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👩‍🎓 | [Ask an expert "developmental disability" 3/3] Impact on daily life and school life


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["Developmental disabilities" asked by experts 3/3] Impact on daily life and school life

 
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For example, well-known celebrities with Asperger's syndrome include physicist Albert Einstein and ethologist Temple Grandin, a professor at Colorado State University.
 

A series of three interviews with Professor Emeritus Hozumi Araki of Ritsumeikan University about developmental disabilities from the standpoint of parents.Final… → Continue reading

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The educational environment, university entrance examination reform, and the environment surrounding children are undergoing major changes. Amid the changes of this era, parents' interest in the education and career of children is only increasing. Risemum will transmit accurate and useful information centered on educational information, as a medium that is close to the hearts of parents. We will promptly deliver information that parents are interested in such as education reform, international education, examinations, educational events, STEM education including programming.


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Asperger's syndrome

ICD-10InAsperger's syndrome(Asperger's Syndrome,Asperger's Syndrome),DSM-IVInAsperger's disorderWhat is (Asperger disorder)?communicationCongenital humans with good language development, although there is specificity in their interests and interestsDevelopmental disorders[1][2][3].. In 2013 DSM-5 and later ICD-11, there is no main examination nameAutism spectrum disorderPositioned in.in JapanAsperger'sMay be abbreviated as[4](However, it may have derogatory implications).

They show a strong commitment to a particular field and may have mild impairment of motor function.Autism spectrum disorderOut ofIntellectual disabilityandLanguage disorderSay a group without[5][3].. The addition of a diagnosis of Asperger's disorder to DSM-IV has led to an over-diagnosis epidemic.[6].

The cause is unknown[1]..This is only the case where the person who was anxious because he noticed that there were many parts corresponding to the specificity and characteristics, accepted that he was diagnosed when he consulted with a medical institution.There is no widely supported treatment that has been shown to be effective.If you leave it alonedepression,Obsessive-compulsive disorderIt is also pointed out that it may become a secondary obstacle such as[7].

Definition

It is a type of psychiatric disorder.

Sort

The ICD by the World Health Organization and the DSM by the American Psychiatric Association have been revised in collaboration as shown in the preface to DSM-IV and DSM-5, with ICD-10 and DSM-IV complementing each other. is there.Under such circumstances, DSM-2013 was published earlier in 5.

On the other handICD-10DSM-5It should be noted that the classification systems do not match.[5].. Asperger's Disorder (AD) in ICD-10Pervasive developmental disorderClassified in (PDD)Autism spectrum disorderClassified as a type of (ASD)[5].

On the other handAmerican Psychiatric AssociationIt is,NeurodevelopmentIt is said that it is one of the continuous models[5]..Therefore it was revisedDSM-5In, the diagnosis name of AS was deleted, and instead it was described by the severity of autism spectrum disorder.[5][9].. AS is considered to be a type of autism spectrum disorder[5].

Official documents such as the World Health Organization, the United States, and Japan treat it differently from (classical) autism.

In addition,High-functioning autismIt is unclear to what extent (HFA, autism without intellectual disability) and AS overlap.[10][11].

Features

The features are as follows.

What classical autism and AS have in common[3]
Differences from classical autism[3]
  • In AS, IQ is at least 70 and there is no delay in intelligence
  • In classical autism, there is a delay in intelligence

Difficulty in social communication

Aspergers have the same or even stronger emotional response than many non-Aspergers, but what they respond to is always different.What they are not good at is "understanding the emotions of others" and "understanding the meaning hidden behind words and gestures ("Non-verbal communication) ”.However, since it is possible to visually understand it like sign language, it is possible to make an instant judgment by understanding and memorizing the detailed meaning of physical movements.

As an example, when a teacher asks a child with Asperger's (in the sense of asking him that he has forgotten his homework), "Did the dog eat your homework?", The child is silent.At this time, think about whether it is necessary to explain to the teacher that he does not have a dog and that ordinary dogs do not eat paper, and understand that it implies from the teacher's facial expression and voice tone. You can't.Teachers may think that the child is reluctant to do his homework and is rebellious.

As in the example above, children with Asperger's often truly receive what they are told at face value.This is because there are many cases where you do not know the "name of a word" or "meaning expression method", you have a habit of listening back in the same way as the word you said, or you have a personality that you cannot understand with an abstract way of saying it. Due to the cause, it may be objectively considered that the person is truly receiving it at face value, so a long-term relationship is required to make a decision.The problem with growth is that parents and teachers intend to encourage them and say "test scores are not so important" or, on the contrary, "if you can't get a score on the test, buy nothing". It is to say only realistic things such as "I can't give it", that is, to give extreme education.As a result, there is a risk of acting with an idea that is far from the level that one should have.However, when a child learns that he or she has set goals that are unlikely to be achieved with ordinary efforts, it can be a process of thinking far from the standard to not cooperate with little affirmation.

They say that "adult remarks are worth the price"DoubtIt is difficult to hold, and even if you do, it is difficult to consider how much the bid price is, so if you put the wishes of the speaker and exaggerate things, the intended effect will be too effective.However, even when it is not a legitimate and excessive expression according to the situation of the place, when there is no excuse for the listener, it may be replaced with a speaker by answering as pointed out that "it is an overstatement". , It may be necessary to maintain a neutral way of distinguishing.When giving a message in the workplace where "reporting, contacting, and counseling" is necessary, "I will not make a live broadcast report that just imitates the voice color, voice quality, and language used when I heard it." They criticized, and there are many unrealistic ways of communicating even by slightly changing the language when telling how they interpreted it in their subjective way when telling the point.Delusion is terribleMay be interpreted as.

  • If you promise 120% certainty
  • Things that have passed a long time ago

People with Asperger's SyndromePsychosocial moratoriumIt is said that you can get it viaIdentityIs difficult to obtain[12]..I couldn't recognize that I was a continuous existence from the past[12],Zhong yongBecause they do not have the idea of, they tend to run into extreme and ideological thinking.[13].Persecutory delusion,Interpersonal fearMay cause[14],schizophreniaIt may lead to a morbid mental state that may be misunderstood as[14]..Shows a tendency to confuse the mind, withdraw into one's world, replace the turmoil with anger towards others, etc.[14].

A non-autistic person (NT: neurotypical, a person with a typical spirit) can collect a lot of information from the behavior and atmosphere of another person and read the emotional and cognitive state of the other person.This ability is lacking in people with autism, making it difficult to read the minds of others (Theory of mindlack of).Those who cannot read such gestures and situations can see others smiling, but cannot understand what that smile means.In many cases, "reading between lines" is difficult or impossible for them.In the worst case, facial expressions cannot be read in interpersonal communication.In other words, one cannot understand what is intended unless one speaks and says it in words.However, they can tell the other person through body language and so on.However, this kind of ability difference ranges from healthy people to cases with serious disabilities.spectrumIt is distributed in a (continuum) shape.Therefore, even in cases classified as Asperger's syndrome, some people have no inconvenience in reading facial expressions and the intentions of others.Also, they are ofteneye contactIs difficult.I rarely make eye contact and often feel that it's a slapstick.On the other hand, there are also types that stare at the eyes of others so much that they feel uncomfortable.Even if you try to understand the message sent from the other party in eye contact etc., you often fail to decipher the other party's mind due to this obstacle.For example, when greeting a person you meet for the first time, you may continue to talk about your area of ​​interest for a long time, rather than introducing yourself in the usual socially accepted procedure.

Some people are strongly disgusted by the denial of their claims by others.This is a major obstacle to learning at schools.For example, the teacher suddenly asks the student to answer, and the student: "I think this is XX", the teacher: "No, this is XX", and so on. The method can be quite painful and stressful for Aspergers.However, many adults overcome their lack of patience and lack of motivation and develop tolerance to new activities and meeting new people.

These things pose many problems in childhood and even as adults.Asperger's children are often at schoolBullyingIt is pointed out that it is easy to be the target of.The main reasons for this are their unique behavior, language, interests, appearance, and their inability to receive nonverbal messages.It is said that there are many people who do not understand the above-mentioned behavior and the disease itself called Asperger's syndrome and have a dislike for Asperger's syndrome patients.For this reason, it has been pointed out that schools, which are places of education, will need comprehensive support measures such as establishing a support system, supporting independence, and deepening understanding of other children.

Even in one category, "Asperger's syndrome," the degree of disability varies from person to person.For example, it can be very mild, such as being able to talk well with friends at school or being able to organize the story well.Also, autism can be moderate-severe, such as desperately enduring because you couldn't speak well and still met good friends.Unlike Kanner-type autism, this disorder looks like a "neurotypical person" at first glance, so there is a problem that support from the surroundings tends to be delayed.

Pros and cons of narrow interests and repetitive behavior

Asperger's syndrome can be accompanied by a very strong, paranoid level of concentration on the subject of interest.For example, there are cases of wrestling in the 1950s, the national anthem of the African dictatorship, making models with matchsticks, etc.However, the interest in these subjects is also that of ordinary children.The difference between the two lies in their extraordinary strength of interest.Asperger's children may memorize large amounts of information about their interests.

Also, in general, ordered and regular ones attract Aspergers.If these interests are combined with material or socially useful work, it can lead to a fruitful life.For example, a child who is obsessed with a keen interest in computers may grow up to be a great programmer.On the contrary, unpredictable and irrational things are something that Aspergers avoid.Examples include sudden accidents and emotional humans who cannot logically discuss.

Their interests can be lifelong, but they can change suddenly.In either case, there is usually a strong interest in one or two subjects at some point.In the process of pursuing these interests, they often have very sophisticated intelligence, almost stubborn concentration, and a tremendous amount of seemingly trivial facts (sometimes in detail as if they were looking at a photograph). ) Shows memory, etc.Hans AspergerCalled his young patient a "little professor."The 13-year-old patient had comprehensive and detailed knowledge like a university professor in his field of interest.

Some clinicians do not totally agree that Aspergers have these characteristics.Wing and Gillberg, for example, argue that Aspergers often have more superficial knowledge than understanding-based knowledge.However, such limitations are not diagnostic, even when using Gillberg's diagnostic criteria.

Asperger's children and adults often have poor patience for areas of their own interest.Many people were recognized as "very good inferior students" when they were students.This is because it is clear to everyone that they are far superior to others in their area of ​​interest, but they are not motivated to do their daily homework (sometimes, "the area of ​​interest". I didn't show any motivation, "but I think it's because what others think is in the same field is different for him. For example, I'm interested in mathematics, but the answer is at the end of the book. My interest in solving the mathematics for entrance exams has changed relatively, and I am interested in the old Japanese font, but not in the reading comprehension problem of pseudo-old sentences in Japanese, etc.).Some children are happy to handwrite on notebooks and test papers, while others are not.On the other hand, some people perform well because they are interested in beating others in their studies, which adds to the difficulty of diagnosis.

Social adaptation

Adults with Asperger's Syndrome, who have above average intelligence and good school performance, often have adjustment disorders at work.[15]..This is the peculiarity of communication (cannot read the air, tends to be one-way conversation, cannot understand ambiguous instructions, wants to be black and white clearly, does not have common sense that ordinary people have, multiple at the same time The reason is that I can't handle the work, I can't respond well to sudden changes, and I'm not good at grasping the whole picture because I concentrate on the details.

Hyperesthesia

People with Asperger's may also exhibit a variety of other sensory, developmental, or physiological abnormalities.In his childhood, he often lags behind in his fine motor skills.Impulsive finger / hand / arm movements are often observed, such as characteristic swaying and wiggle walking, and waving hands (stereotyped behavior).Tic disorderIn many cases,

Asperger's people can be sensuously overloaded.Sensitive to sounds and odors, or dislikes being touched.Some people don't like being suddenly snarled, touching their heads, or touching their hair.Many people are too nervous about the sound and complain of insomnia.If this is a child, it can further complicate problems at school, such as when the classroom noise is unbearable to them.Another characteristic of behavior is the echo language that repeats words and parts of them, like Yamabiko.Echolalia) May show symptoms.

Masutomo Miyao said that the sensory feature of Asperger's syndrome was that "a little attitude or words hurt me significantly, and that was it.trauma"It's easy to become" "It tends to show hallucinations and delusional feelings" "From the trauma of the past, even a little thing for a third partyFlashback"Make a fuss and make a fuss." "It's very serious and therefore fragile."[16].

Internet addiction

People with Asperger's SyndromeInternet addictionIt is easy to become. According to a Japanese study published in 2019, when the YIAT (Young's Internet Addiction Test), which tests Internet addiction, gave an Internet addiction of 70 points or more, it was about 3.72 for Asperger's syndrome compared to the general population. Double, in addition to Asperger's syndromeADHDThe ratio was about 6.89 times higher in those diagnosed with[17].. In addition,ADHDIn the case of only, it was about 4.31 times[17].

Cause

Prenatal factors

Microglia hypothesis

Physiological features

2012 yearsKyoto UniversityAccording to the announcement by the Neurochemistry Research Team, people with Asperger's syndrome usually account for the superior temporal sulcus, fusiform gyrus, amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, etc., which are strongly related to interpersonal interactions. It turned out to be relatively low compared to humans[25].

Diagnosis

As a differential diseaseSocial anxiety,Obsessive-compulsive disorder,Schizoid personality disorderCan be mentioned[5].

There are opinions and reports that it may be misdiagnosed as another mental illness.[26]..As something that is easily misdiagnosedschizophrenia,Schizoid personality disorder,Schizophrenic personality disorder,Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder,ADHD,Narcolepsy,Surprise diseaseAre listed[27].

DSM-IV Compilation Committee ChairAllen FrancesAccording to the report, DSM-IV included people with Asperger's disorder who were not as serious as conventional autism, but when social support was promoted, those who were diagnosed sought support again and unexpectedly diagnosed. increased[6]..It has increased significantly in the United States and South Korea, and about half of those diagnosed do not meet the diagnostic criteria.[28].

Diseases that can occur together

Sleeping disorder

In recent years, including Asperger's SyndromeDevelopmental disordersSleeping disorderHas been discovered to be related to[29]..Even if you say sleep disorderNarcolepsy,Sleep apneaNot a congenital disorder such asDelayed sleep phase syndrome,Non-24-hour sleep-wake syndromeSuch asCircadian rhythm sleep disorder,insomnia,HypersomniaIt is an acquired disorder such as.Daily sleep has the function of organizing and forming the brain, and in the case of Asperger's syndrome, in which the function of the brain and the thinking mechanism are different from those of the typical developing person, sleep disorder is a secondary disorder that is very likely to occur.Sleep disorders tend to get worse and worse once, and because they are intractable, it is important to live regularly during bedtime and wake-up time so as not to cause sleep disorders, and symptoms have been observed. If so, immediate treatment is needed ("Sleep Disorders #Diagnosis and Treatment PrinciplesSee also).When visiting a sleep outpatient clinic, it is advisable to declare that you have a developmental disorder such as Asperger's.

In addition, Dr. Teruhisa Miike of Hyogo Prefectural Rehabilitation Central Hospital, which has the only "Children's Sleep and Developmental Medical Center" in Japan, said, "Sleep in early childhood is the cause of the onset of latent developmental disorders. It is also announcing the completely opposite development.

Mental illness

Some people with Asperger's Syndrome are often frustrated and discouraged because of their peculiarities and poor communication with others (those who are not good at it).As this situation continues for many years, it becomes a secondary obstacle.depressionIt has been confirmed that it causes mental disorders such as.

To prevent such secondary disorders, to prevent Asperger's syndromeNeurotypicalIt is important not to want the same communication method as or to force the target of interest.Most people with Asperger's Syndrome are strongly aware that their actions are their own will, and denial of them often puts a great deal of stress on them.

Physical illness

Treatment / management

There is no cure.In Japan, Asperger's Syndrome, Autism, Learning Disabilities,ADHDWe have a system to support children with developmental disabilities according to their individual needs.Special support education(Special support class)[30].

In addition, "Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)", "Treatment and Education for Children with Autism and Related Communication Disorders (TEACCH)", "Denver Treatment Model", "Greenspan Model (DIR)", etc. The effectiveness of the treatment program has also been confirmed[31]..If anxiety or depressive symptoms are seen as secondary symptoms, add psychotherapy that is effective for those symptoms to support the person (""Anxiety Disorder #Treatment"Depression # treatment"Obsessive-compulsive disorder #treatmentSee also)[32].

However, if they happen to be convinced when they receive advice from a person who has shown interest in a narrow interest by using ingenuity such as expressions that allow them to improve, that is the case. Sometimes they are obsessed with taking in information and changing themselves.Although this is not a cure, some people may find that "this is a bad part of themselves" in their relationships and tend to be obsessed with curing it.

Remedy

As of 2019, there are no officially approved drugs for treatment or symptomatology relief.As a drug to reduce symptoms including secondary disorders such as depression and anxiety disordersAntidepressant,Anxiolytic,Antipsychotic,Mood stabilizerEtc. may be prescribed.

As a research stage,OxytocinStudies have shown that administration is effective, but not yet clinically recognized[33]..Although a very difficult drug prescribed for bipolar disorder (close to optimal treatment and addiction), lithium carbonate has the effect of improving cognition (being able to see oneself objectively). , It is said that it works for both personality disorder and Asperger's syndrome.Also, as a treatment similar to autismHerbal medicineTreatment with[34]And treatment by acupuncture[35]There is also.African sleeping sicknessSuramin, which was developed as a remedy for autism, is also being researched for autism.[36].

Assistance policy

Asperger's Syndrome has a tremendous amount of concentration and knowledge in certain areas.Read the airIt has the characteristics that it is not good at acting, it is particular about details, and it is difficult to express emotions.It may show amazing memory, such as remembering the batting average of a baseball player in the sports section of the newspaper every day.[37]There may be obstacles that ordinary people cannot do, such as "I can't take notes while making a phone call" or "I can't buy a ticket at a ticket vending machine".Communication peculiarities (cannot read the air, tend to be one-way conversations, do not understand ambiguous instructions, want to be black and white clearly, do not have common sense that ordinary people have), multiple tasks in parallel This is because they cannot handle sudden changes, they cannot respond well to sudden changes, they concentrate their attention on details and are not good at grasping the whole picture.Due to the above properties, adults with Asperger's syndrome are not originally suitable for jobs that require customer service or teamwork.According to most American studies, 75-80% of adults with Asperger's Syndrome do not have a full-time job[38]..Workplace support needed for adults with Asperger's syndrome includes specifying schedules and procedures, not using demonstrative pronouns, not asking for more than one thing at a time, and having a job coach.

People with Asperger's Syndrome have very difficult adaptations to modern society.Collisions happened here and thereSocial withdrawalIt is often the case.Have a strong complex with yourself and with a secondary disabilitydepressionThere are many people who get sick or have a desire to commit suicide.There is an urgent need to help those with Asperger's Syndrome.To make it easier for people with Asperger's syndrome to live in society, including support centers for people with developmental disabilitiesCommunity activity support center,Day careThere is an urgent need to prepare such equipment.The most important thing is to create an environmental foundation to understand and accept this obstacle.

As of 2019, many related books have been released, and programs and special features on Asperger's syndrome have been organized mainly on NHK, so it can be said that social recognition has advanced to some extent.However, with disabilitiesDown syndromeIt is not a visible disorder, and even if you actually talk to a person with Asperger's syndrome, you often do not know that you have a disability, and in most cases the appearance is very normal, so do not come out by yourself. As far as the limit is concerned, there are many cases in which only the recognition of "strange person" is given, which is a pain for the person with a disability.Due to impaired communication skills with others, many conflicts and feuds in interpersonal relationships may occur, which is also a major factor that causes disability to the person with a disability.Unless the other person understands it, it can be seen as a "strange guy" and can be the target of bullying, hated by others, or seemed to be a stumbling block at work. It can be said that it is a difficult obstacle.In some cases, the person may have a great complex with the disability itself.Therefore, like a neurotypical person, he may try to get out of the house.Of course, this also physically and mentally hunts down oneself, which in some cases can lead to secondary disorders such as depression.

The big problem is that the welfare system for this disability is still immature. In 2005Developmental disability support lawWas enacted,Disability Independence Support ActIt was decided in the 2010s that developmental disabilities would also fall into the category.Also, some people with Asperger's syndromeMental disability certificateAlthough it is supposed to be possible (sometimes it is not possible at the discretion of the local government. Issuance standards are not unified), many people have difficulty in working or interacting with others.However, the government is also making efforts such as providing subsidies to companies that hire people with developmental disabilities.However, it is not yet the time when people with Asperger's syndrome who are willing to work can work after clearing interpersonal relationships and mental hygiene problems.

The success or failure of support for people with Asperger's syndrome varies from person to person.For example, even if there is a case that "this person has helped this person to improve his life", that does not necessarily apply to other Asperger's people.This is because there are many different places where there is a handicap depending on the person.[39].. If we try to support everyone with welfare because of "disability", we may deprive them of their motivation to work, good relationships with others in work, income, and other possibilities of a fruitful life. obtain.Many people with developmental disabilities work in general companies with the support of those around them.[40]..However, there are many people who want to work but cannot work, and who are afraid of tripping and cannot go out into society.It is required to provide a detailed response that suits the person and to secure a place in society.[41].

Occupations that are not good at Asperger's syndrome are dexterous and efficient, understanding people's hearts, such as hospitality, tasks that require immediate response, clerical work in charge of various tasks, and tasks where communication is important. It is said that he is not good at reading the atmosphere of the place, using his imagination, and responding flexibly.[42].

Developmental disorders corresponding to F10 to F80 and F89 to F90 of ICD-98 are systematically listed as part of mental disorders, and after submitting a medical certificate from a specialist at a municipal health center, symptoms and other developmental disorders In recent years, the number of cases in which a mental health and welfare notebook is issued in consideration of the overall condition such as complications with illness has increased, but by submitting a medical certificate in the prescribed format at the health center, a disability service beneficiary certificate or independence support A medical beneficiary certificate is also issued, which allows you to receive general welfare services for persons with disabilities (household affairs assistance, behavioral assistance, etc.).Welfare services for persons with disabilities include the use of employment transition support, and in principle, vocational training can be received for up to two years by using the employment transition support training center.To use it, you need one of the disability service beneficiary certificate, independence support medical beneficiary certificate, and mental health and welfare notebook.

In addition, if financial management is extremely difficult and it interferes with social life, the social welfare councils in each region in the daily life independence support project for people with insufficient judgment ability to lead an independent life in the area. There is "protection of rights" in the assistance business service to be provided, and each user concludes a contract with the council to receive the following necessary assistance.Daily money management (refund / cancellation of deposits) such as assistance in using welfare services, assistance in using complaint resolution systems, housing remodeling, leasing of housing, notification of consumption contracts and resident's cards in daily life, and assistance in administrative procedures.・ In some cases, a system of advocacy such as money management (deposit, etc.) is used.It is the same that these welfare services can be used even for other developmental disorders if they are diagnosed and applied to the relevant organizations and certified.

Epidemiology

Asperger's syndrome is correlated with gender and is about four times more common in men[43]..People with Asperger's syndrome are said to be about 1% of the total population[43], 1.6% of men and 0.4% of women have Asperger's syndrome.High-performance autism without intellectual disabilityautismAnd Asperger's Syndrome has a strong genetic component[44].. GR Terong and JT Dier found that two-thirds of families with high-functioning autism had first-degree or second-degree relatives with Asperger's syndrome.[45].

A clinical cohort study of patients in the United Kingdom by Sarah Cassidy et al. Reported that adults with Asperger's syndrome were more than nine times more common than adults.suicideThere is a risk, and social isolation, exclusion, unemployment, etc. often cause risk factors for secondary depression, and appropriate support is needed to reduce the risk of suicide.[46].

Social situation

Impact on the surroundings

Adults with Asperger's Syndrome can have a significant impact on their surroundings.For exampleCassandra syndromeThis is a physical and mental symptom that occurs in a wife because she cannot establish an emotional relationship with her husband (partner) with Asperger's syndrome.Toshiro Sugiyama mentions that Asperger's bachelor rate (especially for men) is high.[47]..Leo Kanner himself also mentions the high divorce rate of parents of autistic children.[48]

Discussion about making Asperger's syndrome a "disorder"

There is an argument mainly in American academic societies that Asperger's syndrome itself is not a disorder and should not be treated.[49]..There are also claims that Asperger's syndrome should not be a "syndrome" (syndrome) or a "disorder" (disorder) in the first place.[50].

Stigma

January 2001Sony Pictures Entertainment (Japan) Video throughA foreign movie that was planned to be released under the name of "Asperger's Death Group" (original title is ""Absence of the Good, 1999 American movie) was discontinued in response to protests.The word Asperger is not used in the original title (literally translated to "absence of conscience"), and it is thought that there is no character who seems to have Asperger's syndrome.[51].

Also, regarding the fact that doctors have published a series of manuals on Asperger's syndrome since around 2008, one of the motivations for doctors to write is to interpret it as if a person with Asperger's syndrome is prone to crime. There is a coping.The background to this is that the perpetrators of some juvenile delinquency cases were reported to have Asperger's syndrome.However, no data have been confirmed that people with Asperger's syndrome are prone to crime.Discrimination office,Juvenile trainingIt is said that about 2% of the respondents are applicable.Also, in most cases of crimes, minor crimes have been caused by the person in question not understanding the mechanism of the world well due to lack of interpersonal communication skills.[52].

History

This diagnostic name isオーストリア OfPediatrician,Hans AspergerNamed after[5][53].

1944Hans Asperger published a treatise on four children entitled "Autistic Psychopathy in Childhood."The previous year, 4, an American psychiatristLeo KannerPublished a treatise on early childhood autism, Kanner's treatise has since been influential in the English-speaking world for a long time, and Asperger's treatise has been rarely looked after.In Japan, Asperger's treatise was introduced relatively early, but it was often forgotten due to the strong influence of Britain and the United States.

In the English-speaking world1981To a British child psychiatristLorna WingRe-evaluated Asperger's achievements and became widely known.Wings are from many cases, even if they have not been diagnosed with autismSocial,communication,想像力I noticed that there are children with disabilities in three aspects at the same time.At that time, the diagnosis of autism was言语Limited communication with children, only for children with very little interpersonal interest, and not diagnosed with autism if verbal communication is possible or if there is even one-sided interpersonal interest It was.Wing considered the diagnosis of Asperger's syndrome appropriate because some children with three-way disabilities who were not diagnosed with autism resembled the cases reported by Asperger's.

Since 1981, it has been attracting worldwide attention and has become an international diagnostic standard.ICD-10,American Psychiatric AssociationDiagnostic criteria (DSM-IV) Also adopted the concept.

Relationship between Asperger's syndrome and crime

The crime rate of mentally ill people including Asperger's syndrome is extremely low, one-third that of healthy people.[Source required]..However, as with the neurotypical, there are also peculiar cases as described below in many cases.Some people think that some people with Asperger's syndrome, like some healthy people, may behave antisocially, but they have not been fully validated and Asperger's syndrome triggers the incident. It is extremely difficult to judge whether it is one of the backgrounds or just the surrounding circumstances.[Source required]..In addition, there are cases where the above-mentioned symptoms disappear as the mind and body grow.[Source required].

On the other hand, research is being conducted on the violence and criminality of Asperger's syndrome.In a study conducted in the United States, adolescents diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome before committing a crime were about twice as likely to have interpersonal crimes as criminals in the general comparison group, and were more likely to have interpersonal violence and sabotage at school. The results show that there were few violence committed by property offenders and disciplinary action.[56]..In the other harmful acts of children studied by child psychiatrist Yasuo Shimizu and others, children with Asperger's syndrome have items such as "tapping", "throwing things", "kicking", and "pushing people" in other harmful acts. Was more frequent than general nursery school children[57]..Of the 9 psychiatrists Toshiro Sugiyama and others who have been continuously involved in the Aichi Children's Health Insurance Center with an average age of 265, 11 were arrested by the police for behavioral disorders and crimes (4.2). %)Met[58]..In addition, psychiatrist Tantam conducted a long-term survey of 60 people with Asperger's syndrome and analyzed 54 subjects with judicial information, and found that nearly half, 24, were at least one offense. It became clear that it was causing an incident[59].

Crime affinity

Sociologist Sohei Ide examined the proportion of juvenile delinquency sent to the family court of former family court investigator Yoko Fujikawa and others with Asperger's syndrome.[60]Based on the prevalence listed in DSM-5, the criminal affinity for Asperger's syndrome was sought.[61]..According to it, the criminal affinity of Asperger's syndrome is 5.6 times higher.ADHDIt was found to be higher than 1.1 times that of and 2.2 times that of intellectual disability.[61]..In addition, Ide was investigated by Seizo Sakihama, a child psychiatrist who was a medical technician in the family court.[62]In the same way, the criminal affinity for Asperger's syndrome was sought.[63]..As a result, the criminal affinity for the confirmed diagnosis of Asperger's syndrome was 12.6 times, and including the suspicion, it was 28.6 times.[63].

In other countries, surveys are being conducted targeting residents of special hospitals.A survey of residents of a special hospital in the United Kingdom by Slug et al.[64]The criminal affinity is derived from 2.8 to 3.6 times, and the British hair survey[65]It becomes almost the same value from[66]..In addition, a survey of residents of special Swedish hospitals[67]But the numbers for Asperger's Syndrome are similar[68]..A Swedish study concludes that at least 13% of Swedish crimes are associated with pervasive developmental disorder.[69], When the criminal affinity was calculated from the data, it was found that the criminal affinity was more than 10 times.[70][71].

Regarding recidivism

According to psychiatrist Hironobu Ichikawa and others, 18 cases of autism spectom disorder (pervasive developmental disorder) who had visited Tokyo Metropolitan Umegaoka Hospital and had a total of 13 tactile acts. , 18 of the 11 tactile acts were performed after consulting a medical institution, and 5 cases were found to be re-offending after 4 tactile acts that resulted in hospitalization after the tactile acts.[72]..Regarding this, there are no reports of valid and effective treatments for the tactile behavior of persons with autism spectrum disorders (pervasive developmental disorder), and it is said that the treatment policy is decided by trial and error of each doctor. Technical problems in psychiatric care are attributed to one cause[72]..Psychiatrist Wolff says Asperger's syndrome has criminal properties[73], Pointing out that treatment is unlikely to cause dramatic changes[74]..In addition, according to a research report by psychiatrist Kosuke Yamazaki and others, the tactile act of Asperger's syndrome (pervasive developmental disorder) is not performed in a mental state that lacks practical examination, and Asperger's syndrome (pervasive developmental disorder) is not performed. ) It is thought that tactile behavior is caused by itself or due to low intelligence, and improvement by drug therapy is unlikely to be expected.[75].

Accountability

Asperger's syndrome was first taken up in 2000 (Heisei 12).Toyokawa City Housewife Murder CaseIs. The statement "I wanted to kill people" shook society.Showa UniversityProfessor'sShinmasa Kato"In recent years, Asperger's diagnosis has been a little easier, including the case of leaking records. However, the understanding that Asperger's disorder is directly linked to crime is wrong, and some motives are difficult to understand." It means that it is a "penetrating" crime, and its association with the disability characteristics is noticed. Is pointed out[76].

The following are mainly violent incidents that have had a great impact on society.

Mental assessmentIn the first appraisal, it was said that "schizoid personality disorder or schizoid personality disorder", but "at the time of the crime, Asperger's syndrome was the cause.Weak state of mindWas approved for the second appraisal, which was issued on December 2, 2000.Nagoya Family CourtHas been decided to be protected by the Medical Reform School. For the second appraisal doctorsChild and adolescent psychiatrySpecialist was added as one of the appraisal team.Asperger's syndrome is a congenital developmental disorder and is a type of autism that has no problems with intelligence and language ability.Maladaptation to social life may be seen as a secondary obstacle due to difficulties in building interpersonal relationships.
This caseMinistry of EducationIn a wide range (at that time)High-functioning autismRecognize the need for early educational support for children and laterSpecial support educationIt was decided to be institutionalized as.
A psychiatrist with knowledge of developmental disabilities who performed the first test had determined that he did not have Asperger's syndrome, so he objected to the second test performed by another person.After the decision to dispose, the second expert also admitted that he did not have Asperger's syndrome.
After the perpetrator's guidance, the perpetrator was diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome, and the Nishinippon Shimbun reported on the front page that "the perpetrator boy has autism."On the other handJapan Autism Association"May promote prejudice against autism" "There is no causal relationship between autism and the case," issued a protest statement.In particular, there was strong opposition from parents' associations with children with Asperger's syndrome all over the country, and even an event occurred that requested each news agency to "don't use the name Asperger's".On the other hand, there is also the aspect that social interest has spread with the publication of books to deepen the understanding of Asperger's syndrome and the publication of people who call themselves "I am Asperger's syndrome".
The Osaka District Court sentenced the prosecution to 16 years in prison for 20 years in prison, saying that "the effects of Asperger's syndrome should not be considered" and "it helps maintain social order by imprisoning prisons as much as possible." ..In response, some groups of persons with disabilities have accused them of being "incomprehensible and prejudiced."Then on February 2013, 2Osaka High CourtAt the appeal hearing held by (Judge Shoichi Matsuo), he abandoned the first-instance judgment and sentenced him to 14 years in prison.The presiding judge pointed out that "the first instance did not properly evaluate the effects of (developmental) disability and was unreasonably heavy."[80].

Sasebo small 6 girl classmate murder case[81],Uji Cram School Elementary 6 Girl Murder CaseThe criminal is also said to have Asperger's syndrome.

Famous in overseas exampleshackerIsGary McKinnon[82],Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting IncidentIs the culpritAdam Lanza[83]Is the culprit ofElliot Rodger[84]Etc. are said to have had Asperger's syndrome.

Celebrities and related works

Celebrity with Asperger's Syndrome

Many celebrities meet some of the diagnostic criteria for the autism spectrum and have helped form the stereotype of "eccentric genius" for researchers and great men.However, the existence of highly functional autism such as Asperger's syndrome has been known for decades, especially since the 1980s, so many of them have been seen from the records left. It is an expert guess, not a formal diagnosis.There is suspicion, but there is constant controversy over the pros and cons of guessing with the records left about those who were not diagnosed.

Celebrities who have announced that they have been diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome (including cases with ADHD and learning disabilities)
A historical person who may be associated with Asperger's syndrome

The following is quoted from Toshiro Sugiyama (2011) "Now of Developmental Disorders" (Kodansha) p.66.It should be noted that these persons were not diagnosed by doctors, but only speculations from posterity.

Works on the characteristics of Asperger's syndrome

It is a notation of works based on the characteristics of Asperger's syndrome, and does not include works in which a person with Asperger's syndrome appears in the work.

Mozart and whale
A movie about the love affair between the main character with Asperger's syndrome and a woman with pervasive developmental disorder.
Musical notes and kelp
A movie about sisterhood with an older sister with Asperger's Syndrome that suddenly appeared in front of the main character who works as a food coordinator while suffering from dysgeusia.
Mary & Max
A 20-year story of a lonely girl who is bullied and a lonely uncle who has Asperger's syndrome.
The universe in love
A movie about a sad love between the main character of Asperger's Syndrome, who knows more about celestial bodies than others, and a woman who wants to be a fairy tale writer.
My Name Is Khan
The protagonist of Asperger's Syndrome marries a woman of a different religion, but that causes her child to be discriminated against and die.A story about a hero who despairs and is blamed by his wife for a journey.
Extremely noisy and impossibly close
American terrorist attacksA story about a boy who lost his father in Japan, who is suspected of having Asperger's syndrome, which has problems with interpersonal relationships, but recovers as he interacts with strangers.
Simple Simon
The story of the main character of Asperger's Syndrome, who loves physics and science fiction and gets stuck in a drum as soon as he doesn't like it, breaks the love of his brother who is the only one who understands it, and makes her a new brother.

Source

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References

  • Simon Baron-Cohen "Introduction to Autism Spectrum Disorders, Latest Knowledge from Brain / Psychology to Education / Treatment", August 2011.ISBN 978-4805835234 . 
  • Masutomo Miyao "Adult Asperger Syndrome" Nitto Shoin, June 2010.ISBN 9784528019034. --Miyao is an expert in developmental behavior pediatrics, pediatric neuropsychiatry, and neurophysiology.He is considered to be one of the leading researchers in developmental disability research.

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 -Land
 -Water area
8th in the US
269,837 km²
268,875 km²
962 km² (0.36%)
population(2010
 - Grand total
 - Population density
22th in the US
5,029,196People
18.70 people/km²
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38th
1876May 8
Time zoneUTC -7
STD -6
latitude37 ° N-41 ° N
longitudeWest longitude 102°03'-109°03'
East-west width612 km
North-south length451 km
elevation
 -Highest altitude
 -Average elevation
 -Lowest altitude

4,401 m
2,070 m
1,011 m
Abbreviation (ISO 3166-2: US)US-CO
WebsiteColorado Government
Senator

Colorado(British: State of Colorado [kɒləˈrædoʊ, -ˈrɑːdoʊ] ( Audio file)[1]It is,The United States of AmericaIn the westStateIs.On the north sideWyomingIn the northeastNebraska, The east sideKansas, The south sideNew mexicoOklahomaOn the west sideUtahIs in contact with.The southwest cornerFour CornersThe four states called are the points that meet the corners, and hereArizonaIt will be in contact with.To the north and south of the stateRocky mountainsHas the highest average elevation of the entire state in the United States,Mountainous areaState.The western part of the stateColorado Plateau, To the eastGreat planes(Great Plains) Western(English editionIs.It ranks 50th among the 8 states in area, but 22nd in population.

State capitalAnd the largest populationcityIs on the eastern side of the Rocky MountainsDenver city.

The name of the state isSpanishNamed by the explorerColorado RiverThe word "Colorado" means "reddish"SpanishIt represents the red silt that the Colorado River carries from the mountains.

Languages ​​Spoken at Home (Colorado) 2010[2]
English
  
83.24%
Spanish
  
11.92%
Racial composition (Colorado) 2010
White
  
70.0%
Hispanic
  
20.7%
Black
  
4.0%
Asian
  
2.8%
イ ン デ ィ ア ン
  
1.1%
Mixed
  
3.4%

History

Transition of territory and territory

The region of Colorado today has been around for over 13,000 years.イ ン デ ィ ア ンLived.Larimer CountyAt the Lindenmeier archaeological site in, an artifact that can be identified from 11200 BC to 3000 BC has been excavated.The eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains is a major migratory routeAmericaIt was important for the spread of humankind.Ancient PuebloLived in the Colorado Plateau valleys and mesas[3].YutoTribal Indians lived in the mountain valleys of the southern and western Rocky Mountains.ArapahoTribeCheyenneFor hunting(English editionIt was moving west across (the plateau of the western Great Plains).

The eastern part of Colorado, east of the Rocky Mountains1803 OfAcquisition of LouisianaAt that time, the United StatesFranceObtained from.The territory that the United States acquired at this time wasスペイン OfSanta Fe de Nuevo MexicoConflict arose as it overlapped with the vast territory around the settlement.Spain was trading with Indians in the area. 1806,Zebulon PikeColonelUS ArmyHe led his reconnaissance team into this controversial area.In February of the following year, Pike and his men were arrested by the Spanish cavalry in the San Luis Valley.ChihuahuaIn JulyメキシコWas banished from.

1819 yearsAdams-Onis TreatyBy from Spainフ ロ リ ダIn return for purchasing the United StatesArkansas RiverAll land south and west, south of the 42nd parallel north, and west of the 100th meridian west was abandoned.The treaty came into force on February 1821, 2.On August 22, 1821, the border issue with Spain was resolved.Missouri TerritorySoutheastern part ofMissouriWas promoted as.The rest of the Missouri Territory, which included the northeastern part of Colorado, became unincorporated territory.SlaveryIt was left untouched for 33 years due to problems.Spain entered the Treaty of Cordoba on August 11, 1821, after an 8-year war.Mexican independenceApproved.Mexico ratified the Adams-Onís Treaty in 1831. From 1835 to 1836Texas RevolutionAccelerates the conflict between the United States and Mexico, opening the war in 1846American ink warIt led to. Formed to end the war in 1848Guadalupe Hidalgo TreatyMexico ceded its northern territory to the United States.

Mid-19th century,Oregon Country,CaliforniaNew Gold Mine, and Salt Lake ValleyMormonsSettlementDeseretMost American settlers head to the continent, avoiding the rocky southern part of the Rocky Mountains and following the North Platte and Sweetwater rivers, between the southern and central parts of the Rocky Mountains.WatershedThen I went over the lowest pass, the South Pass. In 1849, Mormons in the Salt Lake Valley founded the extrajudicial state of Deseret.Great basinWith the whole ofGreen riverClaimed to include the entire basin of the Grand and Colorado rivers.Mormons are theocracy andPolygamyThe federal government vehemently rejected the approval of the new Mormon government.InsteadCompromise of 1850ByMexican CessionTexasThe northwestern part that was claimed to be owned by one new state, California, and two territories,New Mexico TerritoryUtahDivided into. On April 1851, 4, Mexican-American settlers from the Taos region of New Mexico founded the village of San Luis, then in the New Mexico Territory, and later as the first European-American settlement in Colorado.

1854 years,United States SenateMemberStephen DouglasPersuaded Congress to territory east of the continental divideKansas TerritoryNebraska TerritoryDivided into, and further southIndian territoryAn unincorporated area called is provided.The two new territories were allowed to allow residents to decide whether to adopt slavery within their territory, but this compromise only increased hostility between Free Soil and slave advocates.

Pikes Peak Gold Rush

In July 1858, gold was discovered along the South Platte River in the western Kansas Territory at the time, and the Pikes Peak Gold Rush began.[4]..Gold dust deposits along rivers and streams in the area were rapidly depleted, but miners soon discovered even greater valuable gold veins in nearby mountains.

Gold Seekers on August 1859, 8Jefferson TerritoryOrganized a provisional government for the new territory, but fueled the debate over slaveryUnited States CongressI couldn't get the approval. November 1860, 11,United States presidential electionAbraham LincolnWas elected president, which triggered the declaration of withdrawal from the United States by nine slave states in the south, creating a threat of civil war.Was in control of parliamentRepublican PartyImmediately on January 1861, 1, in the eastern part of the Kansas Territory, to reinforce the political power of the Free States.KansasThe area where gold was sought in the western part of the territory was left as an unincorporated territory.

Territory law

Thirty days later, February 30, 1861, near the end of his term.James BuchananThe president as a free territoryColorado TerritorySigned a bill to create[5]..The originally defined Colorado boundaries have not changed today.Colorado was chosen as the name of the territory because the source of the Colorado River was thought to be within the territory.[6].. In 1776, the Spaniard Father Silvestre Valles de Escalante recorded that the Indians in the area called the river "El Rio Colorado" because of the reddish-brown silt carried by the river from the mountains. Was[7].. 1859, led by Captain John McCombUS ArmyTopographic Engineering Expedition Now in UtahCanyonlands National ParkInside, I found the point where the Green River and the Grand River meet.[8]..The McComb Corps designated this confluence as the source of the Colorado River.

August 1861, 4,South carolinaArtilleryFort SumterStart firing onCivil WarHas begun.Many gold seekersUnited States of AmericaWas sympathetic to, but the majority were enthusiasticUnion ArmyThey were loyal to the side.

In 1862, Texas cavalry invaded the New Mexico Territory on March 3.Santa fe cityOccupied.Confederate States of AmericaInvade the westThe purpose was to control or interfere with the gold mines in Colorado and California.The Pacific OceanIt was to suppress the port of.To block the movement of this Texas unit, a rushed Colorado volunteer unit proceeded from Denver to the Glorieta Pass in New Mexico Territory. On March 3, Colorado troops and local volunteers from New MexicoBattle of Glorieta PassHe stopped the advance of Texas troops, destroyed its cannons and cargo carts, and fled 500 horses and mules.Texas troops were forced to withdraw to Santa Fe.Texas troops, who lost supplies for the operation and received little support in New Mexico, abandoned Santa Fe.San AntonioReturned to.Then the Confederate States of AmericaSouthwestThere was no attempt to advance to.

In 1864, Colorado Territory Governor John EvansJohn chivingtonHe appointed a minister as a colonel of the volunteer unit and ordered the pioneers to be protected from the Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians who were accused of stealing cattle.Colonel Chivington ordered his troops to attack a group of Cheyenne and Arapaho camps along Sand Creek.Chivington reported killing more than 500 warriors at this time.The militia triumphantly returned to Denver, but what some officials called the battle revealed Indians unwilling to fight.MassacreI reported that it was done.Many of those killed were girls and children, and their bodies were badly damaged.Accused of this case in a U.S. Army hearing and then became presidentAndrew JohnsonAsked Governor Evans to resign, but none of the performers were punished in the end.

During and after the Civil War, many of the charlatans who could not make money with money returned to their hometowns, but a few willing stayed in the territory, building mines, sawmills, farms, ranches and towns. On September 1864, 9, James Huff discovered silver near the Argentine Pass, making it the first of many silver mines. 14,Union Pacific RailroadLay a railroad track to Ware, now Julesberg, in the northeastern corner of the territory. On May 1869, 5, the Union Pacific Railroad joined the Central Pacific Railroad tracks at the Promontory Summit in Utah Territory.First transcontinental trainHas opened.The following June, 1870, the Denver Pacific Railroad extended to the city of Denver, and two months later, the Kansas Pacific Railroad opened for the second time.Transcontinental railroadIt became. In 1872, a large silver vein was discovered in the San Juan Mountains in the Ute settlement in the southwestern part of the territory.The following year, the Ute were moved from the San Juan settlement.

State promotion

On March 1875, 3, the United States Congress passed an enabling act that provided for the requirements for the Colorado Territory to be promoted to the state.[9].. August 1876, 8 (1 days after the 100th anniversary of the founding of the United States),Ulysses GrantThe President has signed a declaration to promote Colorado as the 38th state of the United States.This gave Colorado the nickname "100th Anniversary State."[10].

A large silver vein was discovered near Reedville in 1878, and the Colorado Silver Boom began. 1890Sherman Silver Purchase ActThe silver mining industry was rejuvenated in, and a few months later, Colorado's last and largest gold vein was discovered at Cripple Creek, attracting a new generation of gold prospectors.Colorado from November 1893, 11Women's suffrageAdmitGeneral electionIt became the second state to introduce the, and the first state to hold a referendum. The Sherman Silver Purchase Act was abolished in 2, and Colorado's volatile mining and agriculture collapsed, but then slowly and steadily recovered.

In Denver in 1908Democratic National ConventionWas held.This was the first opportunity for a national convention of the two major parties to be held in the western states. In the 1930 census, the state's population exceeded one million for the first time.World DepressionAnd of the 1930sDust bowlHit Colorado directly,Second World WarA big wave of later immigrants changed the fate of Colorado.Tourism becomes the backbone of the state economyhigh techBecame an important economic impetus.Census BureauIn 2009, the state's population exceeded 500 million.

US Navy3 warships are USSColoradoHas been named.First USSColoradoWas named after the Colorado River.The latter two ships are associated with Colorado and are the battleship USS.ColoradoFrom 1941 to World War IIPacific frontWas active in.Attack on Pearl HarborAt that time, CaliforniaSan DiegoI was at a naval base in Tokyo, so I escaped the attack.

Geography

ColoradoLatitudesmeridianIt is a state surrounded only by (the state borders are all parallels or meridians) (there are other states like this).WyomingUtahIt occupies the range from 37 degrees north latitude to 41 degrees north latitude and 102 degrees 3 minutes to 109 degrees 3 minutes west longitude.[9]..At latitude 37 degrees north and longitude 109 degrees 3 minutes west of the southwestern end,Arizona,New mexico,UtahAnd ColoradoIt touches at one point, ThereFour CornersIt is called.When striking state border signs during the Colorado Territory, surveying mistakes created some minor distortions.The most prominent of these is the border with Utah Territory.[11]..Since the federal government, related states, and territories once recognized this gap, it was set as the legal boundary of the Colorado Territory, including the gap.[12].. The plains east of the Front Mountains, a tributary of the T Rocky Mountains,Great planesIt is part of (High Plains) and is 1,000 to 2,000 m above sea level.On the east sideKansasas well as the NebraskaIs adjacent to.The plains are sparsely populated, most of them on the South Platte River.Arkansas River, Settled along Interstate 70.The average annual rainfall is about 15 inches (380 mm), which is a little short.There are some irrigated farms, but most of the farmland is dry farms orpastureIt is used as.Autumn barley is a typical crop in the region, with water towers and grain warehouses towering in most towns.

The major cities are on Interstate 25, just east of the Front Mountains.Most residents of Colorado live in this highly urbanized area.

Mountain area

In the western part of the Front Mountains大西洋Side andThe Pacific OceanContinents that separate the sidesWatershedIs located.To the west is called the western slope, and the water in this area isColorado RiverThroughThe Pacific OceanIt is descending in the direction of.

In the interior of the Rocky Mountains, there are many large valleys and high and spacious basins.To the north is the North Park on the eastern side of the continental divide.From this North Park, the North Platte River flows north to Wyoming.Just south of it is the Middle Park, which is on the west side of the continental divide, from which the Colorado River flows.South Park is the source of the South Platte River.

The Rocky Mountains in Colorado have 14,000 peaks, known as Fortina, over 4,270 feet (54 m) high.[13]..In Colorado, at an altitude of about 12,000 feet (4,000 m) above sea level in the south and about 10,500 feet (3,200 m) above sea level in the north,Conifer And aspen (Aspen) And other trees are growing (the altitude isForest limitIt is said that only alpine plants grow in the higher altitudes).The Rocky Mountains are covered with snow in winter, but most of the snow melts by mid-August, leaving some small snow caps and glaciers.From the Southwestern San Juan Mountains to the Front MountainsBoulderThe stretched Colorado Mineral Belt overlaps the area where gold and silver was once mined.

Lake countyIt is inMount elbertAt an altitude of 14,440 feet (4,401 m), it is the highest point in Colorado and the Rocky Mountains.[14]..Colorado is the only state in the United States with an area above 3,300 feet (1,000 m) above sea level.The Arikaree RiverYuma CountyFrom kansasCheyenne CountyAt an altitude of 3,317 feet (1,011 m), it is the lowest point in the state.This lowest point is the highest number among the lowest points in any state in the United States.[15][16].

Plains

Over a third of Colorado's territory is plain and undulating land.To the east of the Rocky Mountains is the Eastern Plains of the High Plains, part of the Great Plains, which varies from 3 feet (1 m) to 3,350 feet (1,329 m) above sea level.The Midwestern plains of Kansas and Nebraska border the east and northeast, respectively.Colorado plains are usuallyPrairieIs considered, but in realityDeciduousForests, buttes (isolated hills), and valleys are scattered and resemble the plateau of New Mexico.The eastern part is mainly used for farmland and has small agricultural villages and towns.Precipitation is moderate, ranging from 15 inches (380 mm) to 25 inches (635 mm) per year.[17]..Summers are usually hot and dry, and winters are very cold, with snow and ice.As agricultural products, corn, wheat, hay, soybeans, and oats are produced.Livestock farming is also popular, and cattle and pigs are bred.Irrigation water is taken from streams such as the South Pratt and Arkansas rivers, andArtois wellIt is also taken from groundwater sources.However, the use of large amounts of groundwater for irrigation has reduced groundwater sources.

Front mountains

Most of Colorado's population is at the eastern end of the Rocky Mountains, Wyoming in the Front Mountains City CorridorCheyenneAnd Coloradoプ エ ブ ロLive in between.The region is partially protected from westerlies from the Pacific Ocean by the Rocky Mountains in central Colorado.Other areas with a decent population are Grand Junction at the western end of Colorado.Durango.

Southern

In the southernmost part of the state is the large San Luis Valley, whereRio grande riverThere is a water source.This valleySangre de Cristo MountainsThere is a large desert between the mountains and the San Juan Mountains.The Rio Grande River flows south of New Mexico, Mexico, and Texas.To the east of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, opposite the Sangre de Cristo Mountains is the Wet Mountain Valley.In these basins, especially the San Luis Valley, the Rio Grande River, the geological formation of the Rocky Mountains and their tributaries.リ フ トIt is in.

peak

To the west of the Great Plains, which enters the state, is the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains.The famous high peaks of the Rocky Mountains are Longs Peak, Evans Mountain,Pikes PeakAnd the Spanish peak near Walsenberg in the south.Water in this area flows east and southeast,Mississippi RiverOr by the Rio GrandeGulf of MexicoFlow into.

コロラド州内には北アメリカの高峰30位までの山が全て入っている。4つの国立公園、6個の国立保護区、2つの国立レクリエーション地域、2つの国立歴史史跡、3つの国立歴史の道、1つの国立シーニックトレイル、11の国有林、2つの国立草原、41の国立原生地、2つの国立保存地域、8個の国立野生生物保護区、44の州立公園、1つの州有林、323の州立野生生物保護区があり、さらに多くの景観、歴史およびレクリエーションでの見所がある。

National park

Western slope

Water on the western slopes of Colorado flows into the Colorado River and its tributaries (mainly the Green and San Juan) or evaporates in arid areas.Prominent in the southwestern part of the western slope are the Grand Mesa and the rocky alpine San Juan Mountains, to the west of which is the arid region bordering southern Utah.Colorado PlateauThere is.Grand Junction and Durango, the largest cities on the western slopes, are the centers of radio, television, newspapers and higher education.In Colorado, west of the watershed, only Grand Junction's Mesa State College, Gunnison's State Western College, and Durango's Fort Lewis College are four-year colleges.

Grand Junction is the only high-standard road in the western part of the stateInterstate highwayAlong Route 70.Also the only railroadUnion Pacific RailroadIt also runs, connecting Denver and Grand Junction on a route without continuous high-standard roads and crossing the Rocky Mountains.Amtrakof"California ZephyrThe train is running.

There is Grand Mesa to the southwest of Grand Junction, and it is said that the largest mountain in the world is a flat mountain.Other towns on the western slopes include Glenwood Springs, a hot spring resort, and ski resorts.Aspen, Breckinridge, Bale, Crested Butte, Steamboat Springs, Telluride.

The northwestern corner of the state is an almost uninhabited area, hanging part of the prominent Dinosaur National Reserve.herePaleontologyNot only is it a typical area, but it is also a scenic area with high rocky hills, valleys and water streams.Here the Green River is in the short section of the state.

Colorado is lined from west to east in the order of deserts and desert plateaus, alpine belts with national forests, deserts spread over the Southern Mountains, and the relatively flat grasslands and interspersed forests of the Great Plains.The famous Pikes PeakColorado SpringsIt is located just west of.This isolated peak can be seen from near the Kansas border on a clear day, and also from the north and south.[18]..The desert areas are Royal Gorge, Pueblo, Canian City,Florence, Great Sand Dunes National Park, San Luis Valley, Cortez, Ancient National Reserve Gorges, Hovenweep National Reserve, Ute Mountain, Delta, Grand Junction, Colorado National Reserve, Lone Plateau, etc. It is located around the area surrounding the forest.

climate

Colorado's climate is extremely complex compared to other states.The south is not warmer than the north.Most of the area is mountains, hills, plateaus and desert areas.The mountainous areas and the surrounding valleys have a great influence on the local climate.Generally, the higher the altitude, the lower the temperature and the higher the rainfall.The northeast, east and southeast are plateaus, and the north is a mixture of plateaus, hills and mountains.The northwest and west are overwhelmingly mountainous, with some desert areas.The southwest and south are a complex mixture of deserts and mountains.The weather is extremely variable and there are more natural disasters such as earthquakes than in other areas.

Eastern plain

The climate of the eastern plainsSub-arid climate(Köppen climate classificationBSk), The humidity is low, and there is usually about 15 inches (380 mm) to 25 inches (635 mm) of precipitation per year.The daylight hours are long and the nights are cool and sunny, so the temperature difference between days is large.Summer temperature is 95° F There are many days when the temperature rises above (35 ℃), 100° F Some days exceed (38 ℃)[19]..Cities in the Front Mountains above 5,000 feet (1,500 m) have a maximum temperature of 105° F Up to (41 ° C), but 5,000 in cities below 112 feet above sea level° F Reached (44 ℃)[20]..In winter on the plain, the minimum temperature is 0° F (-18 ℃) to -10° F It drops to (-23 ℃).75% of the rainfall falls from April to September, which is the growing season of plants, but it is very prone to drought.Most of the precipitationthunderstormIt is from, and is often intense.AlsoStorm snowIs common in early spring, late autumn and winter.Most of the winter is dry and cold.March and April have the most snow in most of the region. April and May are rainy months, and April is a humid month overall.Cities in the Front Mountains get warmer in winter when they are closer to the mountains.this isChinookDue to the wind, sometimes 70° F It may be above (21 ℃)[21].. Average temperature in July is 7 in the morning° F (13 ℃) is 90 in the afternoon° F (32 ℃) It rises to near. Average temperature in January is 1 in the morning° F (-8 ℃) is 45 in the afternoon° F (7 ℃) It goes up to near.However, the temperature difference on consecutive days is 40° F Sometimes it is (22 ℃).

West of the plains and hills

The west of the plains and hills is not homogeneous.Even a few miles away, the weather can be quite different depending on the terrain of the area.Most of the valley has a sub-arid climate, and at high altitudesAlpine climatebecome.WetMicroclimateAlso exists in some places.In general, the rainy season is winter, with the least rain in June.This is the exact opposite of the eastern part.Summers in the mountains are cool, with a maximum temperature of 6° F (16 ℃) to 70° F It is (21 ° C), and the temperature may drop sharply due to a sudden thunderstorm.Summer nights are cool and high altitudes are cold.It may snow even in summer.In winter, there is a lot of powdery snow in the mountains, and there is plenty of sunshine during the big storms.In the summer on the western slopes, the temperature is as high as in the plains, and in winter it is a little cool because there is no warm wind that often blows in the plains and the front mountains.The rest of the west has its own unique climate.

Abnormal weather

Extreme weather events occur frequently in Colorado.To the east of the watershed, thunderstorms occur frequently in spring and summer, making it the state with the highest number of people killed by lightning.In the eastern watershed and northwestern part of the state(I.e.Is also often seen.The Eastern Plain is the largest hailfall site in North America[17]..The eastern plain also hangs on a tornado road, which is one of the strongest in the United States.竜 巻Occurs.So far happened in Rimon in 1990Fujita scaleWhat happened in the F3 tornado and the 2008 WindsorImproved Fujita ScaleEF3 tornado has caused great damage to the town[22].

The plains are also vulnerable to floods.Some are caused by thunderstorms, and some are caused by the rapid melting of snow in the mountains due to warm weather.Recorded in 1921 in Denver 90° F The record for consecutive days exceeding (32 ° C) was broken in the summer of 2008.The number of days was 24 consecutive days, 7 days higher than the previous record.[23]..Most of Colorado has relatively little rain.The average annual rainfall is around 17 inches (430 mm), and only parts of the state are rarely hit by drought.[24]..One of the largest in American history due to less rainForest fireThere were many wildfires such as the Hayman fire, and the Four Mile Canyon fire in 2010 was the most devastating in Colorado's history.

However, in some mountainous areas, a large amount of water accumulates due to winter snowfall.When this snow melts in springYampa River, Grand River, Colorado River, Rio Grande River, Arkansas River, Cherry Creek, North Platte River and South Platte River, etc.Water from the Rocky Mountains of Colorado flows from Southwestern New Mexico, Arizona, Utah,ネ バ ダ 州, And the Midwestern states of Nebraska, Kansas, and even the south.Oklahoma,TexasIt is a valuable source of water for farms, towns and cities.A large amount of water is also divided into California, and some water reaches northern Mexico.

Weather record

Colorado's record high temperature was recorded in Bennett on July 1888, 7 11° F (48 ° C), record low temperature recorded in Mabel on February 1985, 2-1° F It was (-52 ℃)[25][26].

Average monthly maximum and minimum temperatures in Colorado cities (° C)
city123456789101112
Alamosa2 / -194 / -1411 / -816 / -421/126/528/827/823/317 / -48 / -112 / -17
Colorado Springs6 / -87 / -711 / -316/121/626/1129/1428/1324/817/211 / -46 / -8
Denver7 / -78 / -612 / -316/222/728/1232/1530/1426/918/311 / -36 / -8
Grand Junction3 / -88 / -414/019/424/931/1434/1832/1727/1219/511 / -24 / -7
プ エ ブ ロ8 / -1011 / -816 / -320/125/731/1234/1532/1428/921/114 / -58 / -10

Earthquake

August 2011, 8,City of Trinidad9 miles (14 km) west-southwest ofmagnitude5.3 earthquake occurred[27]..There were no casualties and small losses were reported. It was the second largest earthquake since the magnitude 1973 earthquake recorded in 5.7.[28].

Demographic

Population transition
Yearspopulation% ±
186034,277
187039,86416.3%
1880194,327387.5%
1890413,249112.7%
1900539,70030.6%
1910799,02448.0%
1920939,62917.6%
19301,035,79110.2%
19401,123,2968.4%
19501,325,08918.0%
19601,753,94732.4%
19702,207,25925.8%
19802,889,96430.9%
19903,294,39414.0%
20004,301,26230.6%
20105,029,19616.9%
Sources: 1910-2010[29]

As of April 2011, 7United States Census BureauThe estimated population of Colorado is 5,116,796 in 2010.Census1.74% increase[30]..The state capital and largest city is Denver.More than half of Colorado's population (2009 million, 311% as of 61.9) resides in the Denver Aurora metropolitan area.

2005年時点で、コロラド州の推計人口は4,665,177人であり、前年より1.4%、63,356人の増加、2000年より8.4%、363,162人の増加だった。この中には、自然増205,321人 (出生353,091人、死亡147,770人) と、転入出に伴う増加159,957人 (アメリカ合衆国外からの転入超過112,217人、合衆国内からの転入超過47,740人)が含まれている。

According to a 2004 estimate, Colorado's population is2030Is projected to increase to 7,150,000[2]..The largest increase is projected to be along the Front Mountains, especially in the Denver-Aurora metropolitan area.In county unitsDouglas CountyWeld CountyGrowth rate is high[31]..Colorado's center of population isJackson CountyNorth of Richell Village[32].

As of 2004, 144,000 (3.1% of the population) of foreign births live in the state, including 441,000 (9.7% of the state's population) illegally resident foreigners.

Race and ancestry

Colorado Racial Composition and Comparison with Previous Census[33]
Census year:201020001990
White81.3%82.8%88.2%
Black4.0%3.8%4.0%
Asian2.8%2.2%1.8%
イ ン デ ィ ア ン1.1%1.0%0.8%
Others7.2%7.3%5.1%
Mixed3.4%2.8%
*
White,Hispanicother than70.0%74.5%80.7%
Hispanic ‡20.7%17.1%12.9%
Note
* No data; mixed race was first reported in the 2000 census
Hispanic numbers overlap with those of each race

Colorado is also in the United StatesHispanicIt is a state with a large population of Americans, especially Mexican-Americans, and is ranked 2010th out of 50 states in the 7 census.Considerable in state-wide metropolitan areas such as Denver and Colorado SpringsMexicanWhile populated, the southern part of the state is home to many Hispanics, descendants of Mexican immigrants during the Spanish era.

According to the 2000 census, 5% of residents over the age of 10.5 speak only Spanish at home, an increase of 2009% in 14.Like New Mexico, it uses a lot of old Spanish idioms.[34].

In areas such as Montbello in Denver and in the East Denver areaAfrican AmericanThere is a community ofIt is also located in the eastern and southeastern parts of Colorado Springs.Asian americanHas many descendants of Mongolian, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Southeast Asian, and Japanese descent.Especially in the southern and southeastern parts of Denver, and some in the southwestern part.The Denver metropolitan area is considered to be more liberal and diversified than the rest of the state in terms of political and environmental issues.

In 2006, 70,331 births were delivered in the state, with a birth rate of 1000 per 14.6 population. In 2007, non-Hispanic whites were involved in 59.1% of births[35]..14.06% of them were non-Hispanic Caucasians and children of other races, most of whom were couples, including Hispanics.Births involving at least one Hispanic population accounted for 1% of the total[36].

What is the population composition divided by the country of origin of the ancestors as declared in the 2000 census?[37]:6,German descent(twenty two%,スイスオーストリア(Including), Mexican (18%),Irish descent(12%),British(12%).Those who declare German ancestry are particularly concentrated in the Front Mountains, the counties in the Midwestern Rocky Mountains, and the eastern plains.[38].

Religious

The religions of the Colorado people are as follows:[39].

In the number of believersCatholic church752,505 people,Mormonism92,326 people,Baptist85,083[40]..Twenty-five percent said they were non-religious, higher than the national average of 25%.

Health care

Colorado has a reputation for having a high percentage of people exercising for good health.Obesity was the lowest in the United States in some studies[41].. As of 2007, 18% of the population was medically considered obese, up from 2004% in 17."As an avid angler and cyclist, Colorado offers an active and healthy lifestyle environment," said Colorado Governor Bill Ritter.However, he emphasized the need to continue education and support to slow the rise in obesity rates in the state.[42].

Indian tribe

In the stateCheyenne,Arapaho,, HicariaApache,Comanche,Kiowa,Navajo,Shoshone,UteSuch asイ ン デ ィ ア ンThe tribe was indigenous.allTipiIt was a hunting people who lived on the move and did not farm.Also,PuebloAncestors have left ruins in prehistoric times.

Indigenous to the state at the Blake & Williams Hotel in Denver in 1859.ArapahoA gathering of exchanges with the white townspeople of Denver was held.Chief Little Raven of the Arapaho tribe spoke to whites, saying, "I like whites and I'm glad they're looking for gold mines around here." It was.The chief went on to say, "All the land around Denver is the territory of the Arapaho tribe, so I want the whites to leave this area as soon as possible." There wasn't.Only a few years later, all the Arapaho tribes hereWyomingHe was forcibly relocated to the reservation site.

During this period, the conflict between Indians and white lands in the western region continued to grow.Around this time, a white citizens' rally was held in Colorado, raising $ 5000 to fund the purchase of Indian head skins.With this as a fund, a high prize of $ 25 per piece was given to the skin of the head with ear lobes.

On September 1864, 9, peace talks were held between representatives of the surrounding Indian tribes and the white settlement government in Denver amid ongoing conflicts between Indians and white bloody lands in the area.The white townspeople went out and greeted the carriage on which the chiefs were riding.CheyenneBlack kettleThe chief also participated in this, including Governor John Evans.Colonel ChibingtonHe was one of the people who preached peace to the other party.

Two months after this peace talk, "Sand Creek MassacreWas on the move in response to a white request to "get out of Colorado" at the "Peace Talks" by the non-resisting Chief Black Kettle and others.CheyenneA group was attacked by the U.S. Army cavalry in a camp, and old men and children were indiscriminately slaughtered.Soldier BlueIt became the subject of.The victimized Cheyenne itself was divided into two tribes at the end of the 19th century.MontanaOklahomaWas forced to relocate to the reservation site.

On December 1864, 12, Denver's local newspaper, Rocky Mountain News, said, "The Great Battle with the Indians, the Barbarians have been scattered! 8 Indians dead, 500 dead in our army. With the brave heading ", 9 injured!", He announced the "Sand Creek Slaughter" and on December 38th the return of the Tibington Corps.Colonel Chivington and the cavalry, who led the slaughter, stripped the genitals and heads of the men and women who killed them, put them on their loot as loot, and performed a parade in Denver.

Indigenous to this stateイ ン デ ィ ア ンAll tribes were displaced to other states except the Ute in the 19th century.UteOnly two tribes are currently recognized as tribes by the US federal governmentReservation place(Reservation) is owned.

"Delaware"" And "" are tribes that were displaced from the state of Delaware and the Great Lakes region in the 19th century. It has become.He is currently seeking territory and autonomy and is demanding tribal recertification.

  • Indian tribes officially recognized by the U.S. federal government
  • Indian tribes not officially recognized by the U.S. federal government
    • "DelawareMuncie Thames Band "
    • "Benefits Tribal Conference"

Indian Casino

Currently, there are two "Ute"Indian CasinoIs open. "Mountain Casino" is an old "Indian Casino" opened in 1992.

The Colorado State Capitol promulgated a new state law on casinos on July 2009, 7.It raises the stake limit to $ 2, adds roulette and dice gambling, and authorizes the casino to operate 100 hours a day.Casinos are a state-wide business in the state.

Casinos have become the only industry for the "mountain Ute" who live in resource-poor mountain reservations.Currently, 8% of the tribal members are working at the "mountain casino", and they have been very effective in recalling the tribal members who have flowed out of the reservation.

  • "Mountain Ute"
    • "Ute Mountain Casino"
  • "Southern Ute"
    • "Sky Ute Casino & Lodge"

Indians and Columbus Parade

Denver, Colorado,Christopher Columbus"American Landing Memorial Festival"Columbus DayThe "Columbus Parade" is being held in collaboration with an Italian organization. Started by Denver in 1907, the event is now a national festival.

In Denver, the largest Indian rights organization in the United States, "American indian movement(AIM) ”. AIM has slammed protests at the state-wide parade, saying, "Condemn the Columbus celebrations against Indians and urge city officials to take a moral attitude." It is an annual convention that police arrest a large number of Indians.

In 1990, it was announced that the once-discontinued "Columbus Parade" in Denver will be revived for the first time in 30 years under the auspices of the "Federation of Italian-American Organizations (FIAO)".In response, Colorado AIM, which has been boosting the anti-Columbus parade movement since the previous year, has asked FIAO not to bear the cursed "Columbus" name for Indians. The FIAO said it would consider this, but then refused any negotiations and held the "Columbus Parade."

In 1991, FIAO again ignored the name change request, so AIM hit the parade and held a protest demonstration.On this occasion,Sioux OfRussell Means, Glenn Morris, MwekumaAuroneMargaret Martinez, then professor at the University of ColoradoWard ChurchillFour AIM members were arrested by state police.They were completely acquitted in a trial in June 4.

In 1992, the year of "the 500th anniversary of Columbus' landing in the United States," FIAO again rejected Colorado AIM's request.On the other hand, Mayor of Denver, Mayor Webb (at that time),United States Department of JusticeCommunity Bureau,Cheyenne OfBen Nighthorse CampbellSenators (at that time) and others held seven councils to discuss this issue.On the final day of the conference, one of the FIAO representatives interrupted AIM representative Glenn Morris's remarks, saying, "Listen, this is not your country anymore. Now this is our country. That's why it's best for you to participate in this event, "he said, and the meeting broke down.

On the day of the parade, protesters swelled to 3500, including AIM members and non-Indian supporters.In response, FIAO canceled the parade in front of the Colorado State Capitol stairs and switched to a smaller rally.At the AIM celebration that day, FIAO representatives promised a dialogue with AIM, but that was not kept.However, the Columbus Parade in Colorado was not held for some time after that.

October 1998, 10, the birthplace of "Columbus Day"Pueblo CityThen, a Pueblo citizen group and an Italian group held an event to hand a bouquet to the statue of Columbus, which was built 93 years ago.In response, about 100 demonstrators, including AIM, protested with drums and megaphones, and AIM's Russell Means said that "Columbus was the first slave trader to cross the Atlantic Ocean" and "blood" (red paint) on the statue. ) Was showered.Since then, protests have been held every year to "blood" the Columbus statue.

2000, Italian organization "Italian sons in AmericaHas announced that it will resume the Columbus parade, and the Colorado AIM has asked the Department of Community and the Department of Justice to mediate dialogue with them.After several talks, an agreement was signed on September 9 to change the parade to "Italian Pride Parade March".However, this was broken on the day of the parade, and the "Columbus Parade" was held. AIM [haChicano150 people were arrested by the state police in a protest demonstration in collaboration with the groups "Escuela Tlatelolco" and "Vario Warriors".They were later not charged by the Denver city authorities.

In 2001, the new Columbus Parade was revived under the auspices of another organization.In response, AIM and The Transform Columbus Day Alliance held the first 2000-person "Four Directions March".

On September 2005, 9, a local newspaper, "Rocky Mountain News," posted a feature article with comments from city officials under the headline "Columbus parade could see less strife." "Indian protests are declining," he argued.In response, AIM and Indian groups in the state are angry and protesting, "Where is the basis?"By the way, in 24, the previous year, 2004 demonstrators were arrested.After that, "Rocky Mountain News" was discontinued on February 240, 2009.

In 2007, the 100th anniversary of the Columbus Parade, Indians and other protesters celebrated this holiday.White supremacyBy "KK ColumbusNamed "Day". Approximately 4 people carried out large-scale protest demonstrations, including the "four-way march." More than 1000 people have been arrested.Current,University of California DavisGlenn Morris of AIM, Dean of the Department of Thought Science at Columbus DayRacismRegarding the effect, he points out infringement of rights in the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.The state government has also tightened the legal tightening of demonstrators, and arrests have been on an annual basis, and the dispute in the parade has not shown signs of subsided since then.

culture

Museums

Orchestra

Cuisine

Colorado is known for its southwestern and Rocky Mountain cuisine.There are Mexican restaurants throughout the state.

The city of Boulder was listed as a food town in the United States in 2010 by the magazine "Bonabeti"[43]..Boulder and Colorado are generally food and beverage companies of many nationalities, finest restaurants andFarmers marketThere is.Also in the city of BoulderSan Franciscocity ​​andニ ュ ー ヨ ー クPer capita than other cities, including citiesSommelierThere are many.

Every June, the Food and Wine Classic is held in Aspen.Aspen is also known as the culinary capital of the Rocky Mountains[44].

The city of Denver is known for its steaks, but it also has many finest restaurants serving a variety of dishes.[45].

Wine

Although the Colorado wine is an award-winning varietyWineThere is also a favorable reception from outside the state.[46]..In addition to wines made from traditional Vinifera grapes, there are also wines made from cherries, peaches, plums and honey, which have won national and international awards for their quality.[47]..The vineyards are home to the highest vineyards in the United States[48], High between 4,000 feet (1,200 m) and 7,000 feet (2,100 m) above sea level.The mountainous climate provides warm summer days and cool nights.The areas designated as viticulture areas in the United States include the Grand Valley and West Elks cultivation areas.[49], Most of the vineyards are here.The number of wineries has also increased in the Front Mountains.

Economy

United States Department of Commerce Department of Economic AnalysisEstimated that the total state output in 2010 was US $ 2,576 billion.[50].. Per capita income in 2010 was US $ 11, the 51,940th largest in the United States.[51]..Colorado's economy began with mining in the mid-19th century, and irrigated agricultural development developed. In the latter half of the 19th century, livestock farming became important.Early industries were based on mineral drilling and processing, and agricultural products.Current agricultural products,wheat,Dairy products,corn,as well ashay.

In the latter half of the 20th century, the industrial and service industries expanded significantly.Colorado's economy is diversified and famous for its concentration of scientific research and high-tech industries.Other industries include food processing, transportation equipment, machinery, chemical products, gold, silver andmolybdenumMinerals like, andtourismIs included.The largest annual beer production in the United States[52]..Denver is importantFinancial centerIs. Colorado is named Texas in CNBC's "List of States Suitable for 2010 Business"VirginiaWas ranked 3rd after[53]..Federal agencies are also a big economic driver, located in Colorado SpringsNorth American Aerospace Defense Command,US Air Force AcademyPeterson Air Force Base, In GoldenUnited States Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,National Renewable Energy Laboratory, In BoulderNational Institute of Standards and Technology,LakewoodLocated in the Federal Center for DenverUS Geological SurveyFederal agencies such as Denver Mint in Denver, Buckley Air Force Base, Federal Court of Appeals 10th Circuit, and federal prisons such as Supermax Prison in Canyon City are important federal agencies.In addition to these federal agencies, the state has a large number of national forests and four national parks with a total area of ​​4 (24,615,788 km).2), That is, 37% of Colorado's total area is owned by the state.

Many of the well-known brands in the country were born in Colorado factories and laboratories.In Denver, in 1879, the predecessor of telecommunications giant Quwest, a suitcase in 1910.SamsoniteFounded in 1911 by Gates of Belt and Horse, and in 1923 by the confectionery Russell Stover Candies.Kner started canned vegetables in Brighton in 1863.In Golden in 1873 of beerCoorsFounded in 1920 by CoorsTek, an industrial ceramic company, and in 1949 by Jolly Launcher, a confectionery company.The Colorado Fuel and Iron of Railroads, Wires, Nails and Pipes was born in 1892 in Pueblo.Holly Sugar began processing beats in Holly in 1905 and then relocated its headquarters to Colorado Springs.The meat processing Swift in Greeley evolved from the Monfort of Colorado, which was founded in 1930.Estes Industries OfModel rocketWas launched in Penrose in 1958.Fort CollinsHas Woodward Governor, an engine controller (governor) since 1870, as well as dental water jets and shower heads.Water pickIs from 1962.Celestial Seasonings has been making herbal teas in Boulder since 1969.Rocky Mountain Chocolate Factory made the first candy in Durango in 1981.

Coloradoincome taxThe rate is 4.63% of the uniform income tax regardless of the amount of income.Unlike other states, which calculate based on the federal government's "adjusted total income," Colorado calculates the taxable amount based on "taxable income," which is a federal deduction and an itemized (or standard) deduction. ing[54][55]..Coloradoconsumption taxIs 2.9% in retail sales.When state revenues exceed the constitutional limits, Colorado residents throughout the year can apply for a refund of sales tax overpaid with a state income tax refund.Many counties and cities add their own tax rates to the state tax rates.Certain county and special zone taxes also apply.

Real estateAnd privately owned land is taxable in Colorado.Colorado's senior land tax exemption was temporarily suspended by the Colorado State Capitol in 2003.The suspended tax exemption will be evaluated in 2007 so that it will be refunded in 2006.

As of January 2010, the unemployment rate in the state was 9%.[56].

Charity

Major Colorado-based philanthropic organizations include the Daniels Fund, Anschutz Family Foundation, Gates Family Foundation, El Pommer Foundation and Betcher Foundation.Total assets are about $ 70 billion[57]The donation amount is about 4 million dollars a year.

Natural resources

A considerable amount in the statehydrocarbonThere are resources.According to the Energy Information Management Bureau, there are 100 out of 7 domestic natural gas fields and 100 out of 2 oil fields.Conventional or non-conventionalNatural gasProduction is usually more than 5% of domestic production.Oil shaleReserves of 1 trillion barrels of oil equivalent (160 km)3), Which is comparable to the proved oil reserves of the world.However, the economic feasibility of oil shale is not yet known.[58].Bituminous coal, Sub-bituminous coal andligniteA considerable reserve has been found in.Kimberlite volcanic pipes have also been found.The Lake Kelsey Diamond Mine has been in operation for several years and is of gem qualitydiamondProduced[59]..In the high ridges and eastern plains of the Rocky MountainsWind-power generationIn the geological activity of the mountainous areaGeothermal power generationThere is a possibility of.Because the daylight hours are longSolar powerYou can also.In the main rivers that flow out of the Rocky MountainsHydropowerIs possible.Corn grown in the eastern plains is a biofuelethanolMay be obtained.

Transportation

Colorado's main mode of transportation is the high-standard road network.Interstate highwayLine 25 is the north-south trunk line that connects Denver, Colorado Springs, Pueblo, Fort Collins and Greeley.Interstate 70 is an east-west trunk line that connects Denver with mountain towns and Grand Junction.American National RoadThere is a network of roads and state roads that connect most of the state, but small communities can only be accessed by county roads.

Denver International AirportIs the fifth most used airport in the world and is heavily used by non-military and commercial flights.Throughout the stateJeffco AirportThere are many regional airports.

Railroads are important for industrial use, but residents do not use them very often.In the Denver metropolitan areaRegional Transportation DistrictOperatesLight RailThere is a mass transit system.Other public transportation is intercity and intracity bus transportation.Amtrak OfCalifornia ZephyrTrain from CaliforniaChicagoIt runs to, and Denver and other stations are stops.

Politics and law

State government

Results of the Governor Election
YearsRepublican PartyDemocratic Party
201011.3% 199,03451.0% 912,005
200640.16% 625,88656.98% 888,096
200262.62% 884,58433.65% 475,373
199849.06% 648,20248.43% 639,905
199438.70% 432,04255.47% 619,205
199035.43% 358,40361.89% 626,032

Colorado, like all states in the United States,Executive branch,Legislative officeandJudiciaryThe state constitution stipulates the separation of powers.The head of government is the governor.The Colorado Supreme Court is the highest court of the judiciary.The legislative state legislature is of the House of Representatives and the SenateBicameral system.

The House of Representatives has a fixed number of 65 and the Senate has 35. As of 2011, the House of Representatives has a majority of Republicans, and the Senate has a majority of Democrats. The 1 parliament will be dominated by the Democratic Party for the first time in 2005 years.The incumbent governor is the Democratic Party.

Many Colorado citizens are born in other states. Nearly 2000% were born in other states in the 60 census[60]..As a result, no governor was from the state since 1975, when Governor John David Bandeahof resigned, until Bill Ritter became governor in 2007.

county

Colorado is subdivided into 64 counties.In the stateTownshipThe county is an important political unit because there is no secondary subdivision like.Of these counties, Bloomfield and Denver are integrated cities.

Nine counties have a population of over 9 and eight counties have a population of less than 25.The 8th most populous counties are located in the Front Mountains City Corridor.

2010 populous counties as of 25
Rankingcounty2010 Census2000 CensusRate of change(%)
1El Paso County622,263516,929+20.38
2Denver City County600,158554,636+8.21
3Arapahoe County572,003487,967+17.22
4Jefferson County[61]534,543527,056* 1.42
5Adams County[61]441,603363,857+21.37
6Larimer County299,630251,494+19.14
7Boulder County[61]294,567291,288+1.13
8Douglas County285,465175,766+62.41
9Weld County[61]252,825180,936+39.73
10Pueblo County159,063141,472+12.43
11Mesa County146,723116,255+26.21
12Garfield County56.38943,791+28.77
13Bloomfield City County[61]55,889--
14Eagle County52,19741,659+25.30
15La Plata County51,33443,941+16.82
16Fremont County46,82446,145+1.47
17Montrose County41,27633,432+23.46
18Delta county30,95227,834+11.20
19Morgan County28,15927,171+3.64
20Summit county27,99423,548+18.88
21Montezuma County25,53523,830+7.15
22Routt County23,50919,690+19.40
23Teller County23,35020,555+13.60
24Elbert County23,08619,872+16.17
25Logan County22,70920,504+10.75

Metropolitan area

United States Office of Management and BudgetIs one in ColoradoMetropolitan area[62], ThreeMetropolitan area[63], ThreeSmall metropolitan area[64]Defines[65].

14 in the stateCore-based statistical areaThe most populous of these is the Denver Aurora Bloomfield metropolitan area.The population of this metropolitan area was 2010 in the 2,543,482 census, an increase of 2000% from 17.88.[66].

Furthermore, in the Denver Aurora Boulder metropolitan area, the population was 2010 according to the 3,090,874 census, an increase of 2000% from 17.52.[66].

The populous metropolitan area in the Rocky Mountains is the Front Mountains Urban Corridor facing the northeast of the southern part of the Mountains, and the area centered around Denver has a population of 2010 according to the 4,333,742 Census and 2000 since 17.50. % Increased[66].

Municipalities

Colorado has 271 incorporated municipalities, of which 196 towns, 73 cities, and 2 integrated cities and counties.

Municipalities in the state operate in one of five forms of government, depending on how they were founded. One town is Colorado Territory-approved, 5 municipalities are state law towns, 1 municipalities are state law cities, 160 municipalities are voluntary standards municipalities (12 and 96 towns), and two. The municipality is an integrated city and county.

2010 populous municipalities as of 25
Rankingcounty2010 Census2000 CensusRate of change(%)
1Denver City County600,158554,636+8.21
2Colorado Springs416,427360,890+15.39
3Aurora325,078276,393+17.61
4Fort Collins143,986118,652+21.35
5Lakewood142,980144,126-0.80%
6Thornton118,77282,384+44.17
7プ エ ブ ロ106,595102,121+4.38
8Arvada106,433102,153+4.19
9Westminster106,114100,940+5.13
10Centennial[67]100,377--
11Boulder97,38594,673+2.86
12Greeley92,88976,930+20.74
13Longmont86,27071,093+21.35
1466,85950,608+32.11
15Grand Junction58,56641,986+39.49
16Bloomfield City County[61]55,88938,272+46.03
1748,23120,224+138.48
1845,91320,991+118.73
1945,29723,558+92.28
2041,73740,340+3.46
2135,78931,575+13.35
2233,35220,905+59.54
2330,255-4.64%
2430,16632,913-8.35%
2525,84615,197+70.07

Unincorporated town

In addition to the 271 municipalities listed above, there are 187 unincorporated towns,Census designated areaSome are small and some are small.

2010 populous unincorporated towns as of 15
Rankingcounty2010 Census2000 CensusRate of change(%)
196,71370,931+36.35
2Security widefield3288229845+10.18
3Ken Caryl3243830887+5.02
4Dakota Ridge32005--
5Pueblo West2963716899+75.38
6Columbine2428024095+0.77
7Clifton1988917345+14.67
8Cherelwood1828717657+3.57
9Cimmaron Hills1616115194+6.36
10Welbe1484612973+14.44
11Fort carson1381310566+30.73
12Black forest1311613247-0.99%
13Berkeley1120710743+4.32
14Cherry creek11120--
15The Pinery105177253+45.00

25 Wealthy Regions in Colorado

Ranking by per capita income:

  1. Cherry Hills Village - $ 99,996
  2. Genessee CDP - $ 79,180
  3. Columbine Valley - $ 71,758
  4. Castle Pines CDP - $ 70,456
  5. Greenwood Village - $ 69,189
  6. Bonanza - $ 66,857
  7. Bow Mar - $ 53,558
  8. - $ 50,041
  9. - $ 47,574
  10. Lone tree - $ 46,287
  11. - $ 46,031
  12. The Pinery CDP - $ 43,065
  13. - $ 42,908
  14. Vail - $ 42,390
  15. - $ 40,970
  16. Aspen - $ 40,680
  17. Niwot CDP - $ 39,943
  18. Mountain Village - $ 39,920
  19. - $ 39,784
  20. Along - $ 39,182
  21. Telluride - $ 38,832
  22. Woodmoor CDP - $ 38,758
  23. – $ 37,891 (currently Centennial Part of)
  24. Vona - $ 37,802
  25. Eagle-Vail CDP - $ 37,260

Special area

There are more than 3,000 taxable areas in the state.These areas provide services for a variety of purposes, including schools, police, fire, water, sewerage, irrigation, transportation, recreation, infrastructure, cultural facilities, business support and redevelopment.

Some of these areas can impose sales tax, property tax and royalties.For this reason, consumption tax rates and asset tax rates vary within the state.At some intersections, different tax rates can occur at each corner.

The prominent special areas are:

  • Regional Transportation District(RTD), Denver, Boulder, Jefferson counties and parts of Adams, Arapaho, Bloomfield and Douglas counties
  • Special Zones Taxable Areas with Boundaries Consistent with the County Borders of the Science and Culture Facility Area (SCFD), Adams, Arapaho, Boulder, Bloomfield, Denver, Douglas, and Jefferson County
    • 0.1% tax on retail and use
    • According to Colorado law, the scientific and cultural facilities area may allocate gold to local organizations on an annual basis.The organization must provide public awareness and entertainment through the production, presentation, exhibition, progress and preservation of art, music, drama, dance, animals, plants, natural history and cultural history.
    • As indicated by state law, the beneficiary organizations in the Science and Culture Facility area are divided into three layers according to the proportion of gold allocated.
      • First tier, including 1%, regional organizations such as Denver Museum, Denver Botanical Garden, Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Denver Zoo, Denver Performing Arts Center
      • There are 2 regional organizations that receive the second tier, 21%
      • There are 3 organizations such as small theaters, orchestras, art centers, groups of natural history / cultural history, etc., receiving 13.5% of the 280rd tier.
    • A board of eleven members oversees budget allocation in accordance with Colorado revised state law, seven members nominated by the county commission and four nominated by the governor.
  • Football stadium area (FD or FTBL), voter allowed to tax,Denver BroncosStadiumSports Authority Field at Mile HighConstruction assistance
  • Designated as Local Improvement Zone (LID), Southeastern Jefferson County and Boulder County area.
  • Taxes are levied at various rates within the Towns of Local Transport Corporation (RTA), Besalt, Carbondale, Glenwood Springs and within Gunnison County.

Politics

Results of the presidential election
YearsRepublican PartyDemocratic Party
201246.12% 1,185,05051.49% 1,322,998
200844.71% 1,073,58453.66% 1,288,568
200451.69% 1,101,25547.02% 1,001,732
200050.75% 883,74542.39% 738,227
199645.80% 691,84844.43% 671,152
199235.87% 562,85040.13% 629,681
198853.06% 728,17745.28% 621,453

Colorado is considered to be the state in which the two major parties are in close quarters in state and federal elections.Over the last 100 years, he has elected 17 Democrats and 12 Republicans as governors.In the case of the presidential election, the Democratic Party of 1992Bill ClintonAnd in 2008 and 2012Barack ObamaIn 1996, the Republican PartyRobert Dole, 2000 and 2004 as wellGeorge W. BushI have chosen. In 2008, it was the second closest battle after Virginia.[68]..Colorado's politics contrasts with conservative cities like Colorado Springs and liberal cities like Boulder.Democrats are strong in the Denver metropolitan area, in the southern states, including the university towns of Fort Collins, Boulder, and Pueblo, and in the western counties with ski resorts.Republicans are strong in the eastern plains, Colorado Springs, Greeley, and the westernmost part near Grand Junction.

Former Colorado Senator and Prosecutor GeneralKen SalazarIs nowUnited States Secretary of the InteriorIs serving.

There is one Republican and one Democratic US Senator from the state.Of the seven members of the House of Representatives, four are Republicans and three are Democrats.

National Guard

Security

2016年FBI発表の犯罪統計によると、2015年に発生した犯罪の総件数は161,651件、前年の152,276件より6.2%増加。 殺人176件(対前年比17.3%増)、強姦3,257件(対前年比5.4%増)、強盗3,323件(対前年比9.4%)など、凶悪犯罪も増加傾向を示しており、特に強姦は2012年の2113件と比べ顕著に増加している。

Education

Colleges and universities

  • Adams State College
  • Ames Community College
  • Arapaho Community College
  • Colorado University of the Arts
  • Bellevue College
  • Colorado Christian University
  • Colorado College
  • Colorado University of Mesa
  • Colorado Mouten College
  • Colorado Northwestern Community College
  • Colorado Mining School
  • Colorado State University System
  • Colorado Technical University
  • Aurora Community College
  • Denver Community College
  • Denver Seminary
  • Debris University
  • Emily Griffiths Opportunity School
  • Fort Lewis College
  • Front Range Community College
  • Heritage College and Heritage Institute
  • Irif Theological Seminary
  • Johnson and University of Wales
  • Jones International University
  • Lamar Community College
  • Denver Metropolitan State College
  • Morgan Community College
  • Naropa University
  • National Institute of Technology
  • Nazaren Bible College
  • Northeastern Junior College
  • Otero Junior College
  • Pikes Peak Community College
  • Pueblo Community College
  • Red Rocks Community College
  • Redstone College
  • Regis University
  • Rocky Mountain Art Design College
  • Rocky Vista University Osteopathic Therapy College
  • Trinidad State Junior College
  • US Air Force Academy
  • University of Denver
  • Western State College

Professional sports team

Relationship with Japan

Some of the Nikkei who emigrated to California, who lost their economic ground in the 1906 California earthquake, emigrated to Colorado and exceeded 1910 in 1,000.However, when World War II broke out, many were placed in concentration camps.However, he was the governor of Colorado at the beginning of the war.Ralph Lawrence KerrIs known for defending Nikkei.

After the war, when the camp life was lifted, the governor of Colorado showed understanding and support to Nikkei.As a result, about 5,000 people moved to Denver and a Japanese town was formed.

In the 1950s, some returned to California and spilled in search of new land, reducing the number of Nikkei in Colorado to around 2,500.

Nowadays, some aging Nikkei have given up their farms and returned to cities such as Denver to live their lives.In Denver, the Japanese town has been redeveloped and apartments for the elderly have been built.

In Denver, Japanese newspapers are published outside the West Coast. "Rocky Time Signal" nominally 1,200 copies.

There are also supplementary schools for Nikkei and campuses of Nikkei universities.

Because of this connection with Japan, many cities in Japan and sister cities are connected.

Others

Celebrity from Colorado

State symbols, etc.

  • State Birds-Lark Bunting
  • State Tree-Bungen Spruce
  • State Motto-Nothing without Providence

Japan's sister cities

事件

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ "Colorado --Definition”. Merriam-webster.com (August 2010, 8). 2011/6/5Browse.
  2. ^ MLA Language Map Data Center". Modern Language Association.
  3. ^ "Genocide Wiped Out Native American Population ", Discovery News, September 20, 2010.
  4. ^ Gehling, Richard (2006). “The Pike's Peak Gold Rush”. Richard Gehling. As of June 2008, 6オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2007/6/12Browse.
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  6. ^ Early explorers identified the Gunnison River in Colorado as the headwaters of the Colorado River. The Grand River in Colorado was later tentively identified as the primary headwaters of the river. Finally in 1916, EC LaRue, the Chief Hydrologist of the United States Geological Survey, identified the Green River in southwestern Wyoming as the proper headwaters of the actual, overall Colorado River.
  7. ^ State of Colorado – Division of Information Technologies.State Names and Nicknames". 2006/11/15Browse.
  8. ^ Report of the exploring expedition from Santa Fé, New Mexico, to the junction of the Grand and Green Rivers of the great Colorado of the West, in 1859: under the command of Capt. JN Macomb, Corps of topographical engineers, Volume 1 @ archive.org
  9. ^ a b Forty-third United States Congress (March 1875, 3). “An Act to Enable the People of Colorado to Form a Constitution and State Government, and for the Admission of the Said State into the Union on an Equal Footing with the Original States (PDF)”. As of May 2008, 5オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2008/4/14Browse.
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  26. ^ "Record Lowest Temperatures by State (PDF)”. National Climatic Data Center (January 2004, 1). 2007/1/11Browse.
  27. ^ http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqsus/Maps/US2/36.38.-106.-104.php
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  61. ^ a b c d e f The Bloomfield City CountyOn November 2001, 11,Boulder County,Adams County,Jefferson CountyandWeld CountyWas created from the part of
  62. ^ The United States Office of Management and Budget defines a Combined Statistical Area (CSA) as an aggregate of adjacent Core Based Statistical Areas that are linked by commuting ties.
  63. ^ The United States Office of Management and Budget defines a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as a Core Based Statistical Area having at least one urbanized area of ​​50,000 or more population, plus adjacent territory that has a high degree of social and economic integration with the core as measured by commuting ties.
  64. ^ The United States Office of Management and Budget defines a Micropolitan Statistical Area (μSA) as a Core Based Statistical Area having at least one urban cluster of at least 10,000 but less than 50,000 population, plus adjacent territory that has a high degree of social and economic integration with the core as measured by commuting ties.
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References

  • Explore Colorado, A Naturalist's Handbook, The Denver Museum of Natural History and Westcliff Publishers, 1995, ISBN-1 56579 124-X- for an excellent guide to the ecological regions of Colorado.
  • The Archeology of Colorado, Revised Edition, E. Steve Cassells, Johnson Books, Boulder, Colorado, 1997, trade paperback, ISBN-1 55566-193-9.
  • Chokecherry Places, Essays from the High Plains, Merrill Gilfillan, Johnston Press, Boulder, Colorado, trade paperback, ISBN-1 55566-227-7.
  • The Tie That Binds, Kent Haruf, 1984, hardcover, ISBN-0 03-071979-8, a fictional account of farming in Colorado.
  • Railroads of Colorado: Your Guide to Colorado's Historic Trains and Railway Sites, Claude Wiatrowski, Voyageur Press, 2002, hardcover, 160 pages, ISBN-0 89658-591-3

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Coordinate: 39°00'N 105 degrees 30 minutes west longitude /39 N, 105.5 W / 39; -105.5


 

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