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👩‍🎓 | Memories of Book Review Special Edition "Educational Research Special Lecture II" on Education and Independence


Memories of Book Review Special Edition "Pedagogy Research Special Lecture II" on Education and Independence

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-At the same time, in the field of contemporary French thought, Deleuze & Guattari introduced the concept of Rhizome.

This is a special edition of the book review feature "Memories of Pedagogy Research Special Lecture II".Questions and answers when a guest appeared in a class at Chuo University Graduate School ... → Continue reading


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French contemporary thought

French contemporary thought(It looks like France)World War IStart from before and after20st centuryFrance Of哲学NothoughtThat.19st centurySince then with FranceGermanyCentered onContinental philosophyIn the flow of, continental philosophy research in France after the 20th century,Contemporary thoughtThe term "XNUMXth-century French thought" is used when making a special mention.

Marxism,Friedrich Nietzsche,Sigmund FreudLanoGermanyCriticism of near-representativeness,Edmund Husserl,Martin Heidegger OfPhenomenology,Ferdinand de Saussure OfSemiotics,Philosophy of languageEtc. are flowing in.

French philosophical tradition

In FranceCartesianOriginated inContinental rationalism-EnlightenmentThere is a philosophical tradition of.these are,knowledgeWhat is belief, science, and what is rational knowledge?EpistemologyAwareness of problems. In the 18th centuryDidro,RousseauThe Enlightenment of these people flourishedBritish empirical theoryAlthough influenced by, he refused simple empiricism.Unlike the German philosophical attitude of starting with an abstract definition and deducing it, we consider reason historically.

In the 19th centuryAuguste ComteContinues the tradition of continental rationalism and EnlightenmentPositivismとSociologyWhile creatingMaine de Biran,Victor Cousin,Felix RavaissonRagaSpiritualismFormed a philosophy.Existentialism in modern French thought,Structuralism,Post-structuralismIt is well known for its large and glamorous flow, but it must not be overlooked that there is another solid flow that has inherited the philosophical tradition from the 19th century, such as epistemology and French remorse philosophy.

France is also associated with England, where the Church of England is located.ReformationUnlike Germany, which was the center ofCatholicThe ideological influence of.With CatholicismFrench SpiritualismThe relationship between philosophical traditions is complex.In relation to this Catholic tradition, since the 19th centuryNeo-scholasticismWe must also see the rise of.


Bergson is a tradition of French philosophyPositivismAnd inherited the spiritualism.Herbert Spencer OfSocial evolutionDescartes-like in "Materials and Memories"KogitoPhilosophical conundrum caused by the assumption ofMental and physical problemsWhile using the concept of "image" as an intermediate between matter and representation, he perceives the mind and body as being located at the two extremes of sustained tension and relaxation, both through the rhythm of sustaining. Discussed mutual involvement.Bergson then pushed his thoughts further in the direction of life theory.1907"Creative evolution" is announced.This book states that the fundamental force that promotes the idea of ​​sustaining consciousness to the entire life and the universe and promotes the evolution of life is "élan vital".Here is one of the philosophical traditions of FranceFrench SpiritualismAnd the combination of positivism can be seen.

On the other hand, Bergson'sRaw philosophyCan be said to be a pioneer of French existentialism.BergsonmetaphysicsIs in GermanySimmel-Rickert・ It influenced Heidegger and others.Merleau-Ponty's身体The theory is largely influenced by the concept of "image" as an intermediate between Bergson's matter and representation, and it is believed that it would not have been possible without Bergson.言语Focus on the problemStructuralismBergson's influence on thought is hard to find, but with Merleau-PontyDeleuzeBergson's influence is decisive in his philosophy.

Bergson's philosophy rapidly diminished its influence as Sartre's existentialism became popular and gained public sympathy in the post-war atmosphere that caused two tragic disasters.

Phenomenology / hermeneutics

PhenomenologyIntroduced to France also prepared an era of existentialism.Before the war SartreLevinasI learned phenomenology through my writing.Phenomenology influenced Sartre and Merleau-Ponty, but it was both who read which work at what time and was influenced by them.OntologyMade a difference.Merleau-Ponty was reading late thought, including Husserl's unfinished manuscript.

Of Husserl's writings, "Descartic Reflections" was translated into French by Levinas et al. Immediately after publication.After the warRicoeurTranslated "Idane" into French.Phenomenology has a wide influence on the ideas of existentialism and structuralism, and for thinkers who are closely related to phenomenology, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty, Levinas, Ricoeur,Michelle Henry,Jean Francois Riotal,Jack DerridaAnd so on.Also, phenomenologyHermeneuticsThe leading figure in French hermeneutics is Ricoeur.Later, at the end of the 20th century, the trend of linking phenomenology with theology became conspicuous, and there are pros and cons called "theological turn of French phenomenology."Levinas, Henri, etc. are examples of thinkers who belong to the theological turn.



FranceExistentialismAncestor ofSartreIs the main work "Existence and Absence-A Trial of Phenomenological Ontology』(1943), right now living my ownexistIsExistentialI developed an ontology centered on.

Sartre's ideas are especiallyatheismCalled existentialism, in his lecture "Is Existentialism Humanism?", He reversed the traditional metaphysical thesis that "essential existence precedes factual existence", which originated in Plato Aristoteres."Existence precedes essence'Insist,"Human beings are sentenced to freedom."Said.If everything is nothing and there is a God who created everything from that nothing, God must know in advance what God himself creates.Then everything is by God before it actually exists本質Will be decided.In other words, in this case, since it is premised that the Creator God exists, "essence precedes existence."But Sartre asks what would happen if there was no god to create anything like that.If the God of Creation does not exist, then everything will exist in reality without its essence being determined (by God).In this case, "existence precedes essence", and Sartre argues that this is the fundamental situation in which human beings are placed.For Sartre, the sudden and unfounded relationship between immediate self-existence and anti-self-existence as grasped by phenomenology is the basis for the phantom existence of immediate existence.In any case, the existence as an existence that cannot be reduced to phenomenology is a problem there.


Merleau-PontyFocused on the lifeworld of late Husserl and tried to overcome it. In "Phenomenology of Perception" (1945), he focused on perception and body.Phantom limbsAnalyzes the phenomenon of and criticizes naturalism and idealism."My body" is one of the objects of the world for the Cartesian Kogito, which is the premise, and if such a premise is correct, my consciousness will itch on the legs that are not objective. You shouldn't feel it.He,CartesianHe argues that there is an error in clearly dividing the self-subject and the immediate self-object into two, like Sartre, who inherits the traditional tradition, and that both should be grasped in an inseparable fusion unity.The body is an ambivalent existence that is the center of dehiscence that is neither the subject nor the object but also the subject and the object.Even the physiological reflex involves a grasp of the overall attitude and meaning of the living body towards the environment, and that wholeness is never reduced to my reflexive consciousness.The physical relationship between me and the world is not only an overall structure, but also a structure that develops over time.For him, the conflict between immediate self-existence and self-existence is the product of a deeper mediation with the above structure.

Merleau-Ponty's body theory like thisSigmund FreudEasily linked to the psychoanalytic thought of.It did not take much time for such a theory of structure to be applied not only to the theory of body, but also to extend it to the relationship between society and the individual.Merleau-Ponty is a structuralist psychoanalystラ カ ン, Cultural anthropologistLevi-StraussThere was an exchange with.


"Existence and nothingness" made him a darling of the timesSartreLater, in "Dialectical Reason Criticism" (1960),ExistentialismTheMarxismBy subsuming insideHistorical materialismReconstructed and came to insist on the integration of Hegel-Marxian historicism with Descartes-Husserl humanism.But then with SartreClaude Levy-StraussIn the wake of the controversy, Sartre presupposes that structural concepts such as Marx's superstructure / substructure and productivity / relations of production have been materialized, and that Descartes-Fussar's modern subject is the premise of his thoughts. It came to be criticized that it was actually seen as, and re-questioned the assumptions of independence and human-centeredness.StructuralismHas come to the fore.StructuralismSaussureUnder the strong influence of linguistics.Levi-Strauss, the main figure in structuralismJack Lacan,Louis Altussaire,Michelle Foucault,Loran BarthAnd so on.

Post-structuralism / post-modernism

The student movement, which originated at the University of Strasbourg in 1966, spread throughout France, the so-calledMay RevolutionHappened.However, it should be on the worker's side.French Communist Party(PCF) suppressed the strike, and left-wing cultural figures at the time also supported it.Therefore, Sartre's existentialism, which supported the disillusionment of the people with Marxism and affirmed active political participation on the premise of the concept of a modern subject, was also destined.As a result of the May Revolution, the left-wing forces lost the support of the people and prepared for the realization of a mass-consuming society against the backdrop of stable politics and high-tech by conservative forces.

And the criticism of structuralism, which has criticized existentialism and Marxism, begins to occur.Structuralism argues that the subject human being is unconsciously defined by a universal structure, and by analyzing the structure behind the phenomenon, the internal grammar of a system can be extracted.But there, each system acts accordingly, making everything predictable and eliminating things like chance and creativity.In short, structuralism tends to make structures static and universal, eliminating differences.

On the other hand, for those who are so-called "post-structuralists", structuralism is Western-centric.LogosHe challenged it as centralist.For exampleDerridaAccording to human beingsLogosThe idea that the whole world can be structured by) has not escaped from Western metaphysics like existentialism and Marxism, and the attempt to dismantle metaphysics by structuralism is also criticized as metaphysics.DeconstructionCriticize the hierarchical binary opposition by.Michelle FoucaultWas initially seen as a structuralist, but turned to a ideological tendency to refine research that uncovers the structure of power and became seen as a post-structuralist.

Under such circumstancesRiotalWrote "Postmodern Conditions" (1979).According to Riotal, "Postmodernism is big.story"The end of" (this is "the end of"HegelTypicalideologyThe history of the struggle is over. "KojeveIt is a way of thinking that was strongly influenced by.In other words, a grand ideological system like Marxism (big)story) Is over, altitudeInformation societyIn, the media consumes a large amount of symbols and symbols.According to this idea, "postmodern" meansDemocracyとScience and technologyIt can be said that it is one of the consequences of the development of.

There are several major stories in this context, critically cited as modern-modern-specific, or at least prominent there.For example, the idea of ​​an independent rational subject, consistent and comprehensive systematicity, its homogeneous reductionist elements, abstract objectification of the world by instrumental reason, and one-sidedness such as center and periphery. Hierarchy, etc.Thus, while post-modernism refocused on rethinking rational and hierarchical thinking attitudes, the emphasis varied from scholar to scholar.Therefore, the content of post-modernism also varies considerably depending on the theorist and context, and it can be said that there is no clear definition.However, it is said to have the general characteristics of skeptical, anti-foundational ideas or political movements, including objections to Western traditional concepts such as intelligence, reason, and logos that enabled modern subjects. be able to.Therefore, in that sense, it can be said that it is a movement that embraces more practical intentions, not just theories and ideas.It is an endless struggle to continue to be anti-power and anti-authority while enjoying freedom and enjoyment in a society without left and mass consumption.


Modern French scientific epistemology is called "epistemology" (Épistémologie).Philosophy of scienceIt shows that some fields are competing with each other.Epistemology isHistory of scienceEmphasis is placed on the close connection between philosophies and philosophies, but on the other hand, he rejects British empiricismPositivismAlthough it has the characteristic of inheriting the traditional tradition, it not only has a different history of development from the philosophy of science, but also has the characteristic that it is different from the general intention and controversial tone of the philosophy of science. Also has.For epistemology philosophersGaston Bachelard,Georges CanguillemAnd so on.

French reflection philosophy

Jules Lachelier,Jules LagneauUnder the French philosophical tradition that originated in Descartes, started byFrench Spiritualism OfMaine de BiranIn the soil of philosophy,Immanuel KantThe philosophy that transplanted the criticism philosophy of France is called the French reflection philosophy (philosophie réflexive).Reflection has subtle differences in nuances depending on the theorist, but his methodology is to always consider the mind in its action and its products, and disagrees with intuitionism.Reflection philosophy is distinguished from spiritualism in that it does not contribute to intuitionism.The tendency was different from the philosophy of life, and he deepened his own thoughts.It is said that it is an important trend even in France, although it is not well known in general.A thinker who was hardly known to the worldJean NabertMade an effort to publish the manuscriptPaul RicoeurEtc. have inherited that tradition.


Thomas's ideas began to decline rapidly with the establishment of modern epistemology, but in the 19th century,Neo-scholasticismIt was revived as an ontology of.Neo-scholasticism is "an attempt to study Thomas's philosophy on the premise of the theological position that there is a god who is a personal god," and "reserving judgment about such a position and modernizing it. Incorporating the results of philosophy and science, the points that need to be corrected can be broadly divided into two, "the ones who try to study Thomas philosophy after correcting them."A particularly controversial point is Kant's philosophy of criticism.EpistemologyAbout the research results ofEtienne GilsonIf you recognize the epistemological superiority over ontology, in the endIdealismThere is a negative position from the fact that it ends up in, and rather, there are many epistemologically suggestive descriptions in Thomas's philosophy, and there is a position to modify this in a modern way, like the French philosophy of reflection. is there.However, even in the former position, philosophy is based on reason to the last, and even if it has a common belief that "the existence of God and the soul", it is distinguished from theology, and as far as it is, it is called "Christian philosophy". There are also things.

French contemporary thinker


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