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beer

beer(alone: beer,Orchid: beer,British: beer) IsliqueurA kind of. There are various ways to make it, but mainlybarleySproutedmalt(Starch amylaseTo say酵素でSaccharificationBeer)yeastByalcoholfermentationThe manufacturing method of making it is common.

CurrentlyCarbonic acidWith a refreshing feelinghop OfBitternessCharacterized byLager,In particularPilsnerIs the mainstream, but lager is a relatively newcomer in the history of beer, and besides lagerAleVarious kinds of beer such as are drunk in the world.

Japanese Of漢字Then.beerAlso written as (bakushu)[2].

Name

Names in each languageEtymologyIs as follows.

  • LanguageNames in different languages
    • Japanese: Beer (DutchFrom the beerLoanword), Beer (Bakushu, a translation using Chinese kanji)
    • Chinese: Beer (píjiǔ.. Probably borrowed from German Bier and synthesized Chinese "liquor")
    • Formosan: Beer liquor (be̍h-á-chiú. Probably borrowing sound from English beer and Chinese "wheat" and suffix "ko"Japanese alphabet, Synthesis with the noun "Sake"), Bih-luh (JapaneseLoanword from beer, re-borrowed from Dutch bier)
    • Finnish: Olut (Germanic: Loanword from aluth etc.)
    • Korean: 맥주 (Maekju. BeerHangulNotation)

History

barley,(English edition)Made from black beer, brown beer, strong beer, etc., dedicated to the gods and to the peopleReallocationWas done[3].. By the way, the SumeriansWineWe are also developing a manufacturing method for.Ancient egyptIn, it fell below that3th millennium BCThere is a theory that traces of beer have been confirmed from the materials in the above, and that the method of making beer was transmitted from Mesopotamia because the origin of wheat is West Asia. The beer factory excavated at the Hierakonpolis archaeological site in southern Egypt is estimated to be around 3600 BC.[4].AsiaIn the eastChugokuTraces of brewing 5000 years ago have been found in[5].

There are two hypotheses about how to make these Mesopotamian and Egyptian beers. One is a kind of dried malt powder, kneaded with water and baked.BreadAfter that, it was soaked in water to soak it, and then saccharification was promoted by the enzyme of malt to ferment it with alcohol. Barley as it iswheatIt is difficult to mill like this, but once it is malted and then dried, it becomes easier to crush and digests better. In other words, beer is thought to have been derived from the technology of turning barley, which is difficult to mill and difficult to digest, into veda bread, which is easy to digest.CerealsIn Mesopotamia and Egypt, which produced abundant beer, beer with this background was a daily beverage derived from bread and very close to food. Sumer has a goddess named Ninkashi, who controls beer and brewing, and the hymn is beer bread.Date palm,honeyThere is a description of how to brew beer using. Also in ancient EgyptpapyrusThe document records beer as a food ration for the artisans of the royal tomb construction. The idea of ​​soaking hard bread that has been baked for a long time with liquid isEurope OfSoupBecame the prototype ofDashiIt is also common with soup-soaked bread, and can be said to be a food on the common genealogy of fluffy bread dishes.

The other manufacturing method is similar to that of current beer, and is made by using emmer wheat as a raw material, sprouted wheat (malt) and boiled and softened wheat, and adding yeast to ferment and strain. In both cases, dates were sometimes added for the purpose of adding sugar and flavor. Also, the beer that came to Egypt was prone to putrefaction due to climatic conditions.LupineWas added and preserved. this isBabyloniaBeer as wellMedicinal herbIt is said that there was a case of adding. Among themhopIs also believed to have been included. Babylonian "Code of Hammurabi』Has a description of beer crackdown rules and penalties, for example," A person who dilutes beer with water and sells it is thrown into the water (drowning penalty). "[6].

On the other hand, the enzyme of malt makes barleyStarchThe core technology of beer production, which is to saccharify and ferment the sugar solution with alcohol, is in the north.Celtic,GermanicAlso propagated to. Instead of making barley malt into bread and then brewing beer, a brewing method was used in which the malt powder was soaked in hot water for saccharification and alcoholic fermentation. It was also a derivative of everyday foodAncient orientUnlike other beers, these northern European beers are on the harvest festival.HalleThere was a strong tendency for brewing to be done as a special beverage for the event.

Ancient romeWhat was handed down from Egypt is Zitum (zythum), What was transmitted via the Celts in the north is Kerwisia (cervisia), But it was despised and did not spread because of the wine. RomansAncient greeceAmong people, barley is crushed and coarsely ground.PorridgeI was eating regularly. Wine, which is now an alcoholic beverage, was also a very sweet drink at that time because the sugar content was not so much converted to alcohol. Make hard bread easier to eatGrapeBeverages on the daily table, which are made by concentrating the juice ofhard waterIt has a strong character as a drink to be added to water to make it easier to drink, and it was considered rude to drink it as it is because it gets drunk, and it was a civilized man's method to divide it with water and drink it.For that reason, the customs of the northern tribes who drank beer brewed at the festival and got drunk were despised by the Romans and Greeks who identified themselves as civilized people.Citizens in ancient Roman timesStaple foodIs wheat and barley is家畜 OffeedCultivated for useDecimationThose who have been treated byGladiatorOther than that, he never ate it, and eating barley itself was considered a barbarian. But Germanic-ledFrank kingdomWhen was established, beer brewing became popular throughout Europe, and beer culture took root in Europe. On the other hand, wine, which was a very sweet drink, has become closer to today's manufacturing method and has become a drink with a high alcohol content that is almost unsweetened. Therefore, the relationship with beer is reversed, and beer with lower alcohol contentchildrenIt was thought to be a drink that was also found in.キ リ ス ト 教When spreadsConventIs self-sufficient巡礼 者He brewed beer to behave and played a major role in the development of technology. Various in it for the purpose of stabilizing fermentation etc.HerbsGroot with a variety ofen: Gruit) Has come to be added. Groot was controlled by the lord, and the brewer had to buy from the lord. For this reasonMedieval europeThe method of making Groot used in is not known to the present.[7].

11st centuryAroundGermanyHildegardis, director of the Ruprechtberg Convent, replaces GroothopWas used for the first time. Hops have a unique refreshing flavorMiscellaneous bacteriaIt has a suppressive effect and became mainstream in German beer brewing around the 15th century. Hops have gradually become mainstream in other countries and were once banned.The United KingdomBut around the 17th century, hop brewing became common.

1516 years,Duke in BavariaWilhelm IIs inferior beer distribution and ediblewheatTo prevent hunger due to the diversion of beer as a raw material,Beer pure decree』, And ordered to use only hops and water other than malt as raw materials. I used wheatWhite beerIs now able to brew only some licensed breweries, increasing its rarity value. afterwards,German EmpireWith the establishment of the "Reinheitsgebot", it was enforced all over the country in 1906 and is still in effect in Germany today. In the mid-15th century in the Bavarian regionMunichAnd coldcaveThe production of lager beer to be aged in[8].

In the 19th century, research on yeast progressed, and top fermentation and bottom fermentation techniques were established. In 1842チ ェ コ OfPlzenThe world's first Pilsner beer "Pilsner UrquellWas manufactured, and this type of brew came to be called Pilsner from the German name of Plzen.[8].. The golden pilsner has exploded due to the spread of glassware and the establishment of refrigeration technology. As a beverage to be loaded on a shiprumWas the mainstream, but there is a record that beer was also piled up. Japan in 1860First year of Mannen US EnvoyWas a record keeperTamamushi Sadayu ThePohatanDescribes that beer was served several times during the voyage in[9].

in JapanKawamoto KominStarted with beer brewing, many breweries were born. What became popular in earnestMeiji EraButEdo PeriodIn the beginningTokugawa ShogunateBakushin were aware of its existence[10].

Modern beer19st centuryThe second half of theデンマーク OfCarlsbergIt owe much to the technology developed by the company.同社はビール酵母の純粋培養技術を開発し、さらに雑菌を徹底的に排除して衛生的にThe company has developed a pure culture technology for brewer's yeast, and thoroughly eliminates germs to make it hygienic.can,bottleEstablished the technology to pack in.As a result, the shelf life of beer has dramatically improved, and it has become distributed all over the world as an inexpensive and stable supply of large quantities.In addition, beer production was monopolized by large companies.Until then, wine had been drunk as an essential daily liquor for meals, but with the spread of cheaper beer, the positions of wine and beer have been reversed.

In Europe and the United States, as a reaction to this, there was a movement to review beer production before industrialization.Craft beer(Local beer)makeMicro breweryHas been established in large numbers.Due to the relaxation of laws and regulations in Japan, craft beer is being produced little by little.

SRM/ LovibondAn exampleBeer colorEBC
24
3GermanPilsner6
4Pilsner Urquell8
612
8Witbier16
10Bass pale ale20
1326
17ダ ー クLager33
2039
2447
29ポ ー タ ー57
35stout69
4079
70Imperial Stout138

原料

The main ingredients of beer are water, starch sources (malt, etc.), brewer's yeast, and flavors (hops, etc.).[11]..多くの場合、大麦の麦芽を主原料とし、副原料としてアサ科のホップやIn many cases, barley malt is the main ingredient, and hemp hops and other ingredients are used as auxiliary ingredients.corn,Rice,sugarEtc. are used.特にこれらの副原料は大麦麦芽の安価な代替物として使用されることがあるIn particular, these auxiliary ingredients may be used as cheap alternatives to barley malt.[12]..また小麦やAlso wheatRyeIt can also be produced with malt.AfricaThen.millet,Sorghum,CassavaThe root ofBrazilThen.potato,メキシコThen.AgaveIs used as a starch source[13].

Wed

The main component of beer isWedIs.地方によって水に含まれているIncluded in water depending on the regionmineralSince the composition is different, the beer that is most suitable for water to produce in each region is also different, and the characteristics of each region appear.[14].. For exampleアイルランド OfDublinWater is hard water,GuinnessSuch asstoutSuitable for brewing beer.チ ェ コ OfPlzenThe water available in is soft and suitable for brewing pale lager such as Pilsner Urquell.[14].England OfBretonWater is gypsum (石膏; Calcium sulphateBecause it contains minerals)SulfateAddition (a technique called brutonization, which enhances the flavor of hops) is required.Pale aleSuitable for making beer[15].

Carbohydrate raw material

What you use as the starch source for beer depends on its strength and flavor.The most common source of starch is malt, and most beers use barley malt, as described below.The malt production method involves giving water and air to the seeds to germinate them, and then drying and roasting them in a kiln to stop the growth of the malt before entering the fermentation process.これをthisRoastingThat is.After that, malt is obtained by removing the radicles.種子が麦芽になることによって、デンプンを発酵性の糖に変える酵素が生産されるThe malt of seeds produces an enzyme that converts starch into fermentable sugar.[16][17]..Malts made from the same type of grain will have different colors depending on the roasting time and temperature.暗色の麦芽からは暗色のビールが製造されるDark beer is produced from dark malt[18]..Barley malt is used in many beers.Barley has strong germination, thin skin, and a lot of starch.nitrogenA small amount is excellent as a raw material[16].

hop

Almost all commercial beers today are flavoredhopIs used[19]..ホップはHopsJapanese nameTheHopsTo sayVinesThe flower has the function of enhancing flavor and storage in beer production.

Hops were originally from GermanyWestphaliaIn rural areasKorvai MonasteryIt has been used since 822 AD in breweries like[20][21]..だがビールに使用するための大量栽培が開始されたのは13世紀になってからであるHowever, it was not until the XNUMXth century that mass cultivation for use in beer began.[20][21].. From the 13th to the 16th centuries, hops became the most important flavoring.しかしそれ以前には、他の植物(例えばBut before that, other plants (egGlechoma hederacea) Was sometimes used as a flavoring agent. "HistoryAs mentioned in the section, it is called a gruit.WormwoodVarious herbs and berries such as these have also been used to flavor beer, just like today's hops.[22]..The beer currently in production that uses plants other than hops for aroma is Fraoch'from Scottish Heather Ales company.[23]And la Brasserie-Lancelot's Cervoise Lancelot[24]And so on. Hops give the beer a bitterness that is in harmony with the sweetness of malt, as well as flowers.CitrusGives beer a herbal aroma. Hops have an antibiotic effect and do not contribute to beer brewingmicroorganismIt has the effect of improving the environment in which brewer's yeast works favorably. Other泡Contributes to the length of holding (head retention)[25][26], Has the effect of increasing storage power[27][28].

Beer yeast

Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolizes sugar extracted from cereals andEthyl alcoholとcarbon dioxide gasTo produce. Wort becomes beer by the action of yeast. Yeast also affects the individuality and taste of beer.[29].. Saccharomyces cerevisiae includes top-fermenting yeast that floats on the liquid surface together with carbon dioxide generated during fermentation to form a layer of brown creamy bubbles, and bottom-fermenting yeast that precipitates at the bottom of the tank at the end of fermentation. Beer that uses the former for manufacturing is top-fermented beer (Ale), Beer using the latter is bottom fermented beer (Lager)[16](For more information"SortSee section). The most major top-fermenting yeastSaccharomyces cerevisiaeAnd the most major bottom fermenting yeast isSaccharomyces uvarumIs[30].. In Bavarian white beer(English edition)Works[31].. Before the function of yeast was elucidated, fermentation was carried out by natural yeast floating in the air. It is a so-called naturally fermented beer. Most beers are fermented by adding purely cultured yeast,LambicA small part like this is still manufactured by natural fermentation[32].. Mainly in lambic, a naturally fermented beerBrettanomycesGenus yeast works[33].

Fining agent

Finings aggregate turbid substancesPrecipitationIt is a substance that works to remove. For beer immediately after productionproteinWhen turbidity is seen, one or more finings may be added at some breweries. You can make clear beer by this operation[34].. An example of finings used in beerIsinglass(Fishbladderincludegelatinquality),(Red algaeA kind of),Kappaphycus cottoniiCan be taken fromκ-carrageenan,, gelatin, etc.[35].. If the label says "suitable for vegetarians," the beer doesn't contain animal gelatin.SeaweedClarified with origin or artificial additives[36].

Manufacturing method

About the breweryBreweryIt's called (brewery). Beer can be brewed at home unless restricted by law, and many such beers have been made in the history of beer. Non-profit brewing of beer for domestic consumption is called homebrewing. In Japan, unlicensed people are prohibited from brewing alcoholic beverages with an alcohol content of 1% or higher. You can buy and sell homebrewing tools, but it is up to the user to brew properly within the limits of the law.[37].

In the brewing processfruit juiceAnd so onSpicesIt is also popular in Europe, but for a long time it is not beer under Japanese law.Low-malt beerIt was treated. But April 2018, 4Liquor tax lawAmendments allow the use of fruits and flavors[38].

Malt crush

The first step in brewing beer is to make wort using a starch source and warm water.Barley malt is commonly used as the starch source.麦芽はダスト・異物を除去した後、糖化・Malt is saccharified after removing dust and foreign substances.FiltrationIt is crushed to a size suitable for.endospermThe part is finely crushed so that it can be easily saccharified.On the other hand, the shell should remain as much as possible in order to form a filter film in the wort filtration step.ただし濾膜形成の必要ない加圧式の濾過方法を用いる場合は麦芽全部が細かく粉砕されるHowever, when using a pressurized filtration method that does not require the formation of a filter membrane, the entire malt is finely crushed.[39]..Grinded malt is called grist.Grist is mixed with warm water in a container called mash tun.グリストを浸す温水のことをリキュール (liquor) といい、グリストと温水の混合物のことをマッシュ (mash) というThe hot water that soaks the grist is called liquor, and the mixture of grist and hot water is called mash.[40].

Saccharification

When grist and warm water are mixed, polysaccharides such as starch and soluble proteins contained in malt dissolve.[41]..多糖類は麦芽のもつ酵素により可溶化し、分解され低分子のPolysaccharides are solubilized by the enzymes of malt and decomposed into small molecules.maltoseIs produced.この多糖類の分解のことをAbout the decomposition of this polysaccharideSaccharificationIt is called (mashing).糖化には1〜2時間ほどの時間が掛かるIt takes about XNUMX to XNUMX hours for saccharification[42]..麦芽の酵素の力のみで糖化する方法をインフージョン法といい、マッシュの一部を取り出して煮沸し、元の容器に戻してメインのマッシュの温度を引き上げる方法をデコクション法というThe method of saccharification using only the enzyme power of malt is called the infusion method, and the method of taking out a part of the mash, boiling it, returning it to the original container and raising the temperature of the main mash is called the decoction method.[43]..マッシュの煮沸によって酵素は失活するが、でんぷん質が溶解して糖化が進みやすくなるEnzymes are inactivated by boiling mash, but starch dissolves and saccharification facilitates.[44].

Solids such as grain grains are removed from the saccharified mash, and fermentable wort is recovered.In the traditional method of wort filtration, routering, the grain itself that collects at the bottom of the filtration tank acts as a filter to separate the solids from the wort.現在行われている醸造ではより細かいグリストまで分離できるフィルターフレームが使用されることが多いToday's brewing often uses filter frames that can separate even finer grists.[45]..最初に絞られる麦汁を1番絞り麦汁というThe first wort to be squeezed is called the first wort.[46]..Grains are washed with hot water by a procedure called sparging, and more wort is collected.Grains are separated by filtration from a mixture of wort and hot water added by sparging.The wort obtained by sparging is called No. 2 squeezed wort.

boiled

Wort is a water heater or copper; copperDerived from being made in[47]) Is collected and boiled for about 1 hour.By boiling, the water in the wort evaporates, and solutes such as sugars are concentrated and remain.また同時に糖化段階から麦汁に残留した酵素を失活させるAt the same time, it inactivates the enzymes remaining in the wort from the saccharification stage.[48]..In addition, sterilization, protein coagulation, increase in chromaticity, decrease in pH, decomposition / scattering of unpleasant aroma components, etc. occur in boiling.煮沸中にホップを添加するAdd hops during boiling[49]..Hops may be added in several batches.ホップを煮沸することで、ホップ中のBy boiling the hops, in the hopsHumuloneIs isomerizedIsohumuloneThe bitterness becomes stronger by becoming[50]..煮沸時間が長いほど苦味が強くなるが、ホップそのものの風味や香気は弱くなるThe longer the boiling time, the stronger the bitterness, but the weaker the flavor and aroma of the hops themselves.[51].

cooling

The boiled wort is cooled in preparation for fermentation by yeast.このとき溶解度が下がってタンパク質やAt this time, the solubility decreases and the proteinPolyphenolSolidifies[52]..In some breweries, hop-processed wort is further passed through a hopback.Hopbacks are hop-filled containers that serve as flavors and filters.しかし多くの醸造所ではホップバックを使わず、単純に発酵槽で麦汁を冷却するHowever, many breweries do not use hopbacks and simply cool the wort in a fermenter.[53]..その後、酵母の増殖に必要な酸素を供給するため、冷却された麦汁に無菌空気が通されるAfter that, sterile air is passed through the cooled wort to supply the oxygen needed for yeast growth.[54].

fermentation

For wort in an air-permeable fermenteryeastIs added.酵母が出芽を開始するとWhen the yeast starts to germinatefermentationBegins.発酵熱の発生により液温が上昇するので、冷却により発酵温度をコントロールする必要があるSince the liquid temperature rises due to the generation of fermentation heat, it is necessary to control the fermentation temperature by cooling.[55]..発酵に必要な時間は酵母の種類やビールの濃さによって変わるThe time required for fermentation depends on the type of yeast and the strength of the beer.[56]..発酵前の麦汁はWort before fermentationpH It is 5.2 to 5.8, but drops to 4.0 to 4.6 after fermentation.The liquid after fermentation is called young beer.アルコール発酵に加え、麦汁内の微粒子が沈降するため一度発酵の終了した若ビールは清澄するIn addition to alcoholic fermentation, fine particles in the wort settle, so young beer that has been fermented once is clarified.[56].

Fermentation may be carried out in two stages, primary fermentation (main fermentation) and secondary fermentation (aging).Alcohols are mostly produced by primary fermentation.The fermented liquor is transferred to a new container and aged.熟成はパッケージングまでに時間を置く必要がある場合、さらなる清澄化が必要な場合に行うAging should be done if time is required before packaging or if further clarification is required[57]..若ビールにはFor young beerDiacetylprecursor,Acetaldehyde,Hydrogen sulfideContains immature substances such as.In the aging process, the residual substances are further fermented, and these substances are decomposed and carried out of the liquid by the carbon dioxide gas generated by the fermentation.Proteins that cause turbidity increase temperature by +1 to -1 ℃Precipitates by lowering to a degree and precipitates with some yeast[58]..熟成の終了したビールは濾過され、またAged beer is filtered and againsilica gelAdsorbs proteins and sends them to the product process[59].

Heat to around 60 degrees to suppress yeast activity after agingPasteurizationIs done.この熱処理を行わず、特殊な濾過装置で酵母を取り除くビールがいわゆるBeer that removes yeast with a special filtration device without this heat treatment is so-calleddraft beerIs.However, this name is based on Japanese standards, and the standards differ from country to country.There are also beers that do not completely remove yeast.

Sort

Various beersStyleBecause of the existence of, it is very difficult to classify them finely and clearly according to their characteristics, and various classifications have been made.有名な分類方法としてAs a famous classification methodMichael jacksonThere is a classification by.

Classification by brewing method

When classifying by brewing method and type of yeast, "Top fermentation"Ale" and ""Bottom fermentationThe general method is to roughly classify it into "lager".Originally, the word ale did not refer to top-fermented beer, but it has changed with the times.現在、ビールにはホップが使用されることが多いが、ホップがビールに広く使用されるようになったのは、12〜15世紀の間であり、その当時英語圏では、ホップ入りのものをビール (Beer)、ホップなしのものをエール (Ale) と呼んで区別していたが、その後、ビールは総称となり、上面発酵のものがエールと呼ばれるようになったNowadays, hops are often used for beer, but hops became widely used for beer between the XNUMXth and XNUMXth centuries, and at that time in English-speaking countries, hops were used. Beer and hopless beer were called ale to distinguish them, but after that, beer became a general term, and top-fermented beer came to be called ale.[60].

Ale

Top-fermented beer,AleCall.Budding yeast(Saccharomyces cerevisiae(Saccharomyces cervisier) and its variants)Normal temperatureFerment in a short time. It is called top fermentation because yeast finally floats and forms a layer on the top surface in order to actively emit carbon dioxide gas.

In general, top fermentation is easier to brew.19st centuryUntil the explosive spread of lager, beer was ale.

It features a complex aroma and deep richness. As the main stylePale ale,stout,Alto beer,Kölsch,Weizenand so on.

Lager

Bottom (kamen) fermented beerLagerCall.Saccharomyces carlsbergensisFermentation is carried out for a long time at a low temperature (10 ° C or less) using a yeast called (Saccharomyces karsbergensis). Yeast that has finished its role precipitates, so it is called bottom fermentation as opposed to top fermentation of ale.

With a relatively clean taste,Pilsner(Pis),BockThere are styles such as, originally from medieval GermanyBayernIt was a local beer in the region. The brewers in the area discovered yeast that was active even at low temperatures and brewed unusual beer. At the end of autumn, the ingredients for beer are stored in a cave with ice and taken out in the spring of the following year, and fermentation is completed and the beer is completed. Lager means "stored beer".

Refrigerator Was invented19st centurySince then, this has quickly become the mainstream of beer in the world. This is because it was ideal for mass-producing beer of a certain quality. Some cite the beautiful golden color and the popularity of glass glasses and mugs as reasons for their popularity.

Natural fermentation

Before the discovery of yeast, all beer was naturally fermented. It is still produced in traditional African beer and in Pajottenland, Belgium.LambicIn, natural fermentation that does not use cultured yeast is adopted.Lactic acid fermentationBecause it is also performed, it will have a unique acidity.

how to drink

With the progress of refrigeration technology since the 20th century, the custom of chilling and drinking beer has spread at an accelerating rate. Even in China, where it was customary to drink beer at room temperature, Japanconvenience storeWhen affiliated companies set out to enter the market, they offered refrigerated beer, which became popular, and the demand for cold beer increased.Kingdom of ThailandThen it is common to put ice on top of chilled. On the other hand, ale beer is often drunk at room temperature. Also, in Germany and Belgium, it is sometimes drunk warm, and there are also beers that are mainly warmed like Gru Creek. Also beerCocktailsThen I put tomato juice in itRed eyeAnd lemonadePanache(Radler in Germany, Shandy in England),Ginger aleCocktail withShandy GaffEtc. are known. AlsoPilsnerとstoutHalf-and-half, which mixes different types of beer, is also a popular way to drink.

How to pour lager beer

Lager beer emits abundant foam, and the taste changes depending on how it is poured. The bubbles are the beer touching the airOxidationIt also has the role of preventing the taste from changing due to being done. The bitter component of beer is diffused into the liquid, which is adsorbed by the foam. Therefore, by controlling the formation process of carbonic acid bubbles in beer, the bitterness component of beer can be confined in the layer of bubbles floating on the upper part of the liquid.

An example of how to pour

  1. First, pour the beer into the bottom of the glass by tapping it to form bubbles. This prevents the beer from coming into contact with the air.
  2. Pour gently so as not to break the foam that was initially formed by bringing the glass and beer spout close to each other. As a result, bubbles of uniform size are formed evenly in the liquid, so that they are not easily broken and bitter components can be adsorbed.

save

Beer isBrewed sakeTherefore, as sakeexpiration dateIt is in the category of being easily influenced by and changing the taste. Storage temperature, sunlight, shock and oxidation are the main causes of quality deterioration. AlsoTaste deteriorates as days pass from shipmentTo do. Such changes in the number of days and tastefreshnessIt is expressed as. However, beer that is not sterilized and filtered by yeast and is re-fermented in bottles and barrels can be stored for a long time or "Let it lie downThere are also brands that can enjoy the change to a mild and aged taste.

  • The storage location should be a dark place with low temperature and no temperature change or vibration.
  • It is recommended to drink up as soon as possible after opening.

The cause of the deterioration is the action of the barley-derived enzyme LOX (lipoxygenase). During the brewing process, LOX creates a deterioration factor that reacts with the components of beer to oxidize lipids, resulting in astringency and odor, resulting in a decrease in foaminess.

temperature
The optimum temperature for storage is close to the temperature at the time of fermentation, and according to this, the optimum temperature for lager is 10 ℃ or less, and for ale is 15 ℃ -25 ℃, but there is no problem even if ale is stored at 10 ℃ or less. There is also. Even within the optimum temperature range, deterioration progresses rapidly under the condition of repeated temperature changes. Deterioration progresses quickly at high temperatures, but if the temperature is too low, the components will solidify and become turbid, resulting in poor foam retention. In addition, there is a risk of the container exploding because the internal pressure increases as the volume increases.
sunlight
UVBitterness component contained in hopsIsohumuloneIs degraded, as well as contained in proteinsulfurMinutes are broken down and occurHydrogen sulfideIt becomes a substance that emits a foul odor. The smell is "smell like burnt rubber" "skunkCan be likened to "the stench ofSunlight odorIt is called.beer bottleIs colored brown or green to prevent UV rays, but it cannot be completely prevented. AlsoFluorescent lightSince a small amount of ultraviolet rays are radiated from the surface, deterioration may occur even indoors depending on the display and storage conditions.
impact
Inside the beer containerCarbonic acidIs supersaturated (Carbonated), When an impact is applied, the balance is lost and separation and bubbles are generated, leading to deterioration of taste. It also causes a violent ejection when the package is opened.
Oxidation
When beer comes in contact with air, it oxidizes rapidly and loses its flavor. Although it may be due to the loss of carbonic acid, the same sparkling liquorsparkling wineDeterioration is severe compared to. If you really want to leave itWrapIf it is sealed with a bottle or if you use a wine stopper for a bottle, it will last for several days. There is a theory that the foam layer formed when beer is poured into a glass has the effect of suppressing the loss of carbonic acid and blocking the beer from the air to prevent oxidation.

Major beer producing countries and brands

Giraffe Food Life Culture Research InstituteInvestigate andBrewers Association of JapanAccording to the aggregate published by2015The world's total beer production is 1 million kl[61].. The 10 best production volumes areChugoku,America,Brazil,Germany,メキシコ,ロシア,Japan(Including low-malt beer),Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,The United Kingdom,ポーランドIn order. NetherlandsIs 14th,チ ェ コIs 21th,ベルギーWas in 19th place. In 2018, Brazil and Mexico overtook Germany and Russia to 3-4th place.Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euOvertook Britain and Poland to finish in 8th place. Until the same year, China's top position was 17 consecutive years. Market size is shrinking in saturated developed countries and expanding in emerging countries[62].

mainCountry of originThe situation and brands are as follows.

Europe

Germany

The majority of lager beers,Alto,Kölsch,Vice (Weissbier) And other ale beers are also made. (Pilsner beer is a Czech invention. Lager beer is an Austrian invention. However, both are German inventions.)

New beer liquor goes on sale in early autumn, and beer festivals are held in various places to coincide with this. The most famous and large onesGermany,Munich OfOktoberfestIs. Many manufacturers also make seasonal beers such as Märzen beer (brewed in March) for Oktoberfest and winter beer brewed in early autumn and served in winter. In Germany, the beer law (Beer pure decree), There was a regulation on raw materials for beverages that claim to be beer (only beverages made from water, malt, and hops are treated as beer).Non-tariff barriersIt was accused of being, and now imported beer has been abolished.There are many German beer makers in various places, and there are few national brand beer makers.The price is also cheap, and the price of canned beer is cheaper than that of cola.Barreled beer and bottled beer are more popular than canned beer.

German beer is roughly divided into Pilsner type beer made from barley and Weiss type beer made from wheat. Even beer made from wheat is famous for its whitish Weiss beer near Munich. Southwestern GermanyBaden-WürttembergIn the suburbs, there are transparent crystal vices, translucent Hefe vices, and muddy Dunkel vices even in Weiss beer.

チ ェ コ

It is thanks to Pilsner, who was born in the neighboring Czech Republic, that Lager, a local German beer, was spread worldwide (the most drunk golden beer in Japan is this Pilsner type).PilsnerPilsen city(The German name for Plzen isPilsen) Derived from the name of the beer brewed in.Due to this fact, in Central Europe, the Czech Republic is the home of beer brewing.またキリンビールの調査では、国民一人当たりのビール消費量が1993年から2018年までの26年間連続世界1位であるなど、世界有数のビール好き国家であるAccording to a survey by Kirin Brewery, the per capita beer consumption was the highest in the world for XNUMX consecutive years from XNUMX to XNUMX, making it one of the world's leading beer lovers.[63].

  • Pilsner Urquell --Craft beer in the city of Plzen.A beer with the meaning of the original Pilsner.
  • Budval --A local beer from the city of Ceske Budejovice.ç±³RiceBudweiserWith商標It is also famous in proceedings.

The United Kingdom

England,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIs known as the home of ale beer.しかしピルスナービールの普及以降はBut after the spread of Pilsner beerBudweiser,HeinekenForeign brand lagers such as, or domestic lagers are often drunk mainly by young people, and have a market share far exceeding that of ales.1970 eraBy enthusiastic ale fansCAMRA(CAMpaign for Real Ale) has happened.

  • Bass pale ale ――It has a refreshing taste and a faint sweetness and aroma like fruit. - in Japan,Asahi beerIt is sold by the company.
  • Newcastle Brown Ale

アイルランド

The domestic market is virtually in Diageo's oligopolistic market,PubThere are not many beer options served from the faucet at.However, in recent years, the number of pubs that serve Belgian beer and Czech beer from the faucet is increasing, mainly in urban areas.In recent years, local beer has also appeared, but it is very difficult to find it as a beer served from a faucet in a pub or the like due to the oligopolistic state as described above.いわゆるSo-calledMicro breweryThe most successful of these is the Porterhouse.It brews in the pub of the same name and has several branches in the city.

  • Guinness (Guinness) --The most famous Irishstout
  • Murphy's (Murphy's Irish Stout) --One of the representative Irish stouts.数少ない大規模生産を行っている独立ブランドで、アイルランド南西部のOne of the few independent brands in large-scale production in southwestern IrelandCokeIt is drunk mainly in rural areas.
  • Beamish (Beamish) --Stout being drunk in cork alongside Murphy's.
  • (Kilkenny) --A type of ale (Irish red ale).
  • (Smithwicks) --Ale that is deeply popular in Ireland, especially among the elderly.A product similar to Kilkenny above.

ベルギー

Probably the most diverse beer in the worldベルギー.Michael jacksonBy vigorous activity ofBelgian beerIs said to have been evangelized to the world[64].

The most famous Belgian beer was in 1966Pierre CelisRevived "Hoegaarden White (Hoegaarden White) Local reading: Fuharden Witt ".This is commonly referred to as "Vit (Flemish) Blanche (French)"White beerIt is a beer called.White beer in Germany (,Weizen) Speaking of beer made from completely different wheat. Belgian Witbier to distinguish it from German Weisbia and WeizenBelgian style whiteIt may also be called. Also,Trappist beer(Monastery beer),ブ リ ュ ッ セ ルCharacterized by natural fermentation produced in the suburbsLambicUnique beer is produced.

  • Leffe (Leffe)Leffe) --In Japan, it is sold by Asahi Breweries.

Netherlands

Beer brewing is flourishing due to the influence of neighboring countries Belgium and Germany. Not only lager type but also various ales are brewed.

  • Grolsch (Grolsch)
  • Heineken (Heineken)
  • Amstel (Amstel)

France

France is Europe's fifth largest beer producer (fr: BiereThan). Most are close to the German borderAlsaceRural and adjacentLorraineProduced locally and close to the Belgian borderNoorIt is also produced in rural areas. The following three brands are typical, but in reality they are allKronenburgManufactured by the company.

  • Kronenburg (Kronenbourg)
  • Seize Soisant Cattle (1664)
  • Cantail blow (Kanterbrau)

スペイン

  • Maou (Mahou)
  • Cruzcampo (Cruzcampo)
  • Estrella Damm (Estrella Damm)
  • San Miguel (San Miguel)
  • Vol Dam (Voll Damm)
  • Alhambra (Alhambra)
  • Estrella Galicia (Star galicia)
  • Moritz (Moritz)

ポーランド

PolishThen beer is called piwo. BeerポーランドIt is a drink that is very popular with people, and its popularity has been increasing for the last 20 years. According to a 2009 report by Ernst & Young, Poland is also the third largest beer producer in Europe.Germany in first place produces 1 billion liters, the United Kingdom in second place produces 103 billion liters, and Poland produces 2 billion liters.[Source required].

As the Polish domestic market continues to expand, the Polish Brewing Industry Employers Federation (Zwiazek Pracodawcow Przemyslu Piwowarskiego) announced at the annual brewing industry convention that beer consumption in Poland in 2008 increased to 94 liters per capita. .. The total sales volume in the domestic market is 35 million liters. The combined market share of the companies that are members of the Polish Brewing Industry Employers Federation accounts for approximately 6,240% of the total Polish beer market. Statistically, Polish consumers drink an average of 90 liters of beer per person per year, which is the third highest after the Czech Republic and Germany. In 92, sales tax revenue from the sale of beer to the Polish government was 3 million.Polish zlotyHas been reached. In addition, the number of employees involved in the manufacture and sale of beer is approximately 208,000.[Source required].

  • Zywiec (Zywiec)
  • Okochim (Okocim) - Carlsbergsystem
  • Tiske (Tyskie)
  • Lev (REC) (Lech)
  • Zamkove (Zamkowe)

イタリア

デンマーク

スウェーデン

ノルウェー

フィンランド

オーストリア

Others

スロベニア

スロベニアHas two large company beer stores and many small craft beer stores. The first big beer company is Zlatlog, northeast of Slovenia.RashcoBeing in town, many people call this beer Rashko. Rashco beerMade from 1825 and has a 190-year tradition, it is the oldest beer in Slovenia. In Rashko, there is a festival called "Beer and Flower Festival" every summer for three days.

The second beer factory is called Union,リ ュ ブ リ ャ ナBeer made in.UnionBeer has been made since 1864. Once these two big beer factories were two independent companies,HeinekenBought Union and Rashko.

  • Rashko (LaÅ¡ko[2])
  • Union (International[3])
  • Tectonics (Tektonik[4])
  • Humanufish (Human fish[5])
  • Hops Bruu (Hopsbrew[6])
  • Bevog (Bevog[7])
  • Reservoir dogs[8]

North America / South America

The United States of America

United States West CoastThere are various types of beer produced by small breweries such as craft beer and microbrewery, and the number of beer styles produced is one of the largest in the world. There are many types of beer. Miller was acquired and merged and is nowSouth AfricaIt is a registered company.

カナダ

カナダHowever, as in the United States, beer consumption is high, and there are two major national brands, Molson and Rabat. Also, due to the influence of British tradition, there are many relatively small craft beer brewers.

メキシコ

メキシコIs also known as a specialty of beer, and famous brands such as Corona and XX (Dos Extract) are exported all over the world.

  • コ ロ ナ (Corona)
  • (Tecate)
  • (XX, Dos Equis)
  • (Bohemia)
  • (Salt)
  • (Negra modelo)
  • (Modelo Especial)
  • (Indio)
  • (Victoria)
  • Estrella (Estrella)
  • (Montejo)
  • (Pacifico)
  • (León)
  • (Good night)

Others

Asia

Japan

north korea

South Korea

Chugoku

ChugokuAlthough the start of production in Japan is delayed from that of Western countries, it has become the world's largest producer in the 21st century.2004The total production of the product is 2910 million tons, which is an increase of 15.1% from the previous year.

Originally beer production in China20st centuryAt the beginning, first of all, the currentHeilongjiangHarbinToRussian Harbin beerEstablished a factory. AlsoShandongQingdaoGermanyLeased landAs part of the leased land management, the technology was transferred to beer production as an industrial promotion measure. Even after becoming a new China, we have been trying to export from early on, and even now, the most famous Chinese manufacturer in the world isQingdao Beer (Tsingtao Beer), But currently the largest manufacturer isHong KongHuajun Snow Flower Beer with CapitalSnow flower beer)It has become. As another major groupBeijing OfYanjing Beer,Guangzhou OfZhujiang Beer,Budweiser,Suntory,Asahi beerMany beer makers outside of China are also expanding. Due to lack of distribution and refrigeration, there are many small beer factories in each local city that produce beer for the region. Some small factories produce poor quality products, and as many as 2004% of the stocks failed the nationwide sampling inspection in 13.8.


Taiwan

Thailand

Cold chilled lager is preferred. Ice is sometimes added to beer, but this is a remnant of an era when refrigeration equipment was not widespread, rather than breaking it because of its high alcohol content. However,ThailandSome people add ice to dilute the beer because it has a slightly strong taste (it is made thicker on the assumption that it will contain ice).

Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu

Others

Oceania

  • Four X (XXXX) Australia
  • (Foster's) Australia
  • (Tooheys) Australia
  • Cascade (Cascade) Australia
  • Coopers (Coopers) Australia
  • Swan (Swan) Australia
  • Stein Lager (Steinlager) New Zealand

Africa

In africaTribeBeer is brewed for each, and it is said that there are more than XNUMX types.[65].. These beers are similar to ancient Egyptian beersstrawDrink with. In addition, the raw materials used are not limited to wheat, but millet andCassava,corn,bananaEtc. are used. Caffia beer in South AfricaSorghum・ Beer called beer has traditionally been drunk.

Beer maker world share

Global beer manufacturing companies and groups

Global beer manufacturers are expanding directly into other countries, putting local beer companies in each country under capital control, or forming capital tie-ups. In addition, there are cases where global brands are licensed and manufactured by companies in each country even if they do not have a direct capital relationship with the brand-owning company.

A simple calculation shows that the top five groups account for nearly 5% of world production. InBev claims that in 50 the Group's production accounted for 2005 percent of the world's market share. However, in Canada, for example, there is a mix of brands and companies, as Labatt, an affiliate of InBev, manufactures Budweiser. Also,AustraliaIn some cases, such as Japan and Japan, where national capital is strong, the degree of advancement is limited to exports or licensed manufacturing.

The top five groups of the world's leading beer companies are:

InBev (Belgium / Brazil)

InBev The2004ToベルギーWith InterBrewBrazilBorn by the merger of AmBev. CurrentlyAnheuser Bush InbebSubsidiary. It has many affiliated companies in Asia, Europe and the Americas.

Major owned brands

Anheuser-Busch (USA)

Anheuser-BuschBoasts the third largest production volume in the world. CurrentlyAnheuser Bush InbebSubsidiary. There are few breweries outside the United States compared to other groups,BudweiserBranded beer is licensed in each country.

Major owned brands

SABMiller (South Africa, USA)

Born in 2002 when South African Beer acquired Miller. Has affiliated companies in the United States and Africa.

Major owned brands

Heineken (Netherlands)

Strong in European and Southeast Asian markets.

Major owned brands

Carlsberg (Denmark)

Strong in Europe, especially in Scandinavian and Eastern European countries.

Major owned brands

Japanese beer

History

JapanIn beer1613(KeichoIn Hirado (currently 18 years)NagasakiHirado City), In 1724 (Kyoho9) by the Dutch Merchant Ship MissionEdoWhen I entered the prefecture, the 8th ShogunTokugawa YoshimuneIt was presented to.Ichibei ImamuraIn "Waran Q & A" (1724), the words "wheat liquor" and "hiil" that he drank are described. The impression is negative, saying that it is "a particularly bad thing" and "it has no taste." This is the description of Japan's oldest beer that can be confirmed in the literature.

Brewing by foreigners in Japan1812ToNagasaki OfDejimaAtDutch trading houseLongHendrik DoeffThe first is by hand. 1869 after the opening of the country (Meiji2 years)Yokohama OfForeign settlement, Yamate No. 46 by Wiegand et al.Japan BreweryWas established, and the following year, American Copeland said, "Spring Valley BreweryEstablished. Started brewing beer, sold it mainly to foreigners in the settlement and Japanese in the upper class, and also exported it (later Japan Brewery closed, Weegant opened another factory Bavaria Brewery, but finally Will merge with Copeland's Spring Valley Brewery).

Brewing by Japanese1853ToDutch scholarKawamoto Komin is said to have conducted a brewing experiment in Edo for the first time.[66].. There is no certainty that Kawamoto actually brewed it, but it is highly probable that it was actually brewed based on the description of the beer brewing method in his book. Brewing as an industry was carried out in 1869 (Meiji 2) at that time.Shinagawa PrefectureGovernorMetIppei Koga Tosa DomainA mansionTrace (current Tokyo)ShinagawaIt is said that it was the first time to build a beer factory (near Oi XNUMX-chome) and start manufacturing.[67].. However, commercial scale manufacturing1872ToOsakaでShozaburo ShibuyaIs the first to sell "Shibuya beer"[66].. After that, in 1874 (7th year of the same year)Kofu"Mitsuscale Beer" was established by Masaaki Noguchi.[68], In 1876 (9th year of the same year)Hokkaido OfSapporoAs a government-owned beer business,PioneerBrewery "Murahashi HisanariとSeibei NakagawaEstablished mainly in (the following year "Sapporo beer"Manufactured).

1885 (Meiji 18),Grabber,Mitsubishi OfYanosuke Iwasaki"Spring Valley Brewery" was taken over by "Japan Brewery Limited" in 1888 (21st year of the same year).Kirin BeerWas released. In 1886 (19th year of the same year), the Kaitakushi Brewery was opened due to the payment of government property by the Hokkaido Development Commission.Hokkaido GovernmentからOkura groupIn 1888, the "Sapporo Beer Company" was established. "Nippon Beer Co., Ltd." was established in 1877 (10th year of the same year), and in 1890 (23rd year of the same year) "Yebisu BeerWas released. In addition, "Osaka Beer Co., Ltd." was established in 1889 (22nd year of the same year), and in 1892 (25th year of the same year) "Asahi beerWas released.

In this way, from large capital to small and medium-sized breweries in rural areas, in the Meiji eraLocal beerA boom broke out and nearly 100 breweries were established nationwide. However, in 1900 (Meiji 33), the Kitasei incident (Giwadan Rebellion) Occurs, and from the following year to beer to strengthen the militaryLiquor taxThe situation changes completely when the liquor tax is imposed (until then, the liquor tax isSakeWas only imposed on). Small and medium breweriesLiquor tax lawThe beer industry was reorganized as it failed to meet the minimum production quantity standards set forth in the above, and was subsequently bankrupt or absorbed into large capital. In 1906 (39), Japanese beer, Sapporo beer, and Osaka beer merged to form "Dainippon BeerWas established, and in 1907 (40),Mitsubishi ZaibatsuTakes over Japan Brewery Limited and says "Kirin Beer"(Kirin Brewery) is established. After that, in 1928 (Showa 3), "Kotobukiya" (Suntory) Acquired "Japanese-English brewing" and entered the beer industry temporarily, but in 1934 (Showa 9), it sold the acquired Tsurumi factory to "Beer joint sales" and withdrew from the beer industry.

Second World Warrear,GHQTo wipe out the monopoly and oligopoly of the industryCentralized exclusion methodTo enact. The beer industry is also subject to centralized exclusion, and Dainippon Beer is "Nippon Beer" (Sapporo beer) And "Asahi Breweries" (Asahi beer) Was divided. Divided from the mainland on September 1945, 9 and placed under the control of the U.S. Civil AdministrationAmami archipelagoThen, in 1952, as the distribution from Japan disappeared and supplies were in short supply.Tomoe Beer Co., Ltd.(Tomoe beer)Amami OshimaIt was founded in 1953, and a directly managed beer hall was also built.Amami archipelagoReturn to mainlandThe product lost its competitiveness and was closed.[69].. In 1957 (Showa 32), it was also under the control of the U.S. Civil Administration.Okinawaso"Orion beerWas established, and in the same yearTakara ShuzoAlso entered the beer industry and launched "Takara Beer" (Takara Shuzo withdrew in 1967)[70].. In 1963 (38), Suntory (name changed from Kotobukiya) re-entered the beer industry. Thus, although there were some new entrants, the beer industry has long been around since the withdrawal of Takara Shuzo in 1967.Kirin Asahi Sapporo Suntory Orionby5Company (Except for Okinawa where there are special circumstances such as various incentives for Orion, virtually excluding Orion4The company) is in an oligopolistic state.

In 1967 (Showa 42), a new technology (removing yeast using a precision filter without heat treatment) was used.draft beer, Suntory "Junsei"[Annotation 1][71]Was released, but Suntory and its competitors disagreed over the interpretation of draft beer (presence or absence of yeast), and a "draft beer controversy" arose.[72].. This controversy was in 1979Fair Trade CommissionAnnounced the definition of draft beer and draft beer as "beer without heat treatment" (regardless of the presence or absence of yeast), and as a result, Suntory's claim was accepted.[72].

Sold in 1987 (Showa 62)Asahi SuperdryIs sold in large numbers, and is produced and sold in China, Thailand, the United Kingdom, the Czech Republic, and Canada outside Japan.

With heating function from around this timeAir condition,Oil fan heaterDue to the enhancement of heating facilities in winter in ordinary households, "beer in summer, sake in winter, etc."Distilled spiritsThe style has changed so that beer will sell even in winter. This phenomenonice creamBut it was seen.

In 1994 (Heisei 6), the Liquor Tax Law was amended to relax the minimum production quantity standard. As a result, local beer began to be brewed all over the country at once, and the local beer boom was reproduced. However, the share of the five oligopolistic companies is still large, and as of 5, the share of the entire craft beer in the beer industry is less than 2008%.[73].

2005 years,The premium malts Monde SelectionAwarded and so farYebisu BeerHad an overwhelming advantagePremium beerThe market suddenly boomed.

Major stocks

Definition of beer in Japan

Germany in JapanBeer pure decreeThere is no law regarding manufacturing methods such as "Liquor tax law'[74]When"Fair competition agreement'[75]It is defined in.

  • Liquor Tax Law Article 3 No. 12[74]"Beer" The following alcoholic beverages with an alcohol content of less than 20%.
    • B-Fermented from malt, hops and water
    • (B) Fermented malt, hops, water, wheat and other articles specified by Cabinet Order as raw materials (limited to those in which the total weight of the articles specified by the Cabinet Order does not exceed 100/50 of the weight of malt. ).
  • Article 2 of the Fair Competition Code on Beer Labeling[75](The content is the same as the above "Liquor Tax Law")

Classification is "Fair Competition Code"[75]Defines.

  • Article 4 of the Fair Competition Code on Beer Labeling[75]
    • Lager beer --Beer aged in the storage process
    • Draft beer / draft beer --Beer that is not processed by heat (pastorization)
    • Black beer / Black beer-A dark beer that uses dark malt as part of its ingredients.
    • stout ――A beer with a strong color and a particularly strong flavor that uses dark malt as part of the raw material.

How to drink in Japan

In Japan, beer itself has been treated as a luxury item for a long time.[76],ShowaIn the 30s and 40sHigh economic growthAs progress progressesPopularizationProgresses,Common peopleTransformed into a common liquor that[77].

In Japan, chill it well and make a cupMugIt is common to pour it into the drink and drink it as it is, and the consumption increases in the summer. Many restaurants in JapanJapanese cuisine tavernThen, beer from one of the five companies (in effect, Kirin, Asahi, Sapporo, and Suntory) (usually Orion in Okinawa Prefecture) was served. for that reason,"Mitsubishi companiesEmployees only drink at stores where Kirin is available. ”“ Since there are few stores where Sapporo (or Suntory) is available,MitsuiIt's difficult to choose a store for entertaining affiliated companies, "said rumors about corporate groups and beer brands.At events where a large number of people gather, such as meetings of business people at hotels, etc., the beer makers offered by the corporate group are changed (Mitsubishi = Kirin,Fuyo system= Sapporo, Sumitomo = Asahi,SanwaSystem = Suntory.By the way, Mitsui is often either Sapporo or Suntory).In addition, some accommodation facilities are doing the same for beer in the refrigerator with a room (however, since around 2000, corporate reorganization beyond the traditional corporate group such as the former conglomerate has been carried out. Therefore, it may be difficult to apply).

JapaneseProfessional baseballThen, the official gameJapan Championship SeriesIt is customary for the managers, players, and coaches of the team that won the championship to have a beer at the celebration (→Beer).

Similar beverages

Under the Japanese Liquor Tax Law, effervescent liquors that use malt or wheat as a part of the raw material (alcoholic beverages listed in Article 3, Items 7 to 17 of the Liquor Tax Law and alcohol that uses malt or wheat as a part of the raw material are contained. (Excluding those made by distilling things as part of the raw material)Low-malt beerIs defined as.For this reason, some imported beer produced outside Japan does not meet this standard, and even if it is classified as beer in the home country, it is treated as low-malt beer in Japan.For sparkling alcoholic beverages that do not use wheat,Other brewed liquor(Effervescent) (1) "(" Other miscellaneous liquor (2) "in the old law)Third beerThere is something called.Beer or low-malt beer combined with distilled liquor is "Liqueur(Effervescent) (1) ”[74].

Beer taste beverage

"non-alcoholic beerWas called "Beer taste beverageIs also sold as a drink for children when drivers and adults drink beer and celebrate.Some of these are sweet and do not contain hops.Formerly called "non-alcoholic beer"Giraffe freeExcept for non-fermented products such as, the alcohol content is not zero.Although below the 1% alcohol standard for alcoholic beverages, most products contain alcohol.Therefore, we are calling on minors and people who are sensitive to alcohol to refrain from drinking and driving after drinking.In addition, there are cases where restaurants and retailers refuse to sell to drivers and minors. It has been pointed out that the expression "non-alcoholic" is misleading, and in the Japanese industry the name is "beer taste beverage" or "Beer taste beverageThere is a move to change it to.HoppyAlthough it is less than 1% alcohol in itself, it is generally used as a split material such as shochu.Root beerIs also called ginger beerGinger aleWith a similar drink,ChildrenBeverages are also on sale.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ CurrentLow-malt beerA product different from "Junsei"

Source

  1. ^ "Archived copy”. As of May 2011, 11オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2011/11/7Browse.
  2. ^ Kirin Brewery Company Name Kanji Notation "Kirin Beer"Such.
  3. ^ Toshiko Kobayashi"Sumer Mankind's Oldest Civilization"Chuokoronsha, 2005.
  4. ^ "The world's oldest beer's first chemical analysis / Confirmation of evidence of brewing in ancient Egypt / Waseda University, visiting senior researcher Baba and others reveal antiseptic ideas" "Yomiuri Shimbun』Morning edition January 2020, 1 (cultural aspect)
  5. ^ Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA two:10.1073 / pnas.1601465113 (approved April 26, 2016).
  6. ^ "Introduction to Beer"Nursery company, 1990, pp. 99-100.ISBN 9784586508006.
  7. ^ KIRIN_Kirin Brewery University_Ancient beer, medieval beer, and even Japan's first beer.歴史的ビール復元プロジェクト グルートビール復元への道のりHistorical Beer Restoration Project The Road to Groot Beer Restoration
  8. ^ a b "Asahi Breweries | World Beer History Beer Century | Germany 19th Century”. As of May 2008, 1オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2010/7/2Browse.
  9. ^ Sadayu Tamamushi, a modern Japanese person who loved beer --Kirin Brewery
  10. ^ "Science of Sake" Section 58
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  12. ^ beer-brewing.com Beer-brewing.com Ted Goldammer, The Brewers Handbook, Chapter 6 – Beer Adjuncts, Apex Pub (1 January 2000), ISBN-0 9675212-0-3.Retrieved 29 September 2008 Archive October 2007, 10- Wayback machine
  13. ^ Beerhunter.com Michael Jackson A good beer is a thorny problem down Mexico way, What's Brewing, 1 October 1997. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
  14. ^ a b “Geology and Beer”. Geotimes. (December 2004). http://www.agiweb.org/geotimes/aug04/resources.html 2007/11/5Browse. 
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  16. ^ a b c Sawao Murao, Motoo Arai "Applied Microbiology Revised Edition"Baifukan, 1993, pp. 114-116.ISBN 4-563-07707-0.
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