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👩‍🎓 | Elucidation of how bifidobacteria use lactulose


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Elucidation of how bifidobacteria utilize lactulose

 
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This time, we elucidated the mechanism by which bifidobacteria utilize lactulose and examined the reasons why individual differences occur in the proliferative action of bifidobacteria.
 

The joint research group of Morinaga Dairy Industry, Kyoto University (Katayama Laboratory), Showa Women's University (Iino Laboratory) is a bifidobacteria in the intestine ... → Continue reading

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Bifidobacteria

BifidobacteriaAndGram positive OfObligate anaerobicBacillusIs a kind ofActinomyceteRopeBifidobacteriumBelong to a genusBacteriaIs the general term for.

Originally,Reference speciesBut also Bifidobacterium bifidum Bifidobacterium bifidum Formerly known as Bacillus bifidus Bacillus bifidus Is an abbreviation for the adjective bifidus (Bifidus). This species is now called Bifidum bacteria because the species adjective changed to Bifidum (Bifidum) due to the change to the Bifidobacterium genus, but it is sometimes called only Bifidobacteria.

Overview

It lives in the intestines of all animals, and in the human intestineB. bifidum,B. breve,B. infantis (B. longum subsp. children Reclassified to),B. longum,B. adolescentis5 species of inhabit.

In particularBreastfeeding児のshitThere are many in the stool. Normal breastfeedingIntestinal floraBifidobacterium is extremely predominant. Included in breast milk to boost Bifidobacteria in the intestinelactose,oligosaccharideAre valid[1].

1899 years,France-Pasteur InstituteBy TissierinfantWas found in the feces of. From the characteristic shape branched into V shape and Y shape,Latin"Bifidus" which means "Futamata"bifidusThe word was adopted, and initially Bacillus bifidusBacillus bifidusWas called. The name "Bifidus" isAdjectiveDerived from. Bifidobacterium in 1924Bifidobacterium(Bifidus and Bacterium bacterium, which means "bacteria") is newly established.Bifidobacterium bifidum Reclassified as Orla-Jensen 1924. After that, bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium other than this bacterium are also human.Intestinal bacteria, It is clear that they have the same role, and the bacteria belonging to the genus Bifidobacterium (= Bifidobacterium Bifidobacteria are also used as spp. or bifidobacteia).

Bifidobacteria break down sugarLactic acid,Acetic acidMaking a heteroLactic acid bacteriaIs also a member of.

Fungus species

As is done by Danone and DuPont in the United States, as part of the marketing method of companies in Japan, a specific strain is registered as a trademark by combining alphabets and numbers to differentiate it from other companies. Attempts have been made.As a result, "alphabets and numbers" such as BB-12 tend to be used for distribution instead of "Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies Ractis".

  • B. actinocoloniiforme
  • B. adolescentis-also distributed in humans.
  • B. aerophilum
  • B. aesculapii
  • B. angulatum-also distributed in humans.
  • B. animalis-A bacterial species found in the large intestine of most mammals, not just humans.
    • subsp. animalis
    • subsp. lactis- Strain GCL2505 (Bifix)GlicoIt is used in foods with functional claims.[2]..Strain HN019 is a trademark of DuPont, and strain BB-12 is a trademark of Christian Hansen.[3]So, FK120 and LKM512 are found to be the same as BB-12.[4]
  • B. aquikefiri
  • B. asteroides-isolated from the intestinal tract of bees. Has high O2 resistance.
  • B. avesanii
  • B. biavatii
  • B. bifidum-Reference species discovered by H. Tissier of France in 1899. Also distributed to humans.
  • B. bohemicum
  • B. bombi
  • B. boum-isolated from bovine rumen. Slightly aerobic.
  • B. breve --Discovered by G. Reuters of Germany in 1963.Because of its thin and short shape, it was named Brave because it means short.It is used in the production of fermented dairy products such as yogurt.[5]Also distributed in humans.
  • B. callitrichos
  • B. catenulatum-also distributed in humans.
  • B. choerinum
  • B. commune
  • B. coryneforme
  • B. crudilactis-separated from raw milk cheese[6]
  • B. cuniculi
  • B. denticolens
  • B. dentium-Also distributed in humans.
  • B. eulemuris
  • B. faecale
  • B. gallicum-also distributed in humans.
  • B. gallinarum
  • B. hapali
  • B. indicum
  • B. inopinatum
  • B. kashiwanohense
  • B. lemurum
  • B. longum
    • subsp. longum --Longum species, strain BB536 (Bifidobacterium longum BB536) is from Morinaga Milk IndustryFood for specified health useUsed in foods with functional claims[7]Also distributed in humans.
    • subsp. infantis-Also distributed in humans.
    • subsp. suis
  • B. magnum
  • B. merycicum
  • B. minimum
  • B. mongoliense-2009 Yakult Central Institute of MongoliaHorse milk liquorAnnounced that it was discovered from Airag.
  • B. moukalabense
  • B. myosotis
  • B. parvulorum
  • B. pseudocatenulatum-also distributed in humans.
  • B. pseudolongum
    • subsp. pseudolongum
    • subsp.globosum
  • B. psychraerophilum
  • B. pullorum
  • B. ramosum
  • B. reuteri
  • B. ruminale
  • B. ruminantium
  • B. saeculare
  • B. saguini
  • B. scardovii-isolated from human blood.
  • B. simiae
  • B. stellenboschense
  • B. subtile
  • B. thermacidophilum
    • subsp. thermacidophilum
    • subsp. porcinum
  • B. thermophilum-isolated from bovine rumen.
  • B. tissieri
  • B. tsurumiense

Effect

Bifidobacteria decompose lactose and oligosaccharides to produce lactic acid and acetic acid,pHSignificantly reduced[8],Good bacteriaAs well as adjusting the environment in the intestine,hay feverIt has been found that it also contributes to alleviation of allergic symptoms[9].. Mostly in infantsRotavirusHas been reported to suppress infectious enteritis[10].

Bifidobacterium isPantothenic acid(B5) cannot be used as isPantetinNeed also,Riboflavin(B2) is required[11]。ビフィズス菌(B. infantis、B. breve、B. bifidum、B. longum及びB. adolescentisのすべて)で菌体内にビタミンB1、B2、B6、B12、C、ニコチン酸(B3)、葉酸(B9)及びビオチン(B7)を蓄積し、菌体外にはビタミンB6、B12及び葉酸を産生した。ヒト(成人)の腸内の平均量のビフィズス菌の推定ビタミン産生量はビタミンB2、B6、B12、Cおよび葉酸で所要量の14-38%を占め無視できない割合と考えられる[12].. HoweverVitamin B12Just aboutIntrinsic factorVitamin B associated with12Is absorbedileumFarther from the sitecolonWith vitamin B12Is produced, so humans can get vitamin B made in the large intestine.12Can not absorb enough[13].

Bifidobacteria food use

Some traditional fermented foods are also contaminated with Bifidobacteria, but the explicit use is the first fermented milk produced by Meyer in Germany in 1948.

For fermented dairy foods, mainly acid-resistant lactis species are often used, such as bifidum species, breve species, longum species, and infantis species, which are not distributed in humans.

Source

  1. ^ Kiyoshi Aikawa "Applied research on bifidobacteria When the research started: When the research started"Gut Bacteriology Magazine, Vol. 12, No. 2, Japan Bifidobacterium Center, 1999, pp. 73-79," two:10.11209 / jim1997.12.73, ISSN 1343-0882 , NOT 130003717384.
  2. ^ Glico Bifix
  3. ^ Bifidobacterium "BB-12" Teijin Limited
  4. ^ Yatsugatake Dairy Co., Ltd. Bifidobacterium BB-12 Attachment style (V) -4 (PDF)
  5. ^ Bifidobacterium brave Yakult Central Labo
  6. ^ Koichi Watanabe "Current status and trends of bifidobacteria classification"Gut Bacteriology Magazine, Vol. 30, No. 3, Japan Bifidobacterium Center, 2016, pp. 129-139," two:10.11209 / jim.30.129, ISSN 1343-0882 , NOT 130005256560.
  7. ^ [1] Morinaga
  8. ^ Yoshiyuki Morishita "Probiotics and prebiotics that utilize intestinal bacteria for health"Journal of the Japan Dietary Fiber Study Group," Vol. 4, No. 2, Japan Dietary Fiber Society, 2000, pp. 47-58, two:10.11217 / jjdf1997.4.47, ISSN 1343-1994 , NOT 130004325839.
  9. ^ Yoshimi Hano "Hayfever that improves with Bifidobacterium power" Kodansha, January 2007.
  10. ^ Kazuko Araki, Tatsuhiko Shinozaki, Yoshiko Irie, Yukihisa Miyazawa "Study on the Preventive Effect of Bifidobacterium on Rotavirus Infection", Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol.73 (1999) No.4 P305-310, two:10.11150 / kansenshogakuzasshi1970.73.305
  11. ^ Zenzo Tamura "Bifidobacteria"Bifidobacterium, Vol. 2, No. 1, Japan Bifidobacterium Center, 1988, pp. 19-21," two:10.11209 / jim1987.2.19, ISSN 0914-2509 , NOT 130004257728.
  12. ^ Susumu Teraguchi, Joji Ono, Isao Kiyosawa, Yasuo Fukuwatari, Kazuharu Araki, Shigeo Okonoki "From humanBifidobacteriumVitamin production"Journal of the Japanese Society of Nutrition and Food Science," Vol. 37, No. 2, Japan Society of Nutrition and Food Science, 1984, pp. 157-164, two:10.4327 / jsnfs.37.157, ISSN 0287-3516 , NOT 130000861388.
  13. ^ Gille, D; Schmid, A (February 2015). “Vitamin B12 in meat and dairy products.”. Nutrition reviews 73 (2): 106–15. two:10.1093 / nutrit / nuu011. PMID 26024497. 

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