Swallows that "carry fortune" Child-rearing season has arrived "XNUMX beds" "Wow and child-rearing" Unusual sights are everywhere
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In fact, he is an active news photographer, and he thinks that he has been able to continue working well until this year because of the good fortune that the swallows carried.
Swallows that are said to "carry fortune".We are in the middle of the child-rearing season.Nakatsugawa City, Gifu Prefecture ... → Continue reading
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NEWS / Style|
News photo(Hodoshashin) is mainly used in print media.News reportUsed to visually convey the content of the report写真It means that.報道写真を撮影するTake a news photoPhotographers ThePhoto journalist(British: Photojournalist).
What is special about photojournalism as a way of categorizing it is that it is not based on the content or style in which it is copied, but on how it is used.
For example, a picture of a firephotographEven if the owner of the house is somehow personalRecordIf it was taken for the purpose of, or if it was taken by the police for verification or investigation, it cannot be said to be a news photo.しかし、まったく同じ写真であっても、新聞社のHowever, even if the photo is exactly the same, the newspaper companyカ メ ラ マ ンHowever, if it is taken for the purpose of reporting, it can be said that it is a news photograph even if it is not adopted in printed matter such as newspapers as a result.Furthermore, if the same photo was taken by a person who happened to pass by, it is not a news photo as long as he has it personally, but a newspaper reporter said that there was a person who took a photo of the fire. If you listen to the photo and borrow the photo and publish it in the newspaper, it will be called a news photo at that point.
Press photography has had two problems since ancient times.
(1) The question of the authenticity of the news photo (the question of how to use the news photo, the question of how much exaggeration is allowed when shooting, "Yarase”, How much can you trust the content taken in the news photo, etc.)
(2) Problems related to the rights (persons) related to news photos (the problem of who decides how to use news photos, the problem of the discrepancy between the photographer's intention and how they are used, and the photographer must be clearly stated in the news photo. The problem of the photographerCopyright-Moral rightsProblems etc.)
Also, recently, as a new problem
(3) Problems related to the end of news photography (tv set,インターネットDue to the superiority of such media over print media (superiority in speed, presence, etc.), news photographs are secondary and auxiliary materials for videos (secondary materials that are easier to handle than videos)・ It is only a supplementary material), and by extension, it may be expelled, or the significance of the existence of "news photography" may have already been lost.)
Is also occurring.
There are several foreign languages that are used in the same way as Japanese "news photographs," but they are generally used in the following ways.
It is the most common term to be contrasted with "reporting", but there is a big difference in that it is regarded as a rule of "reporting" rather than "photograph". (2) Compared with the followingNews (Chinese),magazineIn many cases, it means a single photo with news (incident / scoop) that captures the moment of a certain fact, which is published in.
The word for a news photographer is a photojournalist.Also, it is not called "journalism photo".
Compared to (1) above, it often means a work that tells a certain story with a certain number of photographs.It may or may not have news (incident / scoop).It may contain some kind of claim, or it may simply convey the facts.
Although it is rarely used these days, it is sometimes called "group photo" in Japanese, including the following (3) and (4).
In the first place, the Japanese word "reportage" is difficult for photographers to understand when it comes to "photo reportage."Yonosuke NatoriSaid to the photo criticNobuo InaIs a translation made by.It has a similar meaning to (2) above, but it means a work (like an expedition) with a stronger local report color (recordability).News (incident / scoop) is thin, but on the other hand, there may be a strong tendency to push facts to the fore rather than assertions.
(Four) (photo essay)
It often means a work that is thicker and deeper than (2) above.Therefore, it is often lacking in incidentality, and rather, it seems that there are many works that highlight social problems or contain certain claims.It is expected that the number of photographs will be larger than those in (2) and (3) above, and it is expected that newspapers will not be able to handle them at all.
For example, published in Life magazine,Eugene SmithWorks like "Country Doctor" are often called photo essays.
History of news photography
The beginning of news photography
Photojournalism is generally in EuropeCrimean War(1853 - 1856), In AmericaCivil War(1861 - 1865), Is said to have started[Who?].. By the way,JapanInRusso-Japanese War(1904 - 1905) Is said to have started[Who?].
There are other ways of thinking, but "戦 争This is a very common idea that "" is the beginning of news photography.しかし、このような考え方を、むしろ、戦争に翻弄された報道写真のその後の状況から、遡って始まりを見つけようとする姿勢から来ていると批判する考え方もあるHowever, some criticize this idea as coming from the attitude of trying to find the beginning retroactively from the subsequent situation of the war-torn press photo.[Who?].
However, the war aroused people's interest,19st centuryIt is a fact that it has been the subject of many photographs since ancient times.
Media development and the beginning of photo documentary
20st centuryWhen you enterNews (Chinese)(OrmagazineWith the development of) and the development of printing technology, (Fashion pictures(Similar to) Photojournalism has evolved significantly.As a concrete newspaper, "New York Times''(The New York Times), "Berliner Ilstrierte Zeitung" (Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung ・ BIZ), "Münchner Ilstrierte Press" (Munchner Illustrierte Press), Etc., as a specific magazine,Vu''(Vu) And so on.
On the other hand, "news photography", which is not necessarily "special" (scoop), has already started at the end of the 19th century.Specifically, I took a picture of the lives of poor people on the street corner and factory labor (especially children's labor).Jacob August Reese (Jacob Riis; 1849 - 1914) AndLewis Wicks Hein (Lewis Hine; 1874 - 1940) by,documentaryIt is a typical work.この2人を、フォト・ドキュメンタリーの創始者とする考え方もあるThere is also the idea of making these two people the founders of photo documentaries.[Who?].
Leica and strobe (flash)
1920 eraから1930 eraIt will be the beginning of the golden age of news photography.First of all, it is the continuation of the development of the above-mentioned media and the development of technology related to photography that creates the opportunity.Starting with the development of film that can be exposed in a short time, a small camera that can be held in your hand and photographed freelyLeicaWith the advent of ", the spread of strobes and flashes, etc."subjectThe range of photographs, such as photography, high-speed photography, and continuous photography, has dramatically expanded and the quality has improved.
In particular, many Leica users have appeared, and even in such a situation,Erich Salomon (Erich Salomon; 1886 - 1944),Alfred Eisenstaedt (Alfred Eisenstaedt; 1898 - 1995),Martin Munkácsi (Martin Munkàcsi; 1896 - 1963), A news photographer who can be said to be a darling of the times, is beginning to play an active role.Also, it doesn't always fit in the frame of "news photographer",Andre Certes (André Kertész; 1894 - 1985),Henri Cartier-Bresson (Henri Cartier-Bresson; 1908 - 2004) Photographers have also cut out street corners and left a lot of photojournalistic snapshots.
LIFE launch and FSA-American photojournalism in two directions
As if embodying the golden age of news photography1936Appeared in the American "LIFE』Magazine.The magazine that conveys news mainly through photographs is not particularly new now, but it was an epoch-making graph magazine at that time.The cover photo of the first issue isMargaret Burke-White (Margaret Bourke-White; 1904 - 1971) Takes a picture of the power plant at the TVA Dam, which clearly shows that women can play an active role as photographers.
On the other hand, as symbolized by LIFE, there is a growing tendency to thoroughly perceive news photographs as "products."FSAPhotographers, i.e.Walker Evans (Walker evans; 1903 - 1975),Dorothea Lang (Dorothea Lange; 1895 - 1965), Russell Lee (Russell Lee; 1903 - 1986),Carl mydans (Carl mydans; 1907 - 2004, (Arthur Rothstein; 1915 - 1986) Etc. appear and cut out the tragedy of American rural areas during the Great Depression.It is one of the goals of prewar documentary, and its brilliance has not faded even now, more than 1 years later.
In this way, prewar press photography seemed to divide into two trends, each developing.However, the latter documentary news photo has been forced to hide, albeit temporarily, by World War II.
Of the above two trends, the latter was a news photograph that left the photographer's individual perspective, while the former was the reader's line of sight (reader's desire (want to see) through the photographer's individual eyes. It can be said that it was a group of works that showed the desire)), so at the time when the former was established, it was naturally expected that the individuality of the photographer would be diluted and the photographer's name would be missing in the news photography. It may be good.
World War II and Propaganda-The End of European Press Photography
Such a techniquepropagandaOn the other hand, photographs were often used for propaganda on the regime side, and were actively used in socialist countries, especially after the war.A typical example is the Soviet Union's "USSR Construction" (Soviet Union of Construction-Soviet Union Construction).It is ironic that the photomontage technique has developed remarkably in this.In this flow, the prewar "FRONT] Can also be considered.
And with the start of World War II, full-scale war photography will appear for the first time.Robert Capa (Robert Capa; 1913 - 1954) ofFalling Soldier,Eugene Smith (W. Eugene Smith; 1918 - 1978) And so on. LIFE also shows the momentum of breaking bamboo in this field, and "makes" many works.However, for that reason, the name of the photographer who photographed such a work has not spread.It can be said that the above-mentioned "lack of photographer's name" appears.
As a photographer who gives a hint of postwar photography about this period,Wheezy (Weegee; Usher H. Fellig, Arthur Fellig, Arthur H. Fellig; 1899 - 1968) Can be mentioned.The point of Wheezy's work is "individual gaze".It is characterized by the fact that the work is not well-behaved, claiming that it is "Wheezy's work" rather than anyone else's work.
Many European photographers emigrated to the United States during World War II, and with the end of the war, the center of photography, as well as the disciplines of art, moved completely from devastated Europe to the United States.
War photography era
After the end of World War II, news photographs about the war flourished with the frequent occurrence of regional conflicts in the Cold War structure.The thing is,Magnum,Pulitzer PrizeIt can be seen from the fact that the Robert Capa Award and others continued to publish many photographs about the war.
However, in this, the lack of line of sight of news photographers, which has been seen since before the war, becomes clearer.In search of a scoop, the individuality of the photographer is lost.In other words, with some exceptions, it may be said that news photography is swallowing news photographers.
The big exception isPhoto League, Eugene Smith, etc., documentary photographs.Here, as a major premise, the photographer has his own claim, and photographs are used to show that claim.Rather than presenting a photographic work to be seen, a photographic work is presented to help one understand one's claim.There is an idealistic idea that photography may change society (it can be said to have originated from the ideas of Reese and Hein mentioned above).
LIFE suspension and decline of news photo (house)
1972"LIFE" as a weekly magazine will be suspended (1978Was republished as a monthly magazine2000Will be closed again).It is generally said that the media of television has taken away the necessity (breaking news, etc.) and attractiveness of Graph magazine, but from another aspect, it is a failure to pursue scoop too much. You can say that.It's not clear if the reader is tired of the stimulus, disgusted with the stimulus, or both.In any case, it is the decline of news photography and the decline of news photographers.
Under such circumstances, we continue to photograph living human beings from all over the world.Sebastião SalgadoThe photographic work of is outstanding, and it may be said that it points to one of the directions of future news photography.His gaze is calm and he does not feel the ideal burning heat.
Summary and future of news photography
As you can see from the above, it can be said that news photography has been driven by technology and media, and is at the mercy of it.In other words, regarding the former, the appearance of flash and Leica each brought about the rise of news photography, and with regard to the latter, the appearance of newspapers, graph magazines, and propaganda each brought about the rise of news photography. It is said that it brought.Moreover, politics, and especially war, is thought to be wielding photographs.
There is also a view that the news photo is over due to the suspension of publication of LIFE.Certainly, there may be an idea that the news photo in the form of chasing only the scoop ended at this point.However, news photography still has various problems, and it will continue to be the field that requires the most consideration among various types of photography.By no means, "the press photo is dead."
Major news photographers in each country
(By year of birth)
- Koroku Okubo(1900–1936)
- Kinsuke Shimada(1900–1994)
- Kageyama Mitsuhiro(1907–1981)
- (1911? – 1937)
- Gen Otsuka(1912–1992)
- Eiichi Matsumoto(1915–2004)
- Senzo Yoshioka(1916–2005)
- Keiichi Akimoto(1930–1979)
- Haruo Tomiyama(1935–2016) (commissioned)
- Bunyo Ishikawa(1938–)
- Ryoji Akiyama(1942–)
- Tsuneko Sasamoto(1914–)
(Including Tokyo Shimbun)
- Konosuke Ishii(1916–1997): Tokyo Shimbun
- Shirakawa member(1935–) (Correspondent)
- Akira Kinoshita(1936–2015)
- Masaya Nakamura(1926–2001)
- News report
- Pulitzer Prize for Photography
- Robert Capa(Robert Capa Award)
- Eugene Smith(Eugene Smith's Prize)
- Photo weekly magazine
- War photography
- Battlefield photographer
- Photo agency
- Photo Editing # Press Photo Editing
- Photo history #The era of news photography