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👶 | A monster parent's unreasonable claim that he rushes to a pregnant teacher and is cut off by visiting the class !?


写真 

A monster parent's unreasonable claim

 
If you write the contents roughly
Another answer was that "some parents were protesting at the athletic meet trying to make their child the commander of a marching band."
 

Is there a "Monster Parent" around you?Refers to parents who make unreasonable demands on schools, etc ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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marching band

marching band(British: marching band), In the broadest sense, plays an instrument while walking, and sometimesダンスTeam andColor guardMarch withbandThat thing.Turkey'sMehtelAnd europeDrum and fluteClassicMilitary band,football OfHalf time showI doSchool bandHas developed as a youth education organizationDrum and Bugle CoThe word marching band includes a wide variety of bands.

The term is ambiguous and refers to various orchestras as mentioned above, but generallyWind instrument,Percussion instrumentIt is an organization centered on.Not only playing musical instrumentsColor guardOften includes visual effects such as acting and props.The conductor of the marching band is called a drum major.Performances are called variously, such as marching, drilling, and parades, and many competitions are held to compete for their performances and performances.

What is a marching band?Brass bandThis is one form of performance of the activity, but depending on the school, the brass band club of the liberal arts may not perform the marching performance of the athletic club, or it may be divided.

History of marching band

Europe

The prototype of the march was in Europe in the 16th century, and the military of each country had a drum call that signaled identification and was also used during the march.[1].

In the 17th century, the military band of the Ottoman Empire "Mehtel, A unique march with wind instruments, drums, cymbals, etc. has come to be played.[1]..The military band of the Ottoman Empire is considered to be the originator of the standing marching band, and European musicians (Haydn,Mozart,BeethovenEtc.)[1].

On the other hand, in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, it was based on religious material.Oratorio,OperaI used an arrangement of the song as a march[1].

In EuropeFrench RevolutionからNapoleonic WarThe need for a march in the military became strongly recognized, and musicians such as Beethoven were asked to compose the march, and the basic style of brass band was established during this period.[2].

Japan

(I.e.Later, I was stationed in JapanAmerica OfMilitary bandbyparadeAnd drill performances had a great influence on Japanese brass band, and parade performances were actively performed by the police music corps and the Self-Defense Forces music corps established all over the country.

On the other hand, in Kansai1960(Showa 35)Hankyu Boys Music Corps(CurrentWaseda Setsuryo High School Brass Band Course) Debuted the stage drill.afterwards,1970 OfOsaka ExpoIn the United StatesPurdue University,University of CaliforniaMany overseas bands came to Japan to perform at the venue, and under the influence of this, more schools started marching activities.

Also, in the Kanto region, in the 30's,US NavyHe was on board the 7th Fleet as a military band and was stationed in Yokosuka.US Marine CorpsDrum & Bugle CoMembers provided marching instruction to local students.After that, they gave me guidanceKanto GakuinAnd Kanagawa PrefecturePolice bandBegan marching with bugles.

Types of marching bands

Military band
A military band aimed at transmitting signals with musical instruments on the battlefield and improving the morale of soldiers.There are various theories, but the origin of the modern military band isMehtelMade in Europe influenced byDrum and flute(English version of Ancient Fife and Drum CorpsSee).
paradeMarching band to do
The most classic style of marching band, where people line up on the road, playing music and drums outdoors to show onlookers at festivals and events.The instrumentation is a small group of classicsDrum and fluteThere is a wide variety from to a brass band of more than XNUMX people.
Marching band performing the show
Field drill
Performances and performances in vast outdoors such as outdoor stadiums.Especially in the United States, marching bands are AmericanfootballSince it has developed as a half-time show, performances on the football field are extremely popular.Overseas, it is often done without points (target marks placed every 5 meters).
Drum and Bugle Co
In a broad senseBugleと 呼 ば れ るBrass instrumentA band consisting of (signal wrapper) and percussion instruments.In a narrow senseCivil WarA music education organization for young people with its origins in the military band.The abbreviation Drum and Bugle is also used.It is a genre that develops in competitions, not half-time shows, although it holds field shows.Drum and Bugle Co., Ltd. (DCI), the organization that hosts the Drum and Bugle Coe competition, has limited the brass instruments used for many years to G-style bugles, but since 1999, DCI has been using G. The definition of drum and bugle corps has become ambiguous and complicated, as the use of musical instruments called marching brass has come to be accepted as well as the tone of bugles.
Floor drill
Performances and performances using the floors of gymnasiums and indoor stadiums.A unique form of Japan with a small land area and large climate variability.Japan Marching Band Baton Twirling AssociationThe tournament is held on a floor of 30 meters square.
Stage drill
Performance / acting on a stage such as a concert hall.Stage equipment such as lighting and stage curtains can also be used.In Japan, it is a performance form with a history of half a century, but "blast!It is also a field where global development is expected, as represented by.

Typical musical instrument organization

There are marching bands that have various types of musical instruments, but the representative ones are listed here.

Drum and flute
A classic style, also known as Drum and Fife Co.mainlydrumWith percussion instruments such asfluteAnd so on.In club activities of Japanese elementary school studentsRecorder,Keyboard harmonicaIs often used.
Concert band
The organization is the same as or quite close to that of a general brass band.Current[When?]In, percussion instruments similar to drums and bugles are often used.Of the woodwind instruments, the double reed genus is sometimes omitted because it is difficult to play while walking.There are also marching bands made up of brass instruments and piccolo and saxophone, as flutes and clarinets require a large number of people to ensure effective volume.Also, the clarinet and double reeds have to play with the tube below the horizontal, which makes it impossible to visually unify (with other instruments that can raise the tube). Some marching bands do not include seed instruments in their formations.
brass band
Organization with brass and percussion instruments such as bugles and marching brass.Also called a brass band.Drum and Bugle Co,English brass bandIs also included here.チ ュ ー バ,EuphoniumIn order to achieve sound directivity and visual unification, front bell instruments are often used.In addition, the midrange is the front bellFrench hornIn addition, a mellophone with a clearer sound outline is often used.

Organization of marching band

Drum measure

Of the marching bandConductorIs a "drum major" that means "drummer length" from the tradition of the drum corpsen) Is called.In addition to conducting the drum major, with the major batonwhistleMay be used to urge members to signal various formation changes.Also with the batontoss, Twirling, etc. may be performed according to the song.

In marching, we often play sideways or backwards, so there is a "sub-drum major" who conducts sideways or behind.

In most organizations, drum majors have different uniform colors than the other members.Batons often have tufts of red, yellow, and orange.

Section for playing wind instruments

brass

The brass instrument commonly used in marching evolved from a signal wrapper.BugleThere are two types, the marching brass, which is an improved version of the brass instrument used in orchestras and brass bands for marching.

In the United States, the signal trumpet was G-style, so all Drum and Bugle competitions (DCI) until 1998 were unified with G-style bugles.However, since 1998, due to the revision of DCI rules, when marching brass became available, many organizations changed from bugle to marching brass.In Japanese marching bands, bugles are rarely selected even if they are composed only of brass instruments.In addition, with the revision of the DCI rules, many groups are changing the instruments used in drums and bugles to marching brass, and there are few groups in Japan that can be called purely drums and bugles.

Bugle
A brass instrument derived from a signal trumpet. There are bugles other than G major, but they are rarely used in marching.
An instrument that evolved from a signal bugle without a valve, but now[When?]Bugles are regulartrumpetHas 3 or 4 pistons as well as.There are soprano, alto, baritone, and contrabass.Alto is altoFlugelhorn),Melophone,French hornThere are 3 types, baritone and baritoneEuphoniumThere are two types.In addition, soprano and alto have the same pipe length, but there is a difference in timbre due to the difference in the thickness of the pipe and the shape of the bell.
All are front bells (the bell is facing forward like a trumpet), and by unifying the directivity of the sound, the maximum effect can be obtained even outdoors with poor acoustics.In addition, the visual effects can be unified.Furthermore, the dynamics of the performance and the visual effects can be linked by changing the direction in which the performer is facing.
In addition to the tonality, that is, the length of the tube, the soprano bugle has a large conical tube opening and a large cylindrical tube diameter with respect to the trumpet.For this reason, the Bugle is characterized by a brilliant tone that contains many overtones and has excellent long-distance reachability. As of 2006, Bugles are sold by Dynasty and Kanstul in the United States.In the old days, it was produced by various manufacturers such as Buck, Radic, Getzen, Slingerland, Olds & Sun, and King.
Marching brass
In a brass band marching band, Bb and F tube marching brass are used instead of bugles.
Musical instruments compatible with sopranotrumpet(Bb tube).The instrument corresponding to the alto is marchingMelophone(F tube). Bb tube marchingFrench horn,FlugelhornThere is also a band that uses to thicken the sound.Musical instruments corresponding to baritone are marching baritone and marchingEuphonium(Both are Bb tubes).Musical instruments compatible with contrabass are marchingチ ュ ー バ(Bb pipe / Es pipe).
Also, as shown in the photo at the beginning of this section, the mainstream style is to play the instrument with the bell oriented "horizontally above the ground or slightly raised".
Sousaphone
A bass brass instrument with the same length as a Bb tube tuba.Since it is difficult to play while walking with the upright bell tuba, an instrument called a helicopter bass, which is shaped like a tube wrapped around the body, was created and further improved to become today's Sousaphone.In the past, it was synonymous with marching bands because of its large size and conspicuousness, and its somewhat charming appearance.In recent years, it is considered to be inferior to tuba in musical expression, and tends to be replaced by marching tuba.However, the intuitive visual effect of "instrument that produces low sound = loud" is an attraction that cannot be replaced by other instruments.Also, unlike the marching tuba, which requires a long training time to master the operation of musical instruments, the Sousaphone can be started by just carrying it.As long as a good tuba player plays, the problematic tone will give better results than the 3/4 size marching tuba, which is designed to be lightweight for weight reduction.AlsoSelf-Defense Forces Music CorpsBut Sousaphone is used.
The tube is originally made of brass like other brass instruments, but in order to reduce the burden on the player, a bell is used.FRP,ABS resinIt is also widely used to reduce the weight.

Section for playing percussion instruments

battery

Also called "drum" or "drum line".A percussion instrument section that participates in the drill, consisting of snare drums, tenor drums, bass drums, and cymbals.Snare drums are often composed of 2–8 people, tenor drums are often composed of 1–5 people, and bass drums are often composed of 3–5 people.Not only is it played, but a visual performance (gimmick) using a stick or the like is also performed.In the past, the instrument was hung with a belt, but nowadays, a drum is used for it because a dedicated carrying holder has been developed, it is easy to hold the instrument, and it does not interfere with the walking movement of the player. In most cases, it is attached and used.

Marching snare drum
通常 のSnare drumCompared to (concert snare drum), it is more sturdy and can be tuned with high tension.In addition, the shell (body) is deep and features unique overtones.
With the development of composition and arrangement techniques centered on drum and bugle corps and the progress of performance technology, the range of marching drums has been expanded year by year, and the snare drum, which is in charge of the highest note, is required to have an extremely high pitch.Nowadays, the rigidity of the instrument itself is increased, and the head is also made of synthetic fiber (Kevlar) Is used to support high tension.
Even though it has a high pitch, there is a difference in timbre from the piccolo snare drum, which produces "high notes", that resonates higher harmonics with an extremely shallow shell.Since the days of natural leather and stringing, small drums played outdoors have been used with deep-bodied and thick-sounding instruments.This tradition is also applied to today's marching snare drums, with a much deeper shell than for concerts, a thicker tone, and better reach.
In modern co-style percussion, orchestration is used to obtain effective sound by filling the space with many sounds even in the poor environment of outdoors.Therefore, a crisp, crisp sound is preferred.
The fact that a tight tone is preferred means that the sound line (SnappyAlso called).Most of the wires are made of metal for concerts, but for marching, the volume and crispness of tennis racketsGutThe one close to is used.
However, on the other hand, there is also a movement to use a conventional plastic film head and wire snare in combination with a deep body shell.This is because when a brass band organization mainly plays traditional marches, the sound of the snare drum of drum and bugle tuning stands out.
There is a traditional grip that is unique to the snare and has different grips for the right and left hands.It was caused by the fact that when the snare was hung with a belt, the instrument tilted to the right and it was difficult to hit the left hand.Current[When?]The instrument is not tilted due to the use of the carrying holder, but most groups hit it with this grip because of its good appearance.In addition, there are also groups that dare to tilt the instrument to perform as in the past.(For gripSnare drum #grip (how to grip)See also)
Small as an optioncymbal,CowbellEtc. may be attached.
Marching bass drum
Like the snare drum, it is used by attaching it to the carrying holder.Mainly responsible for the bassline of songs. Also called "bass drum".
In drum and bugle and co-style bands, there are usually 3-5 players of different sizes.Bass drumTo play.The size of the shell is generally 16 inches to 32 inches.
By sharing the players, it is possible to expand the range of performances, such as moving to a fine rhythm called running.It can be said that the marching bass drum has evolved from a classic "peaking" instrument to an instrument with an independent "voice" or melodious line.The "sound" that should originally be on the bass drum obscures the fine rhythm, so a mute is often attached to the head to eliminate the sound.As a result, only the attack sound of "con" can be heard.
It may be installed as an option.
Marching multi toms
This instrument is in charge of the range between the snare drum and the bass drum, and is used by attaching it to the carrying holder.In the drum setTomIt's a musical instrument, but it's much more tuned than that.The pitch interval of each tom is said to be a minor third, but there is no rule.
In the past, double-headed instruments were used, but nowadays, one player is in charge of combining multiple single-headed toms.There are various names such as multi, trio, quad, quint, tenor drum, etc.Generally distinguished by the number of toms.
  • A trio consisting of three toms.
  • A quad consisting of four toms.
  • A quint consisting of five toms.
  • A sextet consisting of 6 toms.
  • A septet consisting of seven toms.However, this was rarely seen in the United States in the latter half of the 7S.
As an optionCowbellEtc. may be attached.
There is a unique playing method called crossover, in which the arms are crossed and hit.
It is a crossover that can be visually appealing, but it also requires some skill from the player.
Marching cymbal
For concertscymbalIt is smaller, lighter, and thinner than the one used.In addition to hitting and playing, he is also in charge of visual acting by performing various actions.
However, since the performance can be supplemented by the suspended cymbals of the front ensemble (front pit), recently[When?]Many groups do not incorporate marching cymbals.
Marching xylophone
Used by attaching to a carrying holder.To reduce weight, the range has been narrowed to 2.5 octaves, and the size of one keyboard is also for concerts.XylophoneIt is one size smaller.Even so, it used to weigh nearly 20 kilograms, but with the progress of weight reduction, models of 7-8 kilograms have become the mainstream in recent years.Often used in parades.
Marching glockenspiel
Used by attaching to a carrying holder.GlockenspielSince is originally a small keyboard instrument, unlike the marching xylophone, the range is not narrowed for the purpose of weight reduction.An instrument different from the glockenspiel.Often used in parades.
Glockenspiel
SmallGlockenspielAttach a stick to and carry it with one arm, with the other armMalletA keyboard instrument that you play with.Since only one arm can be used for playing, it is not possible to play difficult rhythms.Mainly used by elementary school students and kindergarten drum and fife corps.
Marching keyboard
Small in carrying holderkeyboardWith (battery type) attached.It is mainly used by elementary school students, kindergarten drum and fife corps, and marching bands.Not a percussion instrument, but classified here.

Front pit

Also called "front ensemble" or "pit", various percussion instruments are placed in front of or beside the drill to perform.Since he does not participate in the drill, there are almost no marching elements such as walking with the stride.However, on the contrary, there is no restriction that you have to hit while walking, and it can be said that you can play a wide variety of percussion instruments.

Basically, each player's instrument is different, and each player's musical score is also different.Various tones are produced by various pit instruments, and it also has the role of making the entire song gorgeous.Although it is a pit that has little to do with drills, it can be said that it is indispensable in terms of performance.

Due to the positional relationship of playing in front of the drill, only the performance of the pit will protrude even if it is matched to the drum major, so the pit must listen to the performance of the drum or brass behind and play along with it.It is difficult for the pit to match the performance unless the brass and drums are properly matched to the tempo of the drum major.

mainlyMarimba,Xylophone,Vibraphone,Glockenspiel,Timpani,Triangle,concertBass drum,concertSnare drum,gong(Dora),chime,Wind chime,concertTom Tom,Japanese drum,Closing drum,bell,Azuki wave (surf drum),drum set,Brake drum,Crotalum, Suspendedcymbal, And other musical instruments are used.

In the 1970s, portable timpani and keyboard instruments were originally used, but in the latter half of the 1980s, a section called the front pit was established.

As a marching-specific instrumental composition, there are cases where there are several suspended cymbals and two or more concert bass drums are used.It is a scene that is not often seen in brass band, but it is necessary to use many cymbals and bass drums because there is no reverberation unlike the performance in the hall outdoors where marching is mainly performed.

In most cases, even groups that wear hats in uniforms do not wear hats only in the front pits.This is because the front pit is playing right under the drum major, so the hat makes it difficult to see the conductor.

Section responsible for visual effects

Color guard

It is found in drum and bugle and co-style marching bands that have a strong influence.This is because the color guard, who is in charge of guarding the national flag, was marching with the corps of drums or the trumpet corps of drums in the military.With the development of drum and bugle, the effectiveness of color guards in visual effects has been recognized, and the performance of color guards is extremely important in today's marching.Also, in the color guards acting in competitions, today, while skillfully using flags and rifles, the story of the music is expressed by expressing colors and dancing with costumes and items.

Baton twirler

The baton twirling was originally caused by the drum major of the marching band performing the production of turning and throwing the baton.In the past, it was natural for marching bands to have baton twirling.After that, due to the development of drum and bugle visual expression and the development of baton twirling as an original athletic competition, the band and baton are not as integrated as before, but even today, baton twirling is incorporated into marching. There are many opportunities.It can be said that the twirling baton is not as expressive as the color guard because it lacks visual volume and does not express colors.However, the three-dimensional space composition by toss and the acting with a sense of speed are the characteristics of baton twirling, and it is possible to give a strong visual effect by using it properly.

Cheerleader

In American college football, cheerleaders and bands work together to support the game, so half-time shows have been performed together.Even in Japanese universities, cheerleaders and bands may be included in the cheerleading organization.

basic action

MM
Abbreviation for marching and maneuvering.Basic movements such as stride length and posture when acting while walking, timing to put out legs, and how to walk, that is, "movement technique".It may also refer to practice to unify the walking style, posture, and timing of movement of all members.
Way of walking
In a marching band, not only do you walk forward, but you may also move backwards or sideways while facing the conductor in front of you.The name of how to walk and move at that time.
  • Mark time to step on the spot
  • Walk forward, forward march (also called simply forward)
  • Walk behind, backwards (also known as rear march)
  • Walk sideways, slide (side step, called club walk on drums)
  • Turn around, turn

Marching terminology

It is a term used in marching bands, but there are many different terms in each group even if they refer to the same thing.Therefore, the terms mentioned here are not used in all marching bands.

Drill
Forming a platoon, playing and acting while walking.It came to be called by this name from the repetitive training of basic movements in the military.In Japan, the performance of a marching band is still called a drill, but in the United States and other countries, mechanical accuracy is not the only focus of performance, so it is commonly called a "marching show."The parade is not called a drill.
call
Various commands in a marching band.Also called a voice element.
Ten hat
In one of the calls, the members take a "careful" attitude with commands such as "Corps, Ten Hut!". Attention sound stool. (Since the vowel before the accent is omitted when it is pronounced strongly, "a" is not pronounced. Also, "ha" is a decree that changes "shon" and has no meaning in itself.) You must be in the Tenhat position as soon as possible, and basically you must not move from that position until you get a signal to release the command.
Parade
One of the calls. If there is a command such as "Corps, Parade Rest!", The members will be in a "rest" position.This posture is often used before or after a performance, or when waiting in line.
Horns up
One of the calls. If there is a command such as "Corps, Horns Up!", The members will be in a position to hold the instrument.You can give a command before acting.

Current status of marching in Japan

There are two large marching competitions in Japan.

The concept of the M-kyo tournament and the Fukiren tournament are different, and in particular, the Fukiren tournament aims to "act as a marching band as it is."The difference in concept is reflected in the faces of the participating groups, and most of the M-kyo tournaments are literally marching bands that specialize in marching, and in the Fukiren tournament, they participate in the national tournament of the All-Japan Band Association. There are also bands that are active in harmony with concert bands, such as groups that are doing it.However, some groups have entered both tournaments, and they are performing and performing according to the concept of each tournament.

In the judging of competitions, it is often judged from the viewpoints of "visual effect", "music effect", "wind instrument", "percussion instrument", "movement technique", "color guard" and so on.However, for percussion instruments, "battery" and "front pit" may be judged separately, and "battery and front pit" may be judged at the same time in the item "percussion".

In addition, "JAPAN CUP" (Japan CUP) where groups whose main battlefields are the M-kyo and Fukiren tournaments meet together to compete for technology.外部 リンク) Is also held, and the name recognition and attention are increasing year by year.

In addition, the "Marching & Baton Stage National Tournament" (sponsored by M-kyo) specializing in stage drills and the "DCJ Championship" (sponsored by Drum and Bugle Japan) specializing in drum and bugle are held.

However, there is a problem that the number of participating groups in these tournaments does not increase as expected, and by extension, the number of groups engaged in marching does not increase.The following reasons can be considered.

  • There is no cost to prepare special musical instruments and costumes
  • Fewer or no professional leaders
  • Little information about marching
  • It is thought that the sound will be rough when marching
  • Difficult to secure a regular practice area (needs a large area, solves noise problems outdoors)

SDFThen.National Defense AcademyHonor guardAviation studentIs training a fancy drill and will be shown at an event of the Self-Defense Forces.

footnote

  1. ^ a b c d MAMOR editorial department "MAMOR November 2014 issue" page 11
  2. ^ MAMOR editorial department "MAMOR November 2014 issue" page 11

Related item

外部 リンク

Sports day

Sports day(Yes, English:Sports day) IsDedicated to pre-school and extra curricular,Company(Companies), regional groups (Community) (Children/students) and other participants and the cooperation of the operation will be carried out according to the prescribed programphysical educationActivity event[1].sports festivalSometimes referred to as (great).

The United Kingdom,GermanyAlthough it has its origins in physical education events, the athletic meet in Japan has become widespread in society since the end of the Meiji era for the purpose of "national prestige," "rich country strong soldiers," and "health promotion."[2]Because it is a "physical education event unique to modern Japan"[3]To be[4](See also history section).

Overview

Athletic fieldAnd mainly use athletic abilityCompetitionAnd play.

Junior high school-UniversityThen "sports festivalIs often referred to as ","Large athletic meet'[5]"Sports Conference""Sports competition""Sports festival[Note 1]There is also a nickname such as ".

Often held once or twice a year, it used to be a fall tradition, but nowadays it is most often done.Spring:(5-6), thenFall:(9-10).HokkaidoIn autumn, the weather is bad, so overwhelmingly most elementary schools hold from late May to early June.[6].. Also, the climate is cool in the whole country except Hokkaido.heatstrokeThat there is little influence such astyphoon,autumn rainIn order to avoid postponement/cancellation due to the weather such asNHKAccording to the results of a survey conducted byTokyo 23 WardAnd 20 nationwideGovernment-designated cityOf the approximately 3700 public elementary schools, 66 schools, or 2400% of the total, held athletic meet in the spring.[7][8][9].. The athletic meet is divided into spring and autumnSchool excursion,HikingIt is often because events such as do not overlap with other schools.

School athletic meet

Elementary school, junior high school, high school, and special needs school

Course of StudyIn "special activity" inschool eventIt is an event held by the voluntary participation of children and students. Its purpose is to cultivate a sense of solidarity, cooperation, harmony, and solidarity.[10].. Depending on the school, there are cases where ball games or class matches are held in place of the sports festival and athletic meet.

UniversityIn the case of not a school playground[11],localAthletic field,gymnasiumIn some cases, such facilities may be used.

In the Tohoku region, on the morning of the sports dayWolf smoke(fireworks) Is sounded to inform the decision[12].

Competition method
Red and white (red and white)It is common to create teams with different colors such as to compete with each other,Cheer teamSometimes formed.GunmaThen.Jomo SanzanIt is often divided into three groups: Akagi, Haruna, and Myogi. In some schools, in addition to the red and white groups, green, blue and yellow groups are set. In middle school and high school, there may be a class competition. In that case, color is often set for each class. In elementary and junior high schools, I used to practice competition and cheering for half a month-one and a half months ago,5 days a weekAs a result, the practice period is about 1-2 weeks, especially in junior high school.
At public elementary and junior high schoolsSet gymnastics,ダンスlikeMass gameWill be shown at the grade level, at the whole school, or at all boys and girls, but in high schools there may not be such a case. It is said that private elementary and junior high schools and high schools often do only free-choice competitions, and there are times when it is almost a bumpy performance. In addition, the entrance march today軍隊To make the ceremony orderly,Goose foot march,Nazi saluteSchools for people are also found all over the country, and it is becoming a problem centered on online media.
At the stage of compulsory education, there is an atmosphere that emphasizes the unity of the grade classes.relayIs often done. In middle school and high schoolClub activitiesCounter-relays may also occur. In addition, at that timehandicapMay be attached.
back ground
Japan Modern nationIt is said that the athletic meet played a major role in the process of forming[Who?].. For one,Local autonomyThe maintenance of the systemindustryThe reorganization of the traditional local community due to the progress of the evolution has contributed to the integration of the local community. Reconfirm the solidarity of the local community centered on the school by firmly participating in the athletic meet not only for current students but also for adults in the area, and adults who do not send their children to school Became possible. The athletic meet is "HalleIt played an important role in strengthening the sense of solidarity in the local community while playing a role as a place of "."
Tools
The main ones are large ones, equal flags,corn,Bigflag,stationFor ball throwsbasket, Small things, small flags,rope,rubber,ball,Rope,ropeEtc. Tools will be prepared by faculty members, children, and PTA on the day before and on the day.
lunch
Athlete's lunch was brought in the school yardBox lunchThere were many scenes where parents and children would eat together. However, while there are families where even relatives and friends gather and perform grandly, there is also an opinion that "a child of a family where parents cannot come (for work etc.) is poor", and the school prepares a lunch box, Let them eat in the classroom, or as usualLunchThe number of schools giving out is increasing. In northern Kanto,A stallBut some regions sell lunch, and some families use it.
In addition, due to factors such as the difficulty in securing time for preparing and practicing athletic meet, there is a tendency to shorten the time for athletic meet, and as a result, more and more athletic meet without lunch time are increasing. 2018 yearHokkaidoSapporoIn the elementary school example, more than half are held until noon[13].
Cheer
Cheer teamWas formed, in front of the event, during the implementation,Cheering battleOften do. The practice of the cheering party is generally about half a month. In addition, there are children and parents who support their families, groups, and friends at the children's seat.
clothing
Children-studentIs basicallyGym clothesWear it, but depending on the type of expression, etc.家庭,Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricularAnother prepared inClothingMay be done by wearing theLeaderAlso prepared by the schoolNon-wovenSome schools wear made costumes.underwearIs the same as when exercising for other sportsSports braWear sports underwear or similar underwear.Set gymnastics,Cavalry battleEtc., upper bodynaked(Men only)barefootThere is a case to do it.
photograph
The parents of this athletic meetカメラThere were many scenes that were filmed and video shots, but in recent yearspersonal informationFor protection, crime prevention, and safety reasons, some schools prohibit photography by non-contracted professionals. In the past, people unrelated to school enteredBloomersAppearanceChest-Bouncing milk・Sometimes it was filmed mainly for girls with transparent bra, but abolition of bloomers[14],puberty(Thelarche ・breast OfTanner stageII) AfterbraWear and show through bra prevention[15]Thorough[16], It is currently decreasing due to restrictions on admission for non-parties.

Vocational school

Vocational schoolIn general, there are often no sports facilities unless physical education departments or clubs are set up.[17]If you hold a sports day, you often rent a local physical education facility. However, there is no obligation to hold it as an event[18], The athletic meet itself may not be held depending on the school.

Corporate athletic meet, local athletic meet

Workplace (company etc.)Region(Municipality), etc., but in recent years there is also a trend to cancel the holding or reduce its scale. It may be canceled due to the poor management conditions of the company for the athletic meet in the workplace, and for the local athletic meet due to depopulation and weakening of connections. In addition, there is an interpretation rule concerning athletic competitions in “Regarding disasters associated with athletic competitions outside of business” (Head 12.5.8, No. 366).

History

The origin of athletic meet is said to be in Europe, but in Europe and America, depending on the culture of physical education and sports, on the one hand, special events and sports competitions that combine them, and on the other hand, traditional play festivals and picnic events by children. And so on, leading to today[3].. Therefore, a physical education event in which participants participate in a certain program, such as a Japanese athletic meet, in order to compete and perform as a whole, is called a "physical education event unique to modern Japan."[3].. In addition to Japan, the event-type physical education events found in Japan areTaiwan,Korean Peninsulaな どJapanese ruleIt has become popular and has survived. But, South KoreaIn recent years,Japanese Emperor Remains"There is a movement to abolish the athletic meet. Gathering at a running pace or marching in a line, synchronizing roll calls and voices,BunkaraThe remnants of the wartime period such as the support of the wind and the replacement of the military song "Infantry's main character" are well established.

The athletic meet started in JapanMeijiIt is an era. Originally, the athletic meet was called “competition game”, “gymnastics”, “athletic competition”, etc.[19].

According to the established theory, the first athletic meet held in Japan1874May 3,Navy soldier dormitoryMade inCompetition gameTo be[20][19](EnglishmanEnglishteacherFrederick William StrangeIt is said that it was done under the guidance ofThe University of Tokyo Reserve GateBut athletic meet is held[Source required]). However,1868In the shogunateYokosuka WorksThere is also a theory that the first thing was done by engineers and craftsmen in[21].

1878May 5ToSapporo agricultural school"Riki Geikai" was held at[22][19].. It is said that after that, it spread to elementary and junior high schools in Hokkaido within a few years. Also,1882ToMeiji Law School[23],1883ToTokyo University[19],Tokyo College[24]But athletic meet came to be held.

Then the first generationMinister of Education-Yuri MoriBegan to hold an athletic meet at school to recommend group training for physical education.

Japanese ruleexperienced South Korea,north korea,Taiwan,Northeastern ChinaThe school also has an athletic meet as a remnant of the Japanese era.

During World War II, the color of war became stronger in the athletic meet events, such as horse-riding, field matches, and marching, but at the end of the war, the playing field became scarce due to food shortages.FarmlandIt is said that there are many cases where implementation becomes impossible due to[25].

Message

Originally, the event is to announce the results acquired in physical education classes according to the curriculum on a regular basis, but some programs have unique colors and actual conditions of the district school such as play and performance not included in the curriculum. Performances tailored to are approved at the discretion of each municipality.

Typical competitions/plays held at the athletic meet

In recent years, many schools have given different names to sports such as team sports.

ACCIDENT

Due to the nature of some performances, accidents such as death of children and students, paralysis of the body, hearing loss, loss of eyesight, and movement disorders were found to occur due to falls, shocks and collisions. Some municipalities are taking measures such as refraining from conducting some performances or significantly shortening the time of events due to reasons such as litigation risk and safety. in JapanNational compensation lawBased on the above, when a teacher is a public employee of a national or local public organization and performs its duties, if the child or student is illegally damaged due to intentional or negligence, the national or public organization shall be liable for damages ( (National Compensation Law, Article 1, Paragraph 1)[27]

heatstroke

Every year, there are many cases of group outbreaks of heat stroke among students due to practice and implementation of athletic meet including extracurricular activities on a hot day, and outdoor activities under hot weather.

Accident response

Unlike injuries caused by traffic accidents, injured persons are rarely moved as much as possible and urgent requests are not made directly from the accident site. The procedure of transporting is taken[28].

Accident prevention
About prevention of heat stroke accidents (request)(*External link) Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology May 27, 5
Heat Index (WBGT)-Ministry of the Environment heat stroke prevention information website
Ministry of the Environment Heat Stroke Prevention Information Website Contact-Frequently Asked Questions

Classic song

In addition to these songs, there are marches for athletic meet and athletic festival for schools.[29].. In recent years, I often use it.
The songs at the entrance and exit at the opening and closing ceremonies are often performed live by the music club and music band of the school.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ "SpofesIt may be abbreviated as "".

Source

  1. ^ Japan Athletic AssociationSupervised "Latest Sports Encyclopedia" p.94 Daishukan Bookstore 1987
  2. ^ A historical study on the physical education of high school girls in the Meiji era Chieko Oya
  3. ^ a b c Supervised by the Japan Sports Association "Latest Sports Encyclopedia" p.96 Daishukan Shoten 1987
  4. ^ Supervised by the Japan Sports Association "Latest Sports Encyclopedia" p.94-96 Daishukan Shoten 1987
  5. ^ Example "Health Sapporo 21" large athletic meet
  6. ^ Elementary school athletic meet will be held from May to June! Athlete meet information in Hokkaido
  7. ^ Elementary school athletic meet More spring than autumnNHK News August 2016, 10
  8. ^ "Autumn tradition" athletic meet changed-"Spring" held also increasedSaga Shimbun June 2006, 7
  9. ^ Athletic season fall to spring, two semesters and heatKanagawa Shimbun October 2012, 10
  10. ^ "New School Education Complete Works 14 School Events" p.156 Gyosei 1995
  11. ^ In the case of high school, it is said that there is no need to prepare for exercise facilities "when there are special circumstances and there is no obstacle to education" ("High school establishment standard"From Article 16).
  12. ^ The voice of "stop" in the fireworks in the early morning The custom of Tohoku that informs the athletic meet, schools to send off in Sendai increase - Kahoku Shimpo
  13. ^ "“Short-time athletic meet” spreads School and parent Honne who even jump to the theory of abolition”. Post Seven (November 2018, 5). 2019/5/19Browse.
  14. ^ The bloomers themselves became a problem. "Bloomers # Opposition Movement and DeclineSee.
  15. ^ The bra is ridiculous|Underwear questions|Elementary school/junior high school girlsUnderwear worries|Girls badenabi
  16. ^ 10 years old. Timing to start talking about "chest" with my daughter Today's high school girl, no bra, athletic meet is NG from the development and crime prevention side! - 2015May 2-Nikkei DUAL
  17. ^ It is said that it is necessary to prepare depending on the purpose ("Standards for establishment of special training schools(From Article 45, Paragraph 2).
  18. ^ In the first place, there are no rules regarding events in the “standards for establishing specialized training schools” → “educational curriculum”.
  19. ^ a b c d Supervised by the Japan Sports Association "Latest Sports Encyclopedia" p.95 Daishukan Shoten 1987
  20. ^ History of the Naval Academy
  21. ^ "Encyclopedia of Sports" p.66 Maruzen 2007
  22. ^ History of the XNUMXth anniversary of the founding of Hokkaido Imperial University
  23. ^ Meiji University, "Meiji University Centennial," pages 40-41
  24. ^ Before "Waseda Sports" [1st] – Waseda Weekly
  25. ^ "Encyclopedia of Sports" p.67 Maruzen 2007
  26. ^ In the past, there were time challenges such as the class opposition "Thirty-three-one-legged" that was featured in TV programs, but during the performance, many injured continued, such as a chained fall, and the fire soon fell.
  27. ^ Damages Claim Case Nagoya District Court Case information
  28. ^ It is better for us to change the way we look at the athletic meet-Interview of a parent who was seriously injured by her gymnastics-
  29. ^ Broadcasting BGM for competition using commercially available CDs etc. is generally done for the purpose of non-profit, free of charge, no compensation, so it is not necessary to understand the copyright holder, but beyond this purpose Of course, the copyright holder's consent is required before use. However, many of the standard songs have already exceeded the copyright protection period, and the copyright has disappeared.

References

Related item

外部 リンク

  1. ^ About heat stroke measures in athletic meet practice period Yamatohigashi Elementary School
  2. ^ About heat stroke measures and WBGT measurement Feature-Japan Sports Promotion Center
  3. ^ Prevention of heat stroke and first aid Japan Sports Promotion Center

 

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