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👩‍🎓 | Confirmation of goals such as shortening working hours Fukushima High School Regular Convention 2021 Activities


Photo Greeting Executive Committee Chairman Izumi

Confirmation of goals such as shortening working hours Fukushima High School Regular Convention 2021 Activities

 
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Executive Committee Chairman Daisuke Izumi said, "We will use information and communication technology (ICT) to realize the basics of union activities, such as sharing information and communicating the opinions of the field to prefectures and countries."
 

The prefectural high school teachers' union (Fukushima High School Association) held a regular tournament online on the 12th.Raising salary levels for faculty and staff and taking them home ... → Continue reading

 Minami Fukushima Shimbun

A news site of the local newspaper "Fukushima Minyu Shimbun" that represents Fukushima Prefecture. Since it was first published in Meiji 28, we have been transmitting the latest community-based news as a “friend of the people of the prefecture”. The prefectural news covers a wide range of local news by connecting 25 news bases in Fukushima prefecture. We are also focusing on recovery from the Great East Japan Earthquake and articles related to TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. We will deliver a variety of articles such as gourmet, sightseeing, events, readable serials.


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Information and communication technology

Information and communication technology(British: information and communications technology, Abbreviation:ICT) IsInformation technologyIt is an extension of (IT) andUnified CommunicationsEmphasize the role of[1],TelBy wire or wireless signalcommunicationAnd computers, and majorEnterprise application,Middleware, Storage, audiovisual systems, etc., to allow users to access, store, send, and manipulate information.[2].

The term "ICT" is used through a single wire or link system,Computer networkOf audiovisual networksTelephone networkTo(English edition)It is also used as a word to refer to.There is a great economic incentive to unify wiring, signal distribution and management into a single system and use it to integrate the telephone network into a computer network system. ICT is a comprehensive term that includes all communication devices such as radios and televisions, mobile phones, computers, network hardware, satellite systems, and various services and devices such as video conferencing and distance learning. including[3].

ICT is a wide range of fields, and its concept is evolving.[4]..All products that store, search, manipulate, and receive information electronically in digital form (eg personal computers, televisions, email, robots, etc.) are included in this area.The theoretical difference between interpersonal and mass communication techniques is defined by the philosopher Piyush Mathur.[5].. One of the models to describe and manage competencies for 21st century ICT professionals(English edition)There is[6].

Etymology

The term "information and communication technology" has been used by researchers since the 1980s.[7].. The abbreviation "ICT" was introduced in 1997(English edition)After being used in a report to the British Government by[8], Became widely known for its use in the British educational curriculum in 2000.But in 2012,Royal SocietyRecommended that the use of the term "ICT" in British schools should be discontinued, saying it "contains too many negative implications".[9]..In the UK education curriculum, "ComputingThe word "" came to be used in the curriculum.programmingIs a reflection of the addition of[10].

Variations of this word are widespread all over the world.The United Nations said,(English edition)", Established an" ICT station "inside[11].

Revenue

It is estimated that US $ 2017 trillion will be spent on IT worldwide in 3.8[12]Since 2009, it has increased at an annual rate of up to 5%. The overall growth rate of ICT in 2018 is estimated to be 5%.New technology field (IoT,Robotics,AR-VR,AI), The maximum growth rate of 16% is expected[13].

The US Federal Government's 2014 IT budget was close to $ 820 billion[14]..The ratio of IT costs to corporate profits has increased by 2002% since 50, putting pressure on IT budgets.Looking at the IT budgets of current companies, 75% are recurring expenses to "keep the power on" and 25% are expenses for new efforts for technology development.[15].

The average breakdown of the IT budget is as follows[15].

  • 31% labor cost (internal)
  • 29% Software costs (external, purchasing department)
  • 26% Hardware costs (external, purchasing department)
  • 14% External service cost (external, service)

It is estimated that over US $ 2022 trillion will be spent in 6[16].

Technical capacity

The technical capacity of information that can be stored in the world is 1986 in 2.6.ExabyteFrom (optimal compression), 1993 exabytes in 15.8, over 2000 exabytes in 54.5, 2007 exabytes in 295 (optimal compression), about 2014 in 5ZettabyteHas increased[17][18].. 2007 numbersCD-ROMThe地球からMonth1.25 times the number of layers, the number of 2014 is the printed book地球から(I.e.The amount of information is equivalent to 4,500 times the amount of information accumulated up to.One way in the worldbroadcastThe technical capacity of information that can be received on the network was 1986 in 432.Exabyte(Optimal compression), 1993 exabytes in 715 (optimal compression), 2000 in 1.2Zettabyte(Optimal compression), 2007 was 1.9 zettabytes[17]..Bidirectional in the worldcommunicationThe effective capacity of information that can be exchanged over the network was 1986 in 281.Petabyte(Optimal compression), 1993 petabytes in 471, 2000 in 2.2Exabyte(Optimal compression), 2007 exabytes in 65 (optimal compression)[17], And in 2014 it was about 100 exabytes[19]..The technological capability of information calculation by general-purpose computers in the world was in 1986.3.0×10^8 From MIPS to 20076.4×10^12 Increasing to MIPS[17].

ICT sector of OECD member countries

The table below shows the ratio of the share of the ICT sector to the total added value in 2013.OECDIt is a list of member countries[20].

RankingCountryICT sector (%)Relative size
1Republic of Korea flag  South Korea10.710.7
 
2Japanese flag Japan7.027.02
 
3Irish flag ã‚¢ã‚¤ãƒ«ãƒ©ãƒ³ãƒ‰6.996.99
 
4Swedish flag ã‚¹ã‚¦ã‚§ãƒ¼ãƒ‡ãƒ³6.826.82
 
5Hungarian flag ãƒãƒ³ã‚¬ãƒªãƒ¼6.096.09
 
6United States flag America5.895.89
 
7Indian flag India5.875.87
 
8Czech flag ãƒ ェ コ5.745.74
 
9Finnish flag ãƒ•ã‚£ãƒ³ãƒ©ãƒ³ãƒ‰5.605.6
 
10British flag The United Kingdom5.535.53
 
11Estonia flag ã‚¨ã‚¹ãƒˆãƒ‹ã‚¢5.335.33
 
12Flag of Slovakia Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu4.874.87
 
13German flag Germany4.844.84
 
14Luxembourg flag Luxembourg4.544.54
 
15Swiss flag ã‚¹ã‚¤ã‚¹4.634.63
 
16French flag France4.334.33
 
17Flag of Slovenia ã‚¹ãƒ­ãƒ™ãƒ‹ã‚¢4.264.26
 
18Danish flag ãƒ‡ãƒ³ãƒžãƒ¼ã‚¯4.064.06
 
19Spanish flag ã‚¹ãƒšã‚¤ãƒ³4.004
 
20Canadian flag ã‚«ãƒŠãƒ€3.863.86
 
21Italian flag ã‚¤ã‚¿ãƒªã‚¢3.723.72
 
22Belgian flag ãƒ™ãƒ«ã‚®ãƒ¼3.723.72
 
23Austrian flag ã‚ªãƒ¼ã‚¹ãƒˆãƒªã‚¢3.563.56
 
24Portugal flag Portugal3.433.43
 
25Polish flag ãƒãƒ¼ãƒ©ãƒ³ãƒ‰3.333.33
 
26Norway flag ãƒŽãƒ«ã‚¦ã‚§ãƒ¼3.323.32
 
27Greek flag Greece3.313.31
 
28Iceland flag ã‚¢ã‚¤ã‚¹ ランド2.872.87
 
29Mexican flag ãƒ¡ã‚­ã‚·ã‚³2.772.77
 

ICT Development Index

The use and access status of ICT around the world(English edition)Can be ranked and compared by[21].. In 2014, the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) announced the latest IDI rankings, with Denmark in first place and South Korea in second place. According to the ITU, "The top 1 countries in the ranking have high quality of life and high income, such as Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Japan, Macau (China), New Zealand, Singapore and the United States. Also included, IDI improvements were seen in most of the countries surveyed this year. "[22].

WSIS process and ICT development goals

August 2001, 12,United Nations General AssemblyTo discuss the opportunities and challenges facing today's information societyWorld Information Society SummitResolution 56/183 approved to hold (WSIS)[23]..According to this resolution, this summitMillennium Development GoalsImplementation of ICT to achieveUnited Nations Millennium DeclarationIt is associated with the goal of.He also emphasized a multi-stakeholder approach that leverages all stakeholders, not only government but also civil society and the private sector, to achieve these goals.

"2015 is the deadline for achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) agreed by world leaders in 2000," in order to establish and expand ICT in all residential areas of the world.[24].

In education

An organization of the United NationsUnited Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization(UNESCO) advocates the introduction of ICT into education as part of its efforts to ensure the fairness and provision of education.The following is a quote from UNESCO's publications on ICT in education, explaining UNESCO's position on this effort.

Information and communication technology is a technology that can contribute to universal access to education, fairness of education, provision of high-quality learning and education, and more efficient management, governance, and administration of education.UNESCOTakes a holistic and comprehensive approach to promoting ICT in education.The main issues are accessibility, integrity and quality.The inter-departmental platform for ICT in education focuses on these issues through the collaboration of three departments: Communications and Information, Education and Science.[25]

Despite the power of computers to improve and reform education and learning, there is little evidence that teachers are properly implementing ICT in their daily learning, resulting in increased funding and technological advances. , Improper implementation issues are widespread.Intrinsic barriers such as beliefs in more traditional teaching methods, individual attitudes towards computers in education, teachers' own computer usability and ability to use computers result in differences in the effectiveness of introducing ICT in the classroom. Is bringing [26].

To be effective in education, ICTPedagogyThere is evidence that it must be fully integrated with.Specifically, when teaching letters and mathematics, use Writing to Learn in combination with ICT.[27][28]Better results than traditional methods alone or ICT alone[29].

Mobile learning for refugees

The school environment plays an important role in facilitating language learning.However, language and letter barriers prevent refugees from attending schools outside the camp.[30].

Language learning apps with mobile learning are important tools for language learning.Mobile means can solve refugee language and writing problems in three main areas: literacy development, foreign language learning and translation.Mobile technology is important because communication practices are an important asset for refugees and migrants to embark on new languages ​​and new societies.Well-designed mobile language learning activities connect refugees with mainstream cultures to help them learn in the real world[30].

Developing countries

Africa

Sub-Saharan AfricaSince the 1960s, ICT has been introduced for the purpose of improving education.With the start of television and radio, the scope of education has expanded from classrooms to homes and into areas beyond the reach of traditional classrooms.As technology evolved and became widely used, efforts in Sub-Saharan Africa also expanded. In the 1990s, a major effort was made to introduce computer hardware and software into schools with the aim of getting both students and teachers accustomed to using computers in the classroom.Since then, several projects have sought to continue the spread of ICT in the region.This includes the One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) project, which distributed more than 2015 million laptops to about 240 million students and teachers by 200.[31].

m learningThe introduction of ICT in classrooms, often referred to as, has expanded the reach of educators in Sub-Saharan Africa and improved their ability to monitor student growth.In particular, mobile phones were emphasized in this effort.The use of mobile phones is widespread in this area, with mobile phone lines covering a wider area than Internet lines.Mobile phones are familiar to students, teachers and parents, and can increase communication and provide access to materials. Not only is m-learning beneficial to students, it is also a good training opportunity for teachers and leads to a more consistent curriculum throughout the educational area. Since 2011, UNESCO has been holding an annual symposium called Mobile Learning Week with the aim of gathering stakeholders to discuss m-learning initiatives.[31].

The introduction is not without its challenges.Mobile phones and the Internet are becoming more widespread in Sub-Saharan Africa than in other developing countries, but still slower than in developed countries, with smartphone penetration reaching only 2017% in 20. Is expected[31]..In addition, access to education has gender, social and geopolitical barriers, and its severity varies widely from country to country.In Sub-Saharan Africa as a whole, 2012 million children were out of school in 2960, not only because of geographical disparities, but also because of political instability, the importance of social norms, social structure and gender. This is due to inequality.Even if you can go to school, you will face barriers such as teachers' abilities, training and preparation, access to teaching materials, and lack of information management.[31].

Modern ICT

In modern society, ICT is always present and more than 30 billion people have access to the Internet.[32]..Approximately 10 out of 8 Internet users own smartphones, and information and data are increasing exponentially.[33]..Due to this rapid growth, ICT has become a cornerstone of everyday life, especially in developing countries, and lack of technology makes most of the office work, work and everyday life dysfunctional. According to authoritative data released in 2014, "Internet usage in 2014 was 6.6% worldwide (3.3% in developed countries, 8.7% in developing countries), and is steadily increasing. Over the last five years (5 years) The number of Internet users in developing countries has doubled between 2009 and 2014, and two-thirds of the current Internet population lives in developing countries. "[22].

However, the hurdle is high. "Of the 43 billion people who haven't used the Internet yet, 90% live in developing countries. Most of the 25 least-cost carriers (LCCs), where 42 billion people live, are particularly large. ICT is out of reach for the rural population. "[34]ICT is not yet widespread in some countries, and many developing countries lack internet facilities such as telephone lines, especially mobile phone lines and electronic means of transmitting data. According to the 2014 "Measuring the Information Society Report," "Many people have multiple contracts, which improves connectivity for people at the bottom of the pyramid, even as global usage increases. It does not mean that there are an estimated 4 million people worldwide living in areas where mobile phone services are still unavailable. "[32]As you can see, we have carefully judged that the above-mentioned increase in mobile phone usage is superficial.

Favorably, "2015 is the deadline for achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) agreed by world leaders in 2000, and new data show the progress of ICT and the rest to the goal."[24]In the last 15 years, the difference between Internet access and mobile phone penetration has decreased significantly.Nanotechnology is leading the way in ICT electronics and ICT gadgets, and ICT continues to take on new forms.As the latest version of ICT compatible with the world of modern electronic devicesApple WatchLike a smartwatch,(English edition)Smart wristband, likeGoogle TVThere are smart TVs like.With desktops becoming the product of the previous era and laptops becoming the best computing methods, ICT has become part of a changing world and is changing itself.

Information and communication technology is todayNew social movementamong,(English edition)Play a role in promoting.Bruce Bimber, who is critical of this, said that the Internet "accelerates the process of task formation and execution."[35]And to explain this new phenomenon(English edition)I coined the term.Bruce Bimber also uses ICT to "enable social movements and empower dictators."[36]He said that it is a tool and, in fact, promotes social change.Allows direct intervention in political discourse and national policy[37]Not only can the government change how governments deal with public dissatisfaction, thanks to the Internet, ICT for the causegrassrootsIt can also be used to gather support for.In addition, domestic ICT is associated with women's refusal to justify violence from their partners. According to a study published in 2017, this is "especially in culturally conservative areas where traditional views of gender are contrasted, where ICT makes women different ways of life and their role in society and at home. Can be touched on "[38]Because. (The above Bruce Bimber content is not in Japanese, so it needs to be corrected.)

Access model to ICT

(English edition)The professor defines an "access model" framework for analyzing accessibility to ICT.In Chapter 2 of his book Technology and Social Inclusion: Rethinking the Digital Divide, he describes models of access to three ICTs: device, conduit, and literacy.[39].. Devices and conduits are the most common way to describe ICT access, but without a third access model, literacy, they are not sufficient for meaningful access to ICT.[39]..By combining these three models, it roughly incorporates the 3 "true access" standards for ICT use envisioned by a non-profit organization called Bridges.org in 2005. The 12 criteria are as follows[40].

  1. Physical access to technology
  2. Technology validity
  3. Low cost of technology and its use
  4. Human ability and training
  5. Community-based content, technology and services
  6. Integration into everyday life
  7. Sociocultural elements
  8. Trust in technology
  9. Regional economic environment
  10. Macroscopic economic environment
  11. Legal regulatory framework
  12. Political will and public support

device

(English edition)In the theory of, the most obvious access model is the device.[39]..In this model, access is simply defined as owning a device such as a phone or computer.[39]..Valshauer points out that the model has many flaws, including the inability to account for additional costs of ownership, such as software and communications access, knowledge gaps in computer usage, and the role of government regulation in some countries. doing[39]..Therefore, Valshauer argues that simply considering the device underestimates the digital divide.For examplePew Research InstituteAnnounces that 96% of Americans have smartphones[41]However, many scholars in the field argue that comprehensive access to ICT in the United States is likely to be much lower than that figure.

Conduit

The conduit requires a connection to a supply line, that is, a telephone line or an internet line in ICT.In order to access the supply, for-profit companies and local governments need to invest appropriately in infrastructure, and after the lines are in place, regular payments from users are required.For this reason, conduits usually divide people based on their geographical location.Pew Research InstituteRural Americans are 12% less likely to have a broadband environment than other Americans, and therefore less likely to own a device, according to a poll in[42]..Moreover, these costs may be exorbitantly high for low-income earners to access ICT.These difficulties have led to a shift in mobile technology.That is, fewer people buy broadband connections, and more people use smartphones instead using free internet access in public facilities such as libraries.[43]..In fact, smartphones are on the rise, with 37% of Americans using smartphones as their primary means of accessing the Internet.[43], 96% of Americans own a smartphone[41].

Literacy

1981 years,(English edition)と(English edition)Is a Liberia with its own language(English edition)Was studied.Approximately half of the Vai literate people had never had a formal school education, so Scribner and Cole measured and compared the mental abilities of non-literate and literate people in more than 1,000 subjects. Was done[44]..This study is based on their book, The Psychology of Literacy.[44]It was possible to study whether literacy disparities exist at the individual level.(English edition)Applied this research to ICT literacy as part of the ICT access model.

Scribner and Cole could not find a generalizable cognitive advantage from Vai literacy.Instead, they found that individual differences in cognitive tasks were due to other factors such as school education and living environment. [44]..As a result, "there is no single component of literacy that cognitively divides humans .... Rather, literacy has a degree and variety and is closely related to the specific function of practicing literacy. There are various advantages[39]It was suggested that.Moreover, literacy and sociability development are closely linked, and there is no literacy disparity at the individual level.

Valshauer cites the work of Scrivener and Cole, arguing that both ICT literacy and literacy acquisition work in the same way because they both require resources rather than narrow cognitive abilities.The literacy conclusions detailed below underlie the theory of the digital divide and ICT access.

There are many types of ICT access, not just one.The meaning and value of access changes depending on the social context.Access is not a binary opposition, it exists in stages.The use of computers and the Internet does not automatically benefit other than its specific function. The use of ICT is a social practice, including physical artifacts and content, abilities, and social support.And the acquisition of ICT access is not just a matter of education, but also a matter of power.[39]

Therefore, Valshauer concludes that access to ICT does not consist solely of devices and conduits, but must also utilize physical, digital, human and social resources.[39]..Each of these categories of resources has a repetitive relationship with the use of ICT.If ICT is used well, these resources will be promoted, but if they are not used well, they will contribute to the cycle of underdevelopment and exclusion.[44].

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