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👶 | Unexpected trouble occurs!You should protect your hands with rubber gloves ... [Experience story]


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Unexpected trouble occurs!You should protect your hands with rubber gloves ... [Experience story]

 
If you write the contents roughly
Of course, at this point, I had never imagined a causal relationship with rubber gloves.
 

A housewife who is worried about fine wrinkles on her hands decides to take moisturizing care.Rubber gloves to prevent a friend from getting rough skin due to detergent ... → Continue reading

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The Baby Calendar provides daily information on topics related to pregnancy, pregnancy, childbirth, childrearing, infertility, and information useful for daily life that supports pregnant women, pregnant women, mothers raising children, and dads. I will. It is full of information taught by professionals in the fields of pregnancy, childbirth and childcare, such as registered dietitians and midwives.


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gloves

gloves(Glove) is a person'sHandHands (depending on form) used to protect against heat, cold and dangerous materials, or for decorationwristAnd some of them)clothes[1].

thumbMitten mitten is a glove that has two separate spaces for one and other fingers.[2]Call[1]..On the other hand, the one divided into five fingers is "glove" in English. Grab(Glove) ”[2]..There is also a type that releases the fingers.[1],Open finger gloves"And" thimble gloves ".

Of glovesMaterialIs diverse,cotton,Rasha,Nitrile,polyester,Nylon,Acrylic fiber Ofcloth,Yarn,felt, Of cows, pigs and sheepleather-Artificial leather,rubber,latex,Nitrile,金属,Heat resistant glovesToAramid fiber,Silicone resinIs also used.Washing gloves made of soft fabric (British: washing glove), Which is used to wash the body.

The unit of measure is twin. 10 pairsDeca, 12 pairsdozenUsed for trading as.

Purpose of use

The main purpose of wearing gloves is to protect the hands.In addition to being common as winter clothing, it can be used regardless of the season.burnPrevents scratches and cuts, and is dangerous to touch with dirt or bare handsChemical substance,PathogenAlso protect your hands from.NitrileMade bylatex,vinylDisposable gloves made by healthcare professionalsInfectionIt is used as an effective means to prevent.On the contrary, gloves are worn to protect objects whose value and effectiveness are reduced by touching them directly from human sebum.For example, product contact during various manufacturing processes,Artwork,AntiqueHandling, police investigation, etc.

Fingerless gloves are used in situations where you need to protect your hands from the cold and still have the freedom to use your fingertips.In the gloveswristNot up to肘Some protect them up close, and these are gauntlets (gauntlet) May be used to distinguish them.

It is often used as an accessory, even when it is not necessary to protect the hands.

Producing area

Gloves are produced all over the world and at homeKnittedOften[3].

France,イタリア,デンマーク,ハンガリー,カナダFor expensive womenbrandCloth gloves are made.The United States of AmericaNew York State,In particular(English edition)Is known to have been the origin of gloves, but in recent years many gloves haveEast AsiaIs made of.JapanThen, about 90% of domestic glovesKagawaHigashikagawaMade in the surrounding area.

History

At least the history of glovesAncient greeceGo back in time.Homerof"Odyssey』Some of翻 訳According to the father of OdysseusLaertesAllegedly wore gloves when walking in the garden.But according to other translations, justsleeveI just covered my hands with.440 BCWritten inHerodotusThe book "History』InLeotychidasIs a glove or a gauntletSilver coinThebribeIt is stated that he is being charged with the crime he received as.Gloves often appear in ancient Roman accounts.Year100Active before and afterSmall Plinyaccording to,Great PlinyHad dictated while riding the carriageShorthandToWinter:During that time, he wore gloves so that he could write in the cold.

Fashion,儀式,in additionReligiousGloves are used for this.13st centuryFrom aroundEuropeNow, women have come to wear gloves as a fashion.linen,silkGloves, sometimes made of, with elbows, were widespread.16st centuryToThe United KingdomQueen ofElizabeth II jewelry,embroidery,raceThe glove epidemic culminated when wearing luxuriously decorated items.Opera gloveFrom above the elbow calledSecond armLong gloves up to Queen Elizabeth I,Catherine de MediciQueen,Mary IIQueen etc.Royal familyByFavoriteWas done.Long gloves are closely associated with aristocrats and royalty for thousands of yearsRoyal familyとauthority OfSymbolAnd many fictitiousqueen,princess,貴族 TheEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIs depicted as wearing them as part of[4].

Gloves decorated with embroidery and jewelsemperor,王 OfbadgeHas become a part of.1189ToHenry VWhen was buriedCoronationI wore it whenRobeとcrownAnd it was buried with gloves,Matthew PerryIs recording.1797ToKing of England JohnWhen I opened my grave,1774ToEdward VIIGloves were also found when he opened his tomb.

Gloves as vestments are mainlyCatholic church Ofpope,Cardinal, Worn by monks.By doctrineMassIt is only allowed to be worn when celebrating.Gloves are this habit10st centuryIt may be the beginning of a simple desire to keep hands clean during ceremonies, going back toPrivileged classIt may be the beginning of what the priests, who became rich as, wore to decorate themselves.Frank kingdomからRomeThis custom spread to11st centuryIn the first half of, it became common in Rome.

in Japan,Kamakura PeriodWorn by a samuraigauntletDeveloped as.At that time, it was also called "hand cover".Japanese gloves are classified as "straw"Gloves" and "clothIt is divided into "gloves", and the straw is divided into two parts, the thumb and the four fingers.folkloreIn the field of, cloth is also called "warate", so it is considered that cloth was made after straw (Supervised by the Agency for Cultural Affairs, Cultural Properties Protection Department, "Encyclopedia of Japanese Folklore", Daiichi Hoki 1969 p. A photo of straw gloves in the Kamikita district of Aomori prefecture is posted on 10.p.11.).

15--in the 16th centuryNanban tradeWestern-style gloves were imported and prized by.Domestic production soon began, and gloves were made by poor samurai.Internal jobIt becomes popular as.Gloves俳 句In winterSeason wordsBut also.

FemaleroyalAlways carry white gloves, but this isHatWith that貴族It is a symbol of sex.Royal family OfDinner partyIn specially modified situations such as ceremonies and ceremoniesRobe décolletageTogether withOpera gloveWear andtiaraIt is based on wearing a (small crown)MiyanakaSo this is the highest dress for women[5].

Classification/Type

There are various taxonomies.

One is to classify as mittens / grabs by shape, as explained at the beginning.The shape with exposed fingersFingerless glovesThe type that covers up to the arm is classified as.

There is also a method of classifying by purpose of use, such as medical / sports / work gloves / driving gloves.

Gloves for sports and martial arts

It can be further subdivided for sports For boxing / / For soccer / For baseball / For diving ... etc.

Still moreGolfForサ ッ カ ー OfFor goalkeeperIn addition to protecting your hands, make things you grab less slipperyGripIs also important.

For baseballGrab-Mitt,Boxing glovesThere are also gloves specialized for each competition.

For soccer

サ ッ カ ーFor use, players who use only one hand in the team, gloves worn by goalkeepers,Goalkeeper glovesis important.

For baseball

baseballHas a history of gloves evolving as a tool for catching balls.Used by pitchers and fieldersBaseball grabOr used by catchersMittThere is.Used by batters(English edition)There is also.

For skiing

Ski gloves are defined as the following items in the US import category: 1.Naskan2. There is a reinforcing layer on the palm side, 3.A側jointThere is a reinforcing layer in the part, 4.wristHas a stretch treatment.

For diving

divingThe gloves used for diving are called diving gloves.

For falconry

FalconryIs practiced in various parts of the world, but in English the glove type is classified as glove and the instep type is classified as gauntlet. Say.Japanese falconers are called "bait hooks" (egake, yugake) and are made from deer leather.[6].

For archery

For Japanese archery, "YugakeThere are gloves.

For kendo

For kendogauntletThere is a glove called (trowel).


Medical gloves

手術,ForgivenessThe rubber gloves that form the basis of the medical gloves worn at the time are called the "father of the resident system".Johns Hopkins University OfWilliam Stewart Halsted 1890Was my loverCaretakerInvented for Caroline.

Powerful for disinfection at that timedisinfectantHe had to immerse his hands in the surgery and devised rubber gloves so that Caroline, whose hands have weak skin, could prevent the hands from getting rough due to the disinfectant solution.As for bactericidal properties, it was more powerful than existing disinfectants soaked in hands, so orders flooded and it became widespread in surgical sites around the world.[7].

By the way, after that, the two got married because of this, but Caroline married Halstead and retired as a nurse, so she never used these rubber gloves.Latex gloves1964ToAustralia OfAnselDeveloped by the company.

Generally, items used in the food industry and precision work are packed in boxes of 100 or 50 sheets and can be used by popping up, but surgical items are packed one by one for hygiene management. ..FurthermoreInfectionTo preventSterilizationThe price is more than 10 times different because it is processed.

As of 2020, 3/5 of the world's production of medical gloves is produced in Malaysia.From March to April of the same year in MalaysiaNew coronavirusWith the spread ofLock outIncurred anxiety about the supply of medical gloves when[8].


Work / driving gloves

工場,Agricultural work,ConstructionWhen working in the fieldWork glovesIs often fitted.Work gloves are not waterproof, so when handling liquids such as water workrubberMadeSynthetic resinMade of gloves, oilElectrical tools OfGrindWhen dealing with such things as injury preventiondustTo not touchPig leather,CowhideYou may also use gloves (work gloves cannot be used because they are dangerous because they involve fibers).thinner,tolueneWhen dealing withsolventUse special rubber gloves.

In addition,Automobile,オ ー ト バ イ,BicycleFor non-slip, cold weather and safety when driving, etc.Security guard FlagOr use it instead of a taxi, etc.driverIs used to appeal the dress and not to stain the hands and handles.

Smartphone gloves

SmartphoneThe finger required for the operation ofStatic electricity,fingerprintThe use and shape of conductive materials have been devised so as not to interfere with certification.[9]..Conversely, there are also insulator gloves with only the little finger and ring finger to physically realize the palm rejection function when using a capacitive stylus on a tablet PC.

Formal wear gloves

Full coat dress,Robe décolletageEtc. womenDressUsed for[10]..In formal wearEvening glovesThe material is leather or cloth, and the color is white or black.CelebrationThen white is the mainstream[11][12]..The length of the gloves is the length of the dresssleeveShould be chosen according to the length of[13], The shorter the sleeves, the longer the gloves, the more sleeveless (No sleeve)ofEvening dressesThen use the one that is long above the elbow[14]. Also,Wedding dressThen the longer glovesformalHighly sexual, especially long ones have a length that covers from above the elbow to the upper arm, and this is called an opera glove.

Shinto ritual gloves

ShrineでPriesthood ShintaiUse special gloves to prevent your hands from touching when performing a memorial service.Made of white cloth, it is made of thumb and four fingers, and the wrist is tied with a string at hand.[15].

Color

Mostly white for work.Some security companies abbreviate it as "white hand".OriginallyTailcoat,tuxedoIt was used for formal wear at night, and although it was not used in the daytime such as the morning coat, it is currently used regardless of day and night.White is widely used as the color, but strictly speaking, white is used for tailcoats, and morning coats are used.Frock coatIs gray and the tie is black (SuitThe same applies when substituting with), but nowadays, white and gray are often used without worrying about it.Wedding dressIn the case of, the color of the gloves is white so as not to disturb the color of the dressM.CondolenceUse gray or black regardless of clothes.


Production method

The point of glove manufacturing is the three-dimensionality due to the position of the thumb and the flexibility of the wrist part that accepts both the width of the hand when putting on and taking off and the width of the wrist when wearing.

  • latexincludingrubberGloves are manufactured by forming layers in a three-dimensional shape in the shape of a hand.There is no problem with the flexibility of the wrist due to the elasticity of the material.
  • CuttingMethod: For leather gloves and textile fabric gloves (sewn gloves), there are "hand type" and "gun cut type" as the main cutting methods to give three-dimensionality.In the former, the main body (palm and instep) including four fingers is sewn with the gusset (the side of the finger, which is the thickness of the hand) in the middle, and in the latter, the gusset of the index finger and little finger is cut together and the middle finger and ring finger are integrated. Cut and sew separately with (sew the "base" of the middle finger and ring finger to the main body).The latter is used when you want to reduce the sewing cost from the material price such as leather work gloves or when you want to give a dynamic feeling.The wrist spreads out in a mold for easy access (Flare)BenzEither leave it open or use elastic gusset or wrist material.For high-grade leather gloves, the leather itself is made elastic by a method called table cutting, in which the leather is moistened in advance, stretched, rough-cut, and then die-cut.GardeningForMoutonGloves may be cut and sewn so that scraps can be used to save fabric costs.
  • Sewing method: "Inner sewing" in which the front surfaces of the materials are sewn together and turned inside out, and the back surfaces of the materials are sewn together.ミ シ ンThere are "gauge sewing" that is sewn by hand, "matsuri sewing" that sew the back side of the material together, and "picket sewing" that matches the front and back sides of the material.
  • Process: After cutting, sew the palm and instep through the gusset and attach the thumb.After sewing the lining in the same way, insert it into the main body and fix the fingertips to the main body.Sew the wrists together (folding, piping, etc.).A hand-shaped piece of metal orIronWith heatIronTo cliff.After inspection, tag and bag.
  • YarnGloves andWork glovesIs not sewn but knitted (Knits) With gloves, the work gloves knit the whole on a flat surface with the thumb spread regardless of the right or left hand.On the other hand, the main body of the yarn glove is knitted into a cylindrical shape, and the thumb is attached later.There is no problem with the flexibility of the wrist due to the elasticity of the knit."Extending gloves" that expand to fit the size of your hand when you put your hand in it are knitted with elastic threads, washed, shrunk, and ironed.

Japan and gloves

In Japan, "gloves manufactured using leather or synthetic leather for all or part of the product"Household goods quality labeling methodIs applied, and there is a stipulation in the general industrial product quality labeling regulations[16].

the term

  • Latex (Etymology:British: latex)
  • Knitted gloves
  • Palm
  • A
  • Gusset
  • wrist
  • Wrist spread
  • Benz (Etymology:British: wind)
  • Gauge (Etymology:British: gauge,gage)
  • Inner stitch
  • Festival
  • Pique (Etymology:British: pique)
  • Half picket
  • Guncut (Etymology:British: guncut)
  • Below the finger (length from the bottom of the thumb to the wrist: generally short items sold in Japan)
  • (I.e.
  • Three decorations

Culture related to "one glove"

Two gloves are usually treated as one set, but only one is careless.Lost and foundIt may be left on the street.Some people pay attention to these "single gloves",Germany OfPrintHomeMax KlingerIn the 1880s, produced a series of "gloves" that began when a woman picked up one of these gloves.

American actorTom HanksLost and found in townTwitterThere are many one-sided gloves among them.[17].

In Japan as well, Koji Ishii has taken thousands of photographs of one glove and is conducting research to record and classify places and situations.[18][19].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c Design classification definition card (B2) Patent Office
  2. ^ a b "Encyclopaedia Britannica", gloves
  3. ^ Japanese"Mother's songAs drawn in the lyrics of "(announced in 1956).
  4. ^ All The Tropes: Opera Gloves are ~
  5. ^ Japanese etiquette-The imperial family's teachings-
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ "Director's Column Vol.09 Surgical gloves born from the love of surgeons”. Medical corporation Tokushukai Shinjo Tokushukai Hospital (November 2005, 11). 2016/8/27Browse.
  8. ^ "World shortage of medical gloves, blockade of Malaysia, the largest producer”. Reuters (June 2020, 3). 2020/3/27Browse.
  9. ^ Fingerprint authentication is possible even with gloves!3 latest smartphone gloves recommended this winter & useful tips for AndroidKDDI "TIME & SPACE" (November 2017, 11) Retrieved February 22, 2018
  10. ^ Practice Tips Chapter 4-Cosmetology and Clothing Section 21-Details of Women's Formal Wear
  11. ^ WHITE TIE DRESS CODE FOR WOMEN
  12. ^ Six Easy Tips for Understanding Dress Codes and Knowing What to Wear
  13. ^ How to do it Chapter 4-Beauty and clothing Section 26-Gloves
  14. ^ Commentary: From "New Chiyo Tanaka Fashion Encyclopedia"
  15. ^ 1951 pages out of 7 pages published on July 15, 129 by the Association of Shinto Shrines
  16. ^ "Miscellaneous goods industrial product quality display regulations”. Consumer Affairs Agency. 2013/5/23Browse.
  17. ^ Tom Hanks keeps tweeting "Lost and Found in the City"BuzzFeed (March 2016, 3) Retrieved February 22, 2018
  18. ^ One-sided gloves(Retrieved September 2018, 2)
  19. ^ "Wonderful life: 13 years of shooting landscapes with" one glove ". Life intersects in the big city of Tokyo-Koji Ishii""Big Issue Japan Version" No. 326

Related item

  • duel: In Europe and the United States, there was a tradition of throwing white gloves at the opponent or hitting the opponent with it to challenge the duel.
  • Opera glove

外部 リンク

Causality

Causality(I'm sorry,British: causality, Cosality) and twoEventIs a concept that is related to the relationship between cause and effect, or whether or not it is related. In Japanese, the expression "causal relationship" is also used.

Overview

First, as an introduction, the Oxford DictionarycausalityIf you introduce what kind of explanation is used as the meaning of "the relation between the result and the cause" and "the cause is in everything"principle”[1].

In other words, causality is the relationship (sex) between two things when one thinks that something causes or produces another thing, and the other is the cause of everything. There isprincipleIt refers to (a statement placed in advance).

For example, it is said that "causes of C are B1 and B2", "as a result of A, Z occurs," "because of A caused B."

When we consider the cause of an event, we often cite just one thing. For example, the idea is that "I was late this morning because I drank too much yesterday." However, there is room for doubt as to whether it is appropriate to say that "drinking too much yesterday is the reason for being late this morning." For example, if you drank too much yesterday, you might have got up if you didn't forget to wear an alarm clock last night. It might have happened if there was no noise in the neighborhood at night and sleep was disturbed. Furthermore, it may be because the curtains were closed and the sunrise did not come in. The event happened because there were countless other conditions that could not be written. In other words, there are, in fact, countless causes for a single event that is "late".

On the other hand, what people believe to be causal includes a large number of things that are merely misunderstandings/illusions and not causal relationships. In other words, one of the causal errors is the recognition of causality between two events occurring at the same time. For example, the time when the consumption of ice cream increases and the time when the number of deaths from water increase are roughly the same. However, it is short-circuiting to say, "Because people ate ice cream, more people died." this is,CorrelationNothing more than. In fact, there are only common causes: "hot → increase in ice cream consumption" and "hot → more people play in the water and more people die of water."

Western philosophySince then, various considerations have been made regarding causality since ancient times.ア リ ス ト テ レ スExamined the causes by classifying them into four. This may still prove useful. Hume also questioned the existence of causality.

Ancient greeceThen,NATUREHas the ability to change itself." In other words, nature was considered as a dynamic thing, one that changes by itself.[2].. In other words, it is the understanding that "the cause and the cause are in nature and in the existence of each individual". It was a general understanding (Even in the East, the general understanding of nature still recognizes the ability to transform itself into nature itself).

In western EuropeRene DescartesWrote the manuscript when he first conceived and wrote "Theory of the World", building a theory recognizing the ability to develop into nature itself (similar to the Greek view of nature).[2][Note 1].. However, after finishing the manuscriptGalileoDescartes, who heard the result of the judgment of the trial, himselfBourgeoisSince it was a class and a human being of the system itself, the theory was stopped from publication in order to avoid turning the church of the system into an enemy.[2]Changed the content of the theory[2].. As a result, Descartes changed his theory to a world view that "the nature is dead and is always moving by God's work" as a Christian God is needed, Published[2].

Originally generally in the world,PowerIt was said that (factor/cause) had internal power and external power. However, it was modified by Descartes' political intent. In the explanation of the book written by Descartes, the internal power was completely cut off. The theory thus modified had a great impact on contemporary and posterity. As a result, an explanation method that lacked the view of "nature as a dead thing" and the internal power (motive force) of individual existence appeared, and it became popular in the world.

Isaac NewtonEven by his faith神I am assembling the theory in consideration ofgravityRelated toSpace is God's sensory center "[Note 2].

20st centuryDeveloped intoQuantum mechanicsAccording tosystem OfQuantum state TheDeterminismBehavior, but the observations obtained from itprobabilityBehave[3].. There was no causality in the classical sense,LocalityとRealityAre incompatible. In this way, there is a theory that the result is not uniquely determined even if the state is determined.Non-determinismSay.

Aristotle's theory

Aristotle classifies the cause of the existence of things into the following four types (thisFour cause theory").

  1. Material factor (material factor)
  2. Form factor
  3. Cause (starting factor)
  4. Cause

For example, if there is a single wood carving in front of you, it means that someone uses the "material" of wood and adds the "effect" of carving with the "purpose" of expressing something. This is because the "shape" was created. In this way, Aristotle classifies the causes into four categories.

In addition, Aristotle traces the causes of various events in the world to the cause of the cause, and further to the cause...First cause" In another context, this first cause is "Immovable person", and this term神It is also used in the same meaning as.

Hume's causal theory

In Western modern timesDavid HumeHowever, causality is spatially adjacent and temporally continuous, and when two types of events occur, humans imagine between these two types of events (born on the human mind and spirit side). ) It is an inevitable connection. In other words, it includes the point that human beings set their own connection by mental activity even if things happen to be together.

Causality regularity theory

Two adjacent and consecutive events are causally linked when incorporated into the statement of the Universal Statement that describes them. Except for the psychological element of fume statement A theory that focuses on the generation of descriptions. It is a theory that gives suggestions on how to create a description in the field of science and its problems.

Single name causal statement, causality

Human beings, or human brains, have a strong tendency to think that they are causally linked by just perceiving and recognizing several events, even if there is no description of regularity before. have.

For example, "The fact that this doctor was having a babyPuerperal feverHas caused a statement.” This statement can (and may) be true independently of it, even if the universal statement that "engagement in childbirth causes all puerperal fever" is a false statement. The individual events occur because of the order in which the statements are described.

The causal relationship is set between individual events because the human spirit presupposes the idea that "every event has a cause," the so-called "causal law." is there.

Human beings do not have any particular problems in their daily lives by thinking like this, that is, "every event has a cause." However, it is actually very difficult to properly explain or scientifically investigate whether it really is. That difficulty is historically reflected in Kant's attempt at argument.

It is natural that human beings presuppose the idea that "every event has a cause," the so-called "causality." Because, in reality, every phenomenon always has a causal relationship when it actually occurs, and it is impossible that "something happens" without the cause just before the result occurs. For example, when a ball rolls, there is no reason for "rolling" unless there is a cause just before, such as someone throwing it and being blown by the wind. With regard to human behavior, there is no motive (cause) and no action can actually occur. (Because anyone who disagrees with this conclusion would not oppose it without motives). Even in the above-mentioned cases of puerperal fever, even when the disease actually occurs, the results cannot occur without the immediate causes such as the patient's resistance, physical condition, and presence of virus. However, it is the same as, for example, the case where a plant only produces fruits (results) when conditions (causes) such as climate, soil, and sunlight are complete, and it is common that a plurality of causes are combined to produce one result. Therefore, the judgment that "this doctor's involvement in childbirth caused the puerperal fever of this pregnant woman" is a mistake in that it considers one cause more than it affects the result. Is. This is because human beings are the only creatures that can make abstract judgments, but abstract judgments have the property of extracting only one element individually and making thoughts. This is because when applied to a certain event, the judgment (that is, the process of applying abstract thinking to a phenomenon that actually occurs) may cause an error (that is, a wrong interpretation of a causal relationship). It is not the past and future events that are inferred by abstract thinking, but the phenomena that are actually occurring now that are necessarily associated with causal relationships. Therefore, Kant also proves that abstract reasoning such as the chain of cause and effect and the ultimate cause falls into error and contradiction.

Replacing the idea of ​​causality with the counterfactual condition method

Adopting the idea that "everything has a cause" and "causality" makes a very strong metaphysical assertion about the nature of the entire universe without any verification.[4].. Including such a claim, after all, the proofDisproofBecause it is the same as making a statement that cannot be done,FalsificationThat means that this is no longer a scientific statement.

It is generally said that in the scientific world, if you make a ridiculously strong claim, you must provide very good evidence to support the ridiculous claim. Therefore, it is better if we do not need to include such claims (causal laws) (to keep scientific methods and construct scientific descriptions).[4].

The simple causal statement that "event x caused another event y" wasIn this situation, Event y would not have occurred without event x." Substituting the conditional law proposition, it does not include the tremendous premise of "causality."

An explicit description "in this situation" is needed. In fact, if you try to do this exactly, you will have great difficulty. That is because the situation is that, strictly speaking, the state of the whole universe must be described. Thus, after all, the concept of causality is essentially a metaphysical concept.[4].

Causality

Causality in physics

Classical physicsThe causal law in argues that in the specified physical system, "if the current state is completely specified, all subsequent states are uniquely determined." I also know the condition."[5].

またTheory of relativityIn the frame of情报Does not propagate beyond the speed of light,speed of light× Information exchange does not occur in the above two times without the information flying back in time between two physical systems that are separated by a time or more. In the category of physics, this principle that "the propagation of information that exceeds the speed of light does not exist" is also called causality.[5].

atom,分子For phenomena on a very small scaleQuantum mechanicsEffect is so large that it cannot be ignored, and causality in the classical sense does not hold completely[6].. Solving Schrodinger equation, a basic equation in quantum mechanicsState functionIs the state of the Schrodinger equationProbability amplitudeIt shows that even if the physical state at a certain point is determined, the subsequent state is not uniquely determined.[7].

If we interpret the definition of causality from the classical definition as "if the state function is determined at a certain point on the time axis, the subsequent state function is naturally determined", then we can say that "causality is maintained even in the quantum theory domain".[8].. It is also a thought experiment that seems to be breaking the causality.EPR correlationHowever, the actual speed of light exceedsState functionIt is the convergence speed of the wave packet of, the state function itself is not rewritten by the operator (that is, receives information), and it can be said that the causality is maintained.[8].

Causality in medicine

It is important to identify the cause for treatment of illness, but care should be taken because the cause and the result may be confused or misunderstood, and even a university hospital may carry out unexpected medical treatment.[9]..The illusion of causality arises when people develop the belief that there is a causal relationship between two events that are not really related.Can have disastrous consequences related to important areas of life such as health, finances and well-being[10]..In today's world, there is a growing tendency to trust personal beliefs, superstitions, and pseudosciences rather than scientific evidence.[11][12][13][14].

History

CausalDefinition TheTimeIs also closely related to the definition of. Moreover, "time" and "causality" are also influenced by the subjectivity of the person who recognizes it. In any case, we define as something that has even a part of the property corresponding to "time" in our senses, and under this defined time, the concept of causality and causality is defined.

I raised a problem about the recognition of human cause and effectphilosopherToThe United Kingdom OfDavid HumeThere is. He usually observes that when one thinks of one thing as another, he thinks that what happened first causes what happens later.Rule of thumbI suspected that he was only being guided by. That isprobabilityIs not necessarilycertaintyDoes not mean that it happened consecutivelyaccidentalThe錯 覚It is possible that

In modern Europe, in Western EuropeGottfried LeibnizByMechanicsA strong view of the world and a simplified causality. And in the early 20th centuryAlbert EinsteinByTheory of relativityWas announced, but thereSpace-time continuumThe concept of "causality" is included and a new perspective is given.

19st centuryFrom the end20st centuryAt the beginningQuantum mechanicsIs formed,1926ToErwin SchrodingerBySchrodinger equationIt has been shown. Of the Schrodinger equationsolutionBecomeWave function Ψ The physical interpretation of was not clear,Max BornBy the wavefunctionAbsolute valueSquared |Ψ|2 Is the measured valueProbability distribution(Probability density function),Probability interpretation of wave functionIs given, the idea that all physical phenomena occur stochastically came to be shown.

This isPierre-Simon LaplaceIs ownProbability theoryShowed inLaplace DevilThe situation is a little different from the problem of. What is Laplace's devilsystemLaplace thought that a stochastic event was caused by a lack of information known to the observer. This idea isClassical mechanicsFor, but not for quantum mechanics. In quantum mechanics, the wavefunction of the system follows Schrodinger equation even if the observer has complete information.Time evolutionHowever, the wavefunction itself isDeterminismThe observed physical phenomenon behaves stochastically. Therefore, the causality in the quantum world is different from the traditionally considered causality in classical theory. Causality in quantum mechanics means that the wave function changes according to the Schrodinger equation, and the wave function is fixed at any time.

For stochastic phenomena in quantum mechanics,Classical theoryAs with the idea that it appears due to lack of information,Quantum theoryIt was suggested that physical phenomena can only be predicted stochastically at a theoretical scale. Einstein supported the former idea,1935With EinsteinBoris Podolski,Nathan Rosen TheRealismTypicalPhysical modelAnd the assumptions thatHidden variable theoryShowed the need for[15].. on the other hand,Niels Bohr (1885 — 1962) supported the latter idea.

Einstein, Podolski and Rosen's assumptions1967To(English edition)と(English edition)Submitted by(English edition)Denied by[16].. Also experimentally,1982ToAlan AspeBy(English edition)Is reported to be broken,Local realityThe hidden theory of hidden variables was denied. What is the CHSH inequality?John Stewart BellWas derived as a condition that the local realistic measurement model should satisfyBell's inequalityIs a type ofJohn Clauser, Michael Horn (Michael Horne), Abner Simony (Abner Shimony), Richard Holt (Richard holt) Et al.InequalityThat is.

About Causality Bohr is only on a human scaleapproximateI thought that it was just a matter of reality, not on a microscopic scale.[17].. Bohr thought that quantum mechanics at the time wasatom,分子This is because we mainly deal with phenomena that occur on the scale of, and the quantum-theoretical phenomenon for huge systems as compared to atoms was not known.

Causality in science fiction

Causality isScience fictionThis is a subject often dealt with in the field of (SF). For exampleTime MachineAbout, the paradox (caused by its existence to break the causality)Time paradox) Is used as an essence, or "preventing occurrence" of such a paradox is used as the main theme of the story.

In addition,Time Machine"Causality" may be used as the basis for denying the possibility of.Time paradoxIs the basis for this. However, as the causality itself is not a fact that has been scientifically objectively proved,Time MachineIt is inappropriate to use it as a basis for denying the existence of. "However, if we consider causality,Time MachineIt is indispensable to try to assume the existence of.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ In other words, modernEmergenceA manuscript with an idea that also leads to the concept of.
  2. ^ "Optics], "Space is sensorium dei(God's sensory center)".

Source

  1. ^ Oxford Dictionaries
  2. ^ a b c d e Masanori Onuma (1978).
  3. ^ Heibonsha "Encyclopedia of Western Thoughts" (1990)[Causality]
  4. ^ a b c "Philosophy and Thought Encyclopedia"
  5. ^ a b Heibonsha "World Encyclopedia" vol.7 p.7 [Causality].
  6. ^ Heibonsha "Encyclopedia of Western Thoughts" (1990) [Causality] p.595.
  7. ^ Peskin, Schroeder (1995) Chapter 2 etc.
  8. ^ a b Ueda (2004).
  9. ^ "An example of a misunderstanding treatment". Mutsumi Natsui (September 2001, 12). 2017/11/10Browse.
  10. ^ Matute, Helena; Blanco, Fernando; Yarritu, Ion; Díaz-Lago, Marcos; Vadillo, Miguel A .; Barberia, Itxaso (2015). “Illusions of causality: how they bias our everyday thinking and how they could be reduced” (English). Frontiers in Psychology 6. two:10.3389 / fpsyg.2015.00888. ISSN 1664-1078 . https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00888/full. 
  11. ^ Schwarz, Norbert; Sanna, Lawrence J .; Skurnik, Ian; Yoon, Carolyn (2007). Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. 39. Elsevier. Pp. 127–161. two:10.1016 / s0065-2601 (06) 39003-x. ISBN 978-0-12-015239-1. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S006526010639003X 
  12. ^ Aeschleman, Stanley R; Rosen, Christopher C; Williams, Melissa R (2003-02). “The effect of non-contingent negative and positive reinforcement operations on the acquisition of superstitious behaviors” (English). Behavioral Processes 61 (1-2): 37–45. two:10.1016 / S0376-6357 (02) 00158-4. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0376635702001584. 
  13. ^ "Too rich to get sick? Disneyland measles outbreak reflects anti-vaccination trend" (English). the Guardian (September 2015, 1). 2021/2/1Browse.
  14. ^ Lilienfeld, Scott O .; Ammirati, Rachel; David, Michal (2012-02). “Distinguishing science from pseudoscience in school psychology: Science and scientific thinking as safeguards against human error” (English). Journal of School Psychology 50 (1): 7–36. two:10.1016 / j.jsp.2011.09.006. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022440511000793. 
  15. ^ Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen (1935).
  16. ^ Kochen, and Specker (1967).
  17. ^ Bohr Papers (1).

References

  • "Philosophy of Western Thought" Philip P. Wiener (ed.),平凡 社, February 1990.ISBN 9784582100105.
  • "World Encyclopedia" Heibonsha.
  • Masanori Onuma "History of Science" Aoki Shoten, 1978.
  • "Modern quantum physics"Baifukan, February 2004.ISBN 978-4563022655 .
  • LD Landau, EM Lifshitz (1976-12-31). Quantum Mechanics: Non-Relativistic Theory. Course of theoretical physics 3 (3rd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0750635394  
  • Michael E. Peskin, Daniel V. Schroeder (1995-10-02). A Introduction to Quantum Field Theory... Westview Press. ISBN 978-0201503975  
  • Hiroshi Enatsu"Relativistic Hamilton Form and Microscopic Non-Causal Law in Quantum Field Theory," Bulletin of the Institute of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Vol. 11, 1964, pp. 65-66.
  • "The possibility of breaking causality with high energy", "Study on Particle Physics", Vol. 36, No. 3, November 1967, pp. 11-231.
  • Matsuo Sekine, "Breaking of Causality and High Energy π-N Total Cross Section," "Study on Particle Physics," Vol. 40, No. 5, January 1970, pp. 1-200.
  • Hisakazu Inagaki"Microscopic Causality Breaking and Resonance Levels", Study of Particle Physics, Vol. 49, No. 1, March 1974, pp. 3-22.
  • Fujisawa Norio"Aitia-Causa-Cause--What was" Causality "Basically?", Ideal, No. 634, April 1987, pp. 4-100.
  • "Complex Systems and Many-to-Many Causality (Report of the Study Group" Complex Systems "Study Group)", "Study of Physical Properties," Vol. 59, No. 3, December 1992, pp. 12-343.
  • Niels Bohr"Neils Bohr Papers <1> Causality and Complementarity" Iwanami Bunko.
  • A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen (1935). “Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?”. Physical Review 47: 777-780. http://prola.aps.org/abstract/PR/v47/i10/p777_1. 
  • S. Kochen, and EP Specker (1967). “The problem of hidden variables in quantum mechanics”. Journal of Mathematics and Mechanics 17: 59–87. 

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