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👩‍🎓 | Free language learning app "Duolingo" now offers French courses


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Free language learning app "Duolingo" now offers French courses

 
If you write the contents roughly
If you can order safely in French from the monitor specially installed in the store, you will receive a special French bread (there is a mechanism to order even if you do not speak French, reservation is required).
 

The language learning app "Duolingo" is in beta offering a French course for Japanese speakers ... → Continue reading

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French

French(French,French French pronunciation: [fʁɑ̃sɛ] Francais) IsIndo-European OfItalicLanguages ​​that belong to.Romance languagesOne of theLatinColloquialism (Profane latin) Changed fromFranceNorthernOil language(OrWi language,langue d'oïl) Is said to be the mother.In Japanese, French or Spanish, abbreviatedFrenchAlso write.

The term French is used in many languages ​​(Occitan,AlpitanEtc.) can be misleading in France, so simplyOil languageSometimes called to distinguish it from other French languages[4].

In the worldEnglishIt is the second most used language after (about 80 countries / regions), and 2 countries, mainly France, Switzerland, Belgium, Canada, and countries that were once the territory of France and Belgium. Is the official language of (French speakingSee).Used by 1 million people worldwide as the primary language, with a total of over 2300 million speakers[5].United Nations,European UnionIt is also selected as one of the official languages ​​such as.This French speaker,Francophone(in your language,English edition)[Annotation 1][Annotation 2].

voice

consonant

Both lipsLip teethDental consonantgumPosterior gumHard palateHard palate on both lipsSoft palateLabial-velar conchUvula
Plosivepbtdkg
nasalmnɲ
Fricativefvszʃ ʒʁ
Approaching soundjɥw
Side approach soundl

If two symbols are lined up, the one on the right isVoiced sound, LeftUnvoiced sound.

vowel

Front tongueMiddle tongueBack tongue
iyu
Half narrowe øo
Centerə
Semi-wideɛ œɔ
Wideaɑ

If two symbols are lined up, the one on the right isRounded lips, LeftNon-rounded lips.

Nasal vowel

  • / ɛ̃ /: in, im, ain, aim, ein, eim -Although it is a nasal vowel of "d", it is actually close to "an".
  • / œ̃ /(In Paris etc. / ɛ̃ / Join): un, um
  • / ɑ̃ /(Slightly rounded lips): an, am, en, em --Dark "A" nasal vowel, close to "On".
  • / ɔ̃ / or / õ /: on, om

As an example of a phrase containing four nasal vowels « un bon vin blanc » / œ̃ bɔ̃ vɛ̃ blɑ̃ /(Delicious white wine) is famous.

Half vowel

Spelling and pronunciation

In French, the consonants and vowels e, except for c, r, f, and l, are basically not pronounced.The French notation seems complicated to beginners, but it is relatively regular.EnglishAnd JapaneseRomajiIt's so different from the notation that you can't read it correctly without knowing French, but you can easily pronounce it if you remember the rules.For example water Always / o / Pronounced.However gentleman(Mosh) Is /mɔ̃.sjœʁ/ not /mə.sjø/ Andwoman(Female,wife) Is / fem / not / fam / Etc.Italian,SpanishThere are many exceptions compared to other Romance languages.have,plusSome words have different pronunciations depending on the context.Also,in, im, yn, ym, ain, aim, ein, eim Is all / ɛ̃ / Because different spellings often show the same pronunciation, such asHomophoneThere are many.For example wine(Wine)When twenty(20) Are both / vɛ̃ / And also adjectives blue (tag, The masculine singular) and its variants blue(Multiple masculine),Blue(Feminine singular),blue(Multiple feminine) are all / blø / Is.For this reason, it is relatively difficult to hear the pronunciation and write it separately.[7]..Some people, even natives, can't write correctly, which is a problem in France.Due to such difficulties, it is being carried out in Japan.Practical French Proficiency TestA dictation test is conducted in the second and subsequent grades of (DAPF), and the sentences flowing on the CD are written correctly while grasping the context firmly and paying attention to the conjugation of verbs as well as the matching of gender and number. The ability is tested.Although it is a dictation test, grammatical knowledge is also tested, and in fact, there are so many examinees who score points on this dictation question, which shows how difficult it is to write French correctly.

Alphabe

The alphabetIn French, it ’s called Alphabe (alphabet).

Name of each letter

A, a a /to/(AB, b baby / be /(Be
C, c/ se /(D, d of / de /(De
E, e e / Ə /(CormorantF, f effe / ɛf /(F
G, g ge / ʒe /(JeH, h Ache / aʃ /(Ash
I, i i / i /(LeeJ, j ji / ʒi /(The
K, k ka / ka /(MosquitoesL, l elle / ɛl /(Elle
M, m in me / ɛm /(MN, n uropean / ɛn /(N
O, o o / o /(OhP, p foot / pe /(The
Q, q cu / ky /(KyuR, r erre / ɛʁ /(Ale
S, s that / ɛs /(ST, t the / te /(Te
U, u u / y /(YuV, v vee / ve /(Ve
W, w double vé / dublə ve /¹ (Du BruveX, x ixe / iks /(Ix
Y, y i grec / i ɡʁɛk /² (EgrekZ, z zède / zɛd /(Zedd
  1. The meaning of two Vs.
  2. GreeceMeaning of I.UpsilonSee.

Spelling symbol

  • É, é of " : Aksantegu(accent aigu, SharpAcuteMeaning)
  • À, È, Ù, à, è, ù «` »:: Acute accent(accent grave, Meaning heavy acute accent)
  • Â, Л, Î, Ô, Û, â, ê, î, ô, û of " : Acute accent(accent circonflexe, Meaning curved acute accent)
  • Ä, Ë, Ï, Ö, Ü, Ÿ, ä, ë, ï, ö, ü, ÿ of " : Trema(umlaut, Partion symbol)
  • Ç, ç of " : Cedilla(cédille

Cedilla, diaeresis, acute accent, and the grave accent and acute accent on the e are pronunciation-changing symbols.On the other hand, grave accents and acute accents attached to vowels other than e do not change the pronunciation.

* I do not strongly read the place where acute accents are attached.

Ligature

Œ, œ Is o and eLigatureIs.This combinationSingle vowelIn words pronounced in, o and e must be connected in this way.Usually in œu / œ / Represents

  • sister / sœʁ /
  • oenology / enɔlɔʒi / --In Greek origin,The Œ transcribed from /is/ Is pronounced.

Æ, æ Is a ligature of a and e, a fewLatinUsed in loanwords from.

  • cæcum / sekɔm /

Punctuation marks

In frenchQuotation marks(EnglishThen, as "" ""), "«» "(guillemet) quotation marks) Is used.French punctuationOf which, comma (,), period (.),bracketsQuestion marks (?) Other than ((), []),Exclamation point(!),colon(:),semicolonBefore (;)spaceAnd also put a space after and before the quotes.

Number system

A combination of 20-ary and decimal[8]..Quite complicated, but this is an example in France, 70 in Belgium and Switzerlandseventy, 90nonante, And 80 in SwitzerlandhuitanteExpressed as, it is relatively close to the decimal system.

  • 1: un (une)
  • 2: two people
  • 3: three
  • 4: four
  • 5: five
  • 6: six
  • 7: Sept
  • 8: eight
  • 9: new
  • 10 dix
  • 20 twenty
  • 30 thirty
  • 40 forty
  • 50 fifty
  • 60 sixty
  • 70 (60 + 10): soixante-dix
  • 80 (4 * 20): quatre-vingts
  • 90 (4 * 20 + 10): quatre-vingt-dix
  • 100 cent
  • 200 deux cents
  • 1000 thousand

grammar

SingularMultiple
First personje chantenous chantons
second persontu chantesvous chantez
third personhe singsils chantent
  • verb Thesubject OfPerson-QuantityUse it according to such reasons.For example sing The present form of (singing) is as shown in the tableInflectionTo do.For more informationFrench verbSee.
  • nounTosexThere are (male / female).According to genderarticle・ Of the verbPast participle-adjectiveThere are masculine and feminine forms.
  • Adjectives and articles change according to gender and number.
  • It is basically a post-modification.For example, "red wine" is « Red wine ».However,small(small),grandFrequently used adjectives such as (large) may be pre-qualified.For example, "small child (single)" is « little child »(Petit Tan Fan) (If there are multiple, « grandchildren »(Petitzan fan)).

Title

  • Mr. [məsjø] (Mushu) (Male) (Mr.) * In Japan, "MoshIs often written.
  • Mrs.[madam] (Madam) (Married woman) (Ms.)
  • Miss [madmwazɛl] (Mademwazel) (Unmarried woman) (Miss)

Language variant

Dialect and local language

Europe (France and its surroundings)

North America

Africa

Used in southern FranceOccitanIs sometimes used as a French dialect, but linguistically it is usually treated as a different language.

French Creole language

Mixed language

Such(French-based creole languagesSee).

Mixed language with other languages

History

58 BCから51 BCOverRepublic Rome OfGaius Julius Caesar Gallic WarsIt is the origin of French in this area that almost all of the present French territory was Roman territory.LatinWas the trigger for the full-scale introduction.Prior to the Gallic Wars, the region was predominantly Celtic.GaulishWas used, but as Roman rule took root, Latin became dominant, andGallo-RomanceA Latin dialect group called was established.This language was basically influenced by Latin, and although it was a dialect, it was influenced by some phonologies from Celtic.[9]. afterwards,Roman EmpireWith the collapse ofFrank kingdomWas their language when they ruled this areaGermanic system OfFranconianWas brought in, and under the influence of that, the Latin language in this area changed drastically,9st centuryCompletely separated from Latin by nowOld frenchWas established[10]. afterwards,14st centuryAroundMiddle frenchChanged to17st centuryThe modern French was established by the purification and maintenance of French by the Academy Francaise.

Control agency

As a French control bodyAcademy francaiseCan be mentioned.this is1635ChancellorRichelieuA national institution founded by the French language, with the aim of improving the French language to make it a language that anyone can understand.dictionary"Academy Francais DictionaryWas aimed at compiling[11].

This "Academy Francaise Dictionary" is1694After the first edition was published in, it has been compiled and published until the present day.The newest dictionary is1992It was compiled in.It was rare at the time that such a language control body was created by the state, which was the source of the French state's strong influence over French.

It is also one of the missions to make recommendations on the current state of French, and although not enforceable, these recommendations have a strong influence on French.Academy FrancaiseInstitut de FranceIt is the oldest and most prestigious academy among the five academies that make up.Académie Francaise consists of a capacity of 5 people with a lifetime term and will only be replenished if vacancies occur.

This member, the composition of French speakers and the academy itself, has been established and survived as a national institution of the French government.French historyThe number of French citizens is overwhelmingly large, but other citizens can become members if they are deemed appropriate.

For example,1983Became a memberLeopold Sédard SangorFor 20 yearsセネガルThe person who served as the president of the republic, but in FrenchpoetsIt is a very well-known existence, and it is an international organization that seeks to integrate the French-speaking world.Francofony International OrganizationHe was allowed to become a member because he led the establishment of.

Speaker distribution

France is the only country with a majority of French-speaking people.However, in some countries, native speakers of French have a great deal of power.In addition, the region where French is originally the mother tongue in France is limited to northern France, and it is spoken in a wide area of ​​southern France.OccitanBeginning withBrittany peninsulaSpoken inCelticSystemBreton,AlsaceSpoken inGermanSystemAlsatian,CorsicaSpoken in ItalianCorsicanThere are several local languages ​​with different strains.However, the French government is the earliest nation to build the language by the government.French RevolutionSince then, it has consistently defined French as the only language in France.[12]..For this reason, strong national French dissemination policies, including education, have been adopted, and even in each of the above language regions, French is now being spoken in most of the modern times.However, until the latter half of the 19th century, the Occitan restoration movement "Félibrige", Etc. have been carried out, and criticism is deeply rooted in this situation from the viewpoint of protecting local languages.

The country with the highest percentage of native French speakers outside FranceベルギーIs a French speaker and lives in southern BelgiumWalloonMakes up 31% of the population.In Belgium, he lives in the north and speaks the Dutch dialect.FlemishMakes up 60% of the population and is with the WalloonsLanguage warThere is a serious language conflict situation called.Against the backdrop of this conflict, Belgium has become a federal state in the north and south, and in the south.Walloon areaMost ofFrench communityIs forming.Also in the capitalブ リ ュ ッ セ ルAlthough it is located on the north side of the language boundary, the population of French speakers accounts for 8%, and it is a unique region for both languages ​​as the Brussels metropolitan area.Next, the nations with a high percentage of French speakersスイスIs.Native French speakers make up 20.38% of the Swiss, second only to German speakers, who make up 64%.Swiss French speakers are concentrated in the western part of the countryGeneva,Vaud,Neuchâtel,JuraTwo ofCantonHas made French the official language as a state dominated by French speakers.It also straddles both sides of the language boundaryFriborgandValaisIs in frenchGermanBoth languages ​​are the official languages.Switzerland is a multilingual nation, and the official languages ​​of the federation are German, French,Italian3 languages[13][14], And as a national languageRomanshAdopts 4 languages ​​including[15][16].Continental europeIt is in these three countries that native French speakers have a great deal of power.

In addition, as a country with a large number of native French speakersカナダThere is.Native French speakers make up 22% of Canada's total population and have a non-negligible force.Especially the French speakers are concentrated in the eastern partQuebecAlthough English and French are both official languages ​​in the Commonwealth, the official language of Quebec isFrench onlyAnd an active protection policy is taken.Independence movements often take place against the backdrop of this linguistic conflict.

Native French speakers have a great deal of power only in the above areas, but France was once vast in other areas as well.French colonial empireIn the former colonies, there are many countries that use French as their official language, and they occupy the status of official language in 29 countries.The region where French is the official language is Africa, and in the former French territory,セネガル,(I.e.,(I.e.,コ ー ト ワ ワ ー ル,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,ト ー ゴ,(I.e.,ニ ジ ェ ー ル,チャド,中央 フ リ 央,カ メ ル ー ン,ガボン,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,(I.e.,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,ジブチFrench is the official language in.In addition to the former French territory, it was a Belgian colony that also uses French as its official language.Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euandEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euAlso uses French as its official language.On the other hand, even in the former French territory, French is not an official language in Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, which belong to North Africa.It makes up the majority of the population of these countriesArabIs the mother tongue ofArabicBecause it was a large language and could withstand the official language, the official language was rapidly switched to Arabic after independence.However, even in these countries, many elites are free to use French, and it is widely accepted as a quasi-official language and cultural language in Japan.Especially in Algeria, around 1,200 million people use French regularly (fr: Langues en AlgérieSee also).It is also a former Belgian territoryRwandaHas long used French as the official language,Rwanda massacreRelations with France deteriorated rapidly after the outbreak of2009Since adding English to the official language, the educational language has been changed to English, and English is rapidly becoming the official language.[17]. Also,セ ー シ ェ ェ,Mauritius TheNapoleonic WarAlthough it was a British territory after that, it was a French territory before that, and the people who settled in that era remained after that, so the leadership of society is occupied by French speakers, and the common language of both countries is French. ing.In addition, the most popular languages ​​in Japan are the French Creole languages.Seychelles CreoleMauritius Creole[18]Is.In addition, in FranceOverseas prefectureIsMayotteandレ ユ ニ オ ンAlso has French as its official language, and Reunion is a Creole language whose everyday language is also French.Reunion CreoleIt has become.

In the new continent, other than Canada mentioned aboveハイチIs the only nation whose official language is French.In Haiti, the everyday language of the general public is also the French Creole language.HaitianHas become[19]..Also, although it is not an official language, it is a former French territory.LouisianaFocusing on the southwestern part ofCajun FrenchThere are people who speak a French sect called.Dotted in the Lesser AntillesGuadeloupe,Martinique,Saint Martin,Saint Barthelemy, And in South AmericaFrench GuianaAlso uses French as its official language.

OceaniaWas once a condominium of Britain and FranceバヌアツMakes French one of the official languages.It is also an overseas territory of France.New CaledoniaandFrench Polynesia(TahitiSuch),Wallis and FutunaAlso has French as its official language.Former French territory in AsiaEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Laos,CambodiaThe official language has been localized in the three countries of Japan, and French is almost no longer accepted, but it is slightlyLebanonIt is somewhat accepted in Japan and is treated as a quasi-official language.

The language community of these French speakersFrancophoneCalled1970ToFrancofony International OrganizationWas established,1986The Francophone Summit, in which the leaders of member countries participate, will be held once every two years, and French-speaking countries are coordinating.However, for Francophony International OrganizationEgypt,Greece,ルーマニアCountries with few French speakers are also members, such as, and on the contrary, there are many French speakers.アルジェリアFrancophone international organization member countries are not necessarily French-speaking, such as not participating[20].

French in international organizations

French17st centuryから19st centuryUntilEuropeIs the most influential international common language inDiplomatBecause it has been used as a termInternational organizationInOfficial terminologyIs often set.

As a specific example, the following international organizations use FrenchOfficial terminologyAndUnited Nations(UN),International Olympic Committee(IOC),International Football Federation(FIFA),International Telecommunication Union(ITU),Universal Postal Union(UPU),Inter-Parliamentary Union,Islamic State Council,African Union(AU),North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO),International Standards Organization(ISO),World Trade Organization(WTO),Economic Cooperation Development Organization(OECD),Doctors Without Borders(MSF; Médecins sans frontières),European Council (CoE).

In these institutions, French is often not the only official language, but is used in conjunction with other languages ​​such as English.However,19st centuryから20st centurySince it had a position as an international common language at the beginning, French is the first language in the international organizations established during this period, such as the Universal Postal Union, the International Telecommunication Union, the International Olympic Committee and the FIFA. And has a higher status than English[21].

In the United NationsEnglishAnd FrenchUnited Nations SecretariatDefined as "working language" and otherUnited Nations official language(Russian-Chinese-Spanish-Arabic) Higher in position.Also before the warDainichi this empire OfJapan passportIn, French was written together with English.

There are many world-famous international sports organizations whose official name is French.FIFA World CupIs holdingInternational Football Federation(FIFA; Fédération internationale de football association),Modern olympicIs holdingInternational Olympic Committee(Comité international olympique, CIO),F1Is holdingInternational Automobile Federation(FIA; Fédération internationale d'automobile),a MotoGPIs holdingInternational Motorcycling Federation(FIM; Fédération internationale de motocyclisme),Tour de FranceSuch asUCI World TourIs holdingInternational Cycling Union(UCI: Union Cycliste Internationale) And so on.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ FrenchGeographer(English editionBut the book France, Algérie et colonies (1880) It begins with the use in.[6]
  2. ^ In addition, as a similar and different concept, "Francofil (francophileIs present.

Source

  1. ^ Risk to employment of up to 50 people due to decrease in French users, report analysis
  2. ^ a b Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology basic data
  3. ^ "Académie française”(French). 2007/9/28Browse.
  4. ^ "Revised World Folk Map" P387 by Michihiro Takasaki December 1997, 12 First edition, first edition published
  5. ^ University of Tsukuba Foreign Language Center
  6. ^ Noriyuki Nishiyama"Establishment and prospect of Francophone"French Education" Special Issue, 2003, p. 22.
  7. ^ Ziegler, Johannes C .; Jacobs, Arthur M .; Stone, Gregory O. (1996), “Statistical analysis of the bidirectional inconsistency of spelling and sound in French”, Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers 28: 504-515, http://www.up.univ-mrs.fr/Local/lpc/dir/ziegler/article/1996.BRMIC.ziegler.pdf 
  8. ^ French number system
  9. ^ "Introduction to French Studies" p44 Ikuhiko Hige, Koichiro Kawashima, Junya Watanabe Surugadai Publishing Co., Ltd. April 2010, 4 First edition published
  10. ^ "Introduction to French Studies" p45 Ikuhiko Hige, Koichiro Kawashima, Junya Watanabe Surugadai Publishing Co., Ltd. April 2010, 4 First edition published
  11. ^ "Introduction to French Studies" p53 Ikuhiko Hige, Koichiro Kawashima, Junya Watanabe Surugadai Publishing Co., Ltd. April 2010, 4 First edition published
  12. ^ "Introduction to French Studies" p33 Ikuhiko Hige, Koichiro Kawashima, Junya Watanabe Surugadai Publishing Co., Ltd. April 2010, 4 First edition published
  13. ^ "Illustrated Swiss History" p86 Tomoji Odori Kawade Shobo Shinsha August 2011, 8 First edition published
  14. ^ Yasukazu Morita "Story of Swiss History" Chuko Shinsho p198 Published July 2000, 7
  15. ^ "Illustrated Swiss History" p111 Tomoji Odori Kawade Shobo Shinsha August 2011, 8 First edition published
  16. ^ Yasukazu Morita "Story of Swiss History" Chuko Shinsho p198 Published July 2000, 7
  17. ^ Rwanda Basic Data | Ministry of Foreign Affairs Reiwa May 5, 31 Retrieved August 2019, 8
  18. ^ "Encyclopedia of Africa", Heibonsha,ISBN-4 582-12623-5 February 1989, 2 First Edition First Print p.6
  19. ^ "Introduction to French Studies" p41 Ikuhiko Hige, Koichiro Kawashima, Junya Watanabe Surugadai Publishing Co., Ltd. April 2010, 4 First edition published
  20. ^ "Introduction to French Studies" p38 Ikuhiko Hige, Koichiro Kawashima, Junya Watanabe Surugadai Publishing Co., Ltd. April 2010, 4 First edition published
  21. ^ "Introduction to French Studies" p37 Ikuhiko Hige, Koichiro Kawashima, Junya Watanabe Surugadai Publishing Co., Ltd. April 2010, 4 First edition published

Related item

外部 リンク

French bread

French breadIsWheat flour-salt-Wed-EastMade only withFranceOf originBreadIs the general term for.baguette,Baguette,CroissantAre well known.[1]In France pain traditionnel (French pronunciation: [pɛ̃ tradisjɔnɛl] It's called Pan Traditionel), or it follows the name of another country. French bread (French pronunciation: [pɛ̃ frɑ̃sɛ] Sometimes called bread france).Also, onceFrench IndochinaHitEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Laos,CambodiaIt is also widespread in areas such as.

Features

French bread is characterized by its hardness.Basically for the fabricsugarBecause it does not use, French bread is so hard that even if you hold only one end of it, the bread will not break.The exodermis, which is called "crust" in English,Rice crackersIt is crispy and produces the unique texture and aroma of French bread.Also eggs,Dairy products,OilsIt is also characterized by not using auxiliary ingredients such as, and therefore the skill of the maker affects the taste, so it is said that making French bread is a difficult task in becoming a baker.

Compared to the hard and fragrant exodermis, the contents called "crumb" have a soft texture.Even if made with the same dough and the same oven, the baguette is long and slender and has many skin parts, so it is suitable for people who value the crispness and aroma of the skin, and the round boule is suitable for people who like soft bread with a lot of contents or sandwiches. Bataru is thicker than baguette, but not as round as boule, so it is in the middle.[2].

Baguette, batard, boule,Pain de campagne, Champignon, Epi, Coupe, etc., so-called French bread is basically made of ingredientsWheat flour・ Make only with baker's yeast, salt, water and malt.Like other breads, sugar, butter, eggs, dairy products,OilsIt is made only with simple materials without adding such things.Since the fermentation of baker's yeast does not go well with wheat flour, salt and water alone, malt saccharifies the starch of wheat flour and fermentation by yeast proceeds.Add rye flour for bread de campagne, etc.[3](When making at home, a small amount of sugar may be added instead of malt).In Vietnam, on the doughrice flourAdd.

The flour used in French bread is used in ordinary breadStrong flourNot a semi-strong powder with less gluten orMedium flourIs.After fermentation, just before putting it in the oven, make a diagonal cut in the dough with a razor or a coup knife, and in the process of baking, a unique crack spreads.This widening crack is called a coup[4]..However, it is difficult to bake bread with a nicely spread coup in a small oven for home use, aside from the large oven used by professionals.Also, in baguettes, it is said that bubbles with irregular sizes are good, but this is a difficult technique even for craftsmen.

Unlike France, bread with a "chewy texture" is preferred in Japan, so French bread sold by major bread makers isglutenUsing a strong wheat material, fats and oils such as milk and butter, and a large amount of eggs and other auxiliary ingredients, the gluten is made sticky, and the texture is more chewy than the "honke" French bread. It has become very elastic.Therefore, French bread mass-produced by major Japanese manufacturers (especially those sold under the name of soft France) has a completely different texture from French bread eaten in France, and the appearance is baguette. Similar to Parisian, but with a soft skin and a chewy baguette-like content.

For French breadBriocheAnd sweetly seasoned such as VienoiseSweet breadHowever, in Japan, "French bread" generally does not include these.

History

Originally produced in France due to soil and climate.wheatMost of them are gluten-poor, and it was difficult to make fluffy bread like bread from other countries.Therefore, in France, it was required to make bread using less sticky dough, and as a result, a unique bread with a hard exodermis and crispy contents was born.

Originally, French breadYeastThe dough was mixed at once and baked on an open fire without using baker's yeast like the one in the above, so the baking color is the same as it is now.Fox colorInstead, it was lightly charred, and it was customary for the purchaser to scrape the charcoal with something like a knife or file and throw it away just before serving.French bread took on its current shape around the 19th century, and improvements in yeast and flour milling techniques have made it possible to produce the variety of French bread that can be seen today.

The most well-known French breadbaguetteIt wasn't until the 20th century that it became popular.This is because laws and regulations in the 1920s prohibited baker from working between 10 pm and 4 am, making it difficult to bake traditional round bread by breakfast, which can reduce manufacturing time. It is said that the shape has become common[5]..On the other hand, the NHK program "Scolded by Chico-chanIn the story of a Japanese baker, he denied that the explanation by law was a translation error, and instead directed it to market workers.sandwichAs a result of the bakery's pursuit of a shape suitable for efficiently creating, he introduced the view that he came up with an elongated shape.[6][7].

The manufacturing method was introduced to Japan at the beginning of the Meiji era.1872(5th year of Meiji),Tsukiji SeiyokenInvited as the first chef with the opening of the hotelスイスOf the person1874Independently in (Meiji 7)TsukijiWas inForeign settlementOpened "Charisha", a store for French bread and soft drinks.This shop was mainly used by foreign residents[8]. Also,1888(Meiji 21)Tokyo cityIt was in Sekiguchidaimachi, Koishikawa-kuVirgin French School(Catholic Sekiguchi ChurchThe bakery department opens in (predecessor of).Worked at Our Lady French SchoolCatholic churchPriest OfJean-Pierre RayWanted to make the vocational training given to children in church-run orphanages cultural.Ray considered the French bread making method to be the best training, and chose Nagao Potassium from the orphans.French IndochinaWas sent to practice[9]..This attempt paid off and started the production and sale of full-scale French bread for the general public.[10]..This is the later "Sekiguchi French Bread" (1914<Founded in Taisho 3>)[9]..Furthermore, from KyotoShinshindoFounder Hitoshi Tsuzuki as the first Japanese bread student1924He went to France in (Taisho 13), learned the theory and practical skills of bread in Paris for about two years, and manufactured and sold full-scale French bread after returning to Japan.[11].

1954(Showa 29), Former professor of the French National Milling SchoolRaymond CalvelDemonstration by1965In (40), his disciple and bakerPhilip VigoIt became popular after the demonstration of how to make it.Carvel dispatched Vigo to work to popularize bread in Japan, laying the foundation for today's Japanese bread.Koichi Fukumori of the Fukumori Bread Research Institute was the only Japanese to travel to France and became a disciple of Calver, and he is still contributing to the spread of bread.[12].

Types

Similarly, bread made with bread traditionel has different names depending on its shape and size.

baguette(Baguette cane, stick)
Thin bar-shaped bread.Weight 300g to 400g, length 70cm to 80cm[13].
Petit bread(Petits pains small bread)
Thin bar-shaped bread.A small baguette.Around 12 cm in length.
Baguette(Bâtard eclectic)
Located between Baguette and Parisian.Weight 300g, length 40cm to 50cm[13].
Parisian(Parisian ParisKid)
Thick bar-shaped bread with a weight of 400 g and a length of around 68 cm[13].Yamazaki breadIt is also the product name of French bread.
Du livre(Deux livres 2Libre
The thick bread has a heavy feeling.Weight 850g, length 55cm[13].
Bread Comple(Wholemeal bread
Whole grainUsedWhole-grain bread.
Fluyt(flute Of musical instrumentsflute
Longer than a baguette,fluteAs.Weight 200g to 250g, length 50cm to 60cm[13].
Ficelle(Ficelle string)
stringAs thin as.Weight 120g to around 150g, length 30cm[13].
ブ ー ル(boule ball,ball
Ball-shaped medium-sized bread.Weight about 280g[13]..It is the etymology of the French word "boulangerie (bakery)".
Pain de campagne(country bread CountrysideBread)
Rugby ballShaped bread.In the countryside, it used to be baked in a communal kettle so that the family could eat it for a while, and often used low-refined wheat flour.Mish(Miche) Is generallycircular[14].
Rustic (Pain rustique)
Pan de Me (pain de mie Bread inside)
Plain bread
Epi(Epi ear)
A baguette, fluyt, etc. is used to make a deep coup (cut) so that it is baked like a wheat ear.
Champignon mushroom
Mushroom-shaped bread with a circular "head" on top.Weight 50g[13].
Coup
Spindle shape of about 20 cm.Make one long cut (coupe) with a knife before firing[13]..However, bread called by such a name is not generally known in France.
Fendu (fendu) GeminiOr "slit")
Bread with a constriction in the center of the boule[13]..Unlike the coup, there are no cuts.
Pan o Sagle(Seigle Rye
French bread with rye.Also known as bread au sagle, bread de meteil (half and half), and bread de sagle, the names differ depending on the mixing ratio of rye, and rye is the most common in the order in which it is described.
Sourdough bread (pain au levain)
Traditional leaven (levain) Fermented and aged French bread.
Croissant(Croissant crescent)
In Japan, sugar is used for the dough, so it has a stronger image as sweet bread rather than French bread.
Pain brie (Pain brié)
NormandyMade in rural areas, knead wellnavigationReduce water for use.Brié is from the Old Norman word brier (kneading).
Fougasse (f)
ProvenceWith relatively flat bread in the regionwheat OfEar,Thu OfleafIt has the shape of.
Saucisse, sausage
Shoriso(Chorozo, originallyスペインWith spicy sausage)[15], Grande saucisse (with big sausage), etc.

Coup

Number of coups (cuts) by type

  • Baguette-6-7
  • Baguette ―― 3-4
  • Drivre-three
  • Parisian ―― 5-6
  • Ficelle ―― 3-4
  • Flute-5-6
  • Boule-Cross
  • Coupe-one

Production example

Wheat flour (semi-strong flour or equivalent), dry yeast, salt,maltextract, Vitamin C, water.

⇒ Mixing (spiral mixer L4 "-M3" kneading temperature 24 ℃) ⇒ Primary fermentation (120 minutes) ⇒ Punch (degassing) ⇒ Secondary fermentation (60 minutes) ⇒ Split ⇒ Bench time ⇒ Molding ⇒ Hoiro fermentation ⇒ By spraying Sprinkle water ⇒ Steam firing (220 degrees 25 minutes)

* Fermentation and proofing have a temperature of 28 ° C and humidity of 75%.

Number

  • FrenchsandwichIs mainly baguette sandwich[16]..In Japan, it is common to make vertical cuts and sandwich the ingredients to use baguettes as sandwiches.Round sliceIn some cases, the ingredients may be placed on top of it.
  • Onion soupFrench bread is generally used for the baguette.
  • in JapanGarlic toastIn addition to being often used in, it was made into a paste with margarine.Menta cod roe"Mentaiko France" painted with cheese, bacon and various other ingredientsCooking panWhat wascream,Bean pasteAcrossSweet breadThe bread is often sold at bakeries.
  • According to Momo Oba, a cartoonist whose husband is French, it is very rude in France to carve out to eat the edge of the baguette.[17].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ French bread (encyclopedia of delicious bread)
  2. ^ Inoue (2007), pp.91, 92, 93, 95, 112, 113.
  3. ^ Inoue (2007), pp.80-105, 232.
  4. ^ Inoue (2007), p.244.
  5. ^ "France, where half-baked baguettes are preferred-even lamenting craftsmen". The Wall Street Journal Japan Edition (Dow Jones). (November 2013, 8). https://jp.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887323480904579027372498622640 2020/12/1Browse. 
  6. ^ "Chico-chan scolds me! ▽ Mystery of dolphin jump ▽ French bread secret story ▽ What is a business card?”. NHK (July 2021, 4). 2021/4/9Browse.
  7. ^ "Chico-chan scolds me! ▽ Mystery of dolphin jump ▽ Secret story of French bread ▽ What is a business card?”. TV warehouse (August 2021, 4). 2021/4/9Browse.
  8. ^ Bread Meiji 58 Year History p115, pXNUMX
  9. ^ a b "About Sekiguchi French Bread”. Sekiguchi French bread. 2020/12/1Browse.
  10. ^ Bread Meiji 107 Year History pXNUMX
  11. ^ "Commercial frozen bread from a long-established bakery that is highly praised by all the famous chefs-Shinshindo Co., Ltd. (1/5)". Foods channel (Infomart). (May 2015, 5). https://www.foods-ch.com/shokuhin/1431504356498/ 2020/12/1Browse. 
  12. ^ "About Us”. F-next. 2020/12/1Browse.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Bread blister”. Pasco. As of September 2015, 9オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2020/12/1Browse.
  14. ^ miche (Kotobank)
  15. ^ Bread o Shoriso (Delicious Bread Hya Encyclopedia)
  16. ^ Masatoru Sato "French Words for Living 8000", Kenken, 2014, 51 pages.
  17. ^ “When I tried to eat the edge of the baguette, my French husband said,“ Very rude! "I was surprised with"". Otonanser (Media Vague). (February 2020, 12). https://otonanswer.jp/post/78694/ 2020/12/1Browse. 

References

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