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👩‍🎓 | Eid Award 2021 "Electronic Dictionary" Customer Satisfaction No. 1 and Results Announcement

Photo Eid Award 2021 "Electronic Dictionary"

Eid Award 2021 "Electronic Dictionary" Customer Satisfaction No. 1 and Results Announcement

If you write the contents roughly
Based on the results, we will announce the highest award for "total satisfaction" of electronic dictionaries owned by junior and senior high school students.

Educational information site "Risemum" conducted a customer satisfaction survey of electronic dictionaries, and Eid Award 2021 "electronic dictionaries" ... → Continue reading


The educational environment, university entrance examination reform, and the environment surrounding children are undergoing major changes. Amid the changes of this era, parents' interest in the education and career of children is only increasing. Risemum will transmit accurate and useful information centered on educational information, as a medium that is close to the hearts of parents. We will promptly deliver information that parents are interested in such as education reform, international education, examinations, educational events, STEM education including programming.

Wikipedia related words

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Overall satisfaction

Electronic dictionary

Electronic dictionaryWhat is (Denshijisho)?CD-ROM,Flash memorySuch asStorage medium,networkSaved ondictionary-EncyclopediaRecorded the contents ofデータ,Computer,Mobile terminalRead bySearch Products・ Display / playElectronicsorsoftwareGeneric term[1].


The range indicated by the word electronic dictionary is wide.Specifically, it is a portable type equipped with a dedicated LCD screen and keyboard.Electronic dictionary dedicated machine (IC electronic dictionary), Represented by dictionary search sites on the InternetOnline dictionary, Install and use on a computer equipped with a general-purpose OS such as a personal computer, smartphone, or tabletDictionary app, Read and use with an optical disk drive such as a personal computerCD-ROM dictionary(DVD-ROM dictionary),Dictionary function attached to the e-book readerand so on.further,Kana-Kanji conversion systemThe word meaning display function built into is also included in this.Generally speaking in Japan, "electronic dictionary" refers to the first portable electronic dictionary dedicated machine (electronic dictionary in a narrow sense).[2]..On the other hand, in Europe and the United States, "electronic dictionaries" generally refer to CD-ROM and DVD-ROM dictionaries.[3].


A dictionary / encyclopedia that can record and play back data such as audio and video that could not be expressed on paper media.マ ル チ メ デ ィ アIt can be said that conversion is one of the features of electronic dictionaries.[4].

One of the advantages of electronic dictionaries when compared to paper dictionaries is

  • Since a large amount of information equivalent to hundreds of books can be collected in a small storage medium, it does not take up space for storage and storage and is easy to carry.[5]..Moreover, in the case of an online dictionary, since the dictionary data is held on the network, the storage capacity for storing the dictionary data is close to infinity.[6].
  • Even a dictionary with a large number of items can be searched faster than a thick paper dictionary.[6][7].
  • Various search methods such as prefix search, suffix search, partial match search, exact match search, and full text search may be prepared.[6][8]..In particular, dictionary files recorded according to a common standard can be searched in a batch (this is commonly called "skewer search").[9].
  • To other items such as related itemshyperlinkYou can easily move between items and even between dictionaries in the same way as (so-called "jump function").[6].

and so on.

On the contrary, the disadvantage is

  • No matter what kind of device you browse, you cannot escape from the restrictions on the size of the screen, so the amount of characters that can be viewed at one time is overwhelmingly smaller than that of a paper-based dictionary, and scrolling Then the previous information is hidden outside the screen[10](Comparing the book version, CD-ROM version, and electronic dictionary version of the 3th edition of Kojien, the display area of ​​the paper medium was about 9.3 times that of the CD-ROM version and about 36 times that of the electronic dictionary version. There are 2007 survey results[11]).
  • Due to the above restrictions, it is basically not suitable for comparing information from multiple dictionaries side by side.[8].
  • Depending on the usage environment such as a personal computer,Character codeFrom the difference ofGaijiEtc. may not be processed properly[12].
  • In paper dictionaries, there is no rule on where to put the legend and how to open it, which is customarily written at the beginning of the book.[13]Due to the variety of dictionary formats, the typical electronic dictionary is not constant.

and so on.

Standard / format

There are many electronic dictionary and encyclopedia software on the market, but the formats (formats and standards) such as the file format and directory structure of electronic dictionary data are common standards jointly formulated by multiple manufacturers. In addition to (EB, EPWING, etc.), there are quite a few software products created according to the original standards of each manufacturer.[14].

Of major electronic dictionary softwarefile formatIs

and so on.Except for ebooks, manyMicrosoft WindowsSuch ascomputerIt is a standard for.Moreover, even if a standard has been established, the specification is often kept private.this is,Copyright protectionIn addition to the point of view ofVendor lock-inIt is also thought that it was aimed at.

CD-ROM dictionary

As a historical background at the time of development, first in 1980SonyPhillipsStandards jointly developed byCD-DAA storage medium developed for (music CDs)compact disc (CD) [16]As an external storage medium for computersCD-ROMSpecification (Yellow Book) was proposed in 1983[17].. Each CD-ROM has a capacity of about 600.MBAt that time, it had a very large storage capacity, and because it could use the same production line as a music CD, it had the two advantages of being able to be mass-produced at low cost.Furthermore, it is expected to be a storage medium for dictionaries and encyclopedias that can fully utilize the large storage capacity of data collections and publications by taking advantage of the fatal defect of "non-rewritable". Was[16][17].

Then, in 1985, Japan's first CD-ROM dictionary "Latest Science and Technology Terminology Dictionary" was released.SanshushaReleased by[16][17][18]..The following year, in 1986, at that timeFujitsuDedicated word processorOASYSFor "KojienThe prototype of "1987rd edition CD-ROM version" was announced and released in XNUMX, the following year.[16][17]..this"Kojien"Third Edition CD-ROM Edition" is from Fujitsu, Sony,Iwanami Shoten-Dai Nippon PrintingCo-developed by[16]The dictionary format, called the WING Terms, was also provided free of charge to other companies.[17]..As a result, 1988Sanseido"Model Six Codes 62 CD-ROM version"Jiyuminsha"Basic knowledge of modern terminologyFollowing the release of the CD-ROM version, many dictionaries were produced and released in this format.[16][17].

After that, the WING rulesEPWINGEPWING is an electronic dictionary format that runs on Japanese personal computers, partly due to the dissemination activities of the EPWING Consortium, an organization established in 1991 by gathering publishers, printing companies, software makers, and hardware makers.De facto standardFinally, in 1997, "Japanese Electronic Publishing Search Data Structure" (JIS X 4081) Was standardized by JIS[16][17].. The EPWING format electronic dictionary was discontinued on October 2012, 10, and has been the successor standard since then.ONESWINGIs migrating to[19].

Another electronic dictionary format derived from the WING convention, Sony's originalEbook (EB)There is[17]..In the same year that the EPWING Consortium was established under the initiative of Fujitsu, Sony led the organization of a similar organization, the "Electronic Book Committee," and promoted the spread of electronic books.[17]..Unlike ordinary CD-ROMs, ebooks use 8 cm CD-ROMs.caddyPut it in a case called, and take the form of using it with the dedicated hardware "ebook player"[17]..The first ebook player was released by Sony in 1990.(English edition DD-1 ", laterSanyo Electric,Matsushita Electric IndustrialPlayer was released from[17]..Initially, it was prohibited to use the CD-ROM with the caddy removed directly on a personal computer, etc., but the ban was lifted in 1994, and with the advent of freeware dictionary search software (electronic book viewer), Popular as an electronic dictionary for personal computers[17]..Ebook player sales ended in 2000[20].

As mentioned above, the standard formats of Japanese CD-ROM dictionaries were EPWING and electronic books, but CD-ROM dictionaries of their own standards, which are neither of them, were also developed and sold by each company.[17]..The most representative of these is平凡 社of"World Encyclopedia(1992),MicrosoftCompanyMicrosoft Bookshelf(1997),Shogakukanof"Super Nipponica(1998)[17].

In addition, in electronic encyclopedias including audio and images, the storage capacity becomes larger as the amount of data increases.DVD-ROM,USB memoryHas also appeared as a recording and distribution medium[2].. As of 2010, it is the mainstream to install and use the data in the storage device built in the device instead of reading the data directly from these external storage media.[12], The actual usage pattern will be described later.Dictionary appThe distinction from is becoming ambiguous.

Electronic dictionary dedicated machine (IC electronic dictionary)

Before and after the release of CD-ROM dictionaries, the storage medium for electronic dictionariesCD-ROMからIC memoryMoving to[21], An IC electronic dictionary that integrates a storage medium and a search / display device will appear.


First Generation (1979-1985): Calculator-type electronic vocabulary

In the Japanese domestic marketsharpReleased in November 1979Pocket translator (IQ-3000) is the first[22][23][24][25]It was 39,800 yen, which was quite expensive at that time.[Source required]. this isMasayoshi SonIt is said that it is based on the automatic translator that he invented when he was a student.[26].. IQ-3000 recorded about 2800 English-Japanese words and about 5000 Japanese-English words.[25]But technicallycalculatorIt is an application of technology[27], Only alphabets and katakana could be displayed on the 16-digit x 1-line monochrome LCD screen.[17][24]..The content is more like a vocabulary than a dictionary,Vocabulary BookIt was a product that should be called a calculator with a function[17][24]..At that time, the manufacturing cost of IC memory and LCD display was high, so inexpensive small-capacity on-board memory and a small LCD screen were adopted.[27], The number of words in the dictionary has peaked, and the display capacity of the LCD screen has also been limited.[24].

In the 1980s, in April 1980CanonReleased the electronic English word "LA-1000" (includes 1320 English-Japanese words and 2180 Japanese translations), and in October 1981.Casio calculatorAlso released the electronic English-Japanese dictionary "TR-2000" (containing about 2000 English words and idioms)[28]Entered the market[17]..However, in order to completely record one dictionary, we had to wait for the capacity and price of IC memory to increase.[21].

Second generation (1986-1989): Increased number of words and improved screen display

In the late 1980s, in March 1987Sanyo ElectricCan display Japanese with kanji and kana[17]The IC dictionary "Denjibayashi PD-1" (containing about 3 English and Japanese words) was released, and in July of the same year.Seiko Electronics IndustryReleased the card English-Japanese "DF-310" (includes about 6000 English-Japanese words and about 1 translated words)[29], Entered the electronic dictionary market.By this time, the number of recorded words had caught up to the same level as a paper dictionary (in units of tens of thousands of words).[24]However, it still remained in the vocabulary.

Third Generation (1990-1995): Introducing Full Content Dictionaries

As a portable electronic dictionary derived from the development of the CD-ROM dictionary, Sony released the electronic book player "DATA Discman DD-1" in July 1990 (see details).CD-ROM dictionaryreference).And the first full-scale IC electronic dictionary in Japan isResearch societyThe IC dictionary "TR-1992" released by Seiko Denshi Kogyo in January 1, which contains all the character information of the two volumes of Kenkyusha's "New English-Japanese / Japanese-English Chinese Dictionary", was called a full-content dictionary.[21][24][29]..Since then, the mainstream of electronic dictionaries has shifted to IC electronic dictionaries.[21], The IC dictionary will also be polarized into a full-content type full-scale electronic dictionary and an inexpensive simple electronic dictionary called a standard type, mainly due to differences in usability and shape.[24].

Fourth Generation (1996-1999): Full Content Market Expansion

The price of IC memory and liquid crystal display has been reduced, and a full-content electronic dictionary containing a large liquid crystal screen and multiple dictionaries has appeared, and the IC electronic dictionary market in Japan has begun to grow significantly.[24]..Also, Sony's DD-IC series[30]A full-content dictionary about the size of a business card case has also appeared.[24]..Demand for electronic dictionaries has increased, and the number of customers who purchase them has expanded, but the mainstream of the electronic dictionary market at that time was the inexpensive standard type.[24].

Fifth generation (2000-2002): Expansion of recording dictionaries and diversification of product lineup

As the decline in semiconductor prices has accelerated and the number of digitized dictionary data provided by publishers has increased, it has become possible to record a large amount of dictionary data in one unit, and many dictionaries can be stored. The recorded product has appeared[24]..After that, each company will compete to increase the number of recorded dictionaries.[24]..In addition, as the user base of electronic dictionaries has diversified from high school students to the elderly and women, product development has begun to be tailored to each purchasing group.[24]..As a result, various full-content electronic dictionaries have been released, and the electronic dictionary market has expanded further.[24]..At the same time, the mainstream of the market also shifted from the standard type to the full content type.[24].

2003th Generation (2006-XNUMX): Multi-functional dictionary

In order to differentiate from other companies' products, each company will develop products with unique functions.[24]..Specifically, it has a voice pronunciation function, an additional function for content using an extended memory card, a color LCD (the industry's first Sharp "PW-C2002" released in 5000), and a handwriting input system.[24]..The contents to be recorded are not limited to dictionaries and encyclopedias such as specialized dictionaries, large dictionaries, Japanese dictionaries, and encyclopedias, but also study books, hobbies, and practical books are actively recorded.[24]..In addition, while product development has begun to look not only in Japan but also in overseas markets, the standard market has declined.[24].

2006th Generation (XNUMX-): Electronic dictionaries that go beyond mere dictionaries

It is thought that the period from 2006 to 2010 was a transitional period from monochrome LCDs to color LCDs.[24]..In addition, high-definition liquid crystal display, introduction of handwriting input pad and touch panel liquid crystal, installation of multilingual pronunciation function and text reading (TTS) function, recording of video content, installation of English learning support function,One SegProducts with various features such as built-in functions were developed one after another[24].. However,SmartphoneWith the appearance ofDictionary appDue to the spread of the Internet and the rise of free dictionary sites on the Internet, the number of units sold has been declining since 2008.[21]..On the other hand, even in such a predicament, the demand for learning electronic dictionaries for high school and college students seems to be alive and well.[21][31].

Current status

Currently, in a dedicated small housingQWERTY arrayPhysicskeyboardLiquid crystal displayIs installed and built into the main bodyROMThe mainstream is a portable IC electronic dictionary (electronic dictionary dedicated machine) that contains dictionary data.

As of 2017, some products contain 200 dictionary contents, and it is common to record not only textual information but also data such as voice, photos, and charts.As for the screen, you can see the monochrome liquid crystal one in the low-priced model and the one with the old release year,BacklightThe mainstream model is equipped with a color LCD with aTouch panelaboveTouch penThere are many models that allow handwriting input.earphone,speakerFrom, you can listen to pre-recorded native voices in foreign languages,Speech synthesisSome models are equipped with a text-to-speech function (TTS).Dedicatedmemory cardSlots andRAMThe model equipped with is able to replace or add dictionary contents by using an additional data card (sold separately).For the power supply method,Dry cellformula,Rechargeable batteryformula,USB power supplyThere are formulas and so on.

Representative manufacturer


Sony withdrew from the electronic dictionary business in 2006 due to a slump in market share and a decline in competitiveness.[36]..Seiko Instruments Inc. (SII) also withdrew from the electronic dictionary business at the end of March 2015.[37]In April 2016iOSDictionary app market forApp Store) Announced that it has entered[38]..As of 2017, Canon continues to sell electronic dictionaries, but no new products have been announced since 2013.

The volume share by manufacturer calculated based on the sales performance of leading Japanese home electronics mass retailers in 2019 is as follows.[39]..The electronic dictionary market in JapanOligopoly marketone of[40].

Share of electronic dictionaries by manufacturer (2020)
RankingManufacture nameAnnual share
1Casio calculator60%
Market size

For IC dictionaries in the Japanese market, both the number of units shipped and the value of shipments have continued to decline after peaking at 2007 million units / 281 billion yen in 463, and in 2017, less than half of the peak (101 million units / 177 billion yen). Has become[41]..Behind the shrinking market sizeYoungerAndSmartphoneWith the spread ofDictionary appIt is believed that there is a fulfillment of.The mature Japanese IC electronic dictionary market is shifting to the development of terminals for elementary, junior high, and high school students, for which a certain amount of demand is expected in the future.[42].

In 2018Course of StudyFrom the 5th grade of elementary school due to the revision ofForeign language activitiesSince the time was created, the number of electronic dictionaries that support learning English for younger ages has increased, and the number of shipments has increased for the first time since the peak in 2007.[43].


The major electronic dictionary makers outside Japan are listed below.[44].

The United States of America
  • BBK(Middle / low price range electronic dictionary maker)
  • Wen Quxing(Middle / low price range electronic dictionary maker)
  • Master (Middle / Low Price Electronic Dictionary Maker)
  • I Ching (Middle / Low Price Electronic Dictionary Maker)
Hong Kong
South Korea
  • iRiver(Multifunctional, high-priced electronic dictionary maker)

As for overseas expansion of Japanese companies, Casio Computer is China, South Korea, United States, Germany, France, etc., Sharp is the United Kingdom, Italy, Germany, China, South Korea, etc., Seiko Instruments (SII) is the "SEIKO" brand in the United Kingdom, the United States. Selles each product under the "Franklin" brand[44].

Online dictionary

インターネットupperserverFor dictionary data stored in, etc.Smartphone,TabletTerminal,PCFromWeb browserA typical system is to access and browse via.Online dictionary sites have a free version and a paid version.As a form of the paid version, instead of imposing a usage fee on the full content version, an example of releasing a version with usage restrictions for free and a key with access rights to the online version are used as a paper dictionary. There is an example distributed as an appendix of.An example with the online version of the access key as an appendixLongman Dictionary of Contemporary English6 editions are listed[45].


XNUM X Year X NUM X Month X NUM X DayNTT DoCoMo i-modeWhen you start the service ofMobile phoneIP connectionBecame possible[46]..On this i-mode official websiteSanseidoIs a Japanese dictionary with a monthly usage fee of 50 yen.Daijirin』And started to provide 3 points[46]A new market called a membership-based mobile dictionary site was born.[46].. 2001,World Wide WebAbove, Sanseido's "Web Dictionary" (paid membership system) was released in March, and in April.Shogakukangroup(Netadvance)of"Japan Knowledge(Paid in June of the same year), but in May, a user-participation-type free encyclopediaWikipedia Japanese versionBut each started the service[46].Portal siteAs a pioneer of the free dictionary search site operated bygoo dictionary(Opened in August 1999)Yahoo! dictionary(Opened in July 2000)[46], Many Japanese portal sites followed them.Many of the paid dictionary services provided on the Internet are struggling with the rise of free online dictionaries and encyclopedias, of which "Japan Knowledge" isZoneSucceeded in developing the market and continues stable operation[46].Asahi ShimbunAnd multiple publishers gathered and openedKoto bankIt is,Search-linked advertisementWe have adopted a management system that uses (keyword advertisement) as a source of revenue, and have realized a free dictionary service for consumers.[46].

Dictionary app

Smartphone,TabletTerminal,PCEtcApplication softwareAn electronic dictionary that is installed and used in the form of (app) is a dictionary app.The dictionary app is an offline app for searching and browsing that downloads and uses an app that contains complete dictionary data due to differences in the storage location of dictionary data.UIOnlyclientAfter providing it on the (app) side, connect to the InternetserverThere are three types of applications: an online application that refers to the dictionary data stored in, and a complex application that saves only the minimum word definition data in the client device and acquires additional data such as voice from a server on the Internet. It is roughly divided.There are various forms of actual services, such as an example in which a paper-based dictionary publisher directly provides a dictionary application, and an example in which a company specializing in the development of dictionary applications integrates multiple dictionary data to provide a service. Is.

In 2008iPhoneSince its launch in Japan, as smartphones have become widespread, the main form of electronic dictionaries has changed from a membership-based dictionary search site to a dictionary application.[46]..Since smartphones and tablet terminals with excellent portability have communication functions, even online apps have become widely used due to the convenience of being able to use dictionaries anywhere as long as they are within reach of radio waves.[Source required].

iOSWith the terminalAndroidA variety of dictionary apps for terminals have been developed and provided, from free ones with advertisements to high-end ones for 5000 yen or more.[47][48].. The dictionary app for PC isCD-ROM,DVD-ROMVia orMicrosoft store (Windows)Mac App Store Download from an online app store such as (mac OS)[49][50], Storage medium built into the PC (HDD,SSD) Has a form in which a dictionary application is installed and used. Recording media containing dictionaries on CD-ROMs and DVD-ROMs may be sold as software alone or as a set with paper dictionaries.English-English dictionaryOxford Modern English-English Dictionary (OALD) is the 8th edition (2010) and the 9th edition (2015),Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDOCE) is the 5th edition (2009), and the book version with DVD-ROM is on sale.Recently, some, such as LDOCE 6th Edition (2014), come with an online version of the access key.[45].

As a dictionary app developer,East,Monokakido,Logo VistaAre known.

Dictionary function of e-book reader

Amazon Kindle,Rakuten KoboSuch asE-bookThe terminal comes with a dictionary function, and by selecting a character string in the text of an electronic book, you can look up the definition of the word in the selected part. For Amazon Kindle,Daijisen''Progressive English-Japanese dictionary''New Oxford American Dictionary], [Oxford Dictionary of EnglishIn addition to the "Dictionaries of other languages" are also included.Eijiro], [Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary], Etc., it is possible to purchase and add other dictionaries.


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ "Electronic dictionary --ebookpedia". Japan Electronic Publishing Association (JEPA) (July 2015, 7). 2017/11/26Browse.
  2. ^ a b Toshinobu Mogi 2011, p. 57
  3. ^ Kenji Sekiyama 2007, p. 241
  4. ^ Toshinobu Mogi 2011, pp. 58, 65-66
  5. ^ Toshinobu Mogi 2011, p. 62
  6. ^ a b c d Japan Electronic Publishing Association Reference Committee 2016, §1.1
  7. ^ Toshinobu Mogi 2011, pp. 67-69
  8. ^ a b Toshinobu Mogi 2011, pp. 71-73
  9. ^ Toshinobu Mogi 2011, pp. 72, 76
  10. ^ Toshinobu Mogi 2011, pp. 62-64
  11. ^ Masaya Yamaguchi 2007, pp. 20-24
  12. ^ a b Toshinobu Mogi 2011, pp. 74-75
  13. ^ Toshinobu Mogi 2011, pp. 66-67
  14. ^ "EPWING and ebook". 2017/11/26Browse.
  15. ^ "LeXML --ebookpedia". Japan Electronic Publishing Association. 2017/11/28Browse.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Hideki Hasegawa 2016, pp. 588-591
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Japan Electronic Publishing Association Reference Committee 2016, §1.2
  18. ^ "About Us". Sanshusha. 2017/11/24Browse.
  19. ^ "EPWING Products Announced So Far-Notice of End of Sale". Fujitsu. 2017/11/25Browse.
  20. ^ ""E-book" - Koto bank OfComplete Encyclopedia of Japan(Nipponica) item ". Shogakukan. 2017/11/25Browse.
  21. ^ a b c d e f Hideki Hasegawa 2016, p. 591
  22. ^ Keiko Abe 2007, p. 5 below
  23. ^ Shoichi Yokoyama 2007, p. 43 below
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u "About the history of electronic dictionaries”. Mobile Systems Subcommittee, Business Machinery and Information Systems Industry Association. 2017/11/25Browse.
  25. ^ a b "[New product introduction] The origin of "easy-to-carry dictionary"”. Sharp Public Relations Department (January 2012, 1). 2015/11/25Browse.
  26. ^ Ryo Takano (July 2013, 9). “A large collection of nostalgic reading terminals and electronic dictionaries!. Impress Watch. https://internet.watch.impress.co.jp/docs/news/615194.html 2017/11/26Browse. 
  27. ^ a b Hiroshi Watanabe (November 2004, 11). "Immediately growing rapidly-Casio talks about the future of electronic dictionaries". ITmedia. http://www.itmedia.co.jp/lifestyle/articles/0411/15/news013.html 2017/11/25Browse. 
  28. ^ "Casio History> Chronology of Major Products". 2017/11/25Browse.
  29. ^ a b [Forefront of development] Electronic dictionary Long-selling trajectory --Seiko Instruments. Nature Interface. (2001-12-28). Pp. 48-51. ISBN 4-901581-05-8. http://www.natureinterface.com/j/ni06/P48-51/ 2017/11/25Browse.. 
  30. ^ "New product The first electronic dictionary equipped with a jog dial to pursue comfortable operability. Released an IC electronic dictionary containing the entire Japanese, English-Japanese, Japanese-English, and Kanji dictionaries.". Sony (September 2000, 9). 2017/11/26Browse.
  31. ^ Tetsuo Kobayashi (July 2016, 7). "Casio's electronic dictionary" EX-word ", history told at the 20th anniversary press event". My navi. http://news.mynavi.jp/news/2016/07/25/017/ 2017/11/25Browse. 
  32. ^ a b Japan Electronic Publishing Association Reference Committee 2016, §B Appendix 2
  33. ^ "Sharp Releases Electronic Dictionary" PW-A100 "Containing 8400 Types of Content-Branding Electronic Dictionary to" Papyrus "". ASCII.jp(July 2005, 8). http://ascii.jp/elem/000/000/349/349238/index.html 2017/11/26Browse. 
  34. ^ "Released the color electronic dictionary "Brain" <PW-AC880 / AC830>". sharp (September 2008, 7). 2017/11/26Browse.
  35. ^ "Released "DAYFILER", a touch-operated color electronic dictionary.". Seiko Instruments (September 2012, 11). 2017/11/26Browse.
  36. ^ Yuka Okada (December 2006, 7). “Sony withdraws from electronic dictionaries”. ITmedia. http://www.itmedia.co.jp/news/articles/0607/27/news087.html 2015/11/25Browse. 
  37. ^ "Withdrawal from the electronic dictionary business”. Seiko Instruments Inc. (October 2014, 10). 2015/11/25Browse.
  38. ^ "Started download sales of electronic dictionary apps and contents for college students and high school students”. Seiko Solutions (April 2016, 4). 2017/11/25Browse.
  39. ^ "BCN AWARD 2018 Electronic Dictionary Division”. BCN AWARD. 2018/4/15Browse.
  40. ^ "The era of "pushing" dictionaries has arrived, and electronic dictionaries that are becoming more popular". BCN (September 2005, 11). 2017/11/26Browse.
  41. ^ "Annual shipment record of electronic dictionaries (PDF)”(May 2018, 2). 2018/7/6Browse.
  42. ^ "Age when you can search anything online Can electronic dictionaries survive?". J-CAST News(July 2014, 10). http://www.j-cast.com/2014/10/18218505.html?p=all 2015/11/25Browse. 
  43. ^ Electronic dictionary pushed by smartphones Shipment increased for the first time in 11 years Elementary school English subject - NHK
  44. ^ a b Japan Electronic Publishing Association Reference Committee 2016, §A.2
  45. ^ a b "LDOCE6 Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English 6th Edition". Pearson. 2017/11/29Browse.
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h Hideki Hasegawa 2016, pp. 591-592
  47. ^ "iTunes Preview App Store> Dictionaries / Dictionaries / Others". Apple. 2017/11/29Browse.
  48. ^ "Google Play App> Books & Reference Books". Google. 2017/11/29Browse.
  49. ^ "Microsoft Store Windows Apps> Books". Microsoft. 2017/11/29Browse.
  50. ^ "Mac App Store Preview Mac App Store> Dictionaries / Dictionaries / Others". Apple. 2017/11/29Browse.


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