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🎁 | May 5th is Mother's Day ... Traffic safety wishes Children present Akita / Odate City


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May 5th is Mother's Day ... Traffic safety wishes Children present Akita / Odate City

 
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This event was held by the Akita Prefectural Police Odate Police Station on Mother's Day in order to raise awareness of safety among parents and children in order to prevent traffic accidents that damage the increasing number of children in Akita Prefecture.
 

Before Mother's Day on May 5, a traffic safety event was held at the Children's Garden in Odate City, Akita Prefecture, and children wish for traffic safety ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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Traffic accident

Traffic accident(Kotsuuji) is, in a broad sense, a generic term for accidents on land, sea, and air traffic. So in a broad sense,Road traffic accident,Railway traffic accident,Maritime traffic accident,Air traffic accidentIncluding all of. The existing encyclopedia "Japan Encyclopedia" also discusses land, sea, and air traffic.[1].

In addition to road traffic accidents, it may also be used in a broad sense, including road traffic accidents, railway traffic accidents, marine traffic accidents, and air traffic accidents, in traffic safety measures and statistics.[2].. Although,道路InAutomobile-Bicycle-PedestrianOccurred duringRoad traffic accident(As automobiles, motorcycles, and bicycles are most commonly used and most frequently used in society as a whole, the number of accidents is higher than that of ships and aircraft.)

In this encyclopedia,There is no other article in this article that gives an overview of traffic accidents in a broad sense, that is, with a view of all aspects of railways, seas, aviation, and roads, so at the beginning of this article OverviewThen,In the section below, we also describe the details of the most familiar traffic accidents, road traffic accidents... For details of other types of traffic accidents, I will leave it to a separate article, for exampleRailroad crossing accidentA railway accident involvingRailway accident, A ship accidentMarine accident-Water accident(River descentEtc.)Aviation accidentI will transfer it to the article.

Overview of traffic accidents in a broad sense

Traffic accidents are classified into "road accidents (car accidents)" and "railway traffic accidents (Railway accident)" "Marine accident (marine accident)""Air traffic accident (air traffic accident)Is roughly divided into[1].

1970 eraSince then, the means of transportation have become larger, more multifunctional, and faster, so once an accident occurs, it could lead to the death of many people and the loss of many goods. Became higher[1].. Traffic accidents are one of the modern social unrest[1].

Aging of simple statistics

For example, comparing the casualty statistics from wide-ranging traffic accidents in Japan by type, the results are as follows.[1].

  • Road traffic accident(死傷者):65万3582人(1984)、105万9403人(1999)、91万5029人(2009)、58万4544人(2017)[1].
  • Railway track traffic accident(Injured and injured): 1538 (1984), 689 (1999), 683 (2009), 561 (2017)[1].
  • Maritime traffic accident(Dead and missing): 252 (1984), 146 (1999), 142 (2009), 54 (2017)[1].
  • Air traffic accident(Civil aircraft only): 46 (1984), 26 (1999), 9 (2009), 28 (2017)[1].

Types of road traffic accidents

Traffic accidents include personal injury and property damage[3].. In addition, there are the following types of accidents (reference “Actual conditions of traffic accidents in automobile insurance data”)[3].

  • People vs vehicles
  • Vehicle-to-vehicle (vehicle-to-vehicle accident)
    • Head-on collision
    • Side impact
    • Meeting collision
    • Contact accident
    • Rear-end collision
    • Reverse collision
  • Vehicle alone accident
    • Off-road deviation
    • Structure collision
    • Vehicle rollover
    • Vehicle fall

In addition to this, there have also been "vehicle-to-animal" collisions (see detailsRoadkill # RoadkillSee).Japan Automobile Federation(JAF) is careful not to collide with animals, when it discovers a carcass of an animal that may interfere with the passage of vehicles following it, report to the police in case of collision and rescue / removal of the animal (if possible) ofRoad emergency dialTo report to[4].

Causes of road traffic accidents

Main factor, vehicle factor, environmental factor

Factors of traffic accidents include main factors, vehicle factors, and environmental factors[5].

  • Human factors
  • Vehicle factors
    • Poor maintenance
      • Braking device failure[5]
      • Defective steering device (improper handle adjustment, deformed handle, small handle, etc.)[5]
      • Tire failure (puncture, burst, wear, etc.)[5]
      • Bad wheel[5]
      • Poor lighting[5]
      • Engine failure[5]
      • Transmission failure/defective[5]
      • Defective fuel/lubrication system[5]
      • Failure/defective windshield, wiper, etc.[5]
      • Mirror misalignment/damage/missing[5]
      • Bad remodeling[5]
    • Poor condition
  • Environmental factors
    • Road factors
      • Linear failure (steep slope, etc.)[5]
      • Poor intersection shape[5]
      • Road structural obstacles (road surface defects, ruts, etc.)[5]
      • Traffic obstacles (road construction, etc.)[5]
      • Inadequate traffic safety facilities (curve mirrors, road lighting, railroad crossing facilities, etc.)[5]
      • Deficiencies such as signs[5]
    • Traffic environment factors
      • Road condition obstacles (snow, freezing, wetness, puddle, etc.)[5]
      • Traffic obstacles (congestion, lane constriction due to accidents, falling objects, etc.)[5]
      • Visual disturbance (parking/stopping vehicles, moving vehicles, congested vehicles, buildings, signs, trees, weather, lighting of roads, lighting of stores, etc., dazzling by headlights, etc.)[5]
      • On the roadAnimalPopping out-fences to prevent invasion, animal tunnels (dedicated underground tunnels for animals), animal pathways (a dedicated bridge built in the air for animals) and other workarounds are often taken.

Deterring dangerous acts by law

In many countries, acts that cause traffic accidents are prohibited or regulated by law, and caution is required.

Japanese traffic accidents

Definition of traffic accident

The laws and regulations that define the definition of traffic accidents include:

  1. Road Traffic Law: Vehicles on the road (Automobile,Motorized bicycle,BicycleSuch asnon-motorized vehicle,trolley bus,Tram) Traffic damage or damage to persons (Article 67, Paragraph 2 of the Road Traffic Act)
  2. Car Safe Driving Center Act: Including those that occur outside the road in the items specified in Article 67, Paragraph 2 of the Road Traffic Act
  3. Automotive Damages Protection Act: A person who provides a car for his/her own operation shall be liable for the damage caused by the damage of the life or body of others due to the operation. (Article 3 of the Compensation Law)
  4. Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareDisease, injury and death cause classification: Basic classification code V01-V99

and so on. Generally speaking, “traffic accident” refers to a traffic accident under the Road Traffic Law.

Scope of traffic accident and liability for damages

The road traffic law does not include traffic accidents as follows.

  • Accidents outside the "road" under the Road Traffic Act
    • "Road" in the Road Traffic Act isRoad lawStipulate in道路,Road transport lawStipulate inThe motorwayAnd all places used for general traffic. Therefore, it will not be issued for accidents outside the “road” under the Road Traffic Act.
    • However, the term "road" under the Road Traffic Law here does not mean that it is not covered by simply saying that it is a private land or a parking lot.Road # Japanese legal definitionSee). Except for land that is almost purely occupied by people (houses, condominiums, companies, etc.) and roads that are restricted to the public such as factory roads, it is possible to roughly correspond to "roads" under the Road Traffic Act. It is necessary to note that there is a possibility. It is also a point that there are disputes in myths and precedents, so caution is required in the case of an actual accident.
  • In addition, the fact that the presence or absence of issuance of a traffic accident certificate and the presence or absence of a duty to notify the police of a traffic accident (Article 72 of the Road Traffic Act) have not been verified (due to judicial precedents or myths).[Annotation 1]Therefore, this also requires caution in the case of an actual accident.
  • In addition, whether or not a traffic accident certificate is issued and whether or not there is a liability for damages to the victim is irrelevant, and the presence or absence of a liability for damages is not affected by the presence or absence of a certificate (see below).
  • Driver's licenseAs a requirement of the above, a "lethal injury outside the road" was newly established, and it came to have a certain effect on the Road Traffic Law.
  • Accidents not caused by vehicle traffic (driving on the road and parking/stopping)
    • For example, if a car that had its engine turned off spontaneously exploded and burned, or if a person who is boarding a regular place such as a car gets caught in the door or window of the car, For example, when a vehicle parked in a parking lot is damaged by a disaster such as a landslide. In addition, if an accident occurs due to the fact that there is a danger of contact with other people or vehicles on the road by opening or closing the door, a traffic accident will occur ((Door open accident). A traffic accident also occurs if an accident occurs due to an external factor such as an explosion, a flame, or a landslide while driving a vehicle.
    • Incidentally,Automobile liability insuranceAnd the payment standard for arbitrary car insurance is unrelated to the above (described later)
  • PedestrianSingle accident or collision between pedestrians

Whether it corresponds to a road accident under the Road Traffic Law and the legal liability for damages (Automotive Damages Protection ActArticle 3,Civil law709) and moreAutomobile liability insuranceAnd the payment criteria for voluntary car insurance are largely unrelated.

  • Automotive Damages Protection ActArticle 3 "A person who provides a car for his/her own use shall be responsible for compensating for the damage caused by this when the life or body of another person is harmed by the operation." The following precedents are related to the provisions of.
    • Lumber Works When unloading a log of raw wood loaded on an ordinary freight car parked on a road in a private property site from the freight car, the fork of the forklift pushes it from the cargo bed of the freight car to the ground on the opposite side to unload it. However, the accident in which the children who were present together died due to the underlayment of the log was caused by "using the freight car according to the usage of the device." (Positive, June 63, 6 Supreme Court First Small Court Judgment, Showa 16 (e) 59)
    • When a large truck loaded with lumber is parked on the road and the timber of the truck is being unloaded using another forklift, the forklift should be placed in an open space outside the road to adjust the height of the fork. Although the fork part was stopped, the fork part was protruding on the road, and the fork part collided with another car that had been traveling on the road from the time of the accident, and the driver of the car was injured. It is not caused by "use according to the usage of the device", but there is still a liability for damages under Article 709 of the Civil Code. (Positive for compensation, Supreme Court First Small Court Judgment, June 63, 6, Showa 16(e)61)
  • For accidents where a traffic accident certificate is not issued, basicallyNot covered by liability insurance. However, in the car insurance,NormallyCompensation target (Limited to compensation for damages. In some cases, exemption, that is, not covered by compensation. Intentional or earthquake-induced)

Perpetrator's responsibility

Initial support

Article 72 of the Road Traffic Act imposes the following obligations on drivers of vehicles, etc. related to traffic accidents.

  1. Obligation to stop driving immediately (do not leave the site immediately after an accident, etc.)
  2. Obligation to rescue the injured (moving the injured to a safe place and receiving medical treatment as soon as possible)
  3. Obligation to prevent road hazards (duty to prevent secondary accidents)
  4. Obligation to report to police officers the date and time of occurrence, the status of casualties and damage to property, post-accident measures, and loads.
  5. Obligation to obey an order to stay on-site until the police officer arrives if he/she deems it necessary (usually by all means)

In addition, in order to fulfill its civil responsibilities, it is necessary to:

  1. Identification of the other person
  2. Contacting a voluntary insurance company (responsibility for insurance contracts)

It is generally said that about 60% of drivers do not know the initial response to a traffic accident.[6]

Criminal liability

Criminal responsibility isAct on Punishment for Acts that Cause Death or Injury to People by Driving a CarViolation of the Penalty Act for Driving and Injuring Cars,Road Traffic LawViolation (not an administrative sanctionSpecial criminal lawIs stipulated as a penalty- Criminal penalty).

Irrespective of the definition of a traffic accident, if a driver of a vehicle injures or injures a person, the following crimes may be prosecuted depending on the behavior.

In the event of a traffic accident as a result of an offenseTraffic foul notification systemDoes not apply (Road Traffic Act, Article 125, Paragraph 2).

If a person is intentionally injured or damaged by using a car, etc.Murder,Crime of injury,Crime of property damageEtc. In the case of accidents involving accidental property damage, excluding accidents resulting in personal injury or damage to buildings, no criminal penalties will be imposed on the actor.

Civil liability

Occurrence of an accident, including a traffic accident, that intentionally or negligently infringes the rights (life, body, or property) of another personRestitution for DamagesResponsible (Civil law OfTortresponsibility).All of personal injury accidents, building damage accidents and property damage accidents are applicable.

Car orMotorized bicycleIn the event of infringement of a person's life or body due to the operation of the vehicle, the perpetrator shall be liable for the damage caused by this (limited to the life or body of another person) unless the perpetrator disproves the victim's negligence. Most of them bear serious liability (for details, seeAccident rate of traffic accidentsSee).

Administrative sanctions

Administrative lawOn the road traffic lawAdministrative punishment for driver's licenseDepending on the weight of the accident and liabilityDriver's licenseThere are cancellations, suspensions, etc.

In administrative punishment for personal injury, if the perpetrator's negligence is found,Violation of safe driving obligation(2 points) and additional points for traffic accidents related to injury and death (minimum 2 points, maximum 20 points), totaling at least 4 additional points.

The driver will not be subject to administrative sanction in the case of property damage accidents, except personal accidents and building damage accidents.

Impact of traffic accident

Physical impact

When the impact of a traffic accident on the mind and body is the lightest, it is intact (not only is there no injury or bone fracture,WhiplashThere is also no aftereffects such as), but in the worst case, the collision with a running vehicle has a large impact, and if it is hit, there is a case where the whole body or the head is struck and instant death occurs. If you are hit by a vehicle without being hit, the body may be cut or squeezed by being caught in a wheel or trampled, causing rupture of the internal organs, orbrain,内 臓,Blood vesselThere is a situation where the prototype does not stay, such as popping out or being scattered at the scene of an accident resulting in injury or death, and it may lead to death in a tragic state.

The problem of mental sequelae other than the injuries such as the anxiety of the injured suffering mentally immediately after the accident has increased, and the qualification system for emergency medical emergency doctors, doctor helicopters, etc. have recently been enhanced, but the frequent occurrence of traffic accidents is a problem. In Aichi Prefecture (also described in the table below), Kasugai City conducted the first nationwide test as a "doctor car" model, promoting communication with the standby doctor at the main hospital while flying the vital signs of the injured by radio waves. A national qualification for emergency paramedics centered on firefighters who can use defibrillators (ambulators) in the field has been established. The car was jointly developed with Toyota Corporation. Can be done without medical qualificationAEDContributed to the development of the installation. While consideration is being given not only to the body of the injured but also to the mind and spirit, there are many human, equipment, and budget barriers. General recognition required an awareness and cooperation system with the media such as NHK and other media.

Effects on the body

Listed in order of severity,Cervical cord injury, Chest injury, airway obstruction (face injury, neck injury, etc.), abdominal cavitypelvisSuch as damage. Compared to these, deaths from limbs are less likely to occur.

In particular, cervical spinal cord injury, even if it survivesQuality of lifeIs significantly reduced. Immediately after the injury, even if there is no damage, it is likely to occur even if the victim inadvertently moves the neck. It is necessary to thoroughly ensure that if you encounter a traffic accident, do not move your head, neck, or shoulder carelessly. (JPTEC-JATEC(See also section)

Accidents under similar conditions will differ greatly depending on the condition of the collision, the victim's belongings, condition, physical and mental condition at that time, and the weather. When a pedestrian or a person who rides a bicycle collides with a very low-speed car or motorcycle, or when the pedestrian has a large bag and hits the bag, there is no human injury or it is close to it. In some cases.

Compared to accidents due to other factors such as occupational accidents and natural disasters, it is more likely that the victim will be severely impacted on the head and waist,Persistent consciousness disorderBeginning withSequential disabilityThere are quite a few examples in which there remains. Also, if you have a strong impact on your brain,Higher brain dysfunctionMay lead to(Head injury,Traumatic brain injurySee also).

Pedestrian

Pedestrian TheBicycleA collision with or even a collision between pedestrians may cause a fatal accident by hitting the head on the road surface.

In recent years, automobile manufacturers have taken the following measures in consideration of safety for pedestrians.

  • bumperPosition of the adult from the position of the thigh/pelvis of the adult to the position of the lower leg.
  • Even if the upper body collides with the front of the passenger car using the above-mentioned part as a fulcrum, the head should hit the hood instead of the windshield.(By making the bonnet member a shock absorbing type, fatal injury to the chest and head may occur. Make it harder)
Car passenger

Seat beltNot installedMobile phoneCrackdown on use,AirbagEquipment ofLaminated glassAdoption ofCrushable zoneAdoption ofMonocoqueHigh rigidity of the body,ABSThe number of cars that have adopted safety equipment, such as the spread of vehicles, is increasing, which is helping to reduce the deaths of passengers. However, it is impossible to prevent fatal injury with any safety equipment. For example, in the rib cage心 臓-大動脈Is upsetAortic dissectionOr due to impact on the headBrain contusion・TraumaticSubarachnoid hemorrhageThe air bag has a limited effect, and excessive speed, drug use, and drunk driving will cause a serious accident.

Motorcycle/bicycle passengers

オ ー ト バ イA car accident can be a major accident because it is not covered by the body. Detail isMotorcycle accidentchecking ...

BicycleHas the same danger,Exclusive helmetSafety equipment such as is encouraged.

Psychiatric effects

Matsuoka et al.[7]According to him, many of the people who experienced the traffic accidentMood disorder,Anxiety disorder,Obsessive-compulsive disorderSomehowPsychiatryIt is said that the sequelae will occur.

Social impact

entertainer,SportsIf an athlete causes an accident, it will lead to a bad image and will have to discontinue commercials and dramas. Of course, there are cases where entertainers become victims of the accident (Sakurazuka yakun,Hagiwara fashionIs dead in a traffic accident).

In the past, actresses were hired by the office, ordriverMost of them used to be picked up by a car with a car, but in recent years it has decreased due to cost reductions, and it is possible to drive to work place or even privately.[8]Get a driver's license to make a role in a drama, movie, or commercial[9]The number of cases is increasing. Also, of the entertainment reporterNashimoto wins"In the past, there were many people with attendants who were supposed to pick up and drop off, and now there are many talented talents in the entertainment industry," he said.[10].

statistics

Of the worldDisease burden(WHO, 2019)[11]
Rankingcause of deathDALYs (XNUMX)DALYs (%)DALYs
(Per 10 people)
1Neonatal disease20,182.18.02,618
2Ischemic heart disease18,084.77.12,346
3stroke13,942.95.51,809
4Lower respiratory tract infection10,565.24.21,371
5diarrheaSexual illness7,931.13.11,029
6Traffic accident7,911.63.11,026
7COPD7,398.12.9960
8Diabetes mellitus7,041.12.8913
9tuberculosis6,602.42.6857
10Birth defects5,179.72.0672
11Back and neck pain4,653.21.8604
12depressionSexual dysfunction4,635.91.8601
13Cirrhosis4,279.81.7555
14Trachea, bronchi, lung cancer4,137.81.6537
15Kidney disease4,057.11.6526
16HIV / AIDS4,014.71.6521
17OtherDeafness3,947.71.6512
18Death3,821.61.5496
19malaria3,339.81.3433
20Refractive error of the naked eye3,198.11.3415

As of 2019, an average of 10 people per 17.08 were killed in traffic accidents worldwide. The countries with the highest number of deaths per 10 in the same year were:Zimbabwe(About 41.22 people), and thenベネズエラ(About 39.02 people),Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu(About 38.90 people) and manyAfricaCountries tend to be high. Conversely, the lowest countryバ ブ ブ ダ ダ ダIs 0, thenミクロネシア 連邦(About 0.20 people),Maldives(About 1.63 people) and manyEuropeCountries tend to be low[12].

Also, in the case of Japan, it is about 3.60, which is the sixth from the lowest,AsiaamongMaldives-SingaporeIt is the third lowest country after[12].. vice versaKingdom of ThailandHas recorded about 32.21 people, which is the highest risk rate in Asia.[12][13][Annotation 2], Especially the year-end and New Year holidays and the Chinese New Year (SongkranDuring the period of ), there was a lot of traffic and frequent fatal accidents,Disaster Prevention and Mitigation BureauFrom the announcement of2021May 4From 2021May 4In the last 7 days, 2,365 accidents occurred frequently, injuring 2,357 and killing 277.[14]..In the case of Japan, 2021May 4~May 4の10日間に交通事故が1日平均で862件(10日で8,619件)発生し、負傷者が1日平均1,013人(10日で10,130人)出ており、56人が死亡し、その間のMay 4Was out of Songkran vacation, but had zero deaths[15].

As of 2016, the number of accidents resulting in injury or death (per 10 population) is the worst 3.America684 cases,Australia440 cases, South KoreaAlthough it was occupying 431 cases in a country where automobile traffic is widespread, in South Korea, the number of occurrences was higher than the number of popular vehicles in the United States and Austria.[16][17](The number of vehicles per 1,000 people is 424 in the United States, 804 in the United States and 725 in Australia, compared to XNUMX in South Korea)[18]On the other hand, the number of deaths (the same) within 30 days after the traffic accidentSouth Africa25 people,MalaysiaThere are 23 people and 20 people in Iran, which shows the influence of medical conditions.[16]AsiaFocusing on the number of fatal accidents (the same) South Korea・Japan 393 cases・(I.e.Following 365 are manyトルコ233 cases,Hong KongThe order is 219.[16]

Also, when accident deaths are classified by means of transportation, countries with a high proportion of pedestriansメキシコ·Korea·ポーランド-リトアニア・In Japan and other countries, the driver's consciousness of giving priority to the weak is low, and the ratio of pedestrians, bicycles, and motorcycles is high due to reasons such as the maintenance of pedestrian roads because there are only roads.[19].

Japanese traffic accident

Number of deaths

The statistics of fatalities in accidents are mainly used when the victims of an accident that were collected by the police died within 24 hours after the accident occurred, and the number of people below is also basically the number of deaths within 24 hours. is there. Other police statistics include deaths within 30 days. Furthermore,Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare OfDemographic statisticsからlandIt is clear from the number of deaths within one year after the accident caused by the traffic accident in道路The number excluding those who are not judged to be the above-mentioned traffic accident is included as "dead in the welfare statistics"[21].

2020The number of fatalities in traffic accidents within 24 hours is 2,839[22]As of the end of September 2021, the number of automobiles owned in Japan was about 1 million.[23]By comparison, the number of cars owned was about 38 shortly after the war.[24]1950Less than 4,202 people, showing how the death toll has dropped dramatically. this is,1949Less than 24 deaths within 3,790 hours of1948It is the smallest number since the start of statistics. Also,Emergency medical careThere is a misconception that the number of deaths has not decreased so much just by surviving for more than 24 hours due to the development of2019The death toll within 30 days is 3,415[25]The number of deaths within one year is 1, both of which are decreasing as well as the number of deaths within 4,279 hours. Deaths within 24 days began to collect statistics1993Since then, the number of deaths within one year has started to be collected.1965It has been the smallest number since then[26].

Looking at age, the percentage of elderly people aged 2020 and over in 65 in the number of fatalities in traffic accidents was about 56.2%, the highest percentage ever.This is due to the increase in the elderly population and the higher case fatality rate of the elderly than in other age groups.[27].. In addition, according to a survey by the Traffic Accident Analysis Center in June 2016, the number of pedestrian casualties (including cases where pedestrians did not violate) was significantly higher at 6 years old.[28], 2.5 times that of an adult[28], About twice that of the elderly[28]Is. The cause is that there are more opportunities to act away from parents such as going to and from school, without having acquired sufficient traffic rules and the ability to detect danger.[28].

The number of deaths within one year per 2019 people due to traffic accidents in 10 was 1, which is compared to other causes of death.fire0.8 people,murderMore than 0.2 people,EarthquakeOf 14.9 (Great East Japan EarthquakeThe number of 2011 that there was[29]),suicideLess than 15.7[30][26].

Occurrences

Due to the increase in the number of cars owned in Japan, the number of traffic accidents will increase proportionately,2004Recorded 95 cases.Since then, the number of automobiles owned in Japan has stabilized at about 2709 million, and in 8000 the number of automobiles owned was the highest at about 2020 million, but the number of accidents decreased to 8,231.0 for the 30th consecutive year. doing.This was less than half the current number of cars owned, about 9,178 million.1979This is the smallest number after 47 cases.[31]

Number of injured

事故発生件数と連動して1990年代より増加し、1999年から2007年までは連続して年間負傷者数100万人を突破し、2004年には118万3,616人を記録した。その後、事故発生件数と共に減少傾向にあり、2020年の負傷者数は36万9,476人となっている[31].

History

Post-warHigh economic growthThe number of traffic accidents increased during the period1959Has reached a situation where the number of traffic fatalities per year exceeds 1. Because it is not a war but a huge number of people are sacrificedTraffic war(First traffic war)" became a metaphor. Especially1970The number of vehicles owned was about 1652 million, and 1 people were killed annually (about 6765 people died within a year) due to a traffic accident, making this the number one year in history. The number of traffic accidents,1969Was the largest number up to the end of the First Traffic War with 72 cases.
  • 1970 era End of the First Traffic War Decrease in the number of accidents and fatalities due to the start of traffic accident countermeasures
Policemen,Road manageretcEducationAnd worked on the measures,Seat beltThe safety of automobiles has improved due to the spread of automobiles, the traffic environment has been improved such as widening roads, separating pedestrians, installing and expanding traffic lights at pedestrian crossings and intersections, and owning automobiles. Also the numberOil shockThe accident rate and mortality rate decreased due to the recession caused by the accident, and the number of accidents and deaths decreased once. The number of fatalities in traffic accidents is1976Again divides 1 people,1979Has been the lowest since the beginning of the First Traffic War with 8048 people. The number of traffic accidents,1977Has been the smallest since the beginning of the First Traffic War, at 46.
  • 1980 era ~ 1990 era The beginning of the second traffic war The number of accidents and fatalities increased due to the end of the decline in the accident rate and the increase in the number of automobiles owned.
1980 eraSince the safety measures started from the First Traffic War have become widespread, the rate of traffic accidents, which had been decreasing, has stopped declining. Casualty rate, which is an index of traffic accident rate, which takes into account the number of vehicles owned and the distance traveled[Annotation 3]It is,1970Was over 300 (cases/XNUMX million km),1980Has dropped to around 120 (cases/XNUMX million km). But then2010About 30 years until then, the accident rate leveled off in the range of about 120 to 100 (cases/XNUMX million km).[32].
for that reason,1970 eraEven though the accident rate did not decrease from the second half,Bubble economyAs the number of cars owned increased, the number of traffic accidents began to increase again, and the number of fatalities increased accordingly.1988Once again, the number of people exceeded 1, and the situation became known as the "second traffic war."1992Has reached 1, the highest number since the end of the First Traffic War. The number of accidents was 1452 in the same year.
  • 1990 era ~ 2000 era End of the Second Traffic War End of the Second Traffic War due to a decrease in the number of fatalities in traffic accidents, increase in the number of traffic accidents
With the increase in the number of cars owned in the Second Traffic War, the majority of traffic accident victims were car occupants, and in the 1990s the number of deaths during riding increased to 1.7 times the number of pedestrian deaths, In the 1990sCar assessmentIs started,Airbag,Shock absorptionbody,Pretensioner(Tightening at the time of collision) With functionSeat beltEfforts are being made to improve safety equipment on the vehicle side, such as2008Has fallen below the number of pedestrian deaths. Also, due to severe punishment, dangerous driving such as drunk driving decreased, leading to a decrease in the number of fatalities.
Death toll1996The number of people was reduced to 1 again, and in 2004 the number dropped to 7425, and the situation called the Second Traffic War ended. On the other hand, although the mortality rate around the accident decreased, the accident rate itself did not decrease, so the number of accidents increased conversely, reaching a record high of 95 in the same year.
  • 2010 era ~ Decrease in the number of traffic accidents and decrease in traffic accident deaths due to the decrease in traffic accident rate itself
2012For about 30 years, the casualty rate, which had been flat in the range of about 160 to 120 (cases/120 million km), fell below 2016 (cases/85.3 million km), and the traffic accident incidence rate began to decline. In XNUMX, it decreased to about XNUMX (cases/XNUMX million km)[33].. As a result, the number of traffic accidents and the number of traffic fatalities continue to decrease.
The reason why the traffic accident incidence rate, which has been flat for about 30 years, has begun to decrease is to reduce the damage caused by accidents such as airbags during the Second Traffic War.Passive safetyBecame popular as a safety measure, but in the 2010s the accident itself was prevented.Active safetyThe fact that has begun to spread is mentioned. From around 2010Anti-skid device,Collision damage reduction brakeなどが普及しだしており、2014年には自動車アセスメントに予防安全性能アセスメントが追加されている。2016年には年間交通事故による死亡者数が1949年の67年ぶりに3000人レベルにまで減少して、飲酒運転の取り締まりと交通安全文化の普及で交通事故死亡者が最も多かった時期に比べると4分の1の水準に減少した。さらに全交通事故の発生件数も2015年より7.1%減の49万9232件だった[34].. In FY2017, the liability insurance premium was reduced because the accident rate fell due to the spread of technologies that reduce accidents such as automatic braking (collision damage reduction brakes).[35].. August 2019Higashiikebukuro car runaway accidentThe movement to return licenses for the elderly accelerated[36][37].2021May 4Started collecting daily traffic accident statistics1968The number of fatalities in traffic accidents for the first time since then has become zero.Furthermore, there were no fatal accidents on that day, and there were no deaths due to injuries due to the traffic accident the day before.[38][39].

Industry with many traffic accidents

Accidents tend to occur in industries that use cars for business such as transportation and wholesale.

  • In case of commercial sales, traffic accidents occurred in 33.1% of wholesale business establishments and 34.7% of road passenger transportation business establishments (13.5% overall)
  • During delivery work, 53.3% of the road freight transport business establishments and 20.6% of the wholesale business establishments have traffic accidents (13.8% overall).

Source: “Occupational Safety and Health Basic Survey (2000)” (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare[40]

Prefectures with many traffic accidents

National Police Agency"Regarding the status of traffic fatal accidents during the two years of Reiwa and the status of crackdowns on violations of the Road Traffic Act"[31]

  1. Tokyo 25,642 of
  2. Osaka 25,543 of
  3. Aichi 24,879 of
  4. Fukuoka 21,495 of
  5. Shizuoka 20,667 of
  6. Kanagawa 20,630 of
  7. Hyogo 17,352 of
  8. Saitama 17,115 of
  9. Chiba 12,873 of
  10. Gunma 9,266 of

The number of traffic accidents per 10 population is as follows.

  1. Shizuoka 567.2 of
  2. Miyazaki 477.7 of
  3. Gunma 477.1 of
  4. Saga 461.1 of
  5. Fukuoka 421.1 of
  6. Kagawa 389.3 of
  7. Aichi 329.4 of
  8. Hyogo 317.5 of
  9. Yamagata 308.7 of
  10. Tokushima 297.4 of

Expressway with many traffic accidents

From the Traffic Bureau of the National Police Agency "Status of traffic accidents during 25"

Prefectures with a large number of traffic accident fatalities

The prefectures with the highest number of fatalities in traffic accidents are as follows. (National Police Agency "About the number of traffic fatal accidents during the second year of Reiwa"[41]Than)

1. Tokyo 155
2. Aichi 154 people-The worst 15 for 30 consecutive years from 16 to 1. →Nagoya running
3. Hokkaido 144
4. Kanagawa 140
5. Chiba 128
6. Osaka 124
7. Saitama 121
8. Hyogo 110 
9. Shizuoka 108
10.Fukuoka 91

In February 25Aichi Prefectural PoliceIt was announced that there was an omission in the number of traffic accident fatalities of 3 from 23 to 600, and as a result of recounting, the number of traffic accident fatalities was the highest in Japan from 15 to 30. Has been clarified[42].

The number of traffic fatalities per 10 population is as follows (National Police Agency "Number of traffic fatalities during the second year of Reiwa"[41]Than)

1. Kagawa 6.17
2. Fukui 5.34
3. Kochi 4.87
4. Mie 4.10
5. Saga 4.05
6. Akita 3.83
7. Oita 3.79
8. Iwate 3.75
9. Ehime 3.58
10. Ishikawa 3.51

Traffic accident in china

In China, the number of traffic accidents has increased since the 1980s, reaching nearly 2002 a year in 80, but it decreased to about 2015 in 18.8. After that, it increased to the first half of the 20 generation, and it was about 2017 as of 20.3.[43][44].. In 2004, the Road Traffic Safety Law, which was the first traffic safety regulation in China, was established.[43].. The number of accidents due to traffic violations by road users is as high as 96% (2010).[43].. The death toll within 30 days has been on the rise since 2016, and was 2017 in 63,772.[45].

Indonesian traffic accident

In Indonesia, after the number of traffic accidents increased until the 1980s, the number of traffic accidents continued to decrease until 2002 (the number of traffic accidents in 2002 was about 1.2).[43].. However, due to an increase in the number of vehicles owned, the number of traffic accidents started to increase in 2003, and in 2010 it was less than 11.[43].

Taiwanese traffic accident

台湾では1980年代半ばに交通死亡事故(事故後24時間以内に1人以上が死亡した事故)による死者が4,000人を超えたが、その後は減少して2010年には2,000人近くまで減少し、2015年には1971年の1,780人を下回り、2018年時点で1,493人である [43][46].. In the case of deaths within 30 days, 2018 people in 2,780 (of which 24 deaths within 1,493 hours after the accident)[46])[45].

Traffic accident in turkey

In Turkey, the number of deaths from traffic accidents reached 1987 in 7,661, but has since declined to nearly 2010 in 4,045.[43].

British traffic accident

In the United Kingdom, the number of deaths from road accidents reached approximately 1960 around 8,000, but it has decreased significantly since 2005, and decreased to 2013 and 1,770 in 1,800.[26][43]。しかし、2014年以降は、1800人台で推移し、2017年は1,856人であった。また、10万人当たりの死者数は2012年以降、2.8人前後で推移しており、2017年は2.81人であり、国際道路交通事故データベース(IRTAD)がデータを有する30か国の中で4番目に少ない国となっている[26][20].

American traffic accident

The number of deaths within 30 days due to traffic accidents in the United States has been on a downward trend since 2006, reaching more than 2010 in 3, the same level as around 1950.[43].. However, since 2015 the number has increased to the latter half of the 3, and in 2018 it was 36,560. The number of traffic accidents in 2016 was 221.[44].

  • The probability of an accident when a teenager is driving alone is 10% higher than that of an adult, jumping up twice when there is another teenager in the car, and doubles if there is a third person[Annotation 4].

Related item

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ At the very least, there is no explicit provision that traffic accidents for which no traffic accident certificate is issued need not be reported to the police.
  2. ^ The ANNGLE article states that it is the second most common in the world, but WHO's 2 data show that it was 2019th instead of 2nd in the world, the highest mortality rate in Asia.[13].
  3. ^ "It is an index that indicates the number of fatalities and injuries per vehicle mileage (it is the value obtained by multiplying the volume of traffic for each section and the length of the road and represents the volume of road traffic). 1 vehicles have traveled 1 km. It represents the number of casualties that may occur. A reduction in casualty rates means less chances of having an accident while driving on the road and improved safety.'
  4. ^ Irrational as expected[Source required].

Source

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  2. ^ Current situation of traffic accidents and traffic safety measures in 26 Cabinet Office Read April 2017, 4
  3. ^ a b Actual conditions of traffic accidents based on car insurance data Japan Non-life Insurance Association April 2017, 4 reading
  4. ^ "If you encounter or collide with wild animals”. Japan Automobile Federation website. Retrieved December 2017, 12.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "Traffic accident statistics glossary”. Traffic Accident Analysis Center. Retrieved April 2017, 4.
  6. ^ The true intention of 344 people who have experienced traffic accidents in the questionnaire survey "5 out of 2 drivers are worried about the initial response" Traffic Accident Lawyer Consultation Square Viewed January 2021, 1
  7. ^ Matsuoka et al. "Incidence and prediction of psychiatric morbidity after a motor vehicle accident in Japan: The Tachikawa Cohort of Motor Vehicle Accident Study." Crit Care Med. 2007 35:
  8. ^ From April 2010, 4 issue of the weekly Bunshun "Why the accident of Cho popular celebrities continue?"
  9. ^ "Ren Osugi gets a driver's license at the age of 57". ORICON NEWS (December 2010, 9)
  10. ^ “What Causes the Celebrity's Frequent Traffic Accidents? Production Cost Reduction, Star Absence”. Sankei Shimbun(July 2010, 5). http://sankei.jp.msn.com/entertainments/entertainers/100508/tnr1005080800002-n1.htm 2011/1/10Browse. 
  11. ^ (Excel) Global health estimates: Leading causes of DALYs (Report). who(2020-12). Download the data> GLOBAL AND BY REGION> DALY estimates, 2000–2019> WHO regions. https://www.who.int/data/gho/data/themes/mortality-and-global-health-estimates/global-health-estimates-leading-causes-of-dalys 2021/3/27Browse.. 
  12. ^ a b c d "Estimated road traffic death rate (per 100 000 population)". World Health Organization (September 2021, 2). 2021/3/27Browse.
  13. ^ a b KEN (January 2015, 1). “Thailand is the country with the second most traffic accidents in the world! What are the preventive measures?". ANNGLE. 2020/1/25Browse.
  14. ^ . "ศ ป ถ สรุป อุบัติเหตุ ทาง ถนน 7 วัน อันตราย สงกรานต์ 64 รวม กว่า 2.3 พัน ครั้ง สาเหตุ หลัก ขับ รถ เร็ว - ดื่ม แล้ว ขับ (2,300 of more than traffic accidents that occurred during the Songkran holiday conclude a dangerous 7 days. The main reason for speeding is drunk driving.) ” (Thai). Matichon Online(July 2021, 4). https://www.matichon.co.th/politics/news_2676579 2021/4/20Browse. 
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  17. ^ The survey year is 2016, but some countries are 2014 and 2015. Data for 50 countries/regions. Original document is IRF, World Road Statistics 2018.
  18. ^ Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (2020-03-01). Statistics Training Institute, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. Ed. “Chapter 8 Transportation/Tourism 8-2 Number of Cars Owned” (Japanese). World statistics 2020: 146-147. ISBN 9784822340490. https://www.stat.go.jp/data/sekai/0116.html#c08 2020/5/10Browse.. 
  19. ^ "Catalog ▽ International comparison of traffic accident death rates by state”. Social facts data catalog (October 2006, 10). 2009/8/29Browse.The data is 2004.
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  21. ^ Cabinet Office (2020-07-31) (PDF). Reiwa 1nd Edition Traffic Safety White Paper Volume 1 Land Transportation Part 1 Road Traffic Chapter XNUMX Trends in Road Traffic Accidents Section XNUMX Long-term Transition of Road Traffic Accidents (Report). Pp. 47-48. https://www8.cao.go.jp/koutu/taisaku/r02kou_haku/pdf/zenbun/1-1-1.pdf#page=2 2020/8/8Browse.. 
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  25. ^ National Police Agency Transportation Planning Division (March 2021, 3). “About the situation of traffic accident fatalities within 30 days The situation of traffic accident fatalities within XNUMX days (Excel) ”. e-Stat Official statistics window. 2021/3/27Browse.
  26. ^ a b c d "White Paper on Crimes > White Paper on Crimes in the 2nd year of Reiwa > Contents > Volume 4 Trends of various crimes and treatment of various criminals > Chapter 1 Traffic crimes > Section 2 Trends of crimes > 1 Trends of traffic accidents > 4-1 -2-1 Figure Changes in the number of traffic accidents and casualties (Excel)”. Ministry of Justice (November 2020). 2021/1/7Browse.
  27. ^ National Police Agency Transportation Planning Division (2021-01-04) (Excel). About traffic accident fatalities during the second year of Reiwa 65 Changes in the number of elderly (XNUMX years old and over) fatalities (Report). Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. https://www.e-stat.go.jp/stat-search/files?page=1&layout=datalist&toukei=00130002&tstat=000001032793&cycle=7&year=20200&month=0&stat_infid=000032035153&tclass1val=0 2021/1/7Browse.. 
  28. ^ a b c d Yamagishi & 201704.
  29. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Demographic and Health and Social Statistics Office (2012-09-06) (CSV). Vital Statistics 2011 Vital Statistics Volume 5.30 Deaths Table 10 Annual deaths and rates by type of accident (per XNUMX population) (Report). https://www.e-stat.go.jp/stat-search/files?page=1&layout=datalist&toukei=00450011&tstat=000001028897&cycle=7&year=20110&month=0&tclass1=000001053058&tclass2=000001053061&tclass3=000001053065&stat_infid=000014887877&result_back=1&second2=1 2019/5/28Browse.. 
  30. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (2020-09-17) (PDF). First year of Reiwa (2019) Overview of vital statistics (fixed number) Statistical table Table 7 Gender mortality and mortality rate by simple classification of causes of death (per 10 population) (Report). https://www.mhlw.go.jp/toukei/saikin/hw/jinkou/kakutei19/dl/11_h7.pdf 2021/1/7Browse.. 
  31. ^ a b c National Police Agency (2021-02-18) (Excel, PDF). About the situation of traffic fatal accidents during the 2nd year of Reiwa and the situation of crackdown on violations of the Road Traffic Act (Report). https://www.e-stat.go.jp/stat-search/files?page=1&layout=datalist&toukei=00130002&tstat=000001027458&cycle=7&year=20200&month=0 2021/3/27Browse.. 
  32. ^ "Current status of traffic accidents”. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
  33. ^ Cabinet Office (2018-07). 30 Traffic Safety White Paper Volume 1 Land Transport Part 1 Road Traffic Chapter 1 Trends in Road Traffic Accidents Section 1 Long-term Transition of Road Traffic Accidents (Report). https://www8.cao.go.jp/koutu/taisaku/h30kou_haku/zenbun/genkyo/h1/h1b1s1_1.html 2019/5/28Browse.. 
  34. ^ “Death in a traffic accident in 16 years, half of the 67 people for the first time in 3000 years, half the elderly”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2017, 1). https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXLASDG04H2Q_U7A100C1CR0000/ 2018/6/13Browse. 
  35. ^ "To reduce liability insurance premiums on average about 7%, starting from April contract next year". Tokyo Newspaper. [Broken link]
  36. ^ "[Original] Returning over 3 licenses in 1200 days in Tokyo after Ikebukuro runaway/mother and child death". FNN(November 2019, 5). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2019, 5.. https://web.archive.org/web/20190514065033/https://www.fnn.jp/posts/00417427CX 2020/5/21Browse. 
  37. ^ "Returning licenses in Tokyo, 8% increase after Ikebukuro runaway accident...Mostly elderly". Yomiuri Shimbun(November 2019, 11). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 5.. http://web.archive.org/web/20191110130937/https://www.yomiuri.co.jp/national/20191106-OYT1T50231/ 2019/11/6Browse. 
  38. ^ Tokutake Machida (April 2021, 4). "" Day of zero traffic fatal accidents nationwide "first achieved on April 4 8 years from statistics" (Japanese). Mainichi Newspapers. https://mainichi.jp/articles/20210416/k00/00m/040/219000c 2021/4/20Browse. 
  39. ^ National Police Agency Transportation Bureau Transportation Planning Division (April 2021, 4). “Traffic accidents during the spring national traffic safety campaign 2 (5) Number of fatalities by day (Excel) ”. General contact point for government statistics (e-Stat). 2021/4/20Browse.
  40. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Wage and Welfare Statistics Office (2000) (Excel). 12 Occupational Safety and Health Basic Survey (Report). https://www.e-stat.go.jp/stat-search/files?page=1&layout=datalist&toukei=00450093&tstat=000001018315&cycle=0&tclass1=000001021201&tclass2=000001021202 2019/5/28Browse.. 
  41. ^ a b National Police Agency Transportation Planning Division (2021-01-04) (Excel). Number of fatalities in traffic accidents XNUMX Number of fatalities in traffic accidents by prefecture (Report). Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. https://www.e-stat.go.jp/stat-search/files?page=1&layout=datalist&toukei=00130002&tstat=000001032793&cycle=7&year=20200&month=0 2021/1/7Browse.. 
  42. ^ “Traffic fatalities, understatement of 21 in 600 years corrected by Aichi Prefectural Police”. Asahi Shimbun(July 2013, 2). http://www.asahi.com/national/update/0209/NGY201302080031.html 2013/2/9Browse. 
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i Changes in traffic safety policies and regulations in seven countries (7-1950) International Traffic Safety Association Read April 2017, 4
  44. ^ a b Ministry of Transportation of the Republic of China (2018). “Comparison of traffic statistics of major countries 3-13 (PDF, Excel) ”. 2020/5/10Browse.
  45. ^ a b Ministry of Transportation of the Republic of China (2018). “Comparison of traffic statistics of major countries 3-14 Road traffic accident fatalities (PDF, Excel) ”. 2020/5/10Browse.
  46. ^ a b Ministry of Transportation of the Republic of China (2018). "Summary of Traffic Statistics 3-15 Road Traffic Accidents and General Conditions (PDF, Excel) ”. 2020/1/26Browse.

References

  • Tomoo Yamagishi "7 years old is dangerous! Accidents when going to and from school" "JAFMATE" April 2017 issue, Japan Automobile Federation, pp. 4-34.

Related literature

  • Hideo Soda, "Bicycle Accidents in Traffic Statistics," "Traffic Rights," Vol. 2000, No. 17, Traffic Rights Society, 2000, pp. 34-48, two:10.20611 / kotsuken.2000.17_34.

外部 リンク

Akita

Akita(Akitaken,British: Akita Prefecture) IsJapan OfTohoku regionに 位置 す るPrefecture.Prefectural office location TheAkita City.

Geography/Region

位置

terrain

The coast of Akita Prefecture is shallow and easy to land, and there are many windbreaks near the coast where you can hide yourself, so it is a great place for operatives trying to smuggle in.夜間は人が少なく、近隣住民に見られ無い上、八峰町には無人島である雄島が海岸近くにあり、北朝鮮の工作員に中継点として使われているというIt is said that there are few people at night and it is not seen by neighboring residents, and Oshima, an uninhabited island, is near the coast in Happo Town, and it is used as a relay point by North Korean agents.[1][2].

nature Park

climate

Akita PrefectureSea of ​​JapanFacing theClimate classification TheSea of ​​Japan side climateare categorized.Among the climates on the Sea of ​​Japan side, Akita Prefecture is characterized by not so much precipitation in winter in the coastal areas, but extremely short sunshine hours.

Due to the low temperature in the inland area,Yamagata,NiigataAbout 90 in the inland prefecture as well%AreaSpecial heavy snowfall areaThe prefecture is designated as No. XNUMX and is a prefecture that is prone to heavy snowfall. During the winterDaylight hoursIs the least in all prefectures. Therefore, in the morning and eveningRadiation coolingThe phenomenon does not occur (KazunoSemboku City(Except for inland areas such as), especially the coastal area on the Sea of ​​Japan side, where the temperature is often higher in the morning than in the northern Kanto region, it is warm for its latitude and has a very small daily range. Part of the inlandKöppen climate classificationbySubarctic humid climateIt becomes (Dfa, Dfb) and the cold is severe. It also occurs near the coast of AkitaWarm currentSuddenAtmospheric tideProduced byCold vortex,Extremely low pressureBrought fromStorm snowAnd guerrilla heavy snowfalls are sometimes seen.

On the other hand,summerIs hot and humidAfter the rainy seasonIt's not uncommon to reach the end of autumn without it. However, blow from the Pacific side(I.e. TheOu MountainsBlocked by the mountains ofFern phenomenonMay occur. On the Pacific sideCold injurySaid to bringStopThe wind became hot and dry, and the temperature rose from the central part of the prefecture to the southern part of the prefecture.真 夏日,Extremely hot dayIt may become.EspeciallySemboku CityIn the surrounding area, it is scrutinized as "treasure wind" because this wind brings a good harvest ().

Normal values ​​in various parts of Akita Prefecture (statistical period: 1971-2000, Source:Meteorological Agency / Meteorological Statistics Information
Average price
(Monthly)
Sea of ​​Japan coastNortheast inland
Happo Town
Hachimori
NoshiroOgataOgaFifth castleAkitaAkita City
Iwami Sannai
Akita City
Yuwa
Akita City
Taisho-ji Temple
Yurihonjo City
Honjo
Yurihonjo City
Yajima
Nikaho City
Kisakata
Kitaakita
Falcon
Kitaakita
Wakigami
Kitaakita
Anai
Odate
average
temperature
()
Warmest month23.9
(August)
24.1
(August)
23.6
(August)
23.5
(August)
23.7
(August)
24.5
(August)
23.7
(August)
23.6
(August)
24.1
(August)
24.5
(August)
24.9
(August)
23.5
(August)
23.0
(August)
23.2
(August)
Coldest month0.4
(August)
-0.2%
(August)
-0.3%
(August)
-0.5%
(August)
-1.1%
(August)
0.0
(August)
-1.5%
(August)
-1.2%
(August)
0.5
(August)
-0.4%
(August)
2.1
(August)
-1.2%
(August)
-2.4%
(August)
-2.5%
(August)
Precipitation amount
(mm)
Most months167.3
(August)
161.9
(August)
161.5
(August)
170.4
(August)
175.9
(August)
183.5
(August)
233.4
(August)
209.4
(August)
211.7
(August)
270.6
(August)
188.5
(August)
203.5
(August)
236.1
(August)
210.5
(August)
Minimum month58.3
(August)
76.0
(August)
62.5
(August)
72.0
(August)
78.8
(August)
84.0
(August)
111.7
(August)
101.9
(August)
101.0
(August)
117.5
(August)
93.9
(August)
86.5
(August)
111.3
(August)
72.5
(August)
Average price
(Monthly)
Northeast inlandSenboku/Southeast Inland
antlersKazuno
Yuse
Kazuno
Hachimantai
Semboku City
Lake Tazawa
Semboku City
Kakunodate
Daisen City
Daqu
YokoteYurihonjo City
Yuri Higashi
YuzawaYuzawa
Yunotai
average
temperature
()
Warmest month22.8
(August)
22.1
(August)
19.9
(August)
23.0
(August)
24.0
(August)
24.0
(August)
24.4
(August)
23.7
(August)
23.7
(August)
22.4
(August)
Coldest month-3.1%
(August)
-3.0%
(August)
-5.1%
(August)
-3.0%
(August)
-2.0%
(August)
-2.0%
(August)
-1.8%
(August)
-1.4%
(August)
-1.8%
(August)
-2.4%
(August)
Precipitation amount
(mm)
Most months165.8
(August)
167.0
(August)
209.8
(August)
266.8
(August)
234.4
(August)
187.2
(August)
167.8
(August)
251.4
(August)
172.2
(August)
214.8
(August)
Minimum month58.9
(August)
72.8
(August)
94.0
(August)
94.2
(August)
120.5
(August)
90.1
(August)
79.4
(August)
121.5
(August)
70.5
(August)
116.8
(August)

Municipalities

There are the following 13 cities, 6 districts, 9 towns and 3 villages under the prefecture. In Akita Prefecture, all towns are read as "towns" and all villages are read as "mura," except for Misato-cho, Santan-cho, and Happo-cho, which are called "cho". Before the great merger of Heisei, I read everything as "town"). Population is as of June 2021, 6.

Akita area(379,339 people)
Omagari and Senboku area (118,260 people)
Odate, Kitaakita area (99,652 people)
Honjo/Yuri area (96,210 people)
Yokote/Hiraka area (83,990 people)
Noshiro/Yamamoto area (73,199 people)
Yuzawa and Yukatsu area (57,019 people)
Kazuno area (33,299)

List of disappeared counties in the prefecture

Metropolitan area

Urban employment area(10% commuting area)[3]

1980199019952000200520102015
Akita Metropolitan area
38Ten thousand4718
Akita Metropolitan area
43Ten thousand5144
Akita Metropolitan area
45Ten thousand0274
Akita Metropolitan area
45Ten thousand2316
Akita Metropolitan area
42Ten thousand9178
Akita Metropolitan area
41Ten thousand2968
Akita Metropolitan area
39Ten thousand7801
Odate Metropolitan area
9Ten thousand5521
Noshiro Metropolitan area
10Ten thousand2767
Yokote Metropolitan area
11Ten thousand1887
Yokote Metropolitan area
10Ten thousand8286
Daisen Metropolitan area
14Ten thousand8258
Yokote Metropolitan area
16Ten thousand8880
Yokote Metropolitan area
15Ten thousand6739
Noshiro Metropolitan area
9Ten thousand0847
Odate Metropolitan area
9Ten thousand0069
Noshiro Metropolitan area
9Ten thousand9720
Daqu Metropolitan area
10Ten thousand4840
Yurihonjo Metropolitan area
11Ten thousand8527
Daisen Metropolitan area
13Ten thousand9543
Daisen Metropolitan area
13Ten thousand0585
Yokote Metropolitan area
7Ten thousand2708
Yokote Metropolitan area
7Ten thousand8822
Odate Metropolitan area
8Ten thousand8231
Noshiro Metropolitan area
9Ten thousand5578
Yokote Metropolitan area
10Ten thousand6832
Yurihonjo Metropolitan area
11Ten thousand2773
Yurihonjo Metropolitan area
10Ten thousand5251
Daqu Metropolitan area
6Ten thousand9993
Daqu Metropolitan area
7Ten thousand7328
Daqu Metropolitan area
8Ten thousand7986
Honjo Metropolitan area
8Ten thousand6256
Noshiro Metropolitan area
9Ten thousand0887
Noshiro Metropolitan area
9Ten thousand0028
Noshiro Metropolitan area
8Ten thousand2476
Honjo Metropolitan area
6Ten thousand7337
Honjo Metropolitan area
6Ten thousand8446
Honjo Metropolitan area
8Ten thousand2462
Odate Metropolitan area
8Ten thousand6246
Odate Metropolitan area
8Ten thousand2504
Odate Metropolitan area
7Ten thousand8946
Odate Metropolitan area
7Ten thousand9514
Yuzawa Metropolitan area
4Ten thousand9612
Yuzawa Metropolitan area
6Ten thousand8421
Yuzawa Metropolitan area
8Ten thousand1476
Yuzawa Metropolitan area
7Ten thousand7989
Yuzawa Metropolitan area
7Ten thousand3557
-

Regional area (wide area metropolitan area)

PrefecturalRegional Promotion BureauDepending on the jurisdiction of the prefecture, the prefecture is divided into eight regional areas. They are divided into three main categories: "prefecture north," "center," and "prefecture south." Yuri Regional Promotion Bureau jurisdiction (oldYuri-gunArea) may be the prefecture south. However, according to the division of the lower house elections and the single-seat constituencies, Akita city (1 ward), prefectural north (2 wards), prefectural south (3 wards) (in this classification, the so-called Ogagata Kaminami autumn district is in the northern part of the prefecture) Treatment).

The names of the regional areas are slightly different depending on the purpose, the name of the Promotion Bureau is the former county name, and the name of the area isGreat Heisei mergerThe name of the previous central city, the name of the old county, and the name of the wide-area metropolitan area in the city plan are the names of the central city before the Great Heisei merger. The population listed below is the estimated population as of August 2006, 18. The total population of Akita Prefecture is 8.

  • Prefecture north(Northern coast/Northern inland)
    • Kazuno Area Promotion Bureau (Kazuno area[Annotation 1], Kazuno metropolitan area) 42,885
    • Kita-Akita Regional Development Bureau (Odate/Kita-Akita area, Odate metropolitan area) 124,354
    • Yamamoto Regional Development Bureau (Noshiro/Yamamoto area, Noshiro metropolitan area) 95,491
  • Center(Central/Southern Coast)
    • Akita Regional Development Bureau (Akita area,Akita Metropolitan Area) 429,987
    • Yuri Regional Development Bureau (Yurihonjo/Nikaho area, Honjo wide area) 117,451
  • South of the prefecture(Inland Central/South)

History

Currently Akita PrefectureRegulatory countryAtDewakuniMutsuPart of each (of which each was divided in the first year of Meiji)Ugo countryLand ChinaEach part of). The name "Akita" came from the Asuka periodEmperor Saimei4 years(658), he visited this place during the Abe Hirafu expedition to the Sea of ​​Japan and reported the place name as "Agita". It is said that "Agita" is attached to the terrain similar to the jaw, and may indicate the old terrain of the mouth of the Omonogawa River.[4].

after that,Balance5May 12(734On February 2th, the Dewa fence, which was said to have been in the Shonai area, was moved to Takashimizu Oka, and later.Tenpyo TreasureAround the year,Akita CastleIt became known as "", and it was established as "Akita". In the latter half of the Middle Ages, it was called "Akita Minato" as one of the three minions of Mitsu in the oldest marine law collection in Japan, "Shipsen Shikime (Kaisen Daiho)", and it was counted as one of the important mines.

Prehistoric

Also in Akita PrefecturePaleolithicMany archaeological sites have been excavated as evidence that people lived there. Many stone tools that have been processed by humans have been excavated from these ruins. From manufacturing technologyKnife shaped stoneware,Fine stone bladeAnd so on. It is speculated that the fine stone blade was used as a sharp edged tool by carving a groove in wood or bone and embedding it in that groove, and is believed to have been used from the end of the Paleolithic period to the beginning of the Jomon period.

For excavating ruins,1969(ShowaIt was excavated for 44 times from (5)Daisen CityKyowaThe Yonegamori ruins are the first. About 1,000 stone tools, stone cores, and stone fragments have been excavated from this site. After this, many archaeological sites have been excavated during construction work for industrial parks and motorways.[5].

Approximately 1 years ago, pottery began to be made and settling life began.Jomon Period.Jomon peopleAs a result, the Jomon culture flourished in the current Akita prefecture. It is a burial site in the late Jomon periodStone circle(Ring of stones・Ishiwaki; cough1931It was confirmed in (Showa 6).1951(Showa 26) and the following year1952(Showa 27)archeologyThe excavation was conducted as a state-owned research project, so it became known nationwide. The ruins are located in Oyu, Kazuno City, and are two circular stones of the same scale. The Manza site is on the west side and the Nonakado site is on the east side. The somewhat large Manza archeological site has a ring-shaped part with a diameter of 2 meters. During the Pacific War, it was treated as a "Kamiyo" archeological site.

In western Japan, in addition to the Jomon peopleYayoi PeriodFrom aroundYayoiと 呼 ば れ るEurasiaThe number of immigrants from the east increased. Miscellaneous races are gradually unified,YamatoA unified nation was formed around the Kinki region. This is laterImperial courtWill be called. The Imperial Court issued a national title in the 8th century.Japan". The northern part of the Tohoku region, which now includes Akita prefecture, was not in the court at this time. Therefore, the Imperial Court proceeded to conquer the region.

Ancient times

8st centuryFirst halfNara periodThe Akita area of ​​DewaSea of ​​JapanIt was used as a base for trade and conquest in the northern region of the coast.Dewa fenceIs the currentYamagataShonai regionIt is installed on December 5, 12 (February 26, 734), and the Dewa fence is located in Takashimizuoka, Akita Village (currentAkita CityTerauchi) Was relocated to (Japanese sequel). Dewa fence around 760Akita CastleWill be renamed. Around this time, it has been established as "Akita". Dewa Kokufu was moved to Akita in 780, butEzo: A descendant of Jomon people, also called Yamato people who do not belong to the court) Akita castle fell, and Dewa Kokufu was relocated. Akita Castle was later rebuilt by the Imperial Court and became a major base for conquering the Northeastern Sea of ​​Japan side. Around this timeKentaWas recognized as privately owned, and the power of local Australians further developed.9st centuryAroundHeian periodToPrime MinisterBy the order of, the rule comes out that the farmer should have his own reclaimed land and should not bother the farmers.

Genkei2 years(878Genkei RebellionHappened. This was a rebellion against the Ezo Eiji Akita, who could not stand the heavy tax and labor suffering. Akita Castle and the private houses were burned down, losing many supplies and soldiers. The imperial court hurriedly dispatched XNUMX reinforcements from Mutsu, but failed to settle, and the new DewamoriFujinori YasunoriWas dispatched. Yasunori succeeded in hitting the rebellion with Ezo. After this, the castle was repaired and troops were strengthened, but again in 2nd year of Tenkei.Tenkei no RanThere has occurred. At this time, the power of the Imperial Court against Ezo was not absolute at this time.PrisonerThe power of a local Australian tribe of the Emishis who belonged to Yamato, who was called the "master of the kingdom," became acceleratingly powerful.[6].

The roles of the XNUMXth and the XNUMXrd years

CentralRitual politicsWith the decline of the land, the occupation of private land increased gradually, farmers began to seek protection of powerful Australians, and a group of samurai, mainly of Australians, was formed in various places in Ezo. The Australians also spread branch powers at important points to expand their power and strengthen their unity. The most prominent of these were Mutsu Abe and Dewa Kiyohara.

Kitakami RiverMr. Abe, who had spread the power to the north of the midstream, neglected the tribute and commissioning to the court, and the court ruled that it was arrogant. This isRole of the last nine years(Perseverance6 years(1051)- Kohei5 years(1062)). However, he was a new samurai who could not be subdued by the power of Mutsu Mamoru and Josuke Akita at that time.MinamotoWas appointed as Mutsumori and fought for over seven years. Yorii could not be subdued only by his own army, and grounded in the vicinity of YokoteAustralianKiyohara MitsuyoriWas asked to participate in the form of the subject's gratitude. Mitsuyori is my brotherTakenoriHe sent out more than XNUMX soldiers under the command of General and finally succeeded in defeating him. Minamoto Minamoto,Righteous familyHe had only three thousand troops, but the force that Mr. Kiyohara issued alone can tell the force.

However, after this, there was a clan war against Takenori's grandson,Household equityDewakuni, Numa fence (currentYokote CityOmonokawa TownStay in Numakan). Home equity is hereOriginatorAttacked byKanazawa fence(Yokote CityKanazawa Nakano), but finally lost. This isThe role of the next three years(Nagaho3 years(1083)- Virtue4 years/KanjiNew Year (1087)). After this battle,Cleanliness Oshu FujiwaraFlourished as[7].

中 世

Fujiwara Oshu is the second generation from the first SeikeiBasis,Three generationsHidehiraThrough four generationsTaiheiAbout a century (11st centuryEnd- 12st centuryProspered over the last years, the Tohoku region was completely under the control of the Australians. Fujiwara's rule of rule has beenCaptiveTheHereditaryTo exercise military command power publicly,ManorIs also under management, and in Akita at that timeHinai-gunKawada,Akita DistrictIt is said that Mr. Okawa and Mr. Yuri of the Yuri region were under the control of Mr. Fujiwara.DewakuniToOshu BattleEven after theLordAs many Australians were allowed to dominate the area, and Atsumi and Tokoname ware spread.HiraizumiAround the Akita-gun area where there are many excavations from the Pacific Ocean side and Suzu ware陶器Because the cultural areas are different,familyThere is also a view that points out the difference between the more advanced Mutsukuni and the Dewakuni who remained in military command as an ambassador. Especially in the Akita region, which is the northern part of Dewa, there was no manor, and it was a world with a territorial system.

Mr. Fujiwara, who was extremely prosperous,Kamakura ShogunateFoundedYoritomo GengenIs the younger brother of Fujiwara of HiraizumiYoshitsuneBe defeated by pursuing. YoritomoBunji5 years(1189), leading 19 troopsOshu BattleI went. Fujiwara Yasuhira from HiraizumiEzoI started to escape to, but I met with a betrayal under Mr. Kawada who stopped by on the way,Jiro KawadaTo be slaughtered by. Of Mr. Okawa, who was recruited in December of the same yearOkawaWas arrested in three months.

For centuries, the world of Australian families also ended with the destruction of Mr. Fujiwara, and Tohoku was completely controlled by the Kamakura Shogunate. Yoritomo, who defeated Fujiwara,Lord,GroundJobs were newly assigned to various places in Tohoku, which became a major political turning point in Tohoku. The family members that Yoritomo arranged in AkitaMr. Narita,Mr. Anbo,Akimoto, Mr. Tachibana,Asari,Mr. Hiraga,Mr. OnoderaAnd so on. In addition, Yuri served Fujiwara, but he decided to govern the Yuri region as it was. These aristocrats will rule the area until the pre-Chan administration.

After that, he gained power in the northern part of the Sea of ​​Japan.Mr. Ando(Also called Mr. Ando)Tsugaru districtFrom south,Sengoku periodAlthough there was a family conflict between Ando Hiyama and Ando Minato,Aki AndoReached its peak in the age of.Yokote BasinToMr Tozawa,Maeda,Mr. Hondo,Mr. Rokugo, Mr. Onodera and others had power. In Yuri-gun, the family of Yuri and the descendants of Mr. Ogasawara, who used to be in the ground, are divided into small and medium-sized Australian families.Twelve YuriBecame a force called.

The early modern period

Keicho5 years(1600)ofBattle of SekigaharaDefeated the WestTokugawa Ieyasu TheConqueror GeneralIs assigned toShogunateTheEdoIt opened up to the real power of the world. All Daimyo in Akita Prefecture were relieved except for Mr. Onodera who was attached to the West Army, but most of the daimyo were in the period from Keicho 7 to Keicho 8Hitachi countrySince then, the long-standing connection between the lord and the inhabitants since the Kamakura era has been broken.

Kubota Domain

Keicho 7 years (1602),Akita DistrictPossessedAkita Miki(Renamed from Mr. Ando), etc.Yoshitake SatakeWas resealed from Hitachi,Kubota DomainStand up. Yoshinori was originally the residence of Mr. AkitaMinato Castle(Current Akita CityTsuchizaki Port), but soon after that, Mt. Shinmei (Akita CityChiaki Park)Kubota CastleBuilt and moved. Also,One Country One Castle OrderAs an exception toYokote Castle-Odate CastleSurvived as a branch (Hiyama Castle-Kakunodate CastleIs destroyed). As an organization, the accountant in charge of finance, the magistrate Kubota of the castle rule, the magistrate of Noshiro, the county magistrate of each county, the mining magistrate Dougaku, the mountain forest ruler Kiyama magistrate, etc. did. Under such an organizational structure of the clan, farmers directly engaged in production and intermediate merchants and craftsmen were positioned, and a new era of life began.[8].

Until the Meiji era, Mr. Satake, who was a daimyo of 54 stones in the Hitachi era,Table heightIt was decided to govern the 20 stone Kubota clan. It is said that the actual height was around 40 stones due to the increase in the land due to the development of new fields. Existed in the territoryIn-house Ginzan,Ani Copper MineAnd other mines, and nationally famousAkita cedarThese were also sources of income for the Kubota clan, but the oversized vassals of the Hitachi era have squeezed their finances and forced them to repeatedly implement fiscal reforms.

From the Kubota domain,Nobufuchi Sato-Atsushi Hirata-Masamitsu AndoAndAkita RangaCarved outYoshitake Atsushi(Akeyama)Naotake OdanoAre out. "ElectelOf a naturalist known forHiraga GennaiIs said to have visited the Ani Mine for technical guidance at the request of the Kubota clan and told Naotake Odano about the perspective at the Kakunodate where he stopped by.KyohoIn the year, two people, Sadayuki Suzuki and Masasada Kato, are based on the ancient Kannon faith,Akita Rokugun Sanju Kannon ShrineThe pilgrimage record with the pilgrimage song was recorded.

Yuri-gun Morohan

Genwa8 years(1622),Yamagata DomainmainMogami ReformThe former Mogami territory was divided into shogunate territories and small and medium-sized lords. this houseYuri-gunHad been transposed or modified after the Battle of SekigaharaRokugo Masanori(2 stones),Yoshitaka Iwaki(2 stones),Nako Hosei(1 stones),Uchikoshi Mitsuhisa(3,000 stones), etc. entered, eachHonjo Clan,Kameda Domain,Nikabo Clan,Flag bookBecame. Later, Mr. Nigaho and Mr. Uchikoshi were renamed (Mr. Nikaho's two branch houses survived as flag books)Sanuki countryTakamatsu DomainIt was mainly, but it was changed due to house turmoilTakatoshi Ikoma(1 stones) was transposed,Yajima DomainIt has become.

Honjo ClanWas in the territoryKisakataWas a nationally famous scenic spot,Matsuo Basho-Raiden Fire GateAre visiting this place.cultureNew Year (1804)ofKisakata earthquakeIt changed from lagoon lake to land and farmland,Bakumanji TempleThe nature conservation movement by the priest, Kakurin, left the hills that were once a small island and the basis of the landscape.

Meiji Restoration

Meiji RestorationThe following five clan had a government office under Akita Prefecture at the time (the value of Ishitaka just before the Boshin War). Besides thisMorioka DomainArea and flag area (Nikaho Niseki House/Sengoku House= OldNikabo ClanBranch of the Lord,Ikoma Ise Residence= The branch of the lord of Yajima,Mr. Rokugo= There was a branch of the Honjo lord.

  • Kubota Domain -The lordMr. Satake.. 205,800 stones. Of which 5,800 stonesShimono countryThe amount of enclave that was there. Awarded 20,000 stones after the Boshin War.
  • Iwasaki Domain -The lordIchimori Satake.. 20,000 stones. It was called the "Kubota Nitta clan" by the Kubota clan, and it had no territory throughout the Edo period and was supplied with rice from the clan. At the end of the Edo periodKawabe-gunThe area near Tsubakidai was ceded by the Kubota clan and was called "Tsubakidai", but immediately after the Boshin War broke out and the area around Tsubakidai became a fierce battlefield, the territory could hardly be controlled in practice. After the end of the warOgatsu-gunRelocated to Iwasaki and renamed the Iwasaki Domain.
  • Honjo Clan -The lordMr. Rokugo.. 20,000 stones (was awarded 10,000 stones after the Boshin War). In the Warring States PeriodYamamoto-gunRokugoThe lord of the nation who controlled the area, and is the only daimyo who came from the Middle Ages to the prefecture.
  • Kameda Domain -The lordMr. Iwaki.. 20,000 stones (2,000 stones reduced after Boshin War). Initially a relative of Mr. Satake, the Kubota clan cooperated with the early clan administration such as inspection, but the relationship with the clan Kubota clan was not good because of the custody of the clan. Godai lordTakashi IwashiroFromSendai DomainDateBecame a family member of Mr. Satake, and his kinship with Mr. Satake disappeared.
  • Yajima Domain -The lordMr. Ikoma.. 8,000 stones. It was 10,000 stones at the time of the standing clan, but the second lordTakamasa IkomaBecame known as a daimyo because he knew his territory to his brother Toshiaki, and later became the flag book throughout the Edo period. In the first year of the Meiji era (1868) after the Boshin War, he was raised again to 15,200 stones and was given standing again, and was awarded 1,000 stones.

Keio4 years(1868) Happened toBoshin WarSo, the Kubota domain and Dewa Moro domain were treated as enemy in the morning.Aizu Domain-Shonai DomainFor the petition of pardonOuetsu Reihan AllianceJoin in. However, because the Emperor of the Kubota clan caused a coup, the Kubota clan became a new government side (before and after the Kubota Nitta clan = later Iwasaki clan, Honjo clan, Yajima clan and current Yamagata prefectureShinjo DomainIs also targeted by other Oshu houjoAkita WarBroke out.Saga Domain,Kagoshima DomainAlthough they finally won after receiving such relief, Odate Castle, Yokote Castle, Honjo Castle and Yajima Jinya fell, and a wide area of ​​land was devastated.

In addition, the Kameda domain also turned to the new government army in tune with the Kubota domain,Yamaguchi DomainI couldn't stand the violent behavior of the troops dispatched from, and when the new government troops abandoned Honjo Kameda, they rejoined the alliance troops and attacked the new government troops towards Kubota. However, Kamedajo was also burned down by the counterattack of the new government army.

Recent and modern chronology

Kubota and Iwasaki clan in the early Meiji era

  • 2
    • May 6(May 7)-Lord KubotaYoshitake Satake RedemptionKubota DomainGovernorTo take office. Kubota Castle is under the control of the Ministry of Army, and the government office isShibue UchizenMoved to the mansion (later built Yoshitake Satake House)[9].
    • June-renamed the new Kubota domain to the Iwasaki domain.
    • October-The Iwasaki clan under the Kubota clan guaranteeKochi DomainTo borrow 15 cars from the Dutch Atelier Trading Company, purchase the steamship "Yasaka Maru" and start international trade. This project failed due to the fact that Yasaka Maru was wrecked during the cruise, and finally the Kubota Clan broke 5 cars and became an international issue (Yasaka Maru Foreign Bond Case).[10].
  • 3th year of Meiji (1870May 2(May 3)-Lord IwasakiGiri SatakeBecame the governor of the Iwasaki domain.
  • 4th year of Meiji (1871
    • May 1(May 2Kubota Clan submits a petition to the government to change its name. The reason is that this region has been called "Akita" since ancient times, and "Kubota" is a common name for one small village even though it has been called for 300 years.[11].
    • May 1(May 3)-Renamed Kubota Domain to Akita Domain[11].
    • April-The Iwasaki clanIwasaki HanjinyaErected.

Yuri-gun in the early Meiji era

Kazuno-gun in the early Meiji era

  • MeijiFirst yearMay 12(1869May 1)-The Kazuno county is confiscated from the Morioka clan and becomes the Hirosaki clan.
  • 2
    • May 2(May 3)-Kazuno County was changed to the Kurohan domain, which refers to Kitaoku Prefecture.
    • May 8(May 9)-Set up nine prefectures with the area of ​​Kitaoku prefecture.
    • May 9(May 10)-Renamed Hachinohe Prefecture Kyunohe Prefecture.
    • May 9(May 10)-Hachinohe Prefecture renamed Sannohe Prefecture to avoid confusion with the Hachinohe Clan.
    • May 11(May 12)-SannoheDonan clanEsashi prefectureKazuno County is under the jurisdiction of Esashi Prefecture.

After abandoned domain

population

*Unless otherwise specified, 2018

  • Population (estimated as of June 2019) 6 (96th)
  • Population change rate -1.47% (47th)[35][36]
    • Natural change rate -1.03% (47th)
    • Social change rate -0.44% (47th)
  • Death rate 1000 to 15.8 people (1st place)[37]
  • Birth rate Population 1000: 5.2 (47th place)[37]
    • Total fertility rate 1.33 (42nd)[37]
    • Perinatal mortality rate of 1000 to 4.5 (3rd place)
    • Infant mortality rate 1000 to 2.6 (2nd place)
  • Aging rate 36.4% (first place)[35][38]
    • 75 years old and older aging rate 19.7% (1st place)
  • Younger population ratio 10.0% (47th)[38]
  • Marriage rate Population 1000:3.1 (47th)[39]

Akita Prefecture has a population of 96 (as of June 9462), ranked 2019th in Japan. The rate of population change is the lowest in the nation for six consecutive years (before that, it was 6th place due to the special circumstances of the Great Hanshin Earthquake (Hyogo Prefecture) and the Great East Japan Earthquake (Fukushima Prefecture)), and the region where the population is decreasing most nationwide one of. Both the natural rate of change in birth minus death and the rate of social change in transferee minus transferee were the lowest in the nation.

Population fell from 1956 million in 135 to 2017 million in 100[40].. From 1955 to 2015, the rate of population change was -19.5%, which is the second highest in the country after Shimane Prefecture at -22.9%. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research predicts further population decline of 46% by 2045[41].. This is because Aomori prefecture, which is expected to decrease by 37.0% in the second place, and Shimane prefecture, which had the highest decrease rate, decreased by 1% (high total fertility rate (23.8 in 2018) and social increase/decrease rate (in 1.74 + 2018%) and the rate of decrease is predicted to not accelerate as much as Akita Prefecture)).

The population of Akita Prefecture was larger than that of Okinawa Prefecture in 1989, but it was 2019 times larger in Okinawa Prefecture in 1.5. The gap is expected to grow 2045 times in 2.4[42].

The mortality rate is the highest in the nation for seven consecutive years, while the birth rate is the lowest in the nation for 7 consecutive years. The aging rate is the highest in Japan, and the ratio of the young population is the lowest in the country. Marriage rate is also the lowest for 1 consecutive years[39]Infant mortality rate is 2nd in Japan, and perinatal mortality rate is 3rd in Japan[39].. The suicide rate was also number one in Japan in 2017, but in 1 it improved and returned to number one. However, in 2018, it will be number one again nationwide.

The total fertility rate comparing the number of children a woman has in her lifetime is 1, ranked 1.33nd in Japan[37].. This number is usually low in urban areas and high in rural areas, but Akita Prefecture does not fit this trend. It is lower than the metropolitan areas of Osaka, Chiba, and Saitama, and is lined up in Kanagawa.[37].. The total fertility rate in Akita Prefecture is following a complicated course, which was the highest level in Japan at 1925 in 6.12, but fell sharply during the period of high economic growth, and was the lowest in the country at 1970 in 1.88. (It was 1.96 in Tokyo in the same year)[43].. After that, it stabilized at a level slightly higher than the national standard in the 1990s, but since the 2000s it has not been able to keep up with the nationwide recovery trend, and reached a record low of 2010 in 1.30, becoming the 40th nationwide. It has been still low since then, and it was the lowest in 2015 at 1.35, second only to Tokyo and Hokkaido. It is also low level at 2019 in 1.33[44].

Demography05000.svg
Akita Prefecture and National Population Distribution by Age (2005)Akita Prefecture Population Distribution by Age and Gender (2005)
Purple-Akita
Green-All over Japan
Blue-male
Red-female

Akita Prefecture Population Changes
Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau CensusThan

Politics

Prefectural government

finance

19
Financial capability index 0.29-IV group (fiscal power index less than 0.3) 6nd out of 2 municipalities
18
Fiscal Power Index 0.28-IV Group (Fiscal Power Index <0.3) 10th out of 6 municipalities
17
Fiscal Power Index 0.25-IV Group (Fiscal Power Index <0.3) 14th out of 10 municipalities
16
Fiscal Power Index 0.24-IV Group (Fiscal Power Index <0.3) 15th out of 11 municipalities

crime

It has the lowest rate of criminal offenses per capita (recognition by police) in Japan. The number of crimes per 10 population is the lowest. The reason for this is that the structure of the city where crime is hard to occurHollowing outEtc.), the declining birthrate and aging population, the declining population, and the fact that depopulation is more advanced than in other prefectures.[45].. In addition, due to the effects of aging, the suicide rate per 10 population has been 7 years from 26 to 19 (1995~2014) Was still in the lowest position, but as a result of taking measures at the prefecture/municipal level, in 26 it was the worst place.[46].

National politics

House of Representatives OfSmall districtIs 3.House of CouncilorsThen, 1 ward is constructed in all prefectures.

judicial

Economic and industrial

industry

Mobile phone,Smartphone,PC,TabletSuch asCommunication equipmentEssential toFixed capacitorHas a shipment value of 1712 billion yen and is the number one in Japan[47].AkitakomachiThe rice production amount isNiigata,Hokkaido3rd place nationwide[48].SakeThe output ofHyogo,Kyoto, Niigata Prefecture,Saitama,Aichi6th in the country after[49].. Prefectural income per capita is 1th in Japan (FY34)[50]. Also,2020 eraTodayEdamameThe number of shipments ofWind-power generationCentered onNew energyWe are focusing on industry.

Agriculture:

Animal husbandry

    • For beef cattle in Akita prefectureJapanese BlackOccupy most. Major brands include Akita Nishiki beef, Sannashi beef (Yuzawa city), Yuri beef (Yurihonjo/Nikaho city), and Ugo beef (Ugo town). Also2011(23) Currently, it is not an official trademark brand, but in Kazuno CityJapanese shorthorn speciesThe breeding of "Kazuno beef"[51].
  • Pig farming
    • "Peach pig" and "Hachimantai pork", "EucommiaBrand pigs such as "pig" and "silk pork" exist.
  • Poultry

forestry

Over 200 years oldNatural Akita cedar TheKiso OfCypress,Tsugaru OfHivaAlong with, it is one of the three major forests in Japan, and the timber production is the fourth largest in Japan.

Fishery:

Secondary industry

Major companies headquartered in Akita Prefecture

Listed companies
Main prefecture companies

Financial institution

A financial institution with a head office in Akita Prefecture
bank
Credit union
Credit union
Agricultural cooperative
Designated financial institution-Storage agency financial institutionな ど
Others
Stockbroker
There are no stock brokers based in the prefecture.Other than Shonai Securities, there are bases in Akita City, and Shonai Securities is in Yokote City and Yurihonjo City.

Life and transportation

Policemen

Transportation

Medical and welfare

Disaster base hospital
Nursery

Education

Higher education
Vocational school
Special school
high school
School facilities, etc.
  • 2004From 16, a high school district system was introduced.
  • Used to be a private high schoolAikawa Keizai University Aikawa High SchoolWas transferred to the union, and became Kitakita City at the same time as Kitakita City was established.2011After transferring to Akita Prefecture in (23), 4 schools in the Kita-Akita City areaAkita Prefectural Akita Kitataka High SchoolIntegrated into.
  • Public high school(Prefectural-City) Is 51 schools,Private high schoolThere are 5 schools, 2 of which are privateGirls' schoolIs. Boys cannot play the role of public non-slip to choose from three schools, and it is desired to increase the number of private high schools and co-educate the two girls' schools. for that reason2000 eraFrom the middle stage, there are three selection schedules, "first half", "general", and "second half" that cannot be seen in other prefectures.[55].
Junior high school
primary school
Kindergarten

Mass media

News (Chinese)

Local newspaper
  • Akita Kaishin Shimpo(Prefecture area)
  • Kitaka newspaper(Kazuno, Kazuno, Odate, Kitakita, Kitakita)
  • Akikita Shimbun (Kitaakita City, Kitakita County)
  • Kitabane Shimpo(Noshiro City/Yamamoto District)
  • Akita Civil Bulletin (Daisen City, Senboku City, Senboku District)
Block paper
  • Kahoku Shimpo(Headquarters: Sendai City) is also published in the northeastern edition with Aomori and Iwate, and there is also an interview base.
National newspaper
Provided on the homepage
  • Akita Prefectural Minami Hibi Shimbun (Daisen City)[56]
  • Akita Kita Shimbun (Odate City)[57]

TV station

Akita PrefectureVideo researchThe only prefecture in which audience ratings are being surveyedJNNIt is outside the broadcasting area of ​​the affiliate. Areas near the prefectural border that can receive radio waves from neighboring prefectures, and cable TVRebroadcast outside the areaThere is a household watching the JNN affiliated station in the neighboring prefecture.

The NHK reception fee payment rate was 23%, the highest in the nation, at the first announcement at the end of FY94.6.

* Since there is no JNN affiliated station in Akita prefecture, news coverage by the affiliated station in the prefecture is mainlyIBC Iwate Broadcasting[58] (Once used as a reporting baseAkita branchWas installed). If IBC cannot handleTohoku Broadcasting(TBC) corresponds.

CATV station

Each cable TV station broadcasts its own community-based programs and retransmits the JNN series of neighboring prefectures.

Radio stations

  • NHK Akita Broadcasting Station (FM/AM)
  • ABS Akita Broadcasting (AM)
  • FM Akita(JFNseries)

Community broadcasting station

culture

dialect

This section includes some computers andBrowsing softwareIncludes characters (phonetic symbols (2 characters)) that cannot be displayed in(Details.

The Akita dialect is generally the mainland dialect-East Japan dialect-Tohoku dialect-Included in the Kitaou dialect,Kazuhiko KanedaIncluded in the outer ring dialect[59].

In the vocabulary of the Akita dialect, the ones that differ from the common language are those that were once used in the central language, but those that have remained as old words, and those that have developed independently of the central one. Many of the distributions are continuous with the surrounding prefectures. Currently, the vocabulary different from the common language is declining rapidly and is being rapidly replaced by the common language.

In the Akita dialectvowelThere is one more phoneme than the common word,/to/ ,/ i / ,/ u / ,/is/ ,/ ɛ / ,/ o / 6 are recognized.consonantThe phoneme is the same as the common word, but corresponds to the common word / k / , Ta Te To / t / , Hits / c / Is voiced in the word (voiced), [ɡ] ,[D] ,[z] Is pronounced. Hit the bank / s / Hit the line / p / Does not become voiced.

Food culture:

RiceWhereliqueurThe point is. EspeciallySakeConsume a lot and drink too much alcohol[60].. Also because of snow countrypicklesSuch asPreserved FoodsHas developed, on the other hand, there is also the effect that a strong taste is preferred,gunHas the highest mortality rate in Japan[61].

Traditional crafts

Traditional crafts designated by the Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry
Traditional crafts

Folk performing arts

Festival

Sports

Tourism

Tangible cultural property building

Important traditional buildings preservation area

Foreign relations

Works set in Akita Prefecture

Literary arts

movies

Drama

There is no TBS series in Akita Prefecture, but it was broadcast on ABS (Akita Broadcasting).

Song

Comic

Anime

  • Lovely movie Itoshi no Muko (HeiseiJuly 25-December, Fuji TV)
  • Lovely Movie Itoshi no Muko Season2 (April-October 26, BS Fuji)
  • TV animation Itoshi no Muko (October 27-March 10, TV Tokyo)
* All three works were broadcast on Akita TV.
*This work was broadcast on Akita Broadcasting.

ゲーム

People from Akita Prefecture

Honorary citizens of Akita Prefecture

The title of the Akita Prefecture Honorary Citizens is based on the Akita Prefecture Honorary Citizens Ordinance (March 1981, 56 Akita Prefecture Ordinance No. 3) established on March 13, 56 (Showa 3). It is given to those who have outstanding achievements in their development and who are respected and respected by the citizens of the prefecture (Article 13 of the Ordinance)[64].. The target person is "a person who has contributed widely to the development of political economy, the promotion of academic culture, the promotion of local autonomy, the improvement of social welfare and the promotion of the welfare of citizens of other prefectures" (Akita Prefecture Honorary Citizens Ordinance Enforcement Regulations Article 2)[65]It is stipulated that the Governor of Akita Prefecture shall select with the consent of the Akita Prefectural Assembly (Article 2 of the Ordinance).[64].. Those who are selected as honorary citizens will be presented with the title of honorary citizenship of Akita Prefecture and the badge of honorary citizenship of Akita Prefecture (Article 3 of the Ordinance).[64].

Name of winnerOccupationSelection dateRemarksSource
Yujiro Obata政治家1981/3/25Former Governor of Akita Prefecture[66]
Yamazaki Teiichiscientist-Businessman1989/9/25yuanTDKPresident[66]
Yunio HinumaMedical doctor1989/9/25ウ イ ル スResearch achievements[66]
Yasushi AkashiUnited NationsStaff1993/9/30yuanDeputy Secretary-General of the United Nations[66]
Akira EndoAgricultural chemist2006/12/20Cultural Merit[66]

Akita Prefecture Citizen's Medal of Honor

To individuals and groups that have made outstanding achievements in fields such as sports and cultureAkita Prefecture Citizen's HonorHas been awarded, and 2018 individuals and 10 groups have been awarded by October 19.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ a b Prefectural roads near the top of Hachimantai in Senboku City are managed by the Kazuno Regional Development Bureau, not the Senboku Regional Development Bureau.
  2. ^ Since it was once the location of the Meitokukan, it was chosen as a place that is closely related to education.
  3. ^ Ou Main LineAkita Station - Oiwake Station TheOga LineThere are also two trains per hour during the day.
  4. ^ Both of these episodes are centered around Daisen City (mainly around Omagari Station).

Source

  1. ^ “[North Korea abduction] A study group field-tested the coastline in the northern part of Akita prefecture, where many incidents involving North agents occurred frequently.”. Sankei Shimbun(July 2016, 6). https://www.sankei.com/premium/news/160622/prm1606220004-n3.html 2016/11/22Browse. 
  2. ^ “[North Korean ship drifting] Once again, operatives repeatedly invaded Akita's coast, Kaoru Hasuike's abduction offender (2/2 pages)”. Sankei Shimbun(July 2017, 11). https://www.sankei.com/world/news/171124/wor1711240023-n2.html 2017/1/18Browse. 
  3. ^ Yoshitsugu Kanemoto. “Urban Employment Area-”. Center for Spatial Information Science, University of Tokyo. 2017/3/25Browse.
  4. ^ Hirakawa Minami 2014 "The Node of Ancient Exchange-Akita" "The 29th National Cultural Festival-Akita 2014 Symposium "The People who Gathered in Ancient Akita"-The Node of Ancient Exchange-Akita-" The 29th National Cultural Festival Akita City executive committee symposium "people gathered in ancient Akita" planning committee
  5. ^ Togetoshi Togashi "Akita no Akebono" pages 10-14 (Junmi Shiotani, Yasutoshi Togashi, Ryosuke Kumada, Hideo Watanabe, Tatsuo Furuuchi "History of Akita Prefecture", May 2001)
  6. ^ “Special Areas in Japan Special Editing 68 Is This OK?” Page 40-41 (Regional Criticism Series)
  7. ^ “Special Areas in Japan Special Editing 68 Is This OK?” Page 42-43 (Regional Criticism Series)
  8. ^ “Special Areas in Japan Special Editing 68 Is This All Right? Akita Prefecture” pp.46-47 (Regional Criticism Series)
  9. ^ a b "Akita City History Vol. 9", page XNUMX.
  10. ^ Akita Prefectural Archives Bulletin No.XNUMX (PDF 14.2 My b)
  11. ^ a b "Akita City History Vol. 7", page XNUMX.
  12. ^ "Akita City History Vol. 8", page XNUMX.
  13. ^ "Akita City History Vol. 8", page XNUMX.
  14. ^ a b "Akita City History Vol. 10", page XNUMX.
  15. ^ "Akita City History Vol. 81", page XNUMX.
  16. ^ a b "Akita City History Vol. 107", page XNUMX.
  17. ^ a b "Akita City History Vol. 84", page XNUMX.
  18. ^ "Akita City History Vol. 11", page XNUMX.
  19. ^ a b c "Akita City History Vol. 12", page XNUMX.
  20. ^ "Akita City History Vol. 38", page XNUMX.
  21. ^ a b "Akita City History Vol. 13", page XNUMX.
  22. ^ a b "Akita City History Vol. 97", page XNUMX
  23. ^ a b c "Akita City History Vol. 64", page XNUMX
  24. ^ "Akita City History Vol. 102", page XNUMX.
  25. ^ a b c d e "Akita City History Vol. 14", page XNUMX
  26. ^ a b "Akita City History Vol. 58", page XNUMX.
  27. ^ a b c "Akita City History Vol. 61", page XNUMX
  28. ^ a b c "Akita City History Vol. 98", page XNUMX.
  29. ^ a b "Akita City History Vol. 118", page XNUMX.
  30. ^ "Akita City History Vol. 35", page XNUMX.
  31. ^ "Akita City History Vol. 119", page XNUMX.
  32. ^ a b c "Akita City History Vol. 120", page XNUMX.
  33. ^ “[North Korean ship drifting] Once again, operatives repeatedly invaded Akita's coast, Kaoru Hasuike's abduction offender (1/2 pages)”. Sankei Shimbun(July 2017, 11). https://www.sankei.com/world/news/171124/wor1711240023-n1.html 2018/11/22Browse. 
  34. ^ “[XNUMX years after the war, memory of Tohoku] Ogawakimoto incident (upper) Northern agent caught at the water's edge”. Sankei Shimbun(July 2015, 7). https://www.sankei.com/region/news/150707/rgn1507070056-n1.html 2018/11/21Browse. 
  35. ^ a b "Population estimation As of October 2018, 30 (Heisei 10)”. Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (announced on April 31, 4). 2019/7/31Browse.
  36. ^ "Akita Prefecture Population below XNUMX million Decrease rate Top for XNUMX consecutive years”. Mainichi Newspapers (April 2017, 4). 2017/5/9Browse.
  37. ^ a b c d e "Overview of Monthly Report on Population Statistics (30)”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Vital Statistics and Health and Social Statistics Office (31). 2019/7/31Browse.
  38. ^ a b https://www.stat.go.jp/data/jinsui/2018np/index.html
  39. ^ a b c file:///C:/Users/ASAI/Downloads/uploads_public_archive_0000042814_00_H30%E4%BA%BA%E5%8F%A3%E5%8B%95%E6%85%8B%E7%B5%B1%E8%A8%88%E3%81%AE%E6%A6%82%E6%B3%81%EF%BC%88%E6%A6%82%E6%95%B0%EF%BC%89.pdf
  40. ^ "Akita prefecture's population has fallen below 100 million First ever in XNUMX prefectures in Tohoku”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun (July 2017, 4). 2017/5/9Browse.
  41. ^ http://www.ipss.go.jp/pp-shicyoson/j/shicyoson18/1kouhyo/gaiyo.pdf
  42. ^ “Future Estimated Population by Region in Japan (30)” (National Institute of Population and Social Security Research)
  43. ^ Total fertility rate by prefecture: 1925-2002 (National Institute of Population and Social Security Research website)
  44. ^ [file:///C:/Users/USER/Downloads/uploads_public_archive_0000050268_00_1_200606_R01%E4%BA%BA%E5%8F%A3%E5%8B%95%E6%85%8B%E7%B5%B1%E8%A8%88%E3%81%AE%E6%A6%82%E6%B3%81%EF%BC%88%E6%A6%82%E6%95%B0%EF%BC%89_.pdf 令和元年人口動態統計の概況(秋田県分)]
  45. ^ Osaka has the highest number of crimes per 10 population, the lowest, five times that of Akita -NEWS Post Seven (Shogakukan) May 2011, 5.
  46. ^ Sankei News
  47. ^ "Asahi Elementary School Newspaper" February 2011, 2
  48. ^ 25 agricultural output-Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
  49. ^ http://www.nta.go.jp/shiraberu/senmonjoho/sake/shiori-gaikyo/seishu/2010/pdf/18.pdf Production/import/export quantity and concentration (by prefecture)
  50. ^ Prefectural income per capita by prefecture-Cabinet Office
  51. ^ Akita Kaiki Shinposha (ed.) "Akita Encyclopedia" Akita Kaiki Shinposha, September 1981, p. 9.
  52. ^ 17 Akita Prefecture Industrial Promotion Action Plan (Akita Prefecture Official Website)
  53. ^ Big Akita vol.302 (Akita Corporate Revitalization Center)
  54. ^ Shale oil begins production in Akita Petroleum resource development (Nihon Keizai Shimbun)
  55. ^ AllAkita Public High School Enrollee Selection Guidelines (PDF) More excerpt
  56. ^ Akita Prefectural South Daily News
  57. ^ Akita Kita Shimbun
  58. ^ Odate CityAomori TV(ATV) but Yurihonjo CityTV You Yamagata(TUY) may be in charge.
  59. ^ Takeshi ShibataOther edition "Iwanami course Japanese 11 dialects" Iwanami Shoten,1977(Showa 52), pp. 57-73.
  60. ^ "Forty-seven Prefectures Unchiku Encyclopedia," page 47 publisher-PHP library and author-Kazuro Yawata
  61. ^ Cancer registration/statistics
  62. ^ "Background and outline of the exchange (Gansu Province, China)". Beauty Country Akita Net. 2020/9/12Browse.
  63. ^ Beauty Country Akita Net
  64. ^ a b c Akita Prefecture Honorary Citizens Ordinance -Akita Prefecture, browsed July 2019, 7.
  65. ^ Akita Prefecture Honorary Citizens Ordinance Enforcement Regulations -Akita Prefecture, browsed July 2019, 7.
  66. ^ a b c d e About "Outline of Akita Prefecture Honorary Citizens Awarding System" and "Honorary Citizens of the Year Award Awards" -Akita Prefecture, browsed July 2019, 7.

Related item

外部 リンク

Administration
Tourism
Predecessor:
Akita domain
Iwasaki-Honjo prefecture-Kameda-Yajima
Changes in administrative districts
1871 -
Next generation:
-----

Coordinate: North Latitude 39 Degrees 43 Minutes 07 Seconds East longitude 140 degree 06 min 09 sec /39.718611111111 degrees north latitude 140.1025 degrees east longitude / 39.718611111111; 140.1025


 

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