I regret the photo
Household annual income of 1000-1200 million yen, anxiety about child-rearing "Fear of reaching the age of going to university" "Educational expenses ...
If you write the contents roughly
A woman in her late 1200s (other / regular employee) who also has an annual household income of 40 million yen and lives in Tokyo said, "I have three children and I am honestly crazy.
There is a theory that "the education cost required for each child is about 1 million yen."Free early childhood education and childcare and free high school ... → Continue reading
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Permanent(Seishain) refers to employees who are hired without any special agreement under the employment contract..Regular employeesAlso known as (seikishain).There is no clear legal definition that is not a legal term..Influenced by Japan and its employment practices South KoreaBecause it is a concept unique toEnglishIn various languages such asSeishainIs often written.
"employee"Or"EmployeeMost people refer to full-time employees,Comprehensive work-General staffIf there is a division such as, it is common to call it all together.There is no legal definition, but with the passage of timePart-time job,(I.e.(Registration type),(Fixed term) Contract employeeSo-calledNon-regular employmentIt is a term that has come to be used to distinguish it from those hired in.
Characteristics of regular employees and their transformation
Company,industryDepending on the advantage of regular employment,DiscriminationIn the sense ofproperIt is often expressed as.Generally in Japan, except for work experience as a full-time employeeLabor marketOften not evaluated as a meaningful career in.
Employment practices that are often found in major Japanese companies classify workers into the following three categories according to their working style, and of these, workers who meet all three of direct employment, indefinite period, and full-time are selected.PermanentIs trying.
- To the companyDirect employmentWho is or is not (Indirect employment) Who?
- The contract period is indefinite (Labor contract with no fixed term) Or fixed term (Fixed-term employment contract)?
- Of each companyLabor regulationsTo determinePrescribed working hoursAre you working up to the upper limit (full-time) or less than the upper limit (part-time)?
According to Japanese employment practices, the company is first positioned as a worker who develops and utilizes the core labor force of the company over the long term, and is given the status of a "regular employee".If the company replenishes this full-time employee from the outside,Bulk recruitment of new graduatesIs the basis.of courseCareer changeThere are quite a few mid-career hires,HR managementThe system is constructed on the basis of recruiting new graduates.This mechanism isHigh economic growthFormed from the perspective of securing a labor force and stabilizing the lives of workers during the period,Bubble economyFrom the heyday to its collapse1990 eraIt has been maintained until the first half.Its features are as follows.
lifetime employmentThe system is premised.When a worker joins the company, he says "Labor contract with no fixed termUnless there are special circumstances (significant delinquency of workers, business crisis that jeopardizes the existence of the company, etc.)Retirement ageContinue to hire the worker until.Especially as an employment adjustment against economic fluctuationsDismissalIs basically not done.On the other hand, companies have a wide range of command and command authority over workers in their daily work, and especially workers hired as executive candidates are reassigned.Seconded,TransferThere are changes in the labor market within the company and the labor market within the corporate group, and in principle this cannot be refused (many companiesLabor regulationsSo if a worker refuses such a business order without good reason,DisciplineIt stipulates that it will be dealt with).Companies systematically across each stage of a full-time careerOJTWe will conduct education and training centered on the above, and appoint the most successful person in the process of competition as an officer.
SeniorityThe treatment is based on.The number of years of service is the most important factor in the evaluation of workers, and the ability to perform duties is only a secondary evaluation.
wageSo that the basic salary will increase according to the length of service of many companiesLabor regulationsThe calculation method is defined in, so that it is difficult for the boss to make an arbitrary evaluation.In addition, promotion to higher positions will be given priority to those who have been in service for a long time.
In JapanTrade unions by companyIs often organized, and in a company that has a union, it is often a prerequisite for joining the union to be a full-time employee of the company.
Transformation of regular employees
Bubble burstProlonged from to the 2000srecessionAs a result, the system surrounding regular employees is also changing.The long-term employment practices and wage structure that characterized regular employees have diversified.
Due to the recession, companies are required to reduce labor costs, and the hiring of full-time employees tends to be restrained.As a further reduction in labor costsRestructuring(The original meaning of restructuring isRestructuringFor full-time employeesDismissal(In practice, it is extremely difficult to dismiss a full-time employee, so use all hard and soft means.Retire voluntarilyEncourage them to doUnderstandingIs basically a last resort), and the lifetime employment system collapsed.
From seniorityResults-orientedThe main pillar is the change in treatment.Job performance has become more important than years of service, and the evaluation system has been changed to reflect work results in wages and promotion / promotion.Companies that have a division between general and general positions cannot take executive-level positions unless they are general positions.UnionThe subscription rate is also declining.
However, there are some disagreements about excessive changes in existing forms, and evaluation of economic rationality that lifetime employment can maintain a high level of corporate skills and morale through long-term employment (for details, seeLifetime employment # Economic rationality of long-term employment(See), a review of the performance-based approach once introduced (eg,1993Introduced a performance-based wage system for the first timeFujitsuHas reviewed the system in April 2001).Since the 4s, when the recession is coming out, some professions andVenture companyWith the exception of, companies that adopt a complete performance-based system are rare, and the central treatment is the ratio of both seniority and performance-based systems.
However, these changes in the image of regular employees are unique to large companies.中小企业Employeeslarge companyThe status is unstable and the salary tends to be cheaper than the employees ofEmployee WelfareMay be almost nonexistent.Nowadays, with the introduction of performance-based system and promotion, the amount of work doubles even though the salary does not increase.ManagementIn some cases, even though they are regular employees, their income is not stable.Service overtimeHowever, it is not uncommon for regular employees to receive less hourly remuneration than non-regular employees with an hourly wage system.Service overtime in terms of health,ManagersDue to the increase in the amount of work due to restructuring, the number of regular employees who break their bodies and take leave or quit is increasing.Regarding employment adjustments during the recession, there are few transfers and seconded employees, and more direct voluntary retirement recruitment and voluntary employment are carried out. In some cases, bankruptcy and all employees are dismissed without employment adjustment.
Diverse regular employees
Alleviate the polarization of working styles between regular employees and non-regular employees, and each workerWork life balanceThere is also a need to realize a multi-dimensional work style that is desirable for both labor and management, which enables companies to secure and retain excellent human resources at the same time.As one of such work styles and employment styles, it is important to promote the spread of "diversified regular employees" with limited duties, work locations, and working hours..
HeiseiFrom the mid-term onward, the employment form is the same as regular employees, although there are restrictions on work location, working hours, and job content.Limited regular employeesThe number of companies that set up the category is increasing.Parenting,Nursing careDepending on the person who needs to balance work and work, family circumstances, etc.Single assignmentIt is expected to be applied to those who cannot do it, those who have specific skills and concentrate on the duties to utilize those skills.
This is a merit system for workers who seek long-term employment but have difficulty working in the same way as regular employees.On the corporate side, employment management is complicated, but diverse human resources can be utilized.
Full-time employeeWhat is (Nasashiseishain)?Non-regular employmentI was hired under the same working conditions and environment asBlack companiesAbout regular employees.Peripheral regular employees,What a regular employeeAlso called.
Unlike regular employees, which are generally imagined,wageIs low wages,Regular salary increase system,BonusWithout either (bonus),Severance payThere may be no system.The company does not make a notification even though it meets the application criteria of the system.employment insurance ,Health insurance,Employee pensionIn some cases, they do not subscribe to legal welfare programs.Full-time employeesMonthly salaryAlthough the system (fixed salary) is common, the hourly wage system (hourly wage system), daily wage system (daily wage monthly wage system),annual salaryIt may be one of the systems.Employment contractAs far as I can see the book, the wages areminimum wageAbove the standard,Service overtime,volunteer activityIn terms of hourly wages, including free participation inminimum wageIn some cases:[Annotation 1]..However, there is no legal minimum standard for full-time employees, and the name of full-time employee should be used regardless of whether the worker is a short-time worker or a short-term worker. Is not illegal.
- ^ According to the survey, regular employees who do not have at least one of regular salary increases and bonuses are called "peripheral regular employees", and regular employees who have both are called "central regular employees".
- ^ Kotobank-regular employee
- ^ a b Yomiuri Shimbun December 2020, 12 Morning edition Speech
- ^ Eiji Okuda (November 2011, 11). “Seeing full-time employees from the work style of dispatching”. Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training. 2012/7/10Browse. "Far from" regular employees ", the terms" non-regular employees "are not clear by definition, and these terms are merely" names "for grasping the status of employment patterns in statistical surveys."
- ^ However, according to statistics such as the Ministry of Labor's "Labor Economic Trend Survey," dismissal avoidance measures such as transfer and secondment were actively taken, but voluntary retirement and dismissal measures were avoided, and companies were cautious about reducing regular employees. It can be seen that he showed a good attitude.Despite this, "restructuring" was widely reported in the media by public criticism of these measures against middle-aged and elderly white-collar workers (so to speak, "children of lifetime employment") who were regarded as surplus personnel in companies. Is the result of the increase.
- ^ About "various regular employees"Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
- ^ a b Miki Kobayashi (September 2008, 9). "The number of temporary staffing companies suffering from a bad working environment is increasing rapidly."Diamond Online. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2008, 9.
- ^ a b "Expanding" full-time employees "-surveyed by young NPOs in Tokyo" Asahi Shimbun, morning edition, September 2008, 9, 21st edition, 31th page.
- ^ NPO"PosseAccording to the survey, the ratio of working hours of 60 hours / week or more is 38% for "peripheral regular employees" and 26% for "central regular employees", while the ratio of monthly income of 20 yen or less is "peripheral regular employees". 53% of employees and 19% of "central regular employees" show the tendency of "peripheral regular employees" to work long hours and have low wages.
- Regular employment
- Non-regular employment
- The labor
- Management system by course
- Part-time worker
- Deregulation of dismissal of regular employees
- Quarterly Policy and Management Research "Special Feature: Working Styles in Japan-The Whereabouts of" Regular Employees "-"(archive) 2010, vol.11 --Mitsubishi UFJ Research & Consulting
- Statistics Bureau Homepage / Labor Force Survey Special Survey
- Statistics Bureau Home Page/Labor Force Survey
- Fig. 8 Number of employees by employment type / quick understanding Long-term labor statistics in graph | Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training (JILPT)
- Figure 9 Number of regular and non-regular employees in each age group / Easy-to-understand graph Long-term labor statistics | Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training (JILPT)