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👩‍🎓 | The unofficial rate of 2022 graduates increased by 11.9 points from the previous year to 59.9%, and 31.4% finished job hunting ...


The unofficial rate of students graduating in 2022 increased by 11.9 points from the previous year to 59.9%, and 31.4% completed job hunting ...

If you write the contents roughly
In addition, 31.4% answered that they have finished job hunting.

Mynavi is a "Mynavi 2022 graduate university student ..." conducted for university students and graduate students nationwide who are scheduled to graduate in 2022. → Continue reading


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job hunting

job huntingIs theOccupationA collective term for activities to get a job. For short,Job huntingAlso called (shukatsu)[1].

In particularStudent-unemploymentWhether or not you have a jobPart-time workerな どNon-regular employmentPeople,Company,Government officeEtcRegular employmentRefers to activities to be done. The activity for retirees to get a new job is sometimes called "re-employment activity"[2].


Job hunting varies by country and company[3].

The percentage of people who have decided to work while attending school is 42.3% in South Korea, 46.3% in the United States, 48.8% in Australia, 56.9% in Russia, and 81.4% in Japan.[3].

Japan is also developing as a market, as there is a business for students who are looking for a job.[3].


Overview of job hunting in Japan

Job hunting in Japan is also broadly divided into new graduates and graduates.The categories are as follows.

New graduate
Junior high schoolからUniversityUntil·graduate School Ofgraduate-CompletionProspective person does.
When graduated
Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricularAfter graduation, those who are not working do it. thisJob wandererSay. Have a working historyCareer changeFor applicantsMid-career hiringIs also included. In addition, especially those who are within 3 years after graduation (in principle, those who are not seeking dreams of getting a job with social insurance and have become job wanderers and are still looking for a job. It may also include people who are looking for a desired job type because they were unwilling to work because of a job type mismatch, or those who were newly graduated but immediately retired due to a job employment disagreement or job type mismatch. ),Second graduateSometimes it is said.

In many cases, to get a jobnotes,interviewConsists ofRecruitment testNeed to pass. Therefore, know-how such as examination preparation and interview preparation is born, and examination technology is becoming more sophisticated. In response to such a trend, it is not the skill of taking small examinations,CompetencyThere is also a growing movement to hire people based on model evaluations. Prioritize hiring people who are deeply involved with companiesRecruitmentThere is also.

In addition, even if you work until the retirement age at your first place of employment, on the wayCareer changeHowever, the first job hunting and place of employment often has a significant impact on the rest of your life, for better or for worse.This is because work history is important even when changing jobs.However, while working, national qualifications (for example,Lawyer,Tax accountant,patent attorneySome people go on a career where the first place of employment is only a very small thing, such as acquiring (such as) or starting a business by themselves.

Incidentally,Lawyer,Doctor,nurse, VariousProfessionalSpecial means or special means to get the job, such as athletesQualifications/Licenses・Some professionals are required to have the ability. For those professions, refer to the articles of each profession.

Employment as a public employee

government official-Local civil servantIn principle, recruitment will be based on competition tests. For the examination system and the flow up to recruitment,National civil service recruitment test-Recruitment test for local government employeeschecking ...

If you want to get a job as a civil servant, the first written examination is specialized and difficult, so unlike the job hunting activity in the private sector, the study for the written examination becomes the center of the job hunting activity. Depending on the local government or test category, some students may impose a more advanced written test as a secondary test. Therefore, some early students go to the preparatory school for exams from the first or second year, and some begin studying for the exam. In addition to general education at high school level, it depends on the employerlaw,EconomicsQuestions that include such matters will be given as "educational problems," and in addition, "specialized problems" will be given for each occupation. The liberal arts examination also imposes intelligence tests such as judgment reasoning, numerical reasoning, and text reading.Local governmentDepending onDisabledThere are places that have adopted the adoption frame. In many cases, beginner (3 types) tests are conducted.

For a period of time, due to the effects of the Great Recession after the bursting of the bubble economy in the 1990s, it was difficult to hire a private company, and many examinees focused on only one civil servant. There were many. However, as the recession continues, the number of local governments that do not hire may increase in some years due to the effects of financial difficulties.2001からMinistry of educationIssued a notice saying that civil servants Ronin may be excluded from applicants for new graduates[4], Civil servant RoninneatAs the number of companies to deal with has increased, the number of examinees who have a private partnership or wholly limited to the private sector is increasing, and the number of examinees itself is decreasing.

Employment at a private company

Job hunting activities for students of secondary education

See belowJob hunting activities for students at higher education institutions, special training schools, and various schoolsUnlike new junior high and high school graduates,Employment Security ActBased on everythingPublic Employment Security Office(Hello Work) is obliged to post at school (middle school and high school studentsMinorAnd, from the perspective of suppressing the disruption of academics due to unregulated job hunting). Therefore, the actual application will be contacted with the company via the school.

Job hunting for junior high school students

in Japan,Labor Standards ActAccording to Article 56, Paragraph 1, "The first day after reaching the age of 15May 3You must not use this until the end ofAdvancementSystem is strongAgeism and course principleIn many cases, the due date and the end date of the final year of junior high school are the same. Therefore, junior high school students who want to find a job3st yearMay 1(In some areasMay 12The first opportunity for job hunting will be from the day when the employment screening is lifted. From early JanuaryEntrance examIt is held, but there are some places where only an interview is required and a departmental examination is also imposed.

For workers under the age of 18, pursuant to Chapter 6 of the Labor Standards ActyouthAs a result, it is necessary to equip offices with documents proving that they are young, and overtime work (overtime and holiday work) and late night work for girls under 18 and boys under 16 (night shift) Cannot be done or hazardous work is limited,National qualification-Business monopoly qualificationThis means that there will be enormous restrictions on labor and acquisition of qualifications, such as the inability to receive most of the

The range of occupations available for work is narrow and extremely limited, and does not require monotonous and high academic ability at work.Blue collarSimple workers in (construction industry, manufacturing industry, etc.) and some service industries (restaurant industry, etc.), success and motivation of work largely depend on individual skill due to merit system, and young people are favoredCraftsman(Especially traditional crafts and cooks,Eagle) And so on. Until the early Heisei periodHairdresser,BarberAlthough it was possible to become a junior high school graduate, as of 2015, it is no longer possible to become a beautician/barber at junior high school, and the method has been changed to enroll in a beauty school after graduating from high school. In addition, junior high school graduates may beTurnoverAbout 7% of junior high school graduates leave their jobs.

From the end of the war until the 40s (generally1950 era~60 eraGenerations born before) could not go on to high school even if their academic ability was high because their rural households had low incomes. It wasn't unusual. There was an idea that the boys and girls would actively seek employment in urban enterprises, hoping that they would be able to become financially independent by finding employment in urban enterprises. Under these circumstances, junior high schools also recruited students to hire students as a group. Mass-produced cheap productsHigh economic growthDuring the period, junior high school graduates who worked at low wages for a long period of time and acquired skills were a valuable force for companies called "golden eggs."

Since the Showa 40s,Securities recessionEconomy was sluggish, and the manufacturing industryAutomationThe demand for unskilled workers who had been borne by junior high school graduates has declined, the knowledge and academic ability of high school graduates or higher has been required even for blue collar workers, and the income doubling plan has increased the income of each household in rural areas. And high school enrollment efforts,Public transportDue to the maintenance of奨 学 金To increase high school enrollment,Oil shockSince then, as the economy has slowed down, companies have begun to refrain from hiring new middle school graduates (correctly those under the age of 15 to 18) who are often restricted by the Labor Standards Act.High school graduate or higherCame to impose an academic background.

In addition, as the high school enrollment rate exceeds 9%, the educational background of new employees is increasing.[When?]The percentage of new graduates in junior high school among new employees is very low at less than 10%.Some professions require certain qualifications and licenses, so new junior high school graduates whose qualifications and licenses are restricted by the minimum academic background and age.[5]Is alreadySocially vulnerableTherefore, there is a high tendency to hire highly educated people with a high school diploma or higher, and job hunting is in a difficult situation.[When?]For junior high school graduatesSocial minorityTherefore, it is not so common to get a job, but on the other hand, some workers start working immediately after graduating from junior high school to gain social experience as early as possible and for financial reasons. Some graduates of junior high school do not have more than the upper secondary education, so it is easy to become a socially vulnerable person with the knowledge of junior high school graduates.Corporate schoolWant to work for a company withPart-timeUniversity,Communication systemUniversitySome workers are enrolled in.

High school student job hunting

High school students who want to find a job3st yearMay 9From the day when the employment selection was lifted, all employees will be visited all at once to take the entrance examination, and will be offered a job offer after a few weeks of selection such as writing and interviewing. Also, in order to take the employment test, you must be screened for documents at school, and after taking into account your grades and normal living conditions, you will be asked to select candidates for the test. If they are rejected, they will try another company again and will be screened for documents at school. In the past, the “one-man-one company” system described below was an iron rule, so other companies could not be accepted until the selection results came out. Because of this, many students were unable to get a job offer even if they were willing to work.

1990Until around 2, the employment rate exceeded 5%, and graduates of vocational (professional) departments such as commerce and industry should take full advantage of their academic background as commercial jobsClerk,SalesIf you are a graduate of an administrative profession such as工場It was usual to get a full-time employee in the current job that reflects what he/she learned in the vocational department, such as a technical job. In addition, there were not a few students who wanted to work until around 1990 at regular high schools, and boys were mostly employed in skills such as factories and production process jobs, and girls were mainly in office work, sales and service jobs. ..

But,Bubble burstLater, due to the hiring restraint of companies, university students who had been working as a general job until then became employment of the current job, or as a result of curbing the hiring of the current job itself, the overall offer rate was half of those who wanted to work. Employment of high school graduates has become extremely difficult, with some prefectures coming out (the national average job offer rate for high school graduates at the end of November 2004 was 11%). Also, even in vocational (professional) departments, there are many people who take simple labor jobs that junior high school graduates were in charge of before, and because there are many simple tasks that can not be utilized at school where they are employed, they leave. Tends to be easier[6].

For this reason, each prefecture has revised the “one-man-one company” system, which has been a long-established practice that allows schools to select only one company to take the test by lottery, making it possible to take multiple tests. Companies can choose from a large number of students, and students have the advantage of being able to decide their employment destinations on their own, but because the number of hires themselves is small, it does not necessarily lead to an increase in hiring.

In addition, there are regions where the “one-man-one company system” will continue for a limited time, and some companies in the region will simultaneously carry out entrance examinations on the same day. For this reason, when grasping the wishes of students in career guidance, some high schools have begun to offer hope to students in the form of "which company they want to work for" rather than the type of industry. However, since the number of hires themselves is small, it cannot be said that the companies that want to work can be employed.

Job hunting activities for students at higher education institutions, special training schools, and various schools

Vocational schoolRaw,Technical collegeRaw,Junior collegeRaw,UniversityFacultyRaw,graduate SchoolRaw etc.Higher educationWith studentsVocational schoolRaw,Various schoolsThere is no big difference in live activity.

Hiring activities of many companies were concentrated at the same time until the 1990s, but the number of hiring companies has increased all year since the mid-1990s[When?]Is a long-term trend.

The start time of activities tends to be early, and 4-year college students who want to work as clerical workers are active for about half a year to a year after the winter of the third grade, and science and engineering students are also tending to be early and long-term.Keidanren affiliated companies are currently[When?]4-year undergraduate students3st yearMay 3Ban, 4th yearMay 6Recruitment test startedIt has become.

Undergraduate students of the four-year university will take employment seminars from the fall of the third year to the beginning of winter, and from November, non-Keidanren non-member companies will start recruiting tests such as interviews. A major company that complies with the Keidanren Gentlemen's Agreement will start a company briefing session in March the following month and will start a recruitment test all at once on June 4. Around the beginning of July, there were initial job offers, and after August, local companies中小企业, The second recruitment of major companies was conducted, and recruitment was conducted in September for the purpose of supplementing international students, those who failed the civil servant examination, and those who declined the job offer, and many companies hold a job offer on October 9.

The primary test isSPI comprehensive inspectionThere are many companies that conduct an aptitude test, etc. and interview after the second test. Interviews are held multiple times, and the final interview is often attended by officers. In recent years, various methods such as group discussion and group work are increasing in addition to the conventional selection method. Previously specified at school when applyingResumeHowever, in recent years, in addition to the address, name, and motivation to apply, there are features such as requesting answers to problems, essays, drawings.entry sheetAn increasing number of companies are requesting the submission of a document and treating the evaluation of the finished product as a document review.SMEs are now[When?]However, many companies require resume submission.

For Japanese-English bilingual students enrolled in overseas universities and graduate schoolsBoston Career ForumEtc. were held in October, and students from Japan can participate.

Avoiding small and medium-sized enterprises and being interested only in large enterprises in the industry is called "major illness" and is one of the conditions that should be avoided in job hunting.It is said that many students have a high degree of education and pride, but there are many cases where parents, not the students themselves, have a "major illness." It is said that "major illness" may lead to employment ronin due to not being able to get a single job offer, early retirement or job change due to mismatch with the place of employment.[7][8].

Employment in research and development positions

Job hunting for research and development jobs is in addition to regular job hunting by free application.ManufacturerAnd various industries ask each major such as graduate school to recommend career completion for those who are planning to complete, and aspiring students apply for recommendationSchool recommendationAnd, there is professor recommendation due to the relationship between professors and other leaders and companies. Companies can stably secure human resources with specialized knowledge and research experience that meet a certain level, and students can concentrate on their studies and extracurricular activities while at school without spending excessive labor and time on job hunting. In addition, there are advantages for both sides, such as being able to find employment by utilizing research experience. However, unlike the secret offer of free application, it is difficult for the student to cancel the secret offer obtained by school recommendation. This is because school recommendation is established based on a certain kind of trust relationship between companies and universities, and the act of unilaterally declining secretly from the student side, that is, the university side, is the number of people who can recommend to that university after the next year. This is because it may affect

Bubble burstIn the past, a large/mid-sized company conducted a so-called job-hunting session for students at so-called difficult universities to lock in entertainment, and the recruitment test was completed in an instant (once a 15-minute chat interview). There were many things. However, after the burst of the bubble, the number of companies that cannot afford to train newcomers has increased, and in the relatively short period since joining the company,TurnoverThe phenomenon of increase in Therefore, in recent years, as a preparation for recommendation, measure how much the students' temperament and abilities match the human resources image that the company requires.Job matchingThe number of companies that are incorporating The introduction of job matching has made it possible for students who were conducting applied science research in college to perform more advantageous job hunting activities than before, but it is also said that students who were conducting science research and engineering research are said to be of the theoretical type. Students who are conducting research are less likely to be matched and are more likely to be frustrated with job hunting.

Since school recommendations are often distributed to graduate schools and majors rather than so-called undergraduates or departments, undergraduate students will be assigned the remaining recommendations after the graduate student has obtained the desired recommendation. Furthermore, even if an undergraduate student is lucky enough to get a recommendation to the company he/she desires, an undergraduate student who is not assigned to the laboratory during job hunting However, from the perspective of companies, there are many unclear points as targets for matching, so the benefits that undergraduate students receive from school recommendation are less than those of graduate students.

In recent years, companies that perform job matching multiple times,RecruiterThe number of companies conducting interviews is increasing, and the effort for obtaining school recommendations may be the same as the effort for job hunting by free application. As a result, more and more companies are making school recommendations, which are just free names that cannot be refused.

In addition, large-scale corporate enclosure activities for students, which were frequently conducted before the burst of the bubble, have been decreasing in both scale and number in recent years.

Job hunting from unemployed people, freeters, civil servants, vocational training facilities

Unemployed (including bankruptcies and restructuring due to the deterioration of business conditions at work) (employees, job seekers) andPart-time workerIs usuallyHello WorkTo get a job orJob trainingCan be recruited. If you wish to receive vocational training, enter the vocational training facility (Turnover trainingCarry outVocational development school,Vocational Development Promotion CenterEtc.) employment placement and employment consultation related to the training content (Career consulting) Can be received.

In the bubble era when the word freeter was born, it was used with the intention of “doing what you like without getting a regular job,” but now you can't get a job after graduating from school. , There are many cases of unwillingness to become a part-time job, so it is often used with unintended meaning. One of the factors used to do so is the reality that companies view freeters as being good, lacking in skills and experience, and bad if they consider them troublesome. Therefore, it can be said that job hunting for freeters and unemployed people is even more difficult than for new graduates who have support from schools, even if they receive vocational training.

Regarding awareness about freeters,Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare 2004Employment management survey compiled in (16)[9]Although most of the company managers and personnel managers answered that it did not affect the adoption or rejection, the freeter experience was positively evaluated and the abundant experience, the spirit of challenge, and the skills cultivated in other industries were evaluated. Only 3.6% chose to hire. On the other hand, 30.3% of the respondents disliked Freeter's style due to its suspicious reaction, with a tendency to easily quit (7% of the negatively answered groups) and a sense of responsibility. There is also an opinion that there is doubt about long-term employment or that lack of leadership is a problem, such as “No (5%)”.

Furthermore, “If you do not experience the same workplace for more than 3 years, you will not develop all the necessary abilities” (mainly in big cities and large companies), “You should spend the same company for the rest of your life unless there is bankruptcy or business closure”, “Active duty” Some people have the concept that "(that is, when you are in school) you should decide to get a job" (centered on local and small businesses)Part-time jobIn the case where I have only experienced it, there are many cases in which it is only negatively evaluated and not seen favorably. In many companies, "only people with work experience (or ○ years or more, preferential treatment, etc.)" or "RestructuringExcessive job vacancies such as "only sackers (or preferential treatment)" are unrivaled cliffs for job seekers who have not gained long-term work experience at appropriate companies, and are not even allowed to gain experience. This situation has taken root as a background that does not lead to a decrease in freeters.

There are also employers who view freeters as a simple labor force, partly due to cost reductions caused by long-term recession on the part of companies. As a result, there are some cases in which employment education is neglected because Freeter will soon leave. In such a work environment, the part-timer himself is incapable of acquiring any skills. Moreover, since many freeters are forced to become freeters, they cannot find any value other than cash income in their jobs.stallSome clauses seem to be causing the phenomenon. this ispart timerIt is a phenomenon often seen by temporary workers such as, but as a result of the gap between the employer and the workers, it can be seen that there are mass-produced workers who have lost their willingness to work and responsibility.

Also, the job hunting activities of civil servants Ronin are in a difficult condition like Freeter. OriginallyPublic employee examinationIs a employment test, which is comparable to a private company recruitment test. However, unlike the employment examination for private companies, the examination period is concentrated from May to October in principle, so there is no choice but to suspend job hunting for private companies mainly during that period.[10].. There are many students and students who start studying immediately at school entrance exams, such as when entering university, so it may be late including the acquisition of qualifications. Often rejected due to lack of qualifications as a student. In addition, as long as there is a qualification for the test, anyone has the chance to pass it, so companies often have the impression that they will "take the upper age limit for taking the test" and are often rejected. And2001As in (13), to strike up,Ministry of educationHas issued a notice that those who are graduating from civil servant Ronin may be excluded from the candidates for new graduates seeking employment.Part-time workerVirtually as well asneatBy treating it as a document, some companies are becoming more prominent because they are immediately rejected in the document screening and are not even interviewed. For this reason, once you become a civil servant ronin, it is very difficult to get out like a part-time jobber, and it is necessary to change the course to work with a private company when you were a student and to review the way of thinking about hiring civil servant ronin on the hiring side. Be done.

However, as a policy for the employment support for freeters,Job card system,Job Seeker Support TrainingWe are also encouraging companies to find employment there, but since this means employment with social insurance and it is related to the increase in labor costs, there are few movements to hire using these. Is. However, the hiring sufficiency rate of companies has not risen yet, and the demand for part-time workers is increasing year by year, and employment support by private companies has become active since 2016. Job hunting activities of part-time workers have changed significantly, such as employment support that incorporates a hiring flow without document screening.[11]

Job hunting for people with disabilities

handicappedJob hunting can be broadly divided into two types. One is to announce that you are a disabled person and get a job (that is, to use the disabled person quota, so-calledopen), The other is not to announce that you are disabled (so-calledclosed) Get a job (use the same frame as ordinary people).Employment quotas for persons with disabilities in companiesEmployment Promotion Act for Persons with DisabilitiesIt is based on the statutory employment rate defined by, and there are joint employment interviews and other events that target only persons with disabilities.

People with disabilities are often inferior in practical ability to healthy people (particularly seen in people with intellectual and mental disabilities), so training facilities run by the national or local governments or private In some cases, the employment training institutions and employment support establishments that are operated are used. In addition, each local government and Hello Work have a window for consultation regarding work for persons with disabilities. Also, for high school studentsSpecial schoolYou can also find employment via.

It is said that companies place the highest priority on "(what they need to do for work)" when hiring people with disabilities. In addition, restrictions on working hours, outpatient visits and medications are also emphasized. Companies often face costs and restrictions when hiring people with disabilities, so the tendency is mainly for people with physical disabilities who are able to work as well as for those with normal work, and for people with intellectual disabilities who have special support schools. However, the employment of mentally handicapped persons has been delayed.

In some cases, the disability is announced and the employee is employed in the general quota.Employment and Life Support Center for Persons with DisabilitiesIt is rare that you apply for a job with the understanding of the disability from the company through the matching support of.

Problems of job hunting activities

Unless otherwise noted in this article,Bulk recruitment of new graduatesDescribe the case based on.

Pressure on university life due to early and long term

Between 1973 (Showa 48) and 1996 (Heisei 8), companies and schools (mainlyUniversity-Junior collegeDuring this period, companies will not approach prospective graduates until a certain period of time so as not to hinder their studies.Employment agreementwas there. Some of them, such as “Aota-buy”, broke through the agreement and rushed to approach students, but they did show some deterrent effect.

However, after the agreement was abolished at the request of companies, job hunting tended to become earlier and longer. In many universities, in the 1,2st and XNUMXnd grades, students need to acquire the basic knowledge before entering the specialized fields.講義Mainly from the 3rd year, specializing in lectures andSeminarSince it will be started, lectures andgraduation researchI had to get out and do some activities. Based on this, there is an opinion that "the company should consider the timing of recruitment activities".[12][13][14].

In recent years, this tendency has also been increasing for technical occupations. On the contrary,Hokkaido University,Tohoku University,Tokyo University,Tokyo Institute of Technology,Nagoya University,Kyoto University,Osaka University,Kyushu UniversityIs organized by the Dean of the Graduate School of Engineering and the Dean of the Faculty of EngineeringKeidanrenWe strongly request that major companies such as graduate schools and major foreign-affiliated companies be able to regain an environment in which excessive recruitment activities and pre-employment training of companies are corrected and education and research at graduate schools are normally promoted. Requests for early and long-term job hunting and correction of student restraint by pre-employment training.[15].

In response to such requests from the university side, Keidanren responded to many companies including member companies in 2013 (Heisei 25).Shinzo AbePrime MinisterAt the request of (at that time), the ban on employment for graduates after 2016 (28) was postponed by 3 months, and the ban was lifted in March of the 3rd year of university, and the employment examination was decided after August 3 of 4th year of university.However, considering the pressure on the hiring schedule of companies and the physical burden of students due to the summer employment examination, the ban date has not changed for graduates since 8, and the employment examination has been started two months ahead of schedule since June 1, 2017th year of university. It became.As a result, after studying for three years, job hunting will be carried out in parallel with the thesis and graduation research, and it is expected that the early and long term will be suppressed and the pressure on university life will be relieved more than before. Is done.

However, while the ban and hiring have been delayed, before the ban (around August of the third year of university)InternshipHas been in the limelight because job hunting in Japan will be advantageous for employment.[16], 2016 (Heisei 28) For job hunting targeting graduates, the number of applicants for internships is rapidly increasing, coupled with the seller market[17].. Regarding this situation, I think you are using the internship to keep students underwater. Some people are worried that the students who are refraining from job hunting may be confused about the internship before the ban is lifted.[18].. On the other hand, there is also an opinion that the educational background will be more important due to the shortened period. Furthermore, as this agreement is only for companies belonging to Keidanren, there are some survey results that most companies do not comply with this new agreement (see table below).[19]There are even predictions that small and medium-sized venture companies will move ahead of schedule. Also, some people warn that job hunting has already started from such a flow[20].

Scheduled start time (%) of recruitment activities in 2016 (28)[21]
seasonWithin 2014
(Within 26)
123456789After October
Interview start time2.
Scheduled start time1.

In addition, when carrying out job hunting while living a university life, the financial burden on students is large because the expenses must be paid in parallel with school expenses and living expenses. In particular, when employment from a local university to a large city company, for example, when trying to find a job from a Hokkaido company to a Tokyo company, the transportation cost alone will be enormous. Therefore, in recent years, there is a movement that the university side subsidizes transportation expenses for students who are looking for jobs.[22].

Commercialization of job hunting

For job hunting in the Showa period, it was common for people without special recommendations or relationships to apply by looking at the recruitment vote posted on the job hunting section of the school. The thing that completely overturned this situation in job hunting was the university newspaper advertisement company (laterRecruitment) Is a magazine "Invitation to Companies" published in 1962[23][24].

In "Invitation to Companies" (renamed to "Recruit Book" in 1969), only job advertisements collected from companies were posted and distributed to students for free. There is a postcard for requesting materials, and students can easily express their willingness to take the examination to the company by sending it. Companies can easily recruit students by paying a low publication fee to Recruit. As a result, Recruit succeeded in commercializing employment and recruitment activities. In 1996, Recruit's "RECRUIT BOOK on the NET" (currentlyRikunabi) Has started, and the stage of job hunting and hiring activities gradually starts from paper mediaインターネットHowever, the basic mechanism is the same.the current[When?]Then similar employment from multiple companiesPortal siteHas been established, and it has become common to register as a member there, express the intention to take an examination to a company (called an entry) via those sites, and make a reservation for a company information session or an entrance examination.the current[When?]Then, there are many major companies that only publish job information on the job hunting site, and registering on the job hunting site is a common sense for students who want to work as a clerical worker.Employment information business has been longKeidanrenBecame the infrastructure that supports the recruitment of new graduates, which is the entrance to the Japanese style employment system[23].

Discovered in 1988Recruit caseHas been pointed out in the ruling, saying that the purpose of the company's political work is to work to maintain and comply with employment agreements.[23].

In order to survive the intensified competition due to the abolition of employment agreements, how to take an interview, how to write an entry sheet (described later), your strengths, aptitude,Career planSelf-examineSelf-analysisMany job hunting manuals have been published, and it has become so popular that large-scale bookstores can even create employment book corners.

In recent years, there are many organizations that are job hunting organizations that have found job hunting support, and there are some activities that encourage early start of job hunting, such as (paid) seminars for third year college students and second year college students. Be done. There are some courses (3 to 2) that require high entrance fees, but some courses are not worth the cost, so students should be careful.

Bias of aspiration

In the survey of job hunting for university students, large companies, which are said to be large and generally known, are ranked high. Also, among the major companiesGeneral trading companyAnd companies that have products and services for general consumers (Mega bankAnd insurance companies, electrical equipment, automobiles, etc.Manufacturer,Airlines,Travel club,MediaEtc.) are very popular.It has been pointed out that the cause of this result is that Japanese students have few opportunities to come into contact with the actual conditions of various occupations.[By whom?]..Since the contents of the profession (behind the scenes that cannot be seen from the surface of each profession) cannot be understood, the job search is image-first (received from fiction such as dramas and TV commercials).It is a big misconception that students think that these popular companies have a very high competitive ratio for students even in the so-called "seller market" in a booming economy, and "because it is a seller market, it is easy to enter a large company".

From 2011RecruitmentHas announced that it will stop publishing the "Ranking for Employment of University Students". The reason is that "the meaning of announcing a uniform ranking has diminished due to the diversification of students' values." "There is a big difference in attributes such as gender, humanities/science, and general/general positions. Is becoming more misleading for students."[25].

2002 (Heisei 14)Nobel Prize in ChemistryWonKoichi TanakaIs a staple of the most popular employment companies with the initial first choiceSonyHowever, it failed and was recommended by the instructor.ShimadzuI got a job at.

Change in employment structure

バ ブ ルThe recession after the collapse caused a major shift in the employment structure of companies. After the burst of the bubble, many companies reviewed internal operations, specialized in core business for full-time employees, and easily adjusted employment for peripheral operations.Non-regular employee(Part-time job,Contract employee,(I.e.Etc.)RestructuringI went. As a result, demand for non-regular employees increased while demand for regular employees decreased. In addition, more and more managers want to assign excellent human resources to full-time employees who are entrusted with core tasks, and there is an increasing number of people who do not meet the standards even within the planned number of people.

Job wanderer

Due to the prolonged activity period, it is not uncommon for students to lose the meaning of working (or fail to find it) and to give up employment during the activity. Regardless of going on to senior high school, some of these students do nothing (cannot do anything) even after graduation (neat,Social withdrawalThere are many things that become freeters. The reasons for giving up activities on the way are as follows.

  • Bubble economyDue to the long-term depression after the collapse, students were forced to change to employment due to family circumstances while hoping to go on to further education.
  • There is little hiring of employees themselves (especially in the rural areas after the burst of the bubble economy. Due to family circumstances, many people are not able to move to large cities due to local employment requirements).
  • Even in companies with a lot of employee hires, their careers and skills cannot be matched well.

Therefore, there are many universities that open career development seminars immediately after admission and encourage students to find motivation for employment such as "What kind of work do you want to do?" and "What should I do for that?".

In addition, even those who are willing to find a job are unlucky (no relationship) and it is difficult to get a job offer, and there are people who are forced to find jobs for multiple years. Due to their lack of experience, even those who are hired mid-career are often excluded from the selection process from the beginning, and in the end they have no choice but to abandon their employment itself. Be at a disadvantage. Although graduates after the bursting of the bubble economy differed by region, there were few job seekers overall,PermanentLet aloneNon-regular employeeEmployment in is also in a difficult situation.

And once you become a job wanderer, it becomes more difficult to get out of it as you get older. As a result, those who have recently reached a highly educated neat or freeter (Educational refugees) Is not a few. In recent years, in order to avoid the position of job wanderer, those who have not been able to get a job offer will repeat the year to secure a frame for new graduates, or go on to vocational school, junior college, university, graduate school, etc. to find a job again. Is also increasing. However, this phenomenon has already begun to be seen in the late 1990s.[26].

Large companies tend to be more popular than small and medium-sized companies, and those who cannot enter the large companies may choose employment ronin.SME employeesMarket valueIt is extremely important to join a major company when you graduate, because the number of employees is low and you often cannot expect to improve your treatment when you change jobs.[27].

Hiring female students

1999After (11),Equal Employment ActHas been significantly revised,Disadvantageous treatment of female studentsThings were forbidden.

However, at present, there are more males than males in the employer ratio.[28].. As a reason to avoid female employees,marriage,birthDue toretirement,Childcare leaveIt is argued that the cost-effectiveness such as education costs will be lower than men because they are more likely to leave the workplace due to[29].

After the revision of the law, at the time of recruitment selection "Comprehensive work"When"General staffThe number of companies that divide students into "is increasing. Although recruitment selection is done in equality for men and women, actually female students are not hired even if they apply for general employment except for a few people who are motivated and excellent. There is a rush of female students.

To increase the ratio of women in employers,Positive actionIncreasingly, companies are adopting such as. Legally, it is likely that it is illegal to not hire female employees for the reasons mentioned above.[30].

On the other hand, in certain occupationsMale discriminationThere are also such jobs, and even if men apply for these types of jobs, they may be dropped in interviews, or they may not be even interviewed and may be dropped in document selection.


MajorAdvertising agency,TV stationSince many local companies in the region have celebrities and young children of influential people in their employees, and in many cases local people and residents are prioritized, the influential people of influential people are more advantageous than general hiring. Get a job offer atRecruitmentIt is said that there is a "," and the ratio of hiring due to the ratio of hiring will be discussed.

While "recruitment" has the advantage that students can carry out job hunting smoothly, it is necessary to pay more attention to the relationships after joining the company, and it is more difficult to change jobs or retire than those who have joined the company. (Because most of the relatives of the student are closely related to the company, if they retire easily, the person who introduced them may be disadvantaged).In addition, it is said that people who joined the company because of their relationship often take only formal recruitment tests, so they have little experience in job hunting, and if they lose their jobs due to bankruptcy, they are likely to struggle in job hunting.[By whom?].

On the other hand, "neighborhood" lacks impartiality and it is not always possible to collect excellent human resources, so it tended to be abolished as a thing of the past. Considering this, there are few companies who quit soon after getting employment, there are few problems such as leaking of secrets, and local companies in rural areas are able to avoid the outflow of young people to large cities as much as possible, and some companies are revisiting it again. ..

Duplication of unofficial offer

While some students struggle to find employment, job offers tend to concentrate on students who have many of the qualities companies demand. It is on a case-by-case basis what kind of legal effect the unofficial offer will have, but since it is generally accepted that the employment contract cancellation by the employee side is widely accepted, the unofficial offer is received from multiple companies and some of them decline. There is no problem. However, it has become a problem that some people have refused to inform themselves of refusal, or they declined just before starting work, which is contrary to social conventions.

Cancellation of offer

Contrary to the above case, the deterioration of the business condition of the company after the unofficial offer due to the economic downturn,bankruptcy(bankruptcy,Civil Rehabilitation Law(Until the 1990sReconciliation lawIs almost equivalent toCorporate rehabilitation lawIn some cases), the offer may be canceled. In particular, if there is such a situation just before joining the company, there will be no remedy at all, so restarting job hunting with a large handicap (Later) Forced to fall asleep[31].. In some cases, a company may try to sign a consent form to decline a job offerer, or may provide money in the form of an outright payment.

Although it is difficult to judge whether the deterioration of business management is a legitimate reason for canceling a job offer, if the job is canceled due to one-sided circumstances of the company, the job offerer can take the following legal measures.

Recently, there have been reports of cases in which the hiring period is postponed or a transfer to a related company is requested instead of canceling the offer.[By whom?]..In this case, it does not correspond to the cancellation of the offer, soAdministrative guidanceIt is not covered by the above, and there is concern from experts as "escape from compensation for cancellation of offer".[Who?].


In the middle of the 2010s, there were even cases where companies were forced to finish job hunting in return for giving a job offer to students (Owahara)[32].

Hiring low-educated people

As mentioned above, until the 1970s, local middle school graduates were employed for group employment, but as of 2017, many companies are excluding those who are preferentially hired by young people due to the nature of their jobs. In a companyHigh school graduate or higher], full-time full-time employees are required to have a four-year college graduate or above. Although high school is not compulsory, the high school enrollment rate exceeds 4%. This was a contribution to the high school recruitment movement in the 9s, and as a result, the false recognition that junior high school = high school recruitment took root, and those who received only compulsory education became social minorities. It is the result. Even simple laborers have high school graduates. Not all junior high school graduates want to find employment, but support is not available for employment support institutions for people with low education.Youth Employment Support AssociationHowever, the reality is that it is hardly maintained.



FranceCalled inInternshipThe system is well-developed, which gives you work experience.Gaining experience in this internship is a prerequisite for employment (otherwise you will not be able to get a job)[3]..Even if you can get a job after the internship, the majority of people have a pattern of being dismissed by non-regular employment at first and then becoming full-time employees.[3]..7% of new graduates in France are looking for a jobNon-regular employmentThere is data (fixed-term employment and dispatch)[3].


GermanyapprenticeDerived from the systemMeisterDue to the influence of the system, early entrance to employment is separated from employmentDual systemThere is[3].

Compulsory educationLater, aiming to acquire a MeisterTrade and Technical SchoolChoose to go on to college or go on to college[3].

The United Kingdom

The United KingdomIn Japan, with the penetration of university rankings, companies that are trying to recruit only students from higher schools have begun to appear.[33].

The United States of America

The United States of AmericaSo, while college students rarely find employment while they are at school,InternOften participated in to promote the achievements, joint research between universities and companies and introduced by academic advisors, and there is no concept such as the rule of when to start job hunting. Students will apply to companies after graduating from university, but many students can leave a blank after graduation until they get a job. However, once it starts moving toward hiring, the subsequent movements are quick, and within a week to several months after the interview.オ フ ァ ーHowever, it is typical that a response is received within one week from the offer, and if hired, the employee joins within two weeks.

When applying,インターネット OfJob offerIt is mainly found through websites, job advertisements, and connections between friends, acquaintances, and families. In many cases, companies are hiring all year round, and when vacancies occur, they are recruited or recruited for expansion of work, and recruitment of new graduates according to the graduation time of a university like Japan And there is no concept of mid-career recruitment.

In the case of the United States, regardless of new graduates and mid-career, many companies are looking for human resources as immediate competence, and with regard to recruitment, past experience and majors at universities are emphasized. Also, because we have specific positions and we hire them to fill them, it is unlikely that we will be hired only by the number of heads like in Japan and will be assigned after training after joining the company.

Large companies sometimes fill out the required information on the web, but most companies use a fixed format.entry sheetThere is no such thing as, the most important thing is free-formResumeIt is a degree / major that shows the ability.In addition, personnel personnel are devoted to paperwork such as checking employment qualifications and criminal record investigations, and do not say whether or not to hire (even interviews are rare).The decision to hire is based on the results of individual interviews with employees who will be future colleagues and superiors (big bosses) who will be their direct supervisors (if they are hired). It is common.Offer letters (required by the law of the country) that include salary (annual, monthly, hourly, etc.), job outline (manufacturing management, personnel, sales, etc.), job title, nomination of direct supervisor, etc. It is usually issued in the name of a manager, but in rare cases, it is issued in the name of a higher position such as a division manager or president.


ChugokuThen, once the nation was taking care of employment after graduation from school,Reform and opening upAfter that, the students had to do their own job hunting. Due to the large number of students, job wanderers have become a social problem (see detailsEmployment ice ageSee).

Relationships are a powerful tool for job hunting. For this reason, there are also acts of buying and selling connections that are advantageous for job hunting. A popular job is a civil servant, which is said to be on sale for 8 RMB (about 120 million yen at the rate at the time of the press).[34].. Educational background discrimination is rampant[35].

StudentsAs for the former, it was once called “Kaigame” and was able to find employment under favorable conditions using a foreign language, but with the generalization of study abroad, it became impossible to find employment by itself, and it became necessary to do job hunting. .. Those who could not get a job after studying abroad are called "sea belts" (see detailsStudy Abroad #ChinaSee).

Initially, state-owned enterprises were popular as employment destinations, but when foreign-affiliated enterprises made inroads in succession, foreign-affiliated enterprises became more popular because of their potential. However, the popularity of state-owned enterprises has since increased.[36].. This tendency is influenced by the fact that when students consider their future potential, it is easier for them to succeed by making connections at a state-owned company and then re-employment at a private company.[36].

South Korea

South KoreaSo, about 40 college graduates are looking for a job every year, and most of themChaebolAspiring to be a major company including affiliates.

The background is that there is a nearly double difference in salary between large companies and SMEs.[37]..TraditionallyConfucianismIn South Korea, where the idea is strong, it is commonplace to have filial piety even after adulthood, so joining a large company is a trend of filial piety, and the existence of the examination industry that supports it also contributes to the bias of aspirations. There is.It is said that young people have a strong sense of being a loser unless they are included in the major players.[37].

Since 2010, the employment situation has deteriorated, and employment in large companies has become an unprecedented narrow gate.Unlike Japanese job hunting, although there is a batch recruitment of new graduates, when recruiting new employees due to the Age Discrimination Prohibition Law that came into effect in 2009Age discriminationThe ban has become mandatory, and it has become relatively easy to continue activities even if you become a job hunter, and as a result, there are many cases where activities are long-term.For this reasonSeoul National University,Yonsei University,Korea UniversityEven if you are a new graduate of a top school in Japan, you cannot easily get a job at a large company.[37].. The unemployment rate in 2020 is 4% overall, but chronic employment difficulties continue, with the number of people aged 15 to 29 more than doubling to 9%.[37].

In South Korea, in addition to academic background and achievements while attending school, achievements called "specs" such as English proficiency, internship at a company, study abroad experience, etc. are required, so in order to accumulate specifications, job hunting actually started from the first grade. Is[37]..It is a burden for students because it takes time and money to carry out activities to accumulate specifications.[37]..Also, in recent years, there has been a growing tendency for constant hiring and immediate action, and it is predicted that it will become even more difficult in the future.[37]..The internships that are particularly important are becoming obsolete due to intensifying competition for specs, and the internship ratio exceeds 200 times, and it is common for internships to take leave of absence.[1].

The rate of enrollment is higher than that of Japan, but the percentage of major companies is small.[37], The number of employees hired in Japan has been reduced due to internationalization, and the emphasis on immediate work force has spurred employment difficulties.[1]..Therefore, only about 11 people can actually get a job.It is known to young people that there is strong retirement pressure from the company even after employment from the 40s.[37], Some of the top school graduates find employment in Japanese companies with less pressure[37]..The government also supports employment overseas as a measure against employment difficulties[37].

Young people who give up the seven things of "love," "marriage," "childbirth," "my home," "human relations," and "dream" after failing to find a job are called the "sampo generation."[38].

Reemployment support

Reemployment support may be added to the retirement condition when the number of employees is reduced[2].. The re-employment support service (outplacement service) was originally developed as a counseling service when Western companies dismissed employees.[2].

Reemployment support services (outplacement services) have also been introduced in Japan, but in Japan there is an idea that counseling is not enough in terms of corporate employment responsibility, so it is necessary to develop reemployment opportunities and to provide external services. Developed into a service that includes consignment[39].. In Europe and the United States, counseling and education are provided, but it is often not done until the finding of new jobs or mediation.[40].



The following table is for high school graduatesRecruitment ratioas well as the Employment rateIs the transition of. For details, see Labor Policy Research and Training Organization.New Indicator Utilizing Business Statistics-2006See.

Ratio of job openings to new graduates by prefecture by March
埼 玉2.
和 歌 山2.
National average3.

Source: Labor market for new graduates (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare)

Employment rate of new graduates by prefecture in March (Source: Labor market of new graduates)
埼 玉100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.099.598.798.197.3
和 歌 山100.0100.097.798.297.297.996.795.293.393.491.589.994.3
National average99.799.598.998.798.498.598.296.895.695.994.895.195.9

A work depicting job hunting




  • Who






[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “Korea Endless Internship-Job Hunting Circumstances That Continue to Overheat-". NHK News. 2021/7/1Browse.
  2. ^ a b c Akifumi Hayashi, Manual for Employment Adjustment, June 2009, p. 6
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Let's compare the Japan Trade Union Confederation!Job hunting situation in the world
  4. ^ Source:Employment rate # Employment (unofficial) rate
  5. ^ Requires special knowledge and skillsNational qualification-Business monopoly qualificationIn Japan, there are many qualifications that cannot be taken because of being a "junior high school graduate", even if they are between the ages of 18 and 20.Driver's licenseAlthough it is not clearly stated in “No middle school graduation”, there is a minimum age limit, and especially in regions where public transportation is scarce, even a commute may require a driver's license with a private vehicle (BicycleAnd some companies do not allow commuting by motorcycle),scootersandOrdinary motorcycle(SmallIncluding limitations) Driver's license is 16 years old or older,Ordinary carとLarge motorcycleSince a driver's license can only be obtained by those aged 18 or over, it cannot be obtained just before graduating from junior high school like high school prospects.
  6. ^ Among other things1990 eraAfter the burst of the bubble, the number of high school graduates in employment, which was the main place of employment for girls who graduated from commercial and ordinary departments until the beginning, dropped sharply after the bubble burst.
  7. ^ [Professionals are the secrets of job hunting] Dangers hidden in "major diseases" (1/2 page) Sankei Shimbun 2021.1.28 16:00 (viewed August 2021, 4)
  8. ^ [Professionals are the secrets of job hunting] Dangers hidden in "major diseases" (2/2 page)
  9. ^ Summary of results Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  10. ^ Because the tests are concentrated and time is spent on the driving.
  11. ^ Freeter employment support service
  12. ^ J-CAST News "Job hunting Tabare demo" held in Tokyo 2 and Google connected students
  13. ^ DIAMOND ONLINE The reason why people don't grow is because of job hunting!
  14. ^ Every day jp job hunting: Student "Hunting from class" Started in the fall of 3rd year
  15. ^ Announcement on the statement of 8 University Engineering Dean Meeting
  16. ^ Directly adopted! ? Internships that are advantageous for employment
  17. ^ Intern rising rapidly in the job market Archived June 2014, 6, at Archive.is
  18. ^ Intern rising rapidly in the job market Archived June 2014, 6, at Archive.is
  19. ^ [University and employment] "Postponing" when employment starts, companies do not follow the schedule
  20. ^ Job hunting has already begun Warning to the XNUMX graduates whose selection time has been delayed
  21. ^ 2015/Company Survey on New Graduate Recruitment-Job Offer Trend Survey
  22. ^ Fukushima University: Granting XNUMX yen for job hunting transportation expenses to reduce student burden from this month / FukushimaDaily jp June 2011, 5
  23. ^ a b c The Yomiuri Shimbun February 2019, 2, morning edition Economics "Anatomy Business World Job Hunting Edition 9"
  24. ^ History of recruiting careers
  25. ^ Recruiting Welcome to the popular employment rankings listBusiness Media
  26. ^ Asahi Shimbun November 1997, 3
  27. ^ Inc, Shogakukan. “Reasons why you shouldn't bother to make a difficult choice in job hunting | @DIME At Dime”(Japanese). @DIME at Dime. 2021/6/20Browse.
  28. ^ "Labor Force Survey"Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  29. ^ "Women's Statistical Discrimination and the Way to Eliminate It"Kazuo YamaguchiAugust, 2008
  30. ^ Sumitomo Electric damages claim case judgment (Osaka District Court, November 14, 11), etc.
  31. ^ Depending on the university, if you receive a job offer cancellation, you may be allowed to continue for one year without paying tuition, and you may be able to resume job hunting under the new graduate quota.
  32. ^ What is "Owahara" that is rampant in the seller market? Real information and job hunting quarterly news plus one for job hunting students | 東洋 経 済 オ ン ラ イ ン | Business site for new generation leaders
  33. ^ "University rank "Caution for overtrust" Expert alerts OECD, National Impact Study" "Yomiuri Shimbun, delivered June 2008, 6
  34. ^ "The civilian examination fee is 120 million yen! "Connect and network" is very popular." "Record China" delivered on July 2008, 7
  35. ^ "The most common is "discrimination against educational background" and "No interviews except at famous universities" at the time of job hunting" "Record China" distributed on March 2008, 3
  36. ^ a b Rika Kashiwagi “[5] More students want a state-owned company to connect with others” “Nikkei Business Online” Nikkei Business Publications, May 2008, 5
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “I can't get a job even if I have a high degree of education.". NHK News. 2021/3/16Browse.
  38. ^ Yahoo! News Despair of Korea's seven generations who can not reach dreams, work, romance
  39. ^ Akifumi Hayashi, Manual for Employment Adjustment, June 2009, pages 6-217
  40. ^ Akifumi Hayashi, Manual for Employment Adjustment, June 2009, p. 6

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