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👶 | Is it really bad for growth if you leave it in a nursery school? What is the myth of a 3-year-old child? [Childcare that makes it easier for pediatricians with 3 children]


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Is it really bad for growth if you leave it in a nursery school? What is the myth of a 3-year-old child? [Childcare that makes it easier for pediatricians with 3 children]

 
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After graduating from the University of Tsukuba School of Medicine in 2003 and working in the Department of Pediatric Cardiology at the National International Medical Center and Osaka City General Hospital, he has been in his current position after completing the doctoral program at the Graduate School of Tokyo Women's Medical University in 2014.
 

A pediatrician in the pediatrics department of Tokyo Adventist Hospital, a mom pediatrician with three children who are raising children aged 7, 5, and 4 in private life Noriko Yasuda ... → Continue reading

 Baby calendar

The Baby Calendar provides daily information on topics related to pregnancy, pregnancy, childbirth, childrearing, infertility, and information useful for daily life that supports pregnant women, pregnant women, mothers raising children, and dads. I will. It is full of information taught by professionals in the fields of pregnancy, childbirth and childcare, such as registered dietitians and midwives.


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Graduated from University of Tsukuba School of Medicine in 2003

Osaka

Osaka(Osaka) isOsakaLocated in the central partCity.. Osaka PrefecturePrefectural officeAndGovernment-designated city.KinkiandWest JapanOf administration, economy, culture, transportationCentral city.

As a capital in the 4th centuryNamba PalaceFor more than 1600 years since it was placedHistoryHave.Currently,Commercial,International tourismEtc. are popular[1]AsiaInWorld cityIt also has one side as.

Overview

In OsakacityThe origin as4st centuryGo back to.Japanese calligraphyAccording to the 15th generationEmperor OshinIs said to have maintained Namba Osumimiya as the Imperial Palace as a palace.16th generation after thatEmperor NintokuByNamba PalaceHowever, it was developed as the capital of Japan and started as a city in earnest.In addition, it repeats after thatTransfer of capitalAs a result, Japan's status as the capital is nowNara-京都After that, mainlyCommercial cityWill walk as.

Centered around the city (Top city) AsOsaka metropolitan areaandKeihanshin metropolitan areaAre formed. Osaka City's gross domestic product in FY2016 is about 20 trillion yen[2], In JapanTokyo Special WardIt boasts the second largest scale after (23 wards).this isGovernment-designated cityIt is the largest in the world and has twice to three times the populationHokkaido,Chiba,HyogoSuch as onePrefecture OfPrefecture gross productExceeds[3], The largest municipality with a population of about 370 million横 浜 市Boasts about 1.5 times the city's gross domestic product[4].. Furthermore, the gross regional product in the Keihanshin metropolitan area isTokyoCentered onCapital AreaSecond only to the top in the world[5].

Nighttime population The横 浜 市Next toNo. 2 nationwideAbout 266 people,Population density is 5th in all cities in Japan(Government-designated city1st among),Daytime populationDue to the influx of many commuters and students from outside the city, the number is about 366 million, which exceeds the daytime population of Yokohama City.areaIs one of the 20 ordinance-designated cities in JapanKawasaki City,Sakai City,Saitama4th smallest next to横 浜 市About half ofNagoya cityIt is about two-thirds of theAdministrative districtArea is the largest with 24 wardskm2Most of the administrative districts are less than.in recent yearsReturn to the city centerIs remarkable,9 central wards of Osaka(Kita,Chuo-ku,Nishi-ward,Tennoji Ward,Naniwa Ward,Fukushima,Miyakojima Ward,Yodogawa Ward,Abeno Ward) Is the center of the population.

Since ancient timesSeto Inland Sea-Osaka BayFrom the location facingSumiyoshitsu,NambatsuProspering as a port city and a center of domestic distributionCity of WaterWas called.In the Middle AgesWatanabe Tsu,Jodo Shinshu OfMotoyamaMetIshiyama HonganjiIs placed,Terauchi TownCommerce and industry develop as.From ancient times in the early modern periodIkutama ShrineThere was Namba PalaceUemachi PlateauNear the tip ofHideyoshi Toyotomi Osaka CastleBuilt a castle,castle townHas been maintained.Edo PeriodToHeavenAnd developed as a center of economy, transportation, finance and commerce.Dojima Rice MarketWas placed and functioned as the central market for rice, which was the center of the economy at that time. OsakaWorld kitchenCalled, rich in a commercial townTradesmanculture(Upper culture) Was brought up.Meiji EraWhen you enter, the textile industry (SenbaIt became an industrial city centered on the textile wholesale district of Japan)."OrientalManchester',"Smoke city'Was called.

1925The second expansion of the city area resulted in a population of 2 million,1923 OfGreat Kanto EarthquakeAt the time of the damageTokyo cityIt has grown to become the largest city in Japan in terms of area, population, and industrial shipment value, and the sixth largest in the world in terms of population.Great Osaka eraCall[6][7][8][9].. Is a city plannerSekiichiIs the 7thMayor of OsakaAt that timeMain streetwasSakaisujion behalfMidosujiWas expanded and maintained as the main street of the city, and the former, Japan's first public subway, was underground.Osaka Municipal Subway(CurrentOsaka City High Speed ​​Electric Orbit<Osaka Metro>)Midosuji LinePart of (Umeda Station-Shinsaibashi Station), And created the foundation of Osaka that leads to the present.On the other hand, commercial activities are also active, mainly in the wholesale business.Dosho Town(Drug type),Matsuya Town(toy),HonchoHas a history from the Edo period in various parts of the city such as (textile)Wholesale districtIs developing.

Osaka Metro Midosuji LineFunctions as an aorta in city trafficShin-Osaka Station-Umeda Station-Namba Station-Tennoji StationIt connects such important stations in a straight line from north to south. Also, in OsakaMajor private railwayOf the five major linesTerminal stationAre all connected to the Midosuji Line station.UmedaCentered onKita,Shinsaibashi-NambaCentered onMinamiIs two bigDowntownIt is developing as a commercial center.OtherTennoji,new world,KyobashiIt is located in the Abeno / Tennoji area.Abeno HarukasuIs known as the tallest skyscraper in Japan.Nakanoshima-Yodoyabashi,KitahamaA traditional neighborhood in Osakaoffice StreetIsFinancial StreetAre formed. Also,UmedaNeighborhoodOsaka Business Park (OBP) isUrban redevelopmentThe office building was planted bySkyscraperForming a group.From Nakanoshima, where the city hall is located, to Naniwanomiya,Osaka Prefectural GovernmentIs locatedOtemae, Many government offices and public institutions are located in Osaka Castle.Originally it was in Osaka City because the city area is small.Osaka University,Kansai University,Kinki UniversitySince most of the universities are based in suburban cities with large land areas, the number of universities in the city is small compared to the size of the population.

Osaka is one of the major ordinance-designated citiescrimeThe number of outbreaks is high, with 2020 in 33,734.Criminal law offenderWas confirmed[10]..This is more than double the number of Nagoya and Yokohama.[11].

The United KingdomResearch agencyEconomist Intelligence UnitConducted a survey of 140 major cities around the world, "Global Liveability Index"Indices) ”In the 2019 edition,Vienna,Melbourne,Sydney4th in the world afterAsiaWith the number one cityVotesWas done[12].America Ofthink tankHas announcedWorld Cities Ranking"2020 Global Cities Index (World cityIn the index) ”, it was evaluated as the 35th largest city in the world.[13]..2021 announced by a British think tankReports"The Global Financial Centers Index金融According to the Center Index), it ranks 32nd in the world.Financial centerIt is evaluated as[14].

population

CensusThen, in 2, when the second expansion of the city area was implemented, the number of people was 1925, ranking first in the country.Tokyo cityAfter 1932, when the city area was expanded, it returned to the second place in the country, but the number continued to increase significantly, reaching a peak of 2 in 1940.Due to the war damage, the number dropped sharply to 3,252,340 in 1947, but recovered to 1,559,310 in 1965.But after thatDonut phenomenonIn 1978, it was overtaken by Yokohama City and fell to the third place in Japan. Around the decrease to 3 in 2000Return to the city centerIn 2015, the number of people recovered to 2,691,185, but it is expected to decrease again in the future.[15].

Looking at the increase / decrease from 2010 to 2015, reflecting the return to the city center, the increase / decrease rate is 4% or more in the central, Naniwa, North, and West wards, and 10% or more in the Tennoji and Fukushima wards. It is increasing.The surrounding wards are the 2 wards of Yodogawa, Miyakojima, Konohana, Abeno, and Tosei, and the decrease is 5 wards of Tsurumi Higashiyodogawa, Joto, Asahi, Sumiyoshi, Hirano, Nishiyodogawa, Ikuno, Suminoe, Minato, Higashisumiyoshi, Taisho, and Nishinari. The downward trend in the south is remarkable.[16]..The three wards of Asahi, Ikuno, and Nishinari have been declining since 3, and the two wards of Higashisumiyoshi and Taisho have been declining since 1965.

While the natural dynamics of Osaka City are decreasing, the number of social dynamics is increasing more than that, and in both 2017 and 2018, Osaka City is the second largest population increase in Japan (by municipality).[17].. As of March 2021, 4Estimated populationIs 2,753,819, an increase of 1,957 from the same month last year.[18].

According to the 2020 population migration report (including foreigners), Osaka City has an excess of 16,802 immigrants (the number of immigrants exceeds the number of immigrants).This is more than the 23 wards of Tokyo in the same year (excessive transfer of 13,034 people), which is the highest in Japan by municipality.[19].

In recent years, the area ratio of office buildings on the main street has eased in recent years, and the number of newly built office buildings has increased.High-rise condominiums have been built on the site of aging office buildings. In some elementary schools, etc., there are not enough classrooms and extension work is underway.[20].

In recent years, the number of people per household is relatively large, so the number of people per household in Osaka is about 1.91, the smallest in the ordinance-designated cities.[21].

Demography27100.svg
Population distribution by age in Osaka and Japan (2005)Osaka City Population Distribution by Age and Gender (2005)
Purple-Osaka
Green-All over Japan
Blue-male
Red-female

Changes in population of Osaka city (corresponding area)
Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau CensusThan


Geography

Osaka CityYodogawaIt is an old port city opened at the mouth ofSeto Inland SeaKyotoIt has prospered as the center of logistics in western Japan, playing a key role in water transportation.Many places in the cityZero meters above sea levelBut someelevationThere is also a point where is over 20 meters.

In addition,KinkiAs the largest city,Kobe City-Kyoto CityTogether withKeihanshinCalled. The western part of the city area faces Osaka Bay and extends to the northwestern coast.Hanshin Industrial AreaSpreads. The city's gross economic product reaches about 22 trillion yen, which is the center of the Kinki economic zone.

climate

The whole area of ​​the prefecture including Osaka citySeto Inland Sea climateBelongs to, and is warm throughout the year. The summer is extremely hot and humid, making it one of the hottest areas in Japan. Especially at nightTropical nightThe number of days is 51.6 days, which is the third highest in the mainland government offices after Kagoshima City (43.1 days) and Kobe City (3 days). From July to August, more than one month is a tropical night even in the normal year. The average temperature in August is 37.4℃,NahaIt has the highest average temperature among prefectures in Japan. Due to urbanization in recent yearsHeat islandDue to the influence of the phenomenon, the temperature at night is less likely to drop than in the suburbs, and the increase in tropical nights and the decrease in winter days are remarkable.The temperature in the suburbs such as Hirano Ward may be higher than that in the central area such as Chuo Ward where AMeDAS is located.In Minato Ward, the maximum temperature is less than 35 degrees Celsius even in summer compared to central Osaka.


Osaka(Osaka District Meteorological Observatory, Altitude 23m) climate
Month123456789101112Years
Highest temperature record ° C (° F19.1
(66.4)
23.7
(74.7)
24.2
(75.6)
30.7
(87.3)
32.7
(90.9)
36.1
(97)
38.0
(100.4)
39.1
(102.4)
36.2
(97.2)
33.1
(91.6)
27.2
(81)
24.5
(76.1)
39.1
(102.4)
Average maximum temperature ° C (° F9.7
(49.5)
10.5
(50.9)
14.2
(57.6)
19.9
(67.8)
24.9
(76.8)
28.0
(82.4)
31.8
(89.2)
33.7
(92.7)
29.5
(85.1)
23.7
(74.7)
17.8
(64)
12.3
(54.1)
21.3
(70.3)
Average daily temperature ° C (° F6.2
(43.2)
6.6
(43.9)
9.9
(49.8)
15.2
(59.4)
20.1
(68.2)
23.6
(74.5)
27.7
(81.9)
29.0
(84.2)
25.2
(77.4)
19.5
(67.1)
13.8
(56.8)
8.7
(47.7)
17.1
(62.8)
Average minimum temperature ° C (° F3.0
(37.4)
3.2
(37.8)
6.0
(42.8)
10.9
(51.6)
16.0
(60.8)
20.3
(68.5)
24.6
(76.3)
25.8
(78.4)
21.9
(71.4)
16.0
(60.8)
10.2
(50.4)
5.3
(41.5)
13.6
(56.5)
Minimum temperature record ° C (° F−7.5
(18.5)
−6.5
(20.3)
−5.2
(22.6)
−2.6
(27.3)
3.5
(38.3)
8.9
(48)
14.8
(58.6)
13.6
(56.5)
10.4
(50.7)
3.0
(37.4)
−2.2
(28)
−4.5
(23.9)
−7.5
(18.5)
Precipitation amount mm (inch)47.0
(1.85)
60.5
(2.382)
103.1
(4.059)
101.9
(4.012)
136.5
(5.374)
185.1
(7.287)
174.4
(6.866)
113.0
(4.449)
152.8
(6.016)
136.0
(5.354)
72.5
(2.854)
55.5
(2.185)
1,338.3
(52.689)
Snowfall cm (inch)0
(0)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.4)
Average days of precipitation (≥0.5 mm)6.47.310.310.010.412.311.37.810.69.27.07.1109.7
Average number of snowfall days (≥0 cm)4.75.51.9000000001.813.9
(I.e.61605958616870666765646263
Average monthlyDaylight hours146.5140.6172.2192.6203.7154.3184.0222.4161.6166.1152.6152.12,048.6
Source:Japanese Meteorological Agency (Average value: 1991-2020, extreme temperature: 1883-present)[22][23]
Changes in average temperature
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency[24][Note 1]

Adjacent local governments

Osaka

Osaka

Hyogo

Hyogo

History

Prehistoric

Uemachi PlateauIs about 12 years agoInterglacialIt is a stratum deposited on the seabed during the Lis-Ulm glacial period. There was Uemachi Sea, which was one size larger than Kawachi Bay. Land began to appear about 11 years before the climate began to cool. On this new landNaumann Elephant,Crested DeerA group of Mukashini Sika deer was coming. Approximately 7 years before the transition to the glacial period, the sea of ​​Uemachi retired and the old Osaka plains expanded,ConiferHardwoodThere was a thick forest mixed with trees, and a river flowed through the trees from the hills to the lowlands in a mesh pattern. It remains as a fossil of the footprints of elephant and deer herds crossing this river. An elephant's body has one molar, but more than a thousand fossil footprints have been found[25].. The oldest old stone tools in Osaka are 110 stone tools excavated from the Nagahara site in Hirano-ku, Osaka City, about 3 thousand years ago.Late PaleolithicThought to be the early days of. It is a volcanic ash layer above the excavated layer of these stone tools.Aira Tn volcanic ashTherefore, the age can be estimated. Stone toolsSanukiteMade of 2-3CentimeterIt was a pebbles tool and a processing tool such as a scraper and a scraper.[26].

Jomon KaishinOsaka Bay caused byUemachi PlateauTheSand beakThe peninsula is formed, and the eastern part becomes Kawachi Bay.Jomon PeriodIn the mid-term, people had already settled in and lived their lives such as fishing and gathering.MorinomiyaIt has been revealed from nearby ruins.Yayoi PeriodThen the peninsulareefNext, Kawachi Bay will be desalinated and eventuallyLake KawachiBecomes The area around Lake Kawachi is blessed with a natural environment, and large-scale settlements will emerge due to the development of agriculture, which will serve as a base for shipping and trading with the continent.

Ancient times

The back of Osaka Bay,Yodogawa-Yamato RiverProtruding into the mouth ofUemachi PlateauIs the origin of the city of Osaka.Tennin DayIs the originatorMr. OtomoThe originator is yaMr. TsumoriIs the place whereEmperor JimmuBefore the coronation, in NambazakiIkutama ShrineFounded.Kofun period,Emperor OshinNamba Osumimiya (Naniwa Osumi no Miya)Emperor NintokuSet the capital in Namba and set MiyaiNamba Takatsunomiya(Naniwa no Takatsunomiya), and after that, on the Uemachi PlateauEmperor KinmeiNamba Celebration Tsunomiya (Naniwa no Hafuritsunomiya),Emperor Kotoku,Emperor Shomu OfNamba Palace(Naniwa no Miya) etc. were run.Namba Kozu Shrine is also simply Kozu Shrine.CurrentTakatsunomiya (Takatsu Shrine)Is said to have begun by exploring the ruins of this palace, building a shrine there and performing a ritual, originally from Ikutama Shrine,Osaka CastleWas around[27].. ).Asuka PeriodIn Namba PalaceRenewal of DahuaWas carried out, and thereafter, with the use of the national name of JapanEraIs said to have begun to be used. Dahua became the first era in Japan and became the center of politics, and laterNambakyoIs placed,Sumiyoshitsu,Nambatsu, In the Middle AgesWatanabe TsuOsaka Plain,Nara BasinIs a port city in the Seto Inland Sea, the center of domestic distribution,capital,Sub capitalWas placed.RitsuryokuThen.SettsuRange.

中 世

Since the political base moved to Kyoto in the Middle Ages, it also became the outer port of the Seto Inland Sea.Owada Tomari,KanzakiHowever, during that time, Shitennoji and the area around Sumiyoshi Taisha Shrine were also religious sites.Watanabe TsuWas prospering to some extent as a base for the Yodogawa Kawaguchi and a base for pilgrimage to Kumano and Sumiyoshi. Northern and Northern DynastiesToEmperor GomuraImperial Palace (Sumiyoshi Gyugu) For about 10 yearsMr. TsumoriPlaced in the Suminoe Museum (Shoinden),Emperor ChongqingAlso here. afterwardsLotusAt the tip of the Uemachi plateauIshiyama HonganjiIs opened all over the countryJodo Shinshu OfMotoyamaBecame. ThatTerauchi TownThen, business and industry developed.

  • 1496 -RenyoOsakaIn Ishiyama Dojo (laterIshiyama Honganji) Was built, and commerce and industry developed in the vast Terauchi town.

The early modern period

Oda NobunagaOn the site of Ishiyama Honganji Temple destroyed byHideyoshi Toyotomi Osaka CastleOnce again became a political center and at the same time a large castleContractPeople and supplies gathered together to become the economic center again (it became the center of the Japanese economy in earnest after about 100 years in the Edo period).But in 1615Osaka Summer TeamThen Osaka Castle fell, and Toyotomi was destroyed. 1619, Osaka CastleEdo Shogunate OfHeavenNext reconstruction, dispatched by the ShogunateOsaka Town MagistrateWill be in control. Edo is still new and has no product production capacity.Change of attendanceDaming-ServantIt became a large consumption area due to such factors.From before Osaka CastleAutonomous cityTo formRed seal ship tradeA wealthy merchant who was active inSueyoshi SonzaemonAnd so onPlainsThe plains of the Hirano merchants and Fushimi of the Kyoto Fushimi merchants will remain in the name of Osaka as Hirano-cho and Fushimi-cho.To Edo, from the industrial city of the time, such as Kyo, via OsakaHishigaki cruise ship-Barreling boatGoods were carried in.YodoyaPlayed an active roleNakanoshimaSurrounding each clanKurashikiAre accumulated,KitamaebuneAfter entering the port, Osaka played a central role in economics and commerce as a "kitchen of the world." Accompanying by the wealthy townspeople,BunrakuA variety of cultures were created, including. In addition, due to the number of rivers and canals and the bridges that bridge them, it is possible to use "XNUMX machi" in Edo and "XNUMX temple" in Kyoto.XNUMX BridgesWas called.

Modern

Meiji EraからShowa periodInitially, the governmentMintWith many artillery and arsenal facilities, various industries such as trading companies, wholesalers, newspapers, etc. centered on the metal industry and the textile industry have been developed, and it has been called the "Toyo No. XNUMX business and industry place", and many companies have risen.MecenatWas actively performed between HanshinHanshin ModernismWas called,Six big citiesAccording to the Meiji government from the end of the Edo period to the beginning of the Meiji eraClan bond disposalThe city of Osaka, which had been hit hard by the influence of such factors, has once again become one of the centers of Japan.Great Kanto EarthquakeAfter that,Tosei District-Nishinari-gunTransfer of the whole areaTokyoWith the addition of immigrants from (Yokohama, Nagoya, and Kobe), Osaka City was until the expansion of Tokyo City in 1932.Japan's largest cityAnd became the sixth place in the world. for that reason,"OsakaWas also called. However, since the government laid wartime control from the 10s and gathered the center of all fields such as culture, art, education, industry, etc. in Tokyo,[Source required]Relative status has declined.

modern

Administration

City emblem
  • Mio(MiokutsushiWas enacted as a city emblem in April 1894 (Meiji 27).At Miotsukushi Sumiyoshi Shrine, there is an object of Miotsukushi, and a guide board that is said to be the origin of the city emblem is installed.
City song
Finance/Business
Designated financial institutionIs a line of four.
Resona Bank-Mizuho Bank-Mitsubishi UFJ Bank-Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation

Mayor

  • Mayor:Ichiro Matsui(Ichirou
    • Current position since April 2019, 4
  • Deputy Mayor:Tohru Takahashi(Toru Takahashi
  • Deputy Mayor:Shin Asakawa(Asakawa Shin
  • Deputy Mayor: Takeshi Yamamoto(Tsuyoshi Yamamoto[41][42]

Staff hospitality issues

From 2004 to 2005, in Osaka City,Empty overtime・Yami pension・Yami retirement allowance・Dedicated to YamiVariousStaff hospitality issuesBecame clear. In response to this, the Osaka City Welfare System Reform Committee was established, and full-scale reforms began in 2012.[43].

Political activities during working hours

On the XNUMXst basement floor of the city government office building in Osaka, there are multiple headquarters of staff unions. Some employees left the workplace during work hours and participated in political activities. But,Osaka Restoration SocietyToru Hashishita sees this as a problem. Tohashi Hashishita said, "If you can't distinguish between your duties and political activities, first get them out of the building." The rent of the staff union's office was also exempted from the rent by XNUMX% compared with the convenience stores and other companies.[44][45].

Sky descent problem

StaffOuter organizationTodictateHowever, in 2011, it was the highest in the whole country[46]. But,Osaka Restoration Society(At that time) Tohashi Hashishita, in principle, will not be allowed to go out to outside groups in 2012.Basic staff regulationsEstablished. In principle, city employees are no longer able to re-employ a group that receives "subsidies of 300 million yen or more from Osaka City"[47].

Livelihood protection receipt rate

  • WelfareIn Osaka City, where the population ratio of beneficiaries is high among the major local governments[48], Approximately 4.95% of the population (13 people, as of March 5787) receive welfare benefits.Due to the aging of the population, the benefits of elderly households are increasing, but the benefits of other households are decreasing. In 2020, the number of households receiving livelihood protection for which the head of the city does not have Japanese nationality is 3, and South Korea and Korea account for about 2020%.[49].

Other

  • On March 2021, 3, the city harassed employees who had been accessing the Internet site for a total of about 30 hours from their workplace computers during work and female employees of their subordinates regarding pregnancy and childbirth (Maternity harassment・ It was reported that the staff who performed (Matahara) etc. (both were section chiefs) were disciplined for 3 months each.[50][51].
  • 2021年3月から4月にかけて、市が3月1日に大阪市内の飲食店に午後9時までの営業時間の短縮を求め、市民には「4人以下でのマスク会食」を呼びかけていたにも関わらず、市職員が5人以上での会食などを行っていたケースが200件以上、参加職員は1000人を超えるなどと伝えられた[52].

Parliament

City council

Osaka Prefectural Assembly(Selected by Osaka City)

  • Constant number: 27 people
  • Term: April 2019, 31 (Heisei 4)-April 30, 2023 (5 years of Reiwa)
ConstituencyParliamentary name
Kita (1)Osaka Restoration SocietyOsaka Prefectural Assembly
Miyakojima Ward (1)Osaka Restoration Party Osaka Prefectural Assembly
Fukushimaas well as the Konohana Ward (1)Osaka Restoration Party Osaka Prefectural Assembly
Chuo-ku (1)Osaka Restoration Party Osaka Prefectural Assembly
Nishi-ward (1)Osaka Restoration Party Osaka Prefectural Assembly
Minato-ku (1)Osaka Restoration Party Osaka Prefectural Assembly
Taisho Wardas well as the Nishinari Ward (2)Osaka Restoration Party Osaka Prefectural Assembly
KomeitoOsaka Prefectural Assembly
Tennoji Wardas well as the Naniwa Ward (1)Osaka Restoration Party Osaka Prefectural Assembly
Nishiyodogawa Ward (1)Osaka Restoration Party Osaka Prefectural Assembly
Yodogawa Ward (2)Osaka Restoration Party Osaka Prefectural Assembly
Komei Party Osaka Prefectural Assembly
Higashiyodogawa Ward (2)Osaka Restoration Party Osaka Prefectural Assembly
Komei Party Osaka Prefectural Assembly
Higashinari Ward (1)LDP・Independent Osaka Prefectural Assembly
Ikuno Ward (1)Osaka Restoration Party Osaka Prefectural Assembly
Asahi ku (1)Liberal Democratic Party/Independent Osaka Prefectural Assembly
Joto (2)Osaka Restoration Party Osaka Prefectural Assembly
Liberal Democratic Party/Independent Osaka Prefectural Assembly
Tsurumi ku (1)Osaka Restoration Party Osaka Prefectural Assembly
Abeno Ward (1)Osaka Restoration Party Osaka Prefectural Assembly
Suminoe Ward (1)Osaka Restoration Party Osaka Prefectural Assembly
Sumiyoshi Ward (2)Osaka Restoration Party Osaka Prefectural Assembly
Komei Party Osaka Prefectural Assembly
Higashi Sumiyoshi Ward (1)Osaka Restoration Party Osaka Prefectural Assembly
Hirano Ward (2)Osaka Restoration Party Osaka Prefectural Assembly
Komei Party Osaka Prefectural Assembly

As of April 31, 4

House of Representatives

ConstituencyRepresentative nameParty nameNumber of winsRemarks
1th Ward of Osaka Prefecture(Chuo-ku,Nishi-ward,Minato-ku,Tennoji Ward,Naniwa Ward,Ikuno WardHiroyuki OnishiLDP2Constituency
Hidetaka InoueJapan Restoration Party3Proportional revival
2th Ward of Osaka Prefecture(Abeno Ward,Higashi Sumiyoshi Ward,Hirano WardAkira SudoLDP5Constituency
Kanako OtsujiConstitutional Democratic Party1Proportional revival
3th Ward of Osaka Prefecture(Taisho Ward,Suminoe Ward,Sumiyoshi Ward,Nishinari WardShigeki SatoKomeito9Constituency
4th Ward of Osaka Prefecture(Kita,Miyakojima Ward,Fukushima,Higashinari Ward,JotoYasuhide NakayamaLDP5Constituency
Eibu MinobeJapan Restoration Party1Proportional revival
Tadashi ShimizuJapan Communist Party2Proportional revival
5th Ward of Osaka Prefecture(Konohana Ward,Nishiyodogawa Ward,Yodogawa Ward,Higashiyodogawa WardToru KunishigeKomeito3Constituency
Hideki NagaoConstitutional Democratic Party1Proportional revival
6th Ward of Osaka Prefecture(Asahi ku,Tsurumi kuSuch)Shinichi IsaKomeito3Constituency
Fumiyoshi MurakamiConstitutional Democratic Party3Proportional revival

Sister cities, friendship cities, etc.

Sister city
Dissolution of sister cities
To the cityComfort woman statueAfter approving the acceptance of donations such as, the sister cities were dissolved.
Friendship and cooperation city
Business Partner City (BPC)
Sister port
Friendship port

National agency

International organization

Consular agency

Consulate General

Economic and Cultural Affairs Office (Consulate-level)

Honorary Consulate-General

  • Nepal flagHonorary Consulate-General of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal in Osaka
  • Swiss flagHonorary Consulate-General of Switzerland in Osaka
  • Serbian flagHonorary Consulate-General of the Republic of Serbia in Osaka
  • New Zealand flagHonorary Consulate-General of New Zealand in Osaka
  • Hungarian flagHonorary Consulate General of Hungary in Osaka
  • Federated States of MicronesiaHonorary Consulate General of the Federated States of Micronesia in Osaka

Honorary Consulate

  • Uganda flagHonorary Consulate of the Republic of Uganda in Osaka
  • Estonia flagHonorary Consulate of the Republic of Estonia in Osaka
  • Ethiopian flagHonorary Consulate of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in Osaka
  • Oman FlagHonorary Consulate of Oman in Osaka
  • Kazakhstan flagHonorary Consulate of the Republic of Kazakhstan in Osaka
  • Canadian flagHonorary Consulate of Canada in Osaka
  • Spanish flagHonorary Consulate of Spain in Osaka
  • Sri Lanka flagHonorary Consulate of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka in Osaka
  • Flag of SlovakiaHonorary Consulate of the Republic of Slovakia in Osaka
  • Danish flagHonorary Consulate of the Kingdom of Denmark in Osaka
  • Bhutan flagHonorary Consulate of the Kingdom of Bhutan in Osaka
  • Fiji flagHonorary Consulate of the Fiji Islands in Osaka
  • Finnish flagHonorary Consulate of the Republic of Finland in Osaka
  • Portugal flagHonorary Consulate of Portugal in Osaka
  • Latvian flagHonorary Consulate of the Republic of Latvia in Osaka
  • Cambodia flagHonorary Consulate of the Kingdom of Cambodia in Osaka
  • Tanzania flagHonorary Consulate of the United Republic of Tanzania in Osaka
  • Chilean flagHonorary Consulate of the Republic of Chile in Osaka
  • Belgian flagHonorary Consulate of the Kingdom of Belgium in Osaka
  • Mexican flagHonorary Consulate of the United States of America in Osaka
  • Morocco flagHonorary Consulate of Morocco in Osaka
  • Lithuanian flagHonorary Consulate of the Republic of Lithuania in Osaka

UN agency

Economy

Major companies with registered head office and head office in Osaka city

table of contents

A Or It was I The Or , Et al.

A
Or
It was
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Corporation

Administrative district

Osaka City consists of the following 24 wards. The number of wardsGovernment-designated cityIs the most.

Data for administrative districts in Osaka City
CodesAreaInstallation dateEstimated populationareaThe population densityReason for installation
27102MiyakoshimaMiyakojima WardMarch 1943, 18 (Showa 4)107,6336.08km217,703 people/km2Branched from (old) Kita Ward and Asahi Ward
27103Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euFukushimaMarch 1943, 18 (Showa 4)80,0514.67km217,142 people/km2(Former) Kita Ward, Konohana Ward, and Nishiyodogawa Ward
27104This flowerKonohana WardMay 1925, 14 (Taisho 4)64,57719.25km23,355 people/km2Separated from Nishi Ward and (old) Kita Ward
27106WestNishi-wardMay 1889, 22105,6885.21km220,286 people/km2Installed at the time of municipal enforcement
27107MinatoMinato-kuMay 1925, 14 (Taisho 4)79,9837.86km210,176 people/km2Separated from Nishi Ward and (old) Kita Ward
27108TryTaisho WardMarch 1932, 7 (Showa 10)61,9599.43km26,570 people/km2Branch from Minato
27109TennoushiTennoji WardMay 1925, 14 (Taisho 4)82,7344.84km217,094 people/km2Branch from East and South
27111NaniwaNaniwa WardMay 1925, 14 (Taisho 4)76,7204.39km217,476 people/km2Subdivision from Minami Ward
27113Nishiyo and KawaNishiyodogawa WardMay 1925, 14 (Taisho 4)96,11514.22km26,759 people/km2Installation along with the transfer of surrounding cities to Osaka City
27114Hikashiyo and KawaHigashiyodogawa WardMay 1925, 14 (Taisho 4)176,89613.27km213,331 people/km2Installation along with the transfer of surrounding cities to Osaka City
27115The secretHigashinari WardMay 1925, 14 (Taisho 4)84,2634.54km218,560 people/km2Installation along with the transfer of surrounding cities to Osaka City
27116GoIkuno WardMarch 1943, 18 (Showa 4)128,8838.37km215,398 people/km2Branches from Higashinari and Sumiyoshi
27117AsahiAsahi kuMarch 1932, 7 (Showa 10)90,6506.32km214,343 people/km2Branch from Higashinari Ward
27118Let's tryJotoMarch 1943, 18 (Showa 4)167,9418.38km220,041 people/km2Subdivision from Higashi Ward, Higashisei Ward and Asahi Ward
27119ToAbeno WardMarch 1943, 18 (Showa 4)111,0485.98km218,570 people/km2Branches from Higashinari and Sumiyoshi
27120SumiyoshiSumiyoshi WardMay 1925, 14 (Taisho 4)152,7199.40km216,247 people/km2Installation along with the transfer of surrounding cities to Osaka City
27121Sumiyoshi HikashiHigashi Sumiyoshi WardMarch 1943, 18 (Showa 4)127,1829.75km213,044 people/km2Branches from Higashinari and Sumiyoshi
27122CompliantNishinari WardMay 1925, 14 (Taisho 4)108,1827.37km214,679 people/km2Installation along with the transfer of surrounding cities to Osaka City
27123YotokawaYodogawa WardMarch 1974, 49 (Showa 7)183,96312.64km214,554 people/km2Branch from Higashiyodogawa Ward
27124TsurumiTsurumi kuMarch 1974, 49 (Showa 7)111,5648.17km213,655 people/km2Branch from Joto
27125SuminoeSuminoe WardMarch 1974, 49 (Showa 7)118,84420.61km25,766 people/km2Branch from Sumiyoshi Ward
27126ひ のHirano WardMarch 1974, 49 (Showa 7)190,43615.28km212,463 people/km2Branch from Higashi Sumiyoshi Ward
27127CameKitaOctober 1989, 2140,41610.34km213,580 people/km2With (old) Kita WardOyodo WardIs a new merger
27128ChiyuuouChuo-kuOctober 1989, 2106,0798.87km211,959 people/km2Higashi WardSouth wardIs a new merger

Place name in the city

Main downtown areas and terminals

UmedaCentered onKitaAndNamba,ShinsaibashiCentered onMinamiAre the two biggest in OsakaDowntownIs listed as.Umeda ranks first in Japan in terms of department store area, and has the same sales in Tokyo.ShinjukuIt is second only to Japan and forms one of the best downtown areas in Japan.Minami is Shinsaibashi, Namba,Dotonbori-SennichimaeThe downtown areas such as these are geographically integrated to form an integrated and wide-area huge commercial area.

Including Osaka Station, Kitashinchi Station, private railways, and subway stationsOsaka/Umeda StationIs a key point for railway transportation in Osaka, and is a major station used by approximately 1 million people a day.TerminalIs.This is in TokyoShinjuku Station-Shibuya Station-Ikebukuro StationIt is the fourth largest in the world after. (For more information"Railway station in Umeda area(See)

Scenery

Education

University

Once there were many universities in Osaka city, but the city area is small,Factories Restriction LawUnder the influence of, many universities moved to the suburbs due to large campuses, and there are few universities in the city compared to other large cities. Osaka City, which has recently promoted the attraction and collaboration of universities, is a federation of 45 universities in Osaka Prefecture.University Consortium Osaka,in additionKansai Graduate School UnionSince October 2007, we have signed a partnership agreement withOsaka Station 2rd BuildingIt provides an activity base, "Campus Port Osaka".

★ is the main campus ☆ is the campus where the department is located

National university
Public university
private university

Junior college

private

University satellite campus

25 universities in convenient downtown Osaka for lectures for working peopleSatellite campusHas been installed.

University of Japan

Vocational school

Unlike universities, it does not require a vast campus, so there are many vocational schools in the city due to the convenience of transportation.In Osaka City, the number of students in vocational schools (vocational schools) is larger than the number of students in universities.There are 3 vocational schools in Osaka City and 163 private schools (including 7 closed schools).List of Osaka Prefectural College #Osakareference.

Various schools

Elementary school/junior high school/high school

The number of elementary schools, junior high schools, and high schools in Osaka is as shown in the table below (according to the 2020 school basic survey).

Installerprimary schoolJunior high schoolhigh school
Osaka City297 schools (4 minutes)130 schools (1 minutes)22 schools
National2 schools2 schools1 school (2 school buildings)
Osaka Prefecture--39 schools
private7 schools25 schools37 schools
In addition, there are 2 elementary schools, 2 junior high schools, and 1 high school as Osaka municipal schools established outside Osaka.

For a list of school names and articles for each school, see each ward article andOsaka Elementary School List-Osaka Prefectural Junior High School List-List of Osaka High SchoolsSee.

  • At Osaka City Elementary SchoolSecond World WarImmediately after the end of the war, major consolidation was carried out due to the war damage. After that, as the population increased, the integrated schools were separated and reopened, and new schools were established. However, since the 1980s, elementary schools have been consolidated due to the decrease in the number of children, mainly in central Tokyo such as Kita Ward and Chuo Ward.
  • At Osaka City Junior High School at the end of 2007School lunchWas completely abolished.All of the schools that provided school meals are schools that have a Dowa district in the school district or schools around it, and the abolition is a measure due to the review of Dowa administration and financial difficulties.Even at the time of school lunch, only 127 out of 12 schools were providing school meals (FY2007), and the implementation rate was low compared to the national average.Since 2012, a delivery lunch-style optional junior high school lunch has been introduced. From 2015, the transition to the implementation of junior high school meals by the self-school method or the parent-child method of cooking at a neighboring elementary school was carried out, and it was completed at all junior high schools in Osaka city in the first semester of 2020.
  • At Osaka City High School, plans are underway to integrate the current 23 schools into about 18 schools. In 2008,High school consistent school(Osaka City Sakuya Konohana Junior High School/High School) Has been established to provide 7-year education in collaboration with universities.Commercial high school-Osaka City Osaka Business Frontier High SchoolHowever, both were established by consolidating existing schools.Technical high schoolThere is also a plan to establish a "Comprehensive Technical High School" by reorganization.

Special school

In Osaka City, there are 1 national school and 16 prefectural and 1 branch schools in Osaka Prefecture.

Osaka City had long-standing educational practices and research as a city in each field of special needs education. In visual and hearing impaired education,1899The Osaka Blind Hospital set up by1919Was transferred to Osaka City, and later the Osaka City School for the Blind (currentlyOsaka Prefectural Osaka Kita Vision Support School), Osaka Municipal Deaf School (currentlyOsaka Prefectural Central Hearing Support School). In the field of intellectual disability education,1940Osaka Municipal School of Saiki (currentlyOsaka Prefectural Sisai Support School) Is also the first school for children with intellectual disabilities in Japan.

However, due to the policies of Osaka City and Osaka Prefecture, 12 Osaka City Special Needs Schools will be transferred to Osaka Prefecture on April 2016, 4.

For reference, the names of special needs schools located in Osaka city are listed below.

※other than thisKaizuka CityToOsaka City Kaizuka School for the DisabledHowever, the school was closed on March 2009, 3.

Educational facilities other than school education

Driving school

Osaka Labor Bureau Director registered training institution

  • Ikuno Industry Association
  • National Qualification Training Association
  • Miyakojima Operating School

Registered Small Ship Training Institute

  • Osaka Motor Boat Federation

library

学会

Media

Newspapers and news agencies
broadcast

D isTerrestrial digital television broadcasting<ID isRemote control key ID>, AM/FMRadio broadcastRefers to. The headquarters of all stations are in Osaka city. The name of the commercial station isKansai TVTV OsakaAll exceptKey stationThe company name includes the name of the newspaper company that is the parent company of.

Publication

Phone Number

Area code
As a general rule, 06 is used,Higashi Sumiyoshi WardHirano WardPart of (Yamato RiverThe part that goes into the south) is mainly KawachiHannanThe 072 area code used in the area is used.
City code
Considering that with the rapid increase in telephone subscribers, the conventional 3-digit area code is no longer sufficient,TokyoCentral 23 special wardsThe second after (area code 03 area)City code4 digit conversion1999May 1I went from 2 am (Mobile phone-PHSSimultaneous with the 11 digit number). that time,CMKatsura Saegusa (currentlySix generations Katsura Fumie) And other entertainers belonging to Yoshimoto Kogyo carried out well-known campaigns such as "Attach "6" to occasions" and "Atama no 6 dea!!".
In the area code, new subscribers are assigned 4 digits starting with 7 or 4, and existing digits are assigned 6 digits starting with 4.

Transportation

Train

The nearest stations to the city hall are Yodoyabashi Station and Oebashi Station.

Tokai passenger railway(JR Tokai

Shinkansen jrc.svg Tokaido Shinkansen

West Japan Railway Company(JR West Japan

Shinkansen jrw.svg Sanyo Shinkansen
A Tokaido Main Line(JR Kyoto Line-JR Kobe Line
F Osaka East Line
H JR Tozai Line
H Katamachi Station(Gakken City Line)
O Osaka Loop Line
P Sakurajima Line (JR Yumesaki Line)
Q Kansai Main Line(Yamato Line
R Hanwa Line

Osaka City High Speed ​​Electric Orbit (Osaka Metro)

M Midosuji Line
T Tanimachi Line
Y Yotsubashi Line
C center lane
S Sennichim Front
K Sakaisuji Line
N Nagahori Tsurumi Ryokuchi Line
I Imazato Line
P Nanko Port Town Line

Hankyu Corporation

HK Kobe Line
HK Takarazuka Line
HK Kyoto Line
HK Senri Line

Hanshin Electric Railway

HS Hanshin Main Line
HS Hanshin Namba Line

Keihan Electric Railway

KH Keihin Main Line
KH Nakanoshima Line

Kinki Nippon Railway

A Namba Line
A Nara Line
  • Namba Station-Kintetsu Nihonbashi Station-Osaka Uehonmachi Station-Tsuruhashi Station- Imazato Station -
D Osaka Line
  • Osaka Uehonmachi Station-Tsuruhashi Station-Imazato Station-
F South Osaka Line

Nankai Electric Railway

NK Nankai Main Line
NK Takano Line
NK Shiomibashi Line

Hankai Electric Orbit

HN Hankai Line
HN Uemachi Line

Main station

Here, the stations where more than 3 routes get in, or the stations where the daily average number of passengers is over 1, are listed.

bus

In addition, as a substitute for the red bus of the Osaka Municipal Bus that was abolished in March 2013, there are bus routes operated by the ward entrusted to private businesses.[53].

Most of the city area is operated by Osaka City Bus.The itemchecking ... The boarding method is the same as the fare, with the arriving payment before and after the passengers getting back and forth, but some businesses and routes have adopted different methods. With the exception of some Osaka City Bus routes and the Hokko Kanko Bus, contactless IC cardsPiTaPaICOCA[54] Is available.

Also, as a broad contact, with Osaka StationNagoya StationTieMeishin Highway BusAndCapital AreaAnd the Keihanshin district including Osaka city (Umeda, Namba district, etc.)Express bus,TourFormalCharter Bus(Tour bus) Are in operation.

Regarding high-speed route buses, they usually arrive and depart at the following points in the city.

道路

The main roads in the city are nicknamed "suji" for routes running north-south and "street" for routes running east-west.List of streets and streets in Osaka citySee.

Typical "muscle"

Representative "communication"

highway
Highway national road
Urban highway
General national road
Main local road
General prefectural road

Ship

aviation

In the neighborhood as the gateway to the sky of OsakaKansai three airportsExists. Nearest of the three airportsHokusetsuOf domestic main airports inOsaka International Airport(Itami Airport).QuanzhouInternational flights to and from the offingKIXThere is. Off KobeKobe AirportThere are some domestic trunk lines in service. Once the city of Osaka is a coalition of local governments at Osaka International Airport.Osaka International Airport Area City CouncilI belonged to (now 10 city co-op), but now I have left.

Museum facility

博物馆
Museum
Zoo, botanical garden, aquarium

Facility

“Important cultural property” after the facility name indicates an important cultural property designated by the country.

Leisure facilities/high-rise buildings

Historic site

Park/Garden

Ancient architecture

Modern architecture

Theater/hall

Gymnasium/stadium

Religious facility

Shrine
Temple
(I.e.

Festivals and events

Cultural and artistic activities

Entertainment
As traditional performing arts since the early modern period,Ningyo Joruri(Bunraku),kabuki,Noh,in additionKakugo RakugoIs famous.
Of these, Ningyo Joruri faced a crisis of temporary decline after the war, but thanks to efforts and administrative support,National Bunraku TheaterPerformances have been continued mainly up to the present. In 2003, as "Ningyo Joruri Bunraku"UNESCO OfIntangible cultural heritageIs specified in.
kabukiCurrentlyDotonbori OfShochikuzaIs the main stage.
NohAs the stage of,Otsuki Noh Theater,Yamamoto Noh TheaterThere is.
Kamigami Rakugo was abolished after the war,Katsura rice dynasty"Shitenno" and other activities have been revived. In 2006, it will be the first seat in 60 years due to the donation of citizensTenman Tenjin ShichoteiHas opened and is attracting attention.
After the war, instead of RakugoComic,New comedyGained great popularity. Even nowYoshimoto Kogyo,Shochiku entertainmentMany entertainers from all over the world are active in the ward.
theater
In Osaka,Ogimachi Museum Square,Kintetsu Small TheaterThere were many small theaters, and many unique theater companies were born. In recent years, the decline of theater culture due to those closings has become a problem,Seika Small TheaterA new stage such as is born. It was also born in recent yearsUmeda Arts Theater,Osaka Shiki TheaterIn large theaters such asTakarazuka Revue,Troupe four seasonsPerformances of famous troupes such as
Music
Several orchestras are based in or around Osaka city,The Symphony HallThere are famous music halls such as. In recent years, there have been active movements to spread the classical music to citizens, and events such as "Osaka Classic" (Osaka Philharmonic Orchestra) have been successful.
Literary arts
In modern times,Ibara NishitsuruIs famous. Even after the modern era, the life of the common people and the scenery of the city of Osaka were vividly drawn.Sakunosuke Oda,Naoki PrizeComes fromXNUMX NaokiHas produced many writers. Especially after the warRyotaro ShibaIs famous. Also,Osaka Literature School FromSeiko Tanabe,GentsukiWere produced.
  • Magazine "" (Kansai Literature Society)
Art
Literary people in modern timesKimura KenshodoThe painters who were called in the vicinity of No. ModernWestern painteras,Yuzo SaekiIs famous as a person from Osaka, and the collection is owned by Osaka City. In the field of contemporary art, avant-garde paintersYoshiwara JiraLanoGutai Art AssociationBut,NakanoshimaWas based in. The main museums areOsaka Municipal Museum of Art,National Museum of Art,Osaka Prefectural Contemporary Art CenterAnd so on.
Activity support facility
Awarding business
Osaka culture magazine
  • Osaka people(Osaka City Engineering Information Center)
  • (Shinpu Shobo)
  • (Publishing Department of "Kamikami Entertainment")

Sports team

baseball

サ ッ カ ー

Other

Works set in Osaka city

Novel

Bunraku

movies

Comic

Sing

Popular song

Many others

Anime

Celebrities related to the city

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Since the observation site was relocated, the observation equipment was changed, or the observation time interval was changed in 1910, 1933, and 1968, the data before and after that were not homogeneous.

Source

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  2. ^ FY29 Osaka Citizen Economic Calculation
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  15. ^ Census(E-stat, viewed April 2021, 4)
  16. ^ Main statistical table by prefecture / city / ward / town / village (27)(E-stat, viewed April 2021, 4)
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  18. ^ Estimated population (as of the 1st of every month) / population change(Osaka Prefecture, viewed April 2021, 4)
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  29. ^ a b c Horie and Shimanouchi ware Japan Disability Insurance Association "Preventive Bulletin" 182, 1995
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  53. ^ "Red bus will end on March 3”. Osaka Municipal Transportation Bureau (March 2013, 3). As of March 12, 2015オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2015th of February 8Browse.
  54. ^ Mutual useKitaca,Suica,PASMO,TOICA,sense of,SUGOCA,nimoca,HayakakenAlso available

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