportunity for the town development of collaboration to spread further in many other municipalities.
How to collaborate
Collaborative self-government activities may be government-led or resident-led, but each has its advantages and disadvantages.The best is said to be mutual propulsion collaboration.However, in reality, there are few municipalities that promote collaboration in earnest.
In recent years with the administrationNPOEfforts to create a town through collaboration between the government and citizens are active, and will play a central role in the field of local autonomy in the future.ValuesIt seems to be one of.
- ^ Shojiro Araki "Philosophy and Practice of Collaborative Autonomous Administration" Keibundo 2012