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💼 | Glacial generation is miserable ……? Detailed explanation of features and problems faced


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The glacial generation is miserable ...? Explaining the characteristics and problems faced in detail

 
If you write the contents roughly
Due to the unstable employment situation of the glacial generation, many people came without gaining work experience.
 

The glacial generation is the age when job hunting was carried out after the collapse of the bubble economy and was greatly affected.Lost Ji ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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Employment status

Employment ice age

Employment ice ageSociallyJob shortageIt is a popular name when it became.

RecruitmentThe company's employment magazine ""1992Advocated in the November issueCoined wordAnd1994The 11thNew Word/Buzzword AwardWon the jury's special coined word award[1].

Generations corresponding to the Employment Ice AgeIt is,1970(ShowaFrom 45 years)1982(57)[2][3][4]Or1984(59)[5]Born by1990 eraFrom the middle2000 erafirst half[6][7][8]To go out into society2000Graduated from college before and after[9]As of 2019, around 40 years old[10][11][12][13][14][15]Or late 30s to late 40s[16][17][18][19][20][21]WelcomegenerationIt is said that (#Glacial generationSee also).

Japan (Graduated 1993-2005)

Bubble burstLaterDifficult to find[22]When was (Graduated from 1993 to 2005Is said to apply[23]) Refers to.

Progress

For detailed recruitment status# Recruitment statusSee

Employment status before the bubble burst

Second oil crisisAfter1970 eraFrom the middle1985Up to the Japanese labor marketNew job opening ratioIs 0.9 to 1 times,Effective job openings-to-applicants ratioRemained between 0.6 times and 0.7 times. But in September 1985Plaza agreementAnd with itAppreciation of the yenAs a result, the Japanese economy is led by domestic demand with a low interest rate policy.Bubble economySince the company has made excessive capital investment and employment, the ratio of job offers to applicants has jumped to 1.4 times, and the bubble economy has begun in earnest.1988から1992The situation has exceeded 1 times.

Entering the employment ice age

For detailed economic conditions, see "Lost ten yearsSee etc.

1990Stock prices, land prices, etc. have fallen since January, causing a situation called "bubble burst".1991After FebruaryStable growth period(Bubble period(Including) also ended. Amid the recession, companies began to curb new hires across the board to curb labor costs due to excessive employment during the bubble economy. Furthermore, it was difficult for the government to tackle the economic stimulus seriously in the midst of the turmoil in which the framework fluctuated significantly in the short term in the political world of the same period.

Still,1993With the bottom as the bottom, the economy gradually recovered,1997Although the employment status of new graduates once recovered,consumption taxIn addition to austerity measures such as raising,Asian currency crisisFrom bad debt disposal failure from the second half of 19971998The economy rapidly cooled due to the successive collapse of major financial institutions, and the employment situation deteriorated again. During this period, in addition to drastically reducing the number of job offers, there is no room to train new graduates as corporate employees due to the deterioration of corporate performance and intensifying competition with emerging countries, and there is a trend for new graduates to have “ready-to-use power” that can be immediately put into the field. Appeared. This allowsEmployment mismatchThe unemployment rate does not easily decrease even if the number of job offers increases, and it becomes necessary to enter a workplace that is far from the person's ability and expertise in order to secure a stable income and life. Under the environment, there was a situation in which the employee was forced to dismiss in a short period of time. Also, regarding employment of university graduates,1996ToEmployment agreementAfter the abolition of the auction, companies bought Aota in order to enclose excellent university students, and due to such changes in the environment, many university students were confused and overloaded with a psychological burden. Furthermore, trial employment started in 1999, and after hiring, if it is during the trial employment period, it is not illegal to immediately dismiss, and if a new graduate does not become ready immediately, new graduates will be dismissed immediately and new graduates will be thrown away became.

Against this background, the ratio of job offers to applicants is1993から2005To 1 and the ratio of job openings to applicants fell to 1998 in 0.9. Also, compared to the bubble era, new graduates were forced to do difficult job hunting,Part-time worker,Dispatched labor such as(I.e.WithoutNon-regular employment(Pre-kari art) Have increased[24][25].

Temporary end of employment ice age and employment status of graduates

2000 eraWith the improvement of the export industry in the middle, the employment environment recovered,2005The employment ice age ended once. The ratio of job offers to new graduates has increased,2006から2008For three years, it became known as the seller market, and the ratio of job offers to applicants was2006から2007It exceeded 1 over the course of time. Many companies are short of manpower due to the effect of restrained hiring for nearly 13 years, and the working environment becomes harshBlack companiesincreased.

Also, as a result of restrained hiring, the age structure of employees became distorted, making it difficult to pass on skills and skills. For this reason, companies have overturned their attitudes and have been enthusiastic about hiring new graduates, and the ratio of job offers to applicants was said to be "at or above the bubble period."

In particular, there is a strong motivation to hire in the financial field, and some major megabanks hired thousands at a time. However, compared to the Ice Age, although the hiring standards were relaxed, they still tended to be selected carefully. While a number of excellent students have won a job offer, some students have had a hard time getting a job offer, and the word “inside rating difference” has been born.

While the employment environment for new graduates will improve, the employment environment for graduates will remain harsh.generationIncreasing voices pointed out the imbalance in employment opportunities between the two. The hiring practice in the Japanese labor market isBulk recruitment of new graduates"When"SeniorityGraduates who have already graduated (Second newbie, Etc., have become extremely unfavorable, so job seekers of the Ice Age generation who have already passed a considerable number of years after graduation, especially those who have never been formalized before, are forced into extremely unfavorable conditions. There is.

Baby boom generationRegarding the reduction of labor force due to retirement age, most companies may make up for it by rehiring new graduates, foreign workers with low wages, and retirees, which is not necessarily a relief for the ice age generation. The ratio of non-regular employment has continued to rise until 2008.[26].

Employment status

New graduates hiring

High school graduate

20053According to the employment offer status of high school and junior high school graduates, the number of job offers in companies with a scale of 500 or more1992Peaking at about 34 people,2004The number of job offers in the manufacturing industry has dropped from 3 in 1992 to 70 in 2004.[27].. It is said that there are several factors, such as the shift of large companies to higher education levels such as university graduates.[28].. It was a boom when new graduatesBaby boom juniorMany high school graduates have been forced into unstable employment due to personnel cuts after the Asian currency crisis in 1997 and the enforcement of the Industrial Revitalization Law in 1999.[29].. With the number of jobs coming to high school drastically decreasing, schools have come to accept jobs that were previously unthinkable, such as consumer finance and pachinko parlors.

However, due to the difficulty in finding employment, the rate of students going on to universities and the like gradually increased, and the rate of employment for high school graduates decreased.[30]Also, unlike university students, many high school students who wanted to find a job who could not find a job changed their course to a vocational school, etc. There is also the aspect that job hunting in Japan was not taken seriously.

University graduate

The employment environment for university graduates also deteriorated severely during this period. According to a Recruit Works survey,1991To peakRecruitment ratioIs declining,2000Finally fell below 1x. Although there are some fluctuations,2002Until the number of job vacancies increased with the recovery of the economy in the valley, the employment environment was difficult for a long time.

as a resultEmployment rateBecame a tragic situation.School basic surveyAccording to the report, it continued to decline after peaking at 1991% in 81.3, and reached the lowest record of 2003% in 55.1 (employment rate of vocational school was 76%), which is the lowest employment rate in the ice age. became. Also, since the 1990s, even if, fortunately, new graduates or new graduates have been appointed as full-time employees, there is a situation where they have no choice but to jump into a completely wrong field where there was a job offer. It seems unlikely that there will be opportunities to utilize the knowledge and abilities acquired through specialized education at the university, which is far from the specialty.[31], Who could only choose a job that was hard to think of,Comprehensive work,ProfessionThe new graduatePermanentI can not find a job asSimple laborPerson orNon-regular employmentThose who have become highly educated have come to be seen at the end of various industries. After graduating from university due to difficulty in finding employment, attend vocational schools and other educational institutions (Double school) More people[32], Some people do "job hunting year" to continue job hunting by continuing to work without intentionally graduating from university[33].

Mid-career hiring

Mid-career recruitment became more difficult than new graduates. Many of the people who were unable to work as full-time employees at the time of new graduation because companies demand "immediate ability", and even after that, get employment in jobs that are not full-time employees,Undesired neatと 呼 ば れ るjob huntingSome people gave up on themselves. Even for those who left the job, those who could not accumulate sufficient skills were in a situation where re-employment was difficult. In addition, because the employment policy focuses on new graduates, it may not be possible to deal with employment measures for mid-career hires, and there are cases where payment is made in advance due to age or gender.

Among companies and organizations with a serious labor shortage (such as agriculture and the welfare industry), there are companies and organizations that hire free-time workers and neat workers who do not have the skills to immediately compete.

The ratio of job offers to applicants gradually decreased from 1993 to 1999 in 0.48. After that, however, it gradually increased, and recovered to a level of 2006 in 1.06. However, after that, it turned to a sharp decline, reaching 2009 in 1999, which was even lower than 0.48, which was the lowest in the previous employment ice age in 0.47. In July 2009, the unemployment rate fell to 7% for the whole country, and the ratio of job offers to applicants fell to 5.7. Among them, the unemployment rate of 0.42-25 years old (born 34-1975) was 1984%, and the unemployment rate of 6.1-15 years old (born 24-1985) was 1994% ( (April 9.6)[34].. The ratio of job offers to applicants has been increasing since then, and was 2011 in 0.65.

Changes in employment attitudes of new members of society after the employment ice age

Born before and after the bubble economy, sent to adolescence in an era of recession after the bubble burst and economic decline of Japan (including advanced countries)Post-ice age generationGrew up looking at the back of the ice age generation, who faced job difficulties, so they are becoming more stable and larger companies[35].. As a result, SMEs face a situation where new graduates do not gather. Of the 2005 broadcastNHK"From now on in JapanIn the studio student discussion in, "Small and medium-sized business owners said, "The town factory lacks manpower at all," and "it is providing jobs." Even large and mid-sized companies are struggling to secure new graduates in unpopular industries such as eating and drinking and nursing care.

Social structure and politics

Plaza agreementBecause of the appreciation of the yen, the cost of the labor force in Japan had already risen even before the burst of the bubble, but Japanese companies were able to cover the disadvantages of the high cost structure with the profits of the bubble economy, changing the traditional employment form. And therefore had too much expensive labor. Since it finally became unsustainable after the bubble burst,RestructuringIt was necessary to reduce surplus personnel and introduce employment flexibility.

As part of this move, in 1999,Keizo ObuchiBy the CabinetDispatched laborAre generally liberalized except for the manufacturing industry, and companies are exempt from corporate tax to reduce the number of employees.Industrial Revitalization LawWas enacted. The background of this "Industrial Revitalization Law" is1995ToNikkeirenThere is an opinion that it was "a new-era "Japanese management"" announced by (then). In this "new age "Japanese management"", workers are divided into "long-term accumulated capacity utilization type group", "highly specialized ability utilization type group" and "employment flexible type group".Employment flexible groupHits."

As a political thought that seems to have supported the "new Japanese management"Ichiro Ozawaof"Ordinary country"Junichiro Koizumiof"Structural reform without sanctuaryIs mentioned. These routes are "imitation of American society", ""A hierarchical society in which a few strong people take the initiative and the majority of the weak are scared of poverty and death][36]May be criticized.2004May 3In June, the dispatch of labor to the manufacturing industry was lifted by the Junichiro Koizumi Cabinet, and the number of dispatched workers increased explosively. However, at the time of the deliberations to amend the Worker Dispatch Law,Camouflage contractWas showing signs of becoming a social problem. Behind the explosive increase in dispatched workers is the fact that camouflaged contractors have been sent to general dispatch, and the increase in the amount that has not been counted as a dispatched worker until then has contributed to a considerable proportion.

Lehman shock (2000-2014 graduate)

"Post Baby Boomer Junior # Job HuntingSee also

Graduation from 2001 (Job hunting in 2000) to 2014,Lehman shockIt is a time when it became difficult for new university graduates to find employment[37].

Background and overview

For more information on the economic situation (1999-2008)World financial crisisSee etc.

It was a "seller market" that continued for several years after the end of the employment ice age,Global financial crisis,Lehman shockDue to such factors, the economy has receded and the employment situation has changed.

It was supposed to be a seller market at the time of job hunting2009The situation that the informal offer of students who are planning to graduate in spring is canceled[38]In addition, the employment rate of university graduates in 2010 decreased by 7.6% from the previous year's graduates to 60.8%.[39]Marks the largest drop since the survey began in 1948[40].. In this way, in addition to being a temporary employment ice age, in 2014 it became a seller market where the ratio of job offers to applicants exceeded 1.[41]During this period, the employment ice age was not paid much attention, and the Japanese government also made the above-mentioned assistance for the 1993-2005 graduate ice employment a priority issue.[42].

Employment status

2000-2010 graduate[43]Although it was said that it was during the Employment Ice Age, the employment rate, number of job offers, and job openings-to-applicants ratio are higher than those of the previous Employment Ice Age.[44]There is also an opinion that it cannot be said that it is the employment ice age[45].. In 2010, 2,000 out of about 700 people who passed the Certified Public Accountant Examination could not find employment, and the ratio of ronin reached 4%, the worst ever.[46]However, compared to around the 2000s, it has recovered.

According to a survey by human resources personnel, many people answered that the employment situation from 2000 graduates to 2010 graduates was "super-ice age or ice age". At the end of 2012First Abe CabinetHolds,AbenomicsAs the yen depreciates and stocks rise against the background, many people answered that they are "neither" in the employment situation of 2014 graduates, and the employment situation improved.[47], 2016 graduate job hunting recovered to what is called the seller market[48].

なお、2012年卒から、正規雇用での就職や非正規雇用での就職に関する統計も集計を始めた。2012年卒(558692人)の統計結果では、就職者が357011人(63.9%)、正規雇用での就職者が335048人(60.0%)、非正規雇用での就職者が21963人(3.9%)であったが2018年卒は3.0%となり減少傾向である。

Changes in recruitment

Japan with limited future growth (Developed country) Than overseasEmerging countriesCompanies seeking a return to life are increasing the number of foreign workers hired each year as they expand their global strategy overseas.[49], Not only the decrease in the number of job vacancies, but also a headwind phenomenon of competition with foreigners, which was not present in the previous ice age. In addition, the university entrance rate exceeds 5%, the number of universities has increased due to the establishment of new universities, etc., and the number of university students has increased. It can be said that companies do not attract job applicants and that the company has a policy of carefully selecting and recruiting excellent students.[50].

In addition, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare has issued a guideline to treat new graduates within three years after graduation as measures against those who could not find a job due to the influence of the employment ice age.[51].. In addition, 2015% of the companies accepted graduates from 66.0 graduates, and 14.2% of the companies actually offered job offers to graduates.[52].

Also, from the reflection that the employment activities that have continued since the last Ice Age have become too early, and academics tend to be neglected and that it is difficult to do activities such as studying abroad,Japan Trade AssociationStarted studying how to delay the start of recruitment activities[53],KeidanrenThe same examination was made. Keidanren has continued to take measures to change the period since graduation in 2011, but it is difficult to thoroughly enforce the current rules that continue to be difficult to hire and decided to abolish the rules after graduation in 21[54][55].

Points to note regarding employment in Japan

Seller market during the ice age

Just because we are in the employment ice age does not mean that the employment situation is severe in all years, industries, and all faculties and departments. For example, there were 1 times more vacancies in the distribution industry even after graduating in 2000, which was less than 3.19 time.[56], The distribution industry was a seller. Also, in the same year, the ratio of job openings to applicants was 0.83, while that of science jobs was 1.26.[57].

In addition, 1998 graduates were 10% as of October 1st and 73.6% as of December 12st, which is higher than the year (1-84.8 graduates) that was said to be the seller's market by filling in the baby boomer generation. Is out[58].

In high school graduates, the employment rate in the industrial department was higher than that in the ordinary department and the commercial department, and the employment rate was superior.[59]

Among the people from the Ice Age, there are some who have not experienced job hunting in terms of sector.

Big cities and regions

The ratio of job offers to applicants tends to be lower in rural areas than in large cities, and there is a situation where the job offers to applicants did not exceed 1 in Hokkaido and Kyushu, even during the bubble economy and the end of the employment ice age.

Effective job openings-to-applicants ratio by region[60]
Region198519901995200020052009
(Nationwide)0.681.400.630.590.950.47
Hokkaido0.390.650.540.460.570.37
Tohoku0.461.220.730.590.680.35
South Kanto0.801.570.480.551.110.53
North Kanto/Koshin1.262.330.910.861.090.45
Hokuriku0.841.921.040.701.060.50
Tokai1.272.270.780.771.410.50
Kinki0.591.200.490.480.920.49
Chugoku0.751.740.880.721.100.58
Shikoku0.581.280.820.660.840.57
Kyusyu0.350.930.540.460.670.40

Gap between the number of job offers and the actual situation

Except for the 2000 graduates who were in the employment ice age, although the job openings-to-applicants ratio for new graduates was more than 1 times, there was a phenomenon in which there were many students who could not get a job offer even after tens of dozen companies. (Conversely, some students get multiple job offers by themselves). The reason for this is that, besides being mentioned in the "seller market during the ice age" and "major cities and rural areas" mentioned above, "it recruits but puts strict requirements on applicants" so-called "selected carefully" The presence of[61].. Furthermore, after hiring a large number of new graduates in sales positions at some small and medium-sized enterprises, etc., they immediately jump in and make solicitations by sales or telephone, dismiss people who can not get a contract or cannot reach the quota, and make a small sales. New graduate cut or new graduate disposables were held, leaving only top performers.

The ratio of job offers to applicants for 2010 graduates was 1.64 times, which is said to have returned to the ice age of employment. It is believed that this is because the number of companies that do not recruit recruiters is increasing unless there are human resources who can offer immediate employment even if they are recruited.[62].. Others point out that this was due to a divergence between the number of job offers and the actual number of hires, as a result of the sudden economic fluctuations that occurred after the company's hiring plans were completed.[63].. Due to the current situation, it is not possible to simply compare the ratio of job offers to applicants during a boom and a recession.

Number of job offers and employment rates

The employment offer rate for new graduates, which is used in news about the employment rate, exceeds 90% every year,[58],this is,Person who wants to find a jobThis is because of the percentage of those who have an unofficial decision. Therefore, those who wish to go on to graduate school, job hunting cram school, prep school, etc. or those who give up job hunting are excluded from the population, and the job offer rate is 90% or more.[64].. Since the employment rate is the percentage of those who got employment among the number of graduates, those who have repeated years (including employment) are not included in the population, but those who graduated even give up employment even if they have advanced to school. Even those who are included in the population.

Classification of regular employees and non-regular employees

According to statistics from the School Basic Survey (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology), those who got a job until 2011 were classified into "employed person" and "temporary person". However, since graduation in 2012, “employed people” have been divided into “regular staff members” and “non-regular staff members”. The categories are as follows:[65].

  • Regular staff: Person without employment period
  • Persons who are not regular employees: Persons who have an employment period of one year or more and have a prescribed working time of 1 to 30 hours per week
  • Temporary job: Person with employment period of less than 1 year, or person with employment period of 1 year or more but prescribed working hours of less than 30 hours per week
  • Employed: Total of regular employees and those who are not in regular employees

Document

The employment-related indicators during the employment ice age are listed below.

  •  : Employment Ice Age (1993-2005)
  •  : New Employment Ice Age (2010-2013)

Recruitment ratio

Changes in the ratio of job offers to applicants[60]
YearsEffective job openings-to-applicants ratioEffective number of jobsNumber of effective job seekersNumber of jobs
19911.401,805,6311,290,153106,709
19921.081,553,3331,433,026108,284
19930.761,275,8201,669,074111,747
19940.641,186,4631,848,098120,628
19950.631,233,4491,954,365126,684
19960.701,393,6891,980,970128,680
19970.721,493,0942,070,944132,306
19980.531,265,2162,394,818137,300
19990.481,206,8892,529,993144,177
20000.591,472,5962,506,804155,421
20010.591,534,1822,597,580157,206
20020.541,486,4842,768,427168,366
20030.641,670,0652,596,839176,143
20040.831,956,3292,368,771178,754
20050.952,163,1642,271,675176,954
20061.062,294,8332,164,014178,075
20071.042,179,8022,094,404170,598
20080.881,831,6642,091,492155,902
20090.471,308,8852,762,480166,554
20100.521,403,6342,705,935179,304
20110.651,674,2232,593,291180,328
20120.80
20130.93
20141.09
Changes in ratio of job offers to university graduates[57]
GraduateVacanciesNumber of job seekersRecruitment ratio
1991840,400293,8002.86
1992738,100306,2002.41
1993617,000323,2001.91
1994507,200326,5001.55
1995400,400332,8001.20
1996390,700362,2001.08
1997541,500373,8001.45
1998675,200403,0001.68
1999502,400403,5001.25
2000407,800412,3000.99
2001461,600422,0001.09
2002573,400430,2001.33
2003560,100430,8001.30
2004583,600433,7001.35
2005596,900435,1001.37
2006698,800436,3001.60
2007825,000436,9001.89
2008932,600436,5002.14
2009948,000443,1002.14
2010725,300447,0001.62
2011581,900455,7001.28
2012559,700454,9001.23
2013553,800434,5001.27
2014543,500425,7001.28

Path after graduation

Changes in career path after college[66][67][68]
GraduateNumber of graduatesGraduate school
Number of students
Number of employmentFor a temporary job
Number of people
Graduate school
Education continuance rate
Employment rateFor a temporary job
Percentage of those who got it
1990400,10327,101324,1643,6456.881.00.9
1991428,07930,028347,8623,4827.081.30.8
1992437,87833,381350,0703,9417.679.90.9
1993445,77437,318339,9015,4948.476.21.2
1994461,89843,890325,4477,7099.570.51.7
1995493,27746,329331,0119,2809.467.11.9
1996512,81448,218337,82010,5149.465.92.1
1997524,51247,906349,27110,7389.166.62.0
1998529,60649,706347,56211,9579.465.62.3
1999532,43654,023320,11916,02310.160.13.0
2000538,68357,663300,71822,63310.755.84.2
2001545,51258,662312,47121,51410.857.33.9
2002547,71159,676311,49523,20510.956.94.2
2003544,89462,251299,98725,25511.455.14.6
2004548,89764,610306,41424,75411.855.84.5
2005551,01666,108329,12519,50712.059.73.5
2006558,18467,298355,82016,65912.163.73.0
2007559,09067,175377,77613,28712.067.62.4
2008555,69067,372388,48011,48512.169.92.1
2009559,53968,422382,43412,99112.268.42.3
2010541,42872,539329,13219,33213.460.83.6
2011552,35870,465340,14319,10712.861.63.5
2012558,69265,683357,01119,56911.863.93.5
2013558,85363,334375,85916,73611.367.33.0
2014565,57363,027394,93714,51911.169.82.6
Changes in college employment (regular/non-regular)[66][67][69][70]
GraduateNumber of graduatesNumber of employmentRegular staff
Number of employment
Non-regular staff etc.
Number of employment
Employment rateRegular staff
Employment rate
Non-regular staff etc.
Employment rate
2012558,692357,011335,04821,96363.960.03.9
2013558,853375,859353,12522,73467.363.24.1
2014565,573394,768372,50922,25969.865.93.9
Transition of career path after high school graduate (full-time program/part-time program)[66][67]
GraduateNumber of graduatesUniversity
Number of students
Vocational school
Number of students
Number of employmentUniversity
Education continuance rate
Vocational school
Education continuance rate
Employment rate
199035.3
199134.4
19921,807,175591,520296,249599,07232.716.433.1
19931,755,338606,304290,517534,85734.516.630.5
19941,658,949598,959275,562459,28036.116.627.7
19951,590,720597,986265,892407,91437.616.725.6
19961,554,549605,619262,404377,61939.016.924.3
19971,503,748611,431252,998352,96340.716.823.5
19981,441,061611,841236,841327,67242.516.422.7
19991,362,682602,078228,390275,85944.216.820.2
20001,328,902599,747228,672247,07445.117.218.6
20011,326,844598,849232,625244,50545.117.518.4
20021,314,809589,674236,791224,69244.818.017.1
20031,281,334571,959241,931212,86344.618.916.6
20041,235,012559,732237,264208,90345.319.216.9
20051,202,738568,336228,858208,74647.319.017.4
20061,171,501578,094213,096210,43949.318.218.0
20071,147,159587,393193,074212,60051.216.818.5
20081,088,170574,990167,010206,58852.815.319.0
20091,063,581573,037156,221193,56353.914.718.2
20101,069,129580,578170,182168,67354.315.915.8
20111,008,492548,886161,753160,27254.416.016.3

Offer rate

The job offer rate is the percentage of those who have decided to get a job out of the number of applicants for employment. Therefore, those who do not want to get a job or who give up are not included in the population.

Changes in the unofficial rate (%) of university graduates[58]
GraduateMay 10
Now
May 12
Now
May 2
Now
May 4
Now
199669.882.093.5
199769.983.594.5
199873.684.893.3
199967.580.392.0
200063.674.581.691.1
200163.775.282.391.9
200265.076.782.992.1
200364.176.783.592.8
200460.273.582.193.1
200561.374.382.693.5
200665.877.485.895.3
200768.179.687.796.3
200869.281.688.796.9
200969.980.586.395.7
201062.573.180.091.8
201157.668.877.491.0
201259.971.980.593.6
201363.175.081.793.9
201464.376.682.994.4

Employment front situation

The table below shows the status of the employment front for the year, as answered by the personnel manager. The red part is the category (Ice Age, Neither, Seller Market) that most answered in the year.

Changes in the employment front situation (%)[71][72][73][74][75][76]
GraduateIce ageNeitherSeller market
Super ice ageIce ageStill seller marketPretty seller market
201016.948.730.53.60.3
201112.551.829.65.20.8
201211.751.830.94.70.8
201311.039.341.36.81.8
20147.137.846.66.61.9
20151.911.861.919.45.0
  • 注意 点
    • For more information about each termRecruitment ratioPlease refer to.
    • For the transition of the ratio of job offers to applicants before 1990Recruitment ratioPlease refer to.
    • The employment offer rate has increased in recent years, especially in 2010.EmploymentSince it is also included in normal repetition years, there is a difference from the actual “ratio of people who have found a job and who has a job”, and it is not possible to make a complete numerical comparison with the employment offer rate in the past. Need to be careful.
    • Employed people include those who went to school while getting a job.

Employment ice age outside Japan

South Korea

South KoreaThen.Asian currency crisis(IMF economic crisis)of1997After that, the economy deteriorated sharply,Kim Dae JungDeterioration of labor legislation by the government has driven the reluctance, and unstable workers (Pre-kari art) Has increased dramatically. 2007s as of 20 (1978-1987Born) encountered job difficulties similar to those born in the same age in Japan, such as contract employees, contractors, dispatches, part-time jobs, part-time jobs, etc.Precarious employmentVery many people are crying and falling asleep. The average wage of youth employment in Korea is 88 won (the average wage of non-regular workers is 119 million won multiplied by 20% of the average salary of 74's average salary of 20's),88 won generation"It is called. The monthly income of this generation is equivalent to about 68700 yen (as of October 2009) in Japanese yen.[77].

In this situationHell KoreaThat slang has also appeared.

People's Republic of China

People's Republic of ChinaThen,2003From then on, employment difficulties for university graduates became more serious.Employment rateIs said to remain around 7%[78].. In addition, the disparity is severe depending on the region.[79].

Factors in the People's Republic of China

As a factor

  1. Increase in highly educated people
  2. Employment mismatch(The needs of companies seeking human resources and those who want to graduate from university do not match)

Has been pointed out[78].

In the People's Republic of China (as of 2007), where economic growth continues, overall labor shortages and the resulting upward pressure on wages are increasing.[80][81]However, the majority of companies want workers with low wages and simple tasks, but the demand for highly educated people is not so great, so the demand is not keeping up with the increase in highly educated people.[78].

Impact of the Employment Ice Age in the People's Republic of China

Oversupply of highly educated people

  • Job shortage
  • wageDrop pressure

Is creating a situation[78].

In particular, lower wages have created a vicious circle that leads to further job difficulties. Universities in the People's Republic of China require more than 2 yuan annually for education and other educational expenses (as of 2007), which is more than the annual income of rural villages, and students from rural areas have to borrow while attending. Become. Therefore, after graduation, it is necessary to pay 2500 yuan or more for the starting salary in order to live while paying debts.[78].

However, oversupply of highly educated people will cause a drop in the starting salary.

“In 2000, it was generally called “3” in the Beijing job market. This means that the starting salary of a bachelor is 6 yuan, a master's 9 yuan, and a doctor's 3,000 yuan. However, according to a 6,000 survey conducted by the Peking University School of Education, the average starting salary for bachelors was 9,000 yuan, masters were 2005 yuan, and doctors were 1,549 yuan. ][78]More quotation

As a result, new graduates who need more than a certain amount of money quit their jobs, and in the following year they try to find a good employment opportunity. That a vicious cycle of falling wages has formed[78].

Other countries

In countries other than Japan, South Korea and China1990 eraから2000 eraThere is an employment ice age that encountered the globalization of.

Fold also 1991Total amount regulationThe world situation of December 1991Collapse of the Soviet UnionbyCold WarAt the turning point of the history of the end of the, the economic side has undergone a number of extremely significant changes, such as the former communist zone becoming a market economy.Globalization, The labor supply source from Japan and other industrialized countries to emerging countries such as China (BRICs() is one of them.

In Europe, where restrictions on dismissal are strict, young people are faced with difficulty finding jobs because it is difficult to dismiss and cut wages for middle-aged and older people who are already in employment. EspeciallyスペインThe youth unemployment rate is extremely high, and the unemployment rate for people under 25 is 43.8% (November 2009).

FranceThen, in order to fluidize employment, there is a law that can be dismissed for two years without any reason after newly hiring.2006However, it has been forced to withdraw due to the repulsion of the young man himself (because he cannot receive the conventional generous employment security). However, in France, the trainee system (Stage,InternshipMany companies are operating as a system to select excellent human resources before official recruitment, but in reality it functions as a system that allows youths to work in a freely fired state. Therefore, there is a loophole in restrictions on dismissal of young people. Even though the trainees continue to do the same work as regular employees for a long time, they are sometimes hired with extremely low wages of around 200 euros (about 2 yen), which is a social problem.

Ice Age Generation

In Japan, I did job hunting during the Ice Agegeneration"Ice Age GenerationCall[82].Cabinet OfficeIn the Cabinet decision `` Basic Policy on Economic and Fiscal Management and Reform 2019'' on June 6, 21[83], "As of (2019), mid-30s to mid-40s"Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareIn the announcement on August 2019, 8, "30 (1993)HeiseiIt refers to the generation (5-2004 years old) who reached the school graduation period from 16 years) to 33 (44), and explains that the central group is 35-44 years old.[84].. As of 2019, "mid-30s to mid-40s (33-44 years old)" is generally1975(ShowaFrom 50 years)1986Born (61) (however, it corresponds to the person who got a job at the time of graduating from high school).If you are a university graduate, you will be about 4 years older, so the range of the glacial generation is 2019 to 37 years old as of 48 (generally)1970From <45> degree1981(Born in 56).

In addition, "Poor lottery generation"(Rika Kayama) Or “Lost generation"("Asahi ShimbunIs used in the special feature on pages 2006-8 dated August 2007, 1 and January 5, 28),AbstinencegenerationIt is called. In this ice age generation, there are very many people who are unstable workers (pre-carriage) without social insurance such as dispatched labor and freeters who cannot get a stable job. The author of "anti-poverty"Makoto YuasaAccording to the ice age dispatch worker, who was fired for the injury, saidSuicide bombing[85].

Ice age generation division and historical background

High economic growthFrom the end of the periodStable growth periodWas born in theBaby boom junior,Post baby boom juniorDivided intoBaby boom juniorIt is,ShowaCompleted compulsory education in the era,ShowaThe age ofCold WarThe world ofBoomKnow the age of.Post baby boom juniorAt school ageCold WarThe endEastern European Revolution,Bubble burstEncounteredglobalismSwept the world and grew up in an era of "employment difficulties have already been factored in" without knowing the times of the booming economy.The Cabinet Office and the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare regard the post-baby boomer junior (2019-35 years old as of 44) as the central layer of the glacial generation, and for this generation, the employment ice age generation support program (three-year intensive support program) Is raised[83][84].. However, the Cabinet Office and the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare define the generation of ice age generation based on high school graduates, so there is a four-year time lag with university graduates.

Ice Age Social Issues

While job hunting is prolongedSocial withdrawalSome have become in a state.According to the basic and detailed tabulations of the Labor Force Survey (2018 average), about 40 people (35% of the population aged 44 to 2.4) are not working, doing household chores, or going to school.[84].. Also, due to the instability of jobs in the ice age generation, unmarried and late marriages have occurred.[86], Decrease in childbirth in 20s[87]And increased births in their 30s[88]Are dispersed by. Born in the first half of the 1980s, it has a psychological attitude of not spending in proportion to its income, and is therefore also called the unwelcome generation.[89].. Living a parentpensionDepends onParasite SingleIt is said that there is a 7040 problem[90].

Generations before and after the Ice Age

A generation before the Ice Age generationBubble generationAlso,Baby boom juniorAs in the case of high school graduates, many have been forced into precarious employment due to the Asian currency crisis in 1997 and the reduction of personnel following the enforcement of the Industrial Revitalization Law in 1999.[29].

The post-Ice age generation continues to have a seller market except after the Lehman shock and the Great East Japan Earthquake, and the employment rate of university graduates in March 2018 (ratio of graduates to employment) was 3%. Employment rate is similar to that of the bubble period[91]..But in 2020Epidemic of new coronavirus infectionDue to the deterioration of the economic and employment environment (Socio-economic impact of 2019 coronavirus infections in Japan(See also), the employment environment for 2021 graduates has changed from the seller market, and the job openings-to-applicants ratio and job offer rate have dropped significantly compared to the previous year, and there are concerns about the return of a new employment ice age.

footnote

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  2. ^ [Nissei Basic Research Laboratories]Competition and individuality that the "Hazama generation" thinks2014th of February 6
  3. ^ [NIKKEI STYLE]Ice age generation with low monthly income of 2 yen Is the employment support policy of the government effective?2019th of February 6
  4. ^ [University journal ONLINE]Looking back on the recruitment of new graduates from the Shirake generation to the comfortable and Satori generation2020th of February 3
  5. ^ [Nihon Keizai Shimbun]"Baby boom" "Bubble" "Loss Gene" "Space"...2016th of February 4
  6. ^ [Nippon Putcom]The harsh reality of the aging ice age generation2018th of February 5
  7. ^ [AERA dot.]Alafor Employment What is "structural mistreatment" that can not be called "self-responsibility" for the Ice Age generation?2018th of February 10
  8. ^ [Lawyer dot com]Japan should reach out to the "employment ice age generation"... Weak worker position, OECD director concerned2019th of February 4
  9. ^ [BUSINESS INSIDER JAPAN]Hikikomori employment ice age generation. In the age of 100 million hikikomori, the center is in their 40s. "Money problem" that family suffers2019th of February 4
  10. ^ [Nippon Putcom]The harsh reality of the aging ice age generation2018th of February 5
  11. ^ [AERA dot.]Alafor Employment What is "structural mistreatment" that can not be called "self-responsibility" for the Ice Age generation?2018th of February 10
  12. ^ [Caricone News]Ice age generation "I'm irritated by the bubble generation" "I am happy to work even if I am cold"2019th of February 3
  13. ^ [ITmedia Business Online]"I have no choice but to give up" "Negative chain" to drive middle-aged employment ice age generation2019th of February 4
  14. ^ [Asahi Shimbun Digital]"Skills and happiness are low" even for regular employees during the employment ice age2019th of February 5
  15. ^ [New switch]Rescue of the "Ice Age Generation" holds the key to social security in 20402019th of February 6
  16. ^ [Toyo Keizai ONLINE]What do unmarried men in the employment ice age think about now?2019th of February 6
  17. ^ [Kahoku Shimpo]Editorial (12/25): Support for ice age generation/long-term follow-up is required2019th of February 12
  18. ^ [Money VIVA]#2 Los Generation Generation Real Women's Money2020th of February 1
  19. ^ [PRESIDENT]The root cause that many 40s section managers have many people asking, "Why is this guy?"2020th of February 2
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