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👩‍🎓 | Koper announces survey results on "How to deal with children with developmental disabilities"


Koper announces survey results on "how to deal with children with developmental disabilities"

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When asked if they knew that care up to the age of 6 was important for developmental disabilities, 74.98% answered "yes".

Koper conducted for parents who send children under elementary school age with developmental disabilities to medical care, "Children with developmental disabilities ... → Continue reading


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Developmental disorders

Mental disorder > Developmental disorders

Developmental disorders(Hatsutsugaisho,British: Developmental disability, DD)身体AndLearning,言语,communication skillIn any ofFailureIt is a state of holding, and the state appears from the human development stage[1].. The cause iscongenitalIn most cases, lack of ability due to developmental delay will not be cured for life.[1][2]..Mostly self-managedcommunicationIs difficultSocial lifeIn addition to causing a number of problems, there is also excessive interest in certain things.[*1]..Although it is literally a disorder of "development", it is not always discovered by the period of remarkable growth, and in social life after adulthood.Adult developmental disordersIt may be discovered as.Compulsory educationEnrollment rate of about 6.5% for people with developmental disabilities in regular classes[*2]Said,Adult developmental disordersIt can be said that it is a frequent obstacle in various organizations because it often shifts to.[3]..It's not a simple obstacle that non-experts can intuitively understand[*3],lawAbove, in order to be recognized as a person with developmental disabilitiesDoctorWith detailed inspection byDiagnosisis necessary[*4].


JapanIn the administrative definition ofDevelopmental disability support lawStipulated byautism,Asperger's syndromeOtherPervasive developmental disorder,Learning disability,Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorderOther similar brain dysfunctions whose symptoms usually appear in younger ages"[4][5][6][7].2013At that time, 77,882 people with developmental disabilities were confirmed in elementary and junior high school students, and the understanding of developmental disabilities is rapidly advancing in society, so the statistics for the past 20 years have been increasing.[8]..In particular, in the pre-Showa era, people who were vaguely classified among the general public as strangers, naughty people, naughty people, etc. came to be understood as developmental disorders under a strict medical definition. ..

In developmental disorders in their broader academic classification,Intellectual disabilityIt is a slightly broader classification including[5].. In such a diagnostic classification, "ICD-10 Chapter 5: Mental and Behavioral Disorders, "F80-F89 disorders of psychological development" "F90-F98 behavioral and emotional disorders that usually occur in childhood and adolescence",American Psychiatric Associationby"Mental disorder diagnosis and statistics manual(DSM), 4th Edition (DSM-IV), “Normally first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence,” DSM-5NeurodevelopmentBecomes

InformatizationWith the progress ofworkplace OfScheduleAs the number of people becomes overcrowded, self-management becomes more severe due to a large number of tasks, and the importance of collaboration with others increases, the problem of developmental disabilities is emerging even in adults.adultSubsequent developmental disordersAdult developmental disordersCalled.The lack of ability was covered by the surrounding environment, and it was decidedScheduleYou only have to do the tasks given according to the above. Even if you don't have any noticeable problems in your school days, you have various tasks.societyMany problems occur in life, and the possession of developmental disabilities may be discovered (for details, seeAdult developmental disorders(See)[9].

Compulsory educationIt is said that the enrollment rate of people with developmental disabilities is about 6.5% in the normal class of the stage.Ministry of educationConsidering the results of the survey and the fact that there are quite a lot of cases of carrying over disability in adulthood, it can be said that it is a disability frequently seen in various organizations in society.[3]..This obstacle isSocial lifeTo make it extremely difficultSocial withdrawalIs also related to the occurrence of[10][11][12].

There is a bias in brain function in the background, and the causes and symptoms vary from person to person, so simply because there are many mistakes or not sociable cannot be included in developmental disorders.[*5].


There are various causes of developmental disorders, and many unclear points remain. Multiple factors are involved and include genetic, fetal health status, birth environment, infectious diseases, environmental factors, etc.[1].. Twin studies make it possible to calculate the degree of influence of genetic factors and other factors.Autism spectrum disorderADHDIs known to have a large effect on genetic factors[13][14][15].. Most developmental disorders are formed prenatally, but some are postnatalTrauma,Infection, May be due to other factors[1].. There are many causes, but for example:[16]..It is necessary to combine multiple tests to identify the cause, the test cost is high, and the frequency of misdiagnosis tends to be high.Therefore, it is not an obstacle that can be easily handled by non-experts.


The term developmental disability was coined in the United States in 1963 as a legal term and was said to have entered Japan in the 1970s.[6].

In the 21st century, there are two types of international diagnostic classifications mainly used in psychiatry. It is an academic classification. WHOIs an international classification of diseases according toICD-10 Chapter 5: Mental and Behavioral Disorders], the following applies.

  • F80-F89 Psychological developmental disorders
  • F90-F98 Behavioral and emotional disorders that usually occur in childhood and adolescence

American Psychiatric AssociationbyDSM-5Then,

Corresponds to a part of. Thus, the classification system does not match between ICD-10 and DSM-5[17].. Since ISM-5 corresponds to DSM-11 and ICD-10 corresponds to DSM-IV, these are not in a corresponding relationship.

DSM-IV has a similar classification as "normally first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence"[18].. These are as listed below,Pervasive developmental disorder,Learning disability,Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, It is a classification that is included not only in intellectual disabilities but a little more widely.

Other sites listed on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention include:

Classification in Japan

According to the Japan Developmental Disability Welfare Federation,Intellectual disability(Mental retardation) is a condition that requires life-long support centered on it.[6].. In the document of Tama Fuchu Public Health Center in Tokyo, this is defined as "developmental disorder in a broad sense" and the definition of "developmental disorder in a narrow sense" is as follows in the Developmental Disability Support Act.[6].. Narrow sense is the administrative definition of Japan[5], MEXT also has this definition[20].. Disagree with the academic definition[20].

Narrowly defined developmental disorders

Broad sense includes intellectual disability, congenital motor development disorder, epilepsy[6].

Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareThe 2005rd "Study Committee on Support for Persons with Developmental Disabilities" held in March 3 examined the definition.[21].

JapaneseDevelopmental disability support lawAccording to (established in April 2005), Article 4 paragraph 2 states that "developmental disorder" in this law means autism,Asperger's syndromeOther pervasive developmental disorders, learning disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other similar disorders of the brain function that are defined by Cabinet Order as those whose symptoms usually appear in the younger age”. Paragraph 2 defines a person with a developmental disability and a child under 18 years of age with a developmental disability.

Notice text is issued separately.

  • In “Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Joint Vice Minister of Education, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, 17th Section of Education, No. 16, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Disability No. 0401008,” the disorder covered by the law is a disorder of brain function and its symptoms are usually at a low age. Among the manifestations, ICD-10 (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems) "Disorders of Psychological Development (F80-F89)" Disability (F90-F98)” must be included.”

Since the 1980s, developmental disabilities without intellectual disabilities have been recognized by society. Developmental disabilities that include intellectual disabilities are legally treated as intellectual disabilities, and therefore, the term simply "developmental disability" may refer to something without intellectual disability.

Of these, learning disability (LD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and high-functioning pervasive developmental disorder have been called "mild developmental disorders" in Japan. This "mild" means "not corresponding to mental retardation", but it was misunderstood that the developmental disability was mild, so it is now sometimes classified as "(mild) developmental disability" for convenience. There are also names such as high-functioning pervasive developmental disorder (high-functioning PDD) and high-functioning autism, but these are also "high-functioning" meaning that intelligence does not correspond to mental retardation. In addition, the diagnostic criteria for high-functioning autism are not clear, and it is not necessary to be strictly distinguished from Asperger's syndrome in clinical practice.[22][Detailed information for identifying documents].

A clear decision isPsychiatricIt is said that even psychiatrists who advocate are difficult because they have not studied this field at university. At the development counseling support facility set up by each prefecture or ordinance-designated city, objective materials such as growth history and cognitive function tests (IQ inspection,Psychological examinationEtc.)Psychological judgeWhat kind of treatment is needed, judged by a few specialist doctors, in the form of giving judgment materials that can be used as aSSTIn many cases, the psychiatrist is provided with materials such as whether it is necessary.

It is vulnerable to environmental changes and is not good at adapting to the environment.A researcher at the Institute of Mental Health said, "It's an extreme theory, but it seems that children with developmental disabilities are experiencing'disaster-like situations on a daily basis.'"[23].

Mild developmental disorder

In Japan from around 2000, the concept of "mild developmental disorder" was regarded as a developmental disorder without "mental retardation" and "physical disability".Toshiro SugiyamaAdvocated by [24]. this isHigh-functioning pervasive developmental disorder(Refers to high-performance PDD, Asperger syndrome, high-functioning autism, etc.),LD,ADHDetc,Intellectual disabilityWithout (ie overallIQIs used within the normal range) to refer to the concept of disease[25](However, for ADHD, there may be cases of intellectual disability). The word "high functionality" here is the same as the word "mild"Intellectual disabilityIt is used to mean that there is no The reason why it is called "mild" is that it is "more intelligent"[25].

The MHLW pointed out that the term "does not exist in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of ICD-10" and "does not exist in the American Psychiatric Association DSM-V]" and "who intended It is a term that spread without knowing whether it started to use it”[26].. In addition, it is easy to misunderstand that the degree of disability is "mild" due to the feeling of the word, but the disability itself is not always mild because of the above reasons.[*6].Ministry of education[*7]In 2007, it announced that "the term "mild developmental disorder" will not be used in principle in the future due to the fact that its meaning is not always clear".[27].

It is said to be “mild”, but the problems faced by the affected person are by no means light, and early understanding and appropriate support are desirable.[28].. If understanding or discovery is delayed,Bullying,School refusal,delinquencyMay cause secondary symptoms such as[28].


Developmental disabilities can be suspected if the child has not reached the expected developmental stage.Interviews and genetic tests are conducted to rule out differential diseases.

The degree of disability isDevelopmental ageThe difference between (developmental age) and the actual age can be quantified. This score is defined below as DQ (developmental quotient)[29][30]

Intelligence test(Wexler adult intelligence testIf the difference between verbal IQ and behavioral IQ is severe, the developmental disorder is suspected or special support is required for the person.

At least the patient himselfPlace contextIt is difficult to take action according to. Even if a child is not diagnosed with a developmental disorder during childhood, bizarre behavior in the human relationship is considered a problem, and the fact of the disorder is likely to be exposed. Developmental disorders found after adulthood areAdult developmental disordersCalled社会 問題It has become.



For early development support in developmental disorders,Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Developmental support programs that make full use of the above method are considered effective by numerous evidences[31][32].. Also, to support emotional coordination and problem solving in developmental disorders,Cognitive behavioral therapyIt is said that programs that make full use of this method are easy to work on[33].Open dialogIs expected to be treated by[34].

Challenging action

Some people with developmental disabilitiesChallenging action[35]It has the habit of saying, "There is a strength, frequency, and period that endangers the physical safety of the individual or the surroundings and is urgently restricted or denied about the use of general community facilities. Is defined as "insane behavior"[36].

There are various factors that cause the challenging behaviors of persons with developmental disabilities.

  • Biological-The desire for pain, drugs, and sensory stimulation
  • Social-Boredom, seeking social relationships, needing control of something, lack of knowledge of community norms, unresponsive staff and service personnel
  • Environmental-gaining access to physical factors like noise and light, things and activities you want
  • Psychological-alienation, loneliness, truncation, labeling, disempowerment, negative expectations of people

Challenging behaviors have been acquired through learning and rewards over a long period of time, and it is highly possible that the behaviors can be improved by teaching new behaviors to achieve the same purpose. The challenging behaviors of persons with developmental disabilities are often due to some other mental problem[37].

Generally, behavioral interventions andApplied behavior analysisAre known to be effective in reducing certain challenging behaviors[38].. In recent years, it has been said that the development of developmental path models by behavioral context analysis is effective in preventing challenging behaviors.[39].


米 国

Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) has developmental disabilities in about 3% of children aged 17-17 years,ADHD, Autism spectrum disorder,Cerebral palsy,Deafness,Intellectual disability,Learning disability,Visual impairment, And one or more other stunts, etc.[1].

For example, 25% of hearing-impaired infantsCytomegalovirusDue to infection[1].

CDC's 1997–2008 study found thatPrevalenceWas 13.87%, including learning disability 7.66%, ADHD 6.69%, other developmental deficiencies 3.65%, autism 0.47%[40].


According to data surveyed by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in 2002, there is no delay in the development of intelligence, but special consideration is required for daily learning and behavior.な どNo children found 6.3%[41].. According to the results of a survey conducted in 2006 by the Western Community Health Center of Nagoya City, out of 6 children aged 8 to 13558 years living in the area, 2.07 or 281% accounted for XNUMX children.Pervasive developmental disorder(PDD) diagnosed[41].. Among them, the intelligence index of 71 or moreHigh-functioning autismWas 177 people[41].

Welfare in Japan

Mental disability certificate

According to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology,Law on Mental Health and Welfare for Persons with Mental Illness(Mental Health and Welfare Law)Mentally handicapped individualDisability certificate forMental disability certificateDevelopmental disability is treated as a category of mental illness, although it is not explicitly stated as a subject of the[42]And

According to the notification from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, "About the criteria for determining the grade of disability in the Health and Welfare Handbook for Mental Disabilities" As diseases, "psychological developmental disorders" and "behavioral and emotional disorders that occur in childhood and adolescence" (according to ICD-18) are specified, and each disorder of developmental disorders is targeted. According to the Ministry's notification, it is possible to enter ICD-9 categories F29-F10 and F10-F80 in the medical certificate for application.[43].

On the other hand, some books say that it cannot be acquired without a secondary obstacle.[44].. This is also because the certification standards for the mental health care and welfare notebook differ depending on the local government.

Nursing notebook

Intellectually Handicapped IndividualDisability certificate forNursing notebookMany are calling for legalization of acquisition[45]It is said that the nursing certificate itself is the basislawIn 1973, the Ministry of Health and Welfare (currentlyMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare) Issued as a reference to “Rehabilitation Handbook System” and “Implementation of Rehabilitation Handbook System”, it has been issued as a unique project of prefectures and ordinance-designated cities, so some areas can be obtained.[46].

Each notification issued by the ministry in 1999Local government lawWith the amendment (enforcement in April 2000), the country will use notifications and notifications.MunicipalitiesCan no longer be involved in the affairs of (Agency delegationThe abolition of) has already lost its effect.

Developmental disability support law

The same law (Law No. 16 on December 12, 10) stipulates that only persons with developmental disabilities other than those with intellectual disabilities should be supported.

Disability Comprehensive Support Act

It is an object that has not been specified in the text before. However, as of July 2009, 7, there is an opinion that the operation in municipalities is not thorough.[42].. So on December 2010, 12,Person with a disability system reform promotion headquartersBased on the consideration in the above, "Act on the development of related laws to support community life of persons with disabilities (common name,Disability Independence Support ActAmendment draft)” and amended the Act for Supporting Independence of Persons with Disabilities to specify developmental disorders[47].

Disability pension

If your symptoms limit your life or work,Disability pensionMay be subject to payment.

Related organizations

There is an organization organized for the purpose of mutual assistance made by parents of children with developmental disabilities or persons, and is generally called "Parents' Association", and as an autism-related organization, it is a corporation.Japan Autism AssociationThere is. As an organization to which organizations related to developmental disabilities belongJapan Developmental Disability NetworkThere is.

Social life of people with developmental disabilities

In most cases, people with developmental disabilities have their own management abilities and others想像力There is nocommunicationBecause the pattern is also childishSocial lifeWill have problems with[1]..In addition, certain things may be particularly (socially unacceptable) insistence, which can be objectively regarded as a bias in ability.[2].

Exceptionally, my own特性Has been successful (ADHDTaking advantage of a wide range of unique behaviorsentrepreneurThere are some people with developmental disabilities, but the end of general people with developmental disabilities is dark.The reason is that people with developmental disabilities often lack coordination and are at high risk of social isolation.Usually, people with developmental disabilities are not good at understanding the context and act in a self-centered manner without any ill will, so they often have difficulty in social life due to lack of coordination with their surroundings.Alternatively, they take a challenging attitude toward their surroundings and destroy the relationship of trust.In addition, conversations often end with a single answer, and it is difficult to maintain emotional connections outside of work because chats cannot be continued.Even if people with developmental disabilities are repeatedly pointed out, people with developmental disabilities cannot understand what the problem is and do not improve their behavior. ..People with developmental disabilities are hated by everyone during their school days because they cannot cooperate with their surroundings.School refusalEven if it doesn't, as soon as I become a member of society, I start to be treated as a problem employee because there are many omissions of recognition and misinterpretations, and after losing all credibility, I am relegated or dismissed. I am often forced to work.

However, people with developmental disabilities tend not to recognize their disabilities and tend to choose similar professions even when they are forced to change jobs or hide the facts of their disabilities.Also, even if you tell the fact of developmental disability to the surroundings, it will be treated as "sweet" orSocial lifeMany times infrustrationBy doingSocial withdrawalIt may lead to.As a rough vocational aptitudeInformation systemIn many cases, it is very good at manufacturing technology such as development (however,codingOnly downstream processes such as) will lead all concerned parties togetherleaderNot suitable forManagementIt is reported that they often do not pass the exam.Therefore,Length of serviceEven ifBorn,marriageSyncBehind the scenesincomeThere is little increase inStandard of livingDoes not go up[48].


It also describes related intellectual disability.


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Since interest in a specific field is unusually strong, it tends to ignore social demand and often interferes with social life.Also, since you keep talking about what you are interested in in the conversation, the conversation tends to be one-way.For example, in the workplace, I am not interested in the behavior of others, so I cannot infer the situation as an organization, and I do not understand the essentials of the work, and even if I spend a lot of time, the work progresses at all. The result is no.
  2. ^ TeacherAgainstquestionnaireIt is the result of the investigationDoctorIt should be noted that it is not the result of the diagnosis by.
  3. ^ Rather, even doctors make difficult decisions based on multifaceted analysis.Non-experts run the risk of treating all non-sociable people as developmentally disabled by looking only at the surface of complex situations.
  4. ^ Growth historyBecause multifaceted analysis including surveys and ability tests is required, developmental disabilitiesDiagnosisDifficult in itselfMisdiagnosisThere can also be.
  5. ^ It is useful as a starting point for consultation.
  6. ^ By the way, the antonym "severity" is used to mean "the degree of intellectual disability is heavy" andMultiple obstacles", etc.
  7. ^ Special Support Education Division, Department of Primary and Secondary Education, Ministry of Education.


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Facts About Developmental Disabilities”. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2015/6/1Browse.
  2. ^ a b "Concept of support for people with developmental disabilities according to their life stages". Cabinet Office. 2021/7/15Browse.
  3. ^ a b "Data collection of materials on the ideal way of educational support after school". Ministry of education. 2021/1/7Browse.
  4. ^ Developmental disability support lawArticle 2019 e-Gov Law Search June 6, 19
  5. ^ a b c Tsuneo Yoshioka "Assessment of children with developmental disabilities"Bulletin of Aichi University of Education Clinical Education Center" No. 2, March 2012, pp. 3-79, NOT 120005378771.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Chapter XNUMX What is Developmental Disorder?"Regional Cooperation Handbook for Supporters-Handling Children with Developmental Disabilities』Tokyo Tama Fuchu Public Health Center, 2013.
  7. ^ About special needs education-What is developmental disability? - Ministry of education
  8. ^ "Data collection of materials on the ideal way of educational support after school". Ministry of education. 2020/12/22Browse.
  9. ^ Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “Why is it overlooked until adulthood | What is an adult developmental disability?”(Japanese). Adult Developmental Disabilities | NHK Welfare Portal Heart Net. 2021/4/29Browse.
  10. ^ "Hikikomori Overlooked Developmental Disorders”(Japanese). NHK Living Information Blog. 2021/1/31Browse.
  11. ^ "Working Square December 2017 issue". www.jeed.go.jp. 2021/1/31Browse.
  12. ^ "More than 4 in 1 people have developmental disabilities !? The real reason why withdrawal adults can't work”(Japanese). Diamond Online. 2021/1/31Browse.
  13. ^ Toshiyasu Ando "Psychology of Genetics and Environment" Baifukan (2004)
  14. ^ “Advances in autism”. Annu Rev Med 60: 367–80. (2009). two:10.1146 / annurev.med.60.053107.121225. PMC 3645857. PMID 19630577. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3645857/. 
  15. ^ National Collaborating Center for Mental Health (2009). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Diagnosis and Management of ADHD in Children, Young People and Adults. NICE Clinical Guidelines. 72. Leicester: British Psychological Society. ISBN 978-1-85433-471-8. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of 13 January 2016.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK53652/ 
  16. ^ "MedlinePlus-Developmental Disabilities". American National Library of Medicine. 2016/1/10Browse.
  17. ^ BJKaplan; VASadock "Clinical Psychiatric Textbook DSM-5 Clinical Deployment of Diagnostic Criteria" (3rd Edition) Medical Science International, May 2016, 5, Chapt. 31.ISBN 978-4-89592-852-6. 
  18. ^ Ryota Hashimoto; Yasuda; Oi et al., Eds (2009). “Pathological analysis of central nervous system functional diseases using model animals” (PDF). Brain and mental medicine 20 (3): 229-231. two:10.11249 / jsbp.20.213. https://doi.org/10.11249/jsbp.20.213 2019/3/28Browse.. 
  19. ^ "Specific Conditions". Center for Disease Control and Prevention. 2015/6/1Browse.
  20. ^ a b Use of the term "developmental disorder" -Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, March 2007.
  21. ^ "Study meeting to support persons with developmental disabilities"The 3rd. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. (2005-03-15). http://www.mhlw.go.jp/shingi/2005/03/txt/s0315-2.txt 
  22. ^ Wing, 2000
  23. ^ Masumi Inagaki and Takashi Hayashi "For parents with children with developmental disabilities'
  24. ^ Shozo Aoki; Shinji Murakami, "How to diagnose and respond to children and adolescents learned from specialists," Igaku-Shoin, May 2012, 5, pp. 18-54.ISBN 978-4-260-01495-3. 
  25. ^ a b Uchida Nobuko 2006, p. 244.
  26. ^ Research group on the development and response system of children with mild developmental disabilities and its manual development "Chapter XNUMX"Awareness and support manual for children with mild developmental disorders] Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, 2006.
  27. ^ About the use of the term "developmental disability" (March 19, 3) Ministry of education
  28. ^ a b Uchida Nobuko 2006, p. 224.
  29. ^ "Definition of DEVELOPMENTAL QUOTIENT". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. 2014/11/9Browse.
  30. ^ "developmental quotient (DQ)”. TheFreeDictionary.com. 2014/11/9Browse., in turn citing Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 8th edition.
  31. ^ Junichi Yamamoto and Atsuko Matsuzaki (2016). Early Development Support Program Haruhiko Shimoyama, Kayoko Murase, Masayoshi Morioka (ed.) Handbook for Developmental Disability Support (pp. 81-87) Kongo Publishing
  32. ^ Inoue Masahiko (2016). Applied Behavior Analysis to Change Problem Behaviors into Adaptive Behaviors Haruhiko Shimoyama, Kayoko Murase, Masayoshi Morioka (ed.) Handbook for Developmental Disability Support (pp. 88-92) Kongo Publishing
  33. ^ Akira Mitsunori (2016). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Program to Support Emotional Regulation Haruhiko Shimoyama, Kayoko Murase, Masayoshi Morioka (ed.) Handbook for Developmental Disability Support (pp. 93-97) Kongo Publishing
  34. ^ "Open Dialogue Treats Developmental Disorders | Medical News | Medical Tribune"Medical Tribune".2018/5/20Browse.
  35. ^ British: challenging behavior
  36. ^ Emerson, E. 1995. Challenging behavior: analysis and intervention with people with learning difficulties... Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  37. ^ Hemmings, C .; Underwood, L., Tsakanikos E., Holt, G. & Bouras, N. (2008). “Clinical predictors of challenging behavior in intellectual disability”. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 43 (10): 824–830. two:10.1007 / s00127-008-0370-9. PMID 18488127. http://www.springerlink.com/content/v18g5123g4gw6326/. 
  38. ^ Neef, NA (2001) The Past and Future of Behavior Analysis in Developmental Disabilities: When Good News is Bad and Bad News is Good. The Behavior Analyst Today, 2 (4), 336 -343. [1]
  39. ^ Roane, HS, Ringdahl, JE, Vollmer, TR, Whitmarsh, EL and Marcus, BA (2007).A Preliminary Description of the Occurrence of Proto-injurious Behavior in generally Developing Children. Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention, 3 (4), 334-347. [2]
  40. ^ "Key Findings: Trends in the Prevalence of Developmental Disabilities in US Children, 1997–2008”. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2015/6/1Browse.
  41. ^ a b c Atsuko Kusanagi "Why Adults Did Not Notice the Killing Intention of Children Documents: Juvenile Crimes and Developmental Disabilities," pp. 182-183.ISBN 978-4-7816-0504-3. 
  42. ^ a b High School WG (6th) Meeting of Survey and Research Collaborators on Promotion of Special Needs Education July 21, 7 Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Department of Elementary and Secondary Education Special Education Section December 24, 2009 Read
  43. ^ About revision of related notice with some enforcement of law to revise a part of laws about mental health and the welfare of persons with mental disorders Disability No. 0329008 March 14, 3 Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare December 29, 2009 Read
  44. ^ Masami Sasaki, Yuji Umenaga "Adult Asperger Syndrome" Kodansha, 2008.ISBN 978-4-06-278956-1 According to p93, there is a description of the reason that "Japan does not have a notebook system for developmental disorders".
  45. ^ Tsukuba University of Technology Techno Report Vol. 17 (1) December. 2009 “Construction of higher education support for hearing impaired students with developmental disabilities”Tsukuba University of TechnologyCenter for Higher Education and Research Support for Persons with Disabilities, Masayuki Sato, Yasushi Ishihara, Mayumi Shirasawa, Masahiko Sudo, Riki Oikawa
  46. ^ Hokkaido Shimbun June 2009, 6 Article “When Michigai added high-functioning pervasive developmental disorder in 25, the Sapporo Children's Counseling Center also reported in 2003, “It is considered as intellectual disability even if IQ is high. Can be done”. "
  47. ^ a b Disability Independence Support Act: Amendment passed/established in Upper House 2010:12, August 3, 13 Mainichi Newspapers Retrieved February 2010, 12
  48. ^ "The tragedy of "worried about both the person and the surroundings" by joining the company hiding developmental disabilities". Diamond Online. 2019/11/23Browse.
  49. ^ About grant of nursing notebook for person with developmental disability (summary) September 22, 9 Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Administration Evaluation Bureau June 13, 2011 Read
  50. ^ "DSM-5 Mental Illness Diagnosis and Statistics Manual"ISBN 978-4-260-01907-1


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