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👩‍🎓 | Maintenance status of "one terminal per person" in high school, distribution completion in all grades is less than 1%


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Maintenance status of "one terminal per person" in high school, distribution completion in all grades is less than 1%

 
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When asked who would bear the cost of distributing "one terminal per person", 1% of the public high schools were "paid by the local government" and about 1% were "paid by the parents". It depends on the policy of each prefecture.
 

Studyplus was conducted for high school subject chiefs nationwide, and the status of "one-person-one-terminal" maintenance and digital teaching materials ... → Continue reading

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Installed by the local government

Public school

Public school(Koritsugakko) is generallyPrimary Education,Secondary educationGive free education at the stageDedicated to pre-school and extra curricularRefers to. ManytaxOperated by.

in Japan,Local governmentFounded byDedicated to pre-school and extra curricularThat thing. In a broad senseNational schoolAlso include.

Japanese public school

Public schoolInstallerIs roughly divided intoPrefectures,市町村(CityToTokyo OfAreaIncludes), andcombination(Special local governmentThere is a union).Local independent administrative corporationIsPublic university corporationInstalled byUniversity(Less than"Public university. "Junior collegeIncluding) and itsAffiliated schoolIs also included in this.

National school(Country,Ministry of education) Andprivate school(private,School corporation-Ltd.-Individual) Is a term used to distinguish it from. Of local public bodiesBoard of education,Education AgencyManages. For thisKindergarten,primary schoolからUniversityIs included. However,Public universityAbout management and execution ofLocal governmentChief (prefectural governor, mayor of municipality,Some office associationsThe board of education is not involved.

Specific in public schoolsReligious, Religious education based on denominations should not be conducted,ChristmasIf it is an event, it is often acceptable.

Kindergarten

publicKindergartenIs basically managed and operated by the Municipal Board of Education. There are few kindergartens managed and operated by prefectural boards of education.

  • Public kindergarten teachers are hired (appointed) by the municipal board of education and the prefectural board of education that establish the public kindergarten.SalaryTo bear.

Elementary school, junior high school, compulsory education school, high school, secondary school

primary school-Junior high school-Compulsory education school-high school-Secondary schoolIs managed and operated by the board of education of each local public body.

  • Basically, elementary and junior high schools or compulsory education schools are managed and operated by the municipal board of education, and high schools are managed and operated by the prefectural board of education, but some junior and senior high schools are prefectural. Municipalities are obliged to establish elementary and junior high schools or compulsory education schools.
  • High schools are basically managed and operated by the prefectural board of education, but can also be set up and operated by the municipal board of education.
  • Work in the first half of a public elementary and junior high school / secondary schoolStaff(head teacher-Professor-Teacher・ Assistant teacher ・nursing teacher・ Assistant teacher ・School nutrition staff-office worker)ofAppointeeIs the prefectural board of education (the administrative staff may be general administrative staff) and bears the salary (→Prefectural expense staffHowever, for simple labor staff such as janitor and school lunch cook, the municipal board of education is the appointed person, and the municipality is the salary bearer. In addition, some municipalities have municipal staff in addition to prefectural government staff at elementary and junior high schools.
  • For some school staff, the principal is the appointed person.
  • The Municipal Board of Education is basically the person who has the right to appoint and bears the salary for the second half of the municipal secondary school and the high school faculty and staff, but it is a part-time course.TeacherThe prefectural board of education is the appointed person and the salary bearer.
  • For teachers of prefectural secondary schools and high schools, the prefectural board of education is the appointed person and the salary bearer.

Public elementary and junior high schoolsEntrance examinationWithoutSchool ageFor those who have reachedResident cardA school attendance notice will be sent to the local public elementary and junior high school.AdmissionTo do. publicHigh school consistent schoolThen, tests such as writing, practical skills, and aptitude tests are required.

Public high school is an entrance examUnofficial reportIs emphasized, and in some areasComprehensive selection-School group system(Group system)School district systemDue to such factors, it was not possible to go to the desired school, and the school area was restricted. By the examinee who disliked it1970 eraAround this time, many public high schools in urban areas dropped the number of successful applicants at difficult universities.
In recent years, abolition of school districts and emphasis on written examinations,Original entrance examinationReforms such as the introduction ofMetropolitan High SchoolThe reforms are highly evaluated, as the number of successful applicants at difficult universities has increased significantly, and other prefectures are also pursuing the reforms.

On the other hand, the consolidation of public schools is occurring one after another due to the declining birthrate and depopulation, and the number of consolidations from 23 to 30 is at the same pace as the consolidation at the time of the Great Heisei Consolidation.[1].. For example, in Ibaraki prefecture, 1976 schools were closed from 2005 to 111.[2].. Utilization of the site of the consolidated school can be classified into "abandoned school building utilization type", "school resource utilization type", "new facility construction type", and "site utilization type". Can be classified into "operation" and "private ownership / private operation"[2].

In the case of rural areas suffering from depopulation, the closure of public elementary and junior high schools means that it will be difficult for new child-rearing generations to settle in the area, which will be a factor in accelerating the further declining birthrate and aging population in the village.[2].. Therefore, from outside the prefecture of locationNationwide recruitmentThe number of high schools that carry out this is increasing.

Special school

Basically, publicSpecial schoolIs set up, managed and operated by the prefectural board of education, but can also be set up, managed and operated by the municipal board of education. Prefectural governments are obliged to establish public special needs schools.

  • In both prefectural and municipal governments, the prefectural board of education appoints the faculty and staff of special needs schools and bears the salary. However, for simple labor staff working at municipal special needs schools, the municipality is the appointed person / salary bearer.

Higher education

Debate over public schools

Academic gap

Compared to private schools, public schools cannot improve their academic ability sufficiently, and there is a disparity between public and private schools.[3].. According to the 2007 National Achievement Survey

Comparing the average correct answer rate (6th grade), Arithmetic A, which tests basic skills, is 82.1% public, while private is 10%, which is 92.1 points higher. Arithmetic B, which tests applied skills, was 63.6% public and 77.1% private, with a wide difference of 13.5 points. The national language has the same tendency. Many of the higher schools do not participate in private schools.[3]More quotation

It is pointed out that the percentage of correct answers was higher for private school students.[3].. Aside from urban areas where private schools are located, there are also rural areas where private schools cannot be considered as an option in the first place, so there are opinions calling for "rebuilding" the educational capabilities of public schools.[3].

On the other hand, of the pedagogueHidenori FujitaQuestioned these opinions and pointed out the influence of the tone of the media, which repeatedly criticized for criticism, and compulsory education in Japan was "very internationally in all aspects of institutions, functions, and practices. It is at a high standard. " Fujita also points out that the high level of public education in Japan is recognized in other countries, and that there are many points to be learned from public education in Japan. According to Fujita, what is highly evaluated by foreign countries especially in Japanese public education is the continuous self-improvement of educational technology through lesson study, the collaboration of teacher groups, the community and care function of public schools. Be done[4].

Also known as the "Kageyama Method",Education reproduction meeting,Central Education CouncilServed as a member ofHideo KageyamaIs sometimes said to be the best in education in the world at the 17 Special Committee on Compulsory Education for Junior High School Tribunals.フィンランドHowever, while there are many educational opportunities at home, it is difficult for Japan to have such a situation, and teachers make up for it. And in response to the opinion of the Ministry of Finance that "the national treasury burden for compulsory education is increasing," "I would like to say to this financial counsel that faculty and staff are doing work that is commensurate with their salary. "[5].

To improve students' academic abilityCram schoolThere is an opinion that we have to rely on[6],RecruitmentFromCivilian principalKazuhiro FujiharaRegarding this problem, if students' academic ability is divided into five stages from 1 to 5, it is impossible to teach 1 and 5 (lowest and highest) students at school alone, and 1 student is traditionally For example, the local community has taken care of it, but it has become difficult due to changes in social conditions in recent years, and it is said that the teacher's true intention is that 5 students should go to a cram school. In addition, Fujiwara visited Finland's educational situation with Kageyama mentioned above, and said, "Finland has a large number of teachers."Wada Naka) But if there are 7 or 8 more teachers (education like Finland), we can do it. "[7].

Regarding the curriculum, such as application of knowledge and ability to think for oneself,Yutori educationWas also one of the highlights ofComprehensive learning timeWas fueling anxiety about Yutori educationNihon LabSuch asCram schoolHowever, the situation is becoming chaotic, such as the start of providing services that allow students to learn "total study time."[3].. It has also been pointed out that the background to this is that entrance exams for private schools have become more demanding for the application of knowledge.[3].

British public school

British educationIn public schools (“State School” or “Comprehensive”, or “Grammar School” with selection exams (Grammar school) ”) Refers to a government-funded school that provides free education. This is private and paidIndependent School, Treated as a non-profit organizationPublic schoolIs contrasted with.

Public school problems

Unpaid tuition and school lunch fees are also a problem in public schools.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ "Current status and issues of consolidation of elementary, junior high and high schools". Ministry of education. 2020/6/23Browse.
  2. ^ a b c Naoko Saio "Study on Consolidation Process of Public Elementary and Junior High Schools and Utilization of Closed School Buildings-Understanding the Actual Conditions of All Closed School Cases for the Past 30 Years and Impact on Agricultural and Mountain Village Areas-" No. 73, Architectural Institute of Japan, 627, pp. 2008-1001, two:10.3130 / aija.73.1001.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "" Comprehensive learning "evolving cram school, ahead of the sluggishness of public education," Sankei Shimbun, February 2008, 2.
  4. ^ Hidenori Fujita "Re-questioning Compulsory Education" Chikuma Shobo, July 2005, 7.ISBN 9784480062437
  5. ^ Compulsory Education Special Subcommittee (20th) Minutes and Handouts
  6. ^ "[Ask about public education] Part 1 In the shadow of private popularity (2) Correcting the academic disparity that relies on cram schools”. Sankei Shimbun (June 2008, 1). 2008/7/8Browse.
  7. ^ "Promoting Educational Gap" or "Providing Fair Educational Opportunities" Wada Naka, Principal Kazuhiro Fujihara ""Argument』May 2008 issue, Asahi Shimbun Publishing.

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