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👩‍🎓 | University admission common test The ideal and reality


Common test for university admission The ideal and reality

If you write the contents roughly
In "Chemistry", the purpose of the common test is firmly followed, but there are problems that can be solved in an instant due to unreasonable questions, and there are also problems that are apparently thought-type, and the result is that unfamiliar active students lose points. It became.

The first university entrance that can be said to be the core of the national high school connection reform and university entrance examination reform (hereinafter referred to as university entrance examination reform), which is the total of XNUMX years of the nation ... → Continue reading

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University entrance common test

University entrance common test(Daigaku Nyu Gaku Kyoto Test) isUniversity entrance examination center examinationInstead of2021Introduced from the university entrance selection (implemented on January 2021th and 1th, 16),JapanInUniversity OfCommonEntrance examination.Independent administrative agencyUniversity entrance examination centerImplemented by (DNC).

Introduced problems with conversational sentences and multiple text problems[1] In addition, although the postponement has already been decided, it was planned to introduce writing problems in Japanese and mathematics and to utilize private exams in English.


Common first-stage academic ability test,University entrance examination center examinationThis is a test that follows the flow of the above, and has been conducted since 2020 (Reiwa 2).

The common test for university admission is2013(25)May 10 OfEducational revitalization meetingThis test was proposed in the XNUMXth proposal (connection between high school education and university education and how to select university enrollees), and aims to ensure and improve the quality of high school education.2014(26) of JulyCentral Education Councilreport,2016(28) After the "final report" in March, the implementation start year is 3, and it is from the 2020 university entrance selection that will be held in the middle of January 2021.[2]..In the process of considerationCBTIntroduction of method (Computer Based Testing)[3] Was also considered.

Initially, it was called the "University Admissions Achievement Evaluation Test"[4] But,"University entrance common testWas changed to the name.2019(31)1Currently, it is written as "university entrance common test (new test)", "common test", etc.[5]..The common names "new test" and "common test" were also used before and after the introduction of the predecessor National Center Test for University Admissions.

The subjects and subjects to be asked are2020 subjects in 6 subjects as in 30, the last time the National Center Test for University Admissions was held(There is a change in the test time), but simplification is planned after 2024.[6].

The schedule is the same as the National Center Test for University Admissions, the first Saturday and Sunday after January 1th.[7].


Flow from question creation to exam implementation

Exam format

Special measures for taking an examination

Score adjustment

Schedule / question subject

The schedule and subjects for 2021 are as follows.6 subjects in all 30 subjects.Select the subject specified by the faculty (or department) of the university you wish to take.However, as an exception, in foreign languages, if you want to take the "English (Reading)" exam, you must take the listening test even if the faculty / department of the university you wish to study does not specify "English (Listening)". ..In addition, the examination time does not change even if you answer only in a specific field specified by the faculty / department of the university you wish to study in Japanese.

Day 1

  • Geography history-citizen:同一名称を含まない最大2科目まで選択。各100点満点、試験時間各60分(2科目受験:9:30 - 11:40(間に10分の解答回収時間あり)、1科目受験:10:40 - 11:40)
  • National language: 200 points out of XNUMXTexts since modern times100 points,Ancient Chinese50 points,Chinese text50 points), test time 80 minutes (13: 00-14: 20)
    • Japanese (question range "general language")
  • Foreign language
    • English
      • Reading: 100 points, exam time 80 minutes (15: 10-16: 30) (question range "Communication English I" plus "Communication English II" and "English Expression I")
      • Listening: 100 points out of 60, exam time 17 minutes (10: 18-10: 30 equipment explanation time 30 minutes, question answering time XNUMX minutes) Expression I ")
        • Candidates who choose "English" must answer both.However, it is exempted for people with severe deafness.Also, those who choose a foreign language other than "English" cannot take the test.

The following subjects: 200 points each, exam time 80 minutes (15: 10-16: 30)

Day 2

  • science(1): 2 points out of 100 subjects (XNUMX)Only one subject cannot be selected), Exam time 60 minutes (9: 30-10: 30)
    • Physical foundation
    • Chemistry basics
    • Biological basis
    • Earth science basics
      • 理科の科目選択方法…A:理科(1)から2科目、B:理科(2)から1科目、C:理科(1)から2科目かつ理科(2)から1科目、D:理科(2)から2科目、以上の4パターンから1パターンを選択[8][Note 1].
        • The A pattern is the mainstream for liberal arts, the B pattern is the mainstream for most private university sciences, and the C or D pattern is the mainstream for the sciences of national and public universities and some private universities.HoweverFaculty of medicineMedical departmentFormer Imperial University,Former Government UniversityIn many cases, the C pattern is not recognized in science such as.
  • Math(1): 100 points each, test time 70 minutes (11:20 -12:30)
    • Mathematics I
    • Mathematics I / Mathematics A
      • For mathematics A, select two questions from "number and probability of cases", "integer properties", and "figure properties" to answer.
  • Math(2): 100 points each, test time 60 minutes (13:50 -14:50)
  • science(2):各100点満点、試験時間各60分(2科目受験:15:40 - 17:50(間に10分の解答回収時間あり)、1科目受験:16:50 - 17:50)。科目選択方法は理科(1)に記載
    • physical
    • Chemical
    • Biology
    • Earth science
      • Place some choice questions in physics, chemistry, biology, and earth science.
      • Some universities have "deemed measures" that consider students who have only taken the science (2) exam as two subjects of science (1) (relief measures).[8].
      • Depending on the university, faculty / department, geoscience selection may not be accepted, or two subjects, physics and chemistry, may be designated.

Addition / retest

The number in parentheses is the number of examinees or the number of examinees

List of implementation dates

List of common test main test dates
TimesAD(Japanese Calendar)YearDay 1Day 2
12021(Reiwa3 years)May 1May 1
Two2022 years (Ryowa 4 years)May 1May 1

* On the first daySaturday, The second daySunday.

Introduction of descriptive questions

Descriptive questions were planned to be introduced in Japanese and Mathematics, but it was announced on December 2019, 12 that the introduction would be postponed.The following content is based on the plan before the decision to send off.


It was planned to introduce three descriptive questions for each of Japanese and Mathematics I / A.

The national language was introduced into the modern sentence, with the longest answer being 80-120 characters.The small questions were evaluated on a three-point scale, and based on that, the results for the large questions as a whole were to be given on a five-point scale.In Japanese, the result of the descriptive question is provided separately from the mark sheet part, so the university could choose not to use it for selection.[9] With the introduction of descriptive questions, the test time was planned to be extended from the conventional 80 minutes to 100 minutes.[7]

For mathematics, short-answer questions were to be introduced to answer mathematical formulas and phrases.Since the result is output together with the mark sheet part, it was not planned that the university could decide not to use it unlike the Japanese language.[9] In addition, with the introduction of descriptive questions, the test time was planned to be extended from the current 60 minutes to 70 minutes.[7]


As of July 2019, 7, it is being considered to introduce a part-time job of university students to the graders in this examination.[10], There are some criticisms on the Internet about this.Also, on August 2019, 8,General competitive biddingByBenesse GroupThe Academic Achievement Evaluation Research Organization, which handles test scoring under its umbrella, has decided to be a scoring company, but some have questioned that companies that sell mock exams and teaching materials will be responsible for scoring.[11].

Postponement of introduction

On December 2019, 12, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology announced that it would not introduce descriptive questions in the common test.Reasons include the fact that the actual grader is not confirmed until a few months before the implementation, the risk of scoring mistakes, and the high rate of inconsistency with self-scoring.[12] In response to this, the National Center for University Entrance Examinations will reexamine the points and examination times.

Utilization of English private exam

It was planned to use a private exam for English, but on November 2019, 11, it was announced that it would be postponed and reviewed.Part of the following content is based on the plan before the postponement decision.


Common test In English, four skills including "speaking" and "writing" are evaluated, so private exams are used.[6] It was planned.

In utilizing the English private exam in the common test,DNCOperated byUniversity entrance examination English grade provision systemThrough this, the results of the English private examination were planned to be provided to the university side without going through the examinees themselves.利用できるのは受験年度の4月〜12月(但し例外措置あり)に受けた指定の民間試験2回分までであり、成績の紐付けにはYou can use up to two designated private exams taken from April to December of the exam year (with exceptions), and you can link your grades.Common IDWas to be used.

As a procedure, when the examinee agrees to notify the result to DNC when taking the private examination, the examination result is notified to the examinee and DNC.[13], Submit a "qualification / certification test grade request form" to the university at the time of application for each university, and the university will request the DNC for the results of the private test together with the results of the common test.[13] It was a mechanism.

Exam results are not objectively determined and are often judged by each testing organization.CefrEvaluated by correspondence with[14].


Regarding English, at the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology's Council of Experts on the Ideal Way of English EducationRakutenChairman'sHiroshi MikitaniInsisted on the use of private exams, and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology initially had a policy of using private qualifications and certification exams for all English exams for this test, but due to requests from universities and high schools, university entrance exams It was decided to continue the mark-type questions similar to the center test for four years.

In November 2017, the operating guidelines for the "University Entrance Examination English Grade Providing System" were enforced at DNC.2017(29) The person who applied for participation in the "University Entrance Examination English Grade Providing System" held from November to DecemberPractical English Proficiency Test-TOEIC-TOEFLThere were 9 tests (7 groups) including[Note 2][15].. 2018年3月に、そのうちリンガスキルを除く8試験がシステム参加要件を満たしていると発表され、CEFRとの対照表も公表されたIn March XNUMX, it was announced that eight of these exams, excluding Ringa Skills, met the system participation requirements, and a comparison table with the CEFR was also published.[16]..しかし、このうちBut of these2020Only 3 exams can be taken in all prefectures at a time, and there is a wide range of exam fees, and there are still issues such as fairness of exam opportunities.[17][18]..大学からも、「4技能を評価する手段としては適切」と評価する声がある一方で「各試験で測る力が異なり公平性担保が困難」と懸念する声も上がっていたWhile some universities evaluated it as "appropriate as a means of evaluating the four skills," some were concerned that "the ability to measure each test is different and it is difficult to ensure fairness."[19][20]..Regarding the evaluation of 4 English skills in the selection of university enrollees, including the university admission common test,IIBC,Japan English Proficiency AssociationThe English 4 Skills Qualification / Certification Exam Advisory Panel, which is composed of private examination organizations such as, is disseminating information on the "English 4 Skills Exam Information Site".[21].

In December 2018, there were three universities, Tohoku University, Nagoya University, and the University of Tokyo, that did not accept the results of private examinations.[22].. In May 2019, at least 5 of the 82 national universities nationwide were "graduated from junior high school" (international index "CefrIt was revealed that the lowest level of A6) was qualified for application in the 1 stages of "", and it was reported that there is a movement to change the utilization policy of private examinations.[23]..北海道大、東北大、京都工芸繊維大は、公平性に問題があるなどとして活用しないことを決めているHokkaido University, Tohoku University, and Kyoto Institute of Technology have decided not to use it because of problems with fairness.[24].

In July 2019, TOEIC announced that it would withdraw its participation in the university entrance examination English grade provision system.[25].. TOEIC measures two skills of "listening / reading" and "speaking / writing" respectively in TOEIC Listening & Reading and Speaking & Writing, and the two tests are conducted separately, so they do not meet the requirements of the system. Because it was judged[25].


The following problems have been pointed out regarding the English private exam.[26].

  • It is disadvantageous for examinees in regions where the examination venue is far away.
  • Is it possible to compare the results of different types of tests in the same line?
  • The mechanism is complicated, and the usage of exam results differs from university to university.
  • It is doubtful that the quality and fairness of the scoring can be ensured.
  • Correspondence to examinees with disabilities.

In addition, the validity of measuring the abilities of the four skills for all examinees in university entrance examinations has been questioned.[27].

The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology has been holding a private meeting of experts since December 2018.受験料や地域の格差に関する課題が繰り返し指摘されていたが、文部省はこの議論の詳細を明らかにしていないIssues related to exam fees and regional disparities have been repeatedly pointed out, but the Ministry of Education has not disclosed the details of this discussion.[28].


The university entrance examination English grade provision system is scheduled to start operation in April 2020.[29] However, on November 2019, 11, it was announced that a private English test would be considered for implementation five years later (Reiwa 1).It is said that the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology decided to postpone the introduction due to insufficient preparations due to insufficient cooperation and coordination between the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology and private testing organizations.The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology is considering resuming the entrance examination in 5.[30]

The pronunciation / accent problem and phrase ordering problem, which are said to have indirectly measured speaking / writing ability, have been abolished because the four skills have been measured by private examinations, but this policy is based on the private examination. It has not been reviewed even if the utilization is postponed[31].

Trial survey (pretest)

As a trial study, DNC is conducting a pretest before the full-scale introduction of the test.


The pretest for 2017 (Heisei 29) was conducted in November and February.参加する高等学校等が会場となり、試験監督も教員が行ったほか、日程も定められた期間の中から参加校が設定するよう委ねられたParticipating high schools, etc. will be the venue, and teachers will supervise the examinations, and the participating schools will be entrusted with setting the schedule from the set period.[32]..Questions, correct answers, answer sheets, etc. are available on the DNC website.[33].

Implemented in November 29
It was held from November 11th to November 13th, and about 11 high schools participated.[32]..大学入試センターはこのプレテストの趣旨について「改善されたマークシート式問題及び、記述式問題における条件設定や採点基準、採点体制、採点期間等について検証を行うため」としているThe National Center for University Entrance Examinations states that the purpose of this pretest is "to verify the improved mark sheet type questions, condition setting, scoring criteria, scoring system, scoring period, etc. in descriptive questions".[32]..また、このプレテストでの正答率等の分析を行い、その結果を踏まえて問題構成等を再検討するとしているIn addition, the correct answer rate in this pretest will be analyzed, and the question structure will be reexamined based on the results.[32].
In Japanese and Mathematics I / Mathematics A, descriptive questions were also given, and the exam time was set to 100 minutes for Japanese and 70 minutes for Mathematics.[Note 3][32]..リスニングを含めた外国語の試験は実施されなかったForeign language exams, including listening, were not conducted[32].
In principle, Japanese language and mathematics I / mathematics A including descriptive formulas were conducted for second-year high school students, and all-question mark sheet-type geography / history / public, science, mathematics II / mathematics B were conducted for third-year high school students in principle.[32].
Implemented in November 30
It was held from November 2th to November 13th, and about 3 high schools participated.[34].
In principle, this pretest was conducted for second-year high school students, and English writing (reading) and listening were given in a mark sheet format.[34]..試験時間は筆記が80分、リスニングが30分に設定されたThe test time was set to XNUMX minutes for writing and XNUMX minutes for listening.[35].
Also, from February 2th to March 5rd,BrailleA pretest was also conducted for educated people to verify how to consider how to answer descriptive questions.[36]..There are two subjects, Japanese language and Mathematics I.Visual Special Support SchoolAbout 15 people from 45 schools took the test[36].


The 2018 (Heisei 30) pretest was conducted over two days, November 11th and 10th.[37]..平成29年度実施のプレテストが参加を希望する高等学校等を会場としていたのに対し、平成30年度「A日程」は原則として大学入試センターの会場となっているWhereas the pretest conducted in XNUMX was held at high schools, etc. that you would like to participate in, the "Schedule A" in XNUMX is, in principle, the venue for the National Center for University Entrance Examinations.All universitiesWas the venue[37].

In addition to the national language and math exams for second-year high school students and above, the "Schedule A" (only on the afternoon of the 2th), which conducts self-scoring and questionnaires, is almost the same as the National Center Test for University Admissions for third-year high school students. Approximately 10 people were scheduled to take the "Schedule B" (3th and 10th), which conducts national language, mathematics, geography, history / civilian, science, English, and listening tests on an hourly basis.Descriptive questions in Japanese and Mathematics I (11 small questions each. Japanese is 8 characters or less, 4,000 characters or less, 3 to 30 characters each. Math I is a problem to write mathematical formulas or solve problems The problem of describing the strategy etc. in a simple short sentence.)[38].


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ In C, the possibility of combining subjects containing the same name (eg, "Physics Basics" and "Physics") depends on the university.
  2. ^ IELTSTwo groups have applied in duplicate.
  3. ^ The National Center Test for University Admissions takes 80 minutes for Japanese and 60 minutes for mathematics.


  1. ^ Company, The Asahi Shimbun. “Trends and Countermeasures for University Entrance Examinations Seen from Trial Surveys │ Changing Education Changing University Entrance Exams Kawai Juku x Asahi Shimbun Digital │ Asahi Shimbun Digital”(Japanese). Asahi Shimbun digital. 2019/12/19Browse.
  2. ^ "Formulation of implementation policy for high school connection reform”. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (December 2017, 7). 2018/2/6Browse.
  3. ^ Test on PC!What will happen to the answer method for the new university entrance examination? 20161Z meeting・ミライ研究室・新大学入試の基本。・ Mirai laboratory ・ Basics of new university entrance examination. 2018年2月11日閲覧Retrieved February XNUMX, XNUMX
  4. ^ ""University entrance applicant academic ability evaluation test (tentative name)" examination, preparation group”. Www.mext.go.jp. 2019/1/20Browse.
  5. ^ "How do you perceive the university entrance test?”. Www.asahi.com. 2019/1/19Browse.
  6. ^ a b "It changes like this!University entrance exam-Implementing an exam to replace the center exam from 2020-”. Kei-Net (Kawai Juku). 2018/2/6Browse.
  7. ^ a b c “Extending the test time for Japanese language and mathematics”. Mainichi Newspapers(July 2019, 5). https://mainichi.jp/articles/20190529/k00/00m/040/258000c 2019/5/30Browse. 
  8. ^ a b University Examination Path Navi (Firefly Snow Age). “Let's understand how to select the complicated center test "Science"! / 2016 University Entrance Examination Guide”. Obunsha. 2015/12/21Browse.
  9. ^ a b "What is the "university entrance test"? | This will change!University Entrance Exam | Kei-Net". www.keinet.ne.jp. 2019/12/8Browse.
  10. ^ "Policy to allow part-time students to score "common test" Some voices of doubt”. Www3.nhk.or.jp. 2019/8/3Browse.
  11. ^ "Benesse Group wins the bid for the "new test" descriptive question scoring. 1 Is it okay to reform university entrance exams by relying on private companies?”. News.yahoo.co.jp (September 2019, 9). As of September 1, 2019オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2019/9/5Browse.
  12. ^ Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “Descriptive problem introduction postponement announcement Hagiuda Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology". NHK News. 2019/12/19Browse.
  13. ^ a b "Image of utilization of "university entrance examination English grade provision system" (under consideration) (Reference Material 2) (pdf) ”. University Entrance Examination Center. 2018/2/6Browse.
  14. ^ ""Problems of Common Test for University Admission" (Points of Issue)”. NHK. 2019/9/5Browse.
  15. ^ "List of qualifications and certification exams for which you have applied for participation in the university entrance exam English grade provision system (attached) (pdf) ”. University Entrance Examination Center. 2018/2/6Browse.
  16. ^ "About the participation requirement confirmation result of "university entrance examination English grade provision system"”. University Entrance Examination Center (March 2018, 3). 2018/5/8Browse.
  17. ^ ""Stray University Admission Common Test" (Public Theory)". NHK (September 2018, 5). 2018/5/8Browse.
  18. ^ "New common test: Private English test, 8 types of subjects Fairness, etc.". Mainichi Newspapers (September 2018, 3). 2018/5/8Browse.
  19. ^ "13 National Universities use for pass / fail Statement Common test English private sector test". Saga newspaper (September 2018, 4). 2018/5/8Browse.
  20. ^ "Private English test, XNUMX national universities "utilize" common test Voices of concern about fairness”. Www.tokyo-np.co.jp (March 2019, 3). 2019/10/25Browse.
  21. ^ "English 4 proficiency test information site”. English 4 Skills Qualification / Examination Roundtable. 2019/7/3Browse.
  22. ^ "Tohoku University "damages fairness" without using English private exams”. Www.asahi.com (December 2018, 12). 2018/12/6Browse.
  23. ^ "13 national universities can apply in English "junior high school"". Mainichi Newspapers (September 2019, 5). 2019/5/8Browse.
  24. ^ "To withdraw from the TOEIC university entrance test, which affects students due to complicated management". Mainichi Newspapers (September 2019, 7). 2019/7/2Browse.
  25. ^ a b "Notice of withdrawal of TOEIC Tests participation application to "University Entrance Examination English Grade Providing System"". Institute for International Business Communication (September 2019, 7). 2019/7/2Browse.
  26. ^ "(Time and time) Send off, fear of public opinion Continued resignation of ministers Ruling party "I can't stand wind pressure" English private exam: Asahi Shimbun Digital”(Japanese). Asahi Shimbun digital. 2019/11/24Browse.
  27. ^ "Is English "speaking" really necessary for college entrance exams?開始前に大混乱の英語教育改革English education reform in turmoil before the start". WEDGE Infinity (September 2019, 6). 2019/12/8Browse.
  28. ^ Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “Postponement of English private exams Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology". NHK News. 2019/11/6Browse.
  29. ^ Outline of "University Entrance Examination English Grade Providing System" National Center for University Entrance Examinations (December 2018, 12)
  30. ^ Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Hagita Drastic review of English test Consideration for implementation in XNUMX years NHK NEWS WEB March 2019, 11
  31. ^ "English questions and points assigned to the university entrance common test What is the impact of "postponement" of private exam use? |高校生新聞オンライン|高校生を応援するニュース・情報サイト| High School Newspaper Online | News and information site to support high school students". High school newspaper online. 2019/12/8Browse.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g ""About the purpose of the trial survey (pretest) for the introduction of the university entrance common test to be conducted in November 29" (pdf) ”. University Entrance Examination Center. 2018/2/6Browse.
  33. ^ "29 trial survey_question, correct answer table, answer sheet, etc.”. University Entrance Examination Center. 2018/2/6Browse.
  34. ^ a b "About the purpose of the trial survey (pretest) (foreign language course "English") for the introduction of the common university entrance test to be conducted in February 30 (pdf) ”. University Entrance Examination Center. 2018/2/6Browse.
  35. ^ "Outline of implementation of foreign language course "English" (pdf) ”. University Entrance Examination Center. 2018/2/6Browse.
  36. ^ a b "Outline of consideration for examination (Braille problem) (pdf) ”. University Entrance Examination Center. 2018/2/6Browse.
  37. ^ a b "Document 1 "Trial Survey (Pretest) for Introduction of Common Test for University Admission" (pdf) ”. University Entrance Examination Center. 2018/2/6Browse.
  38. ^ High School Connection Reform Symposium 30 Trial Survey (Pretest) Kawai Juku

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