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👩‍🎓 | "Immunosenescence" is involved in changes in the composition of the intestinal flora in the elderly Hokkaido University elucidates


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"Immunosenescence" is involved in changes in the composition of the intestinal flora in the elderly Hokkaido University elucidates

 
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That is, it was suggested that the decrease in α-defensin, which controls intestinal bacteria, may be involved in the previously unknown transition mechanism of the intestinal flora with aging.
 

A research group at Hokkaido University found that the decrease in the amount of "α-defensin" secreted with aging is a group of intestinal bacterial flora in the elderly ... → Continue reading

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Intestinal bacteria

Intestinal bacteriaWhat is (Chainai Saiin)?Human capital,Animal OfIntestinesLiving insideBacteriaThat. About 3 in humans[1], 100 trillion[2]-1000 trillion[1] Individuals inhabit and weigh 1.5kg-2kg[1].

Overview

Including humansMammalIs the motherIn the wombWhile you're atmicroorganismIs present in a sterile condition. Three to four hours after birth, some may come into contact with the outside environment, some through food, some with close relatives such as mothers, and some at birth.Birth canalBy infecting with, microorganisms are infected by various routes, and some of the microorganisms are on the surface of the body, in the oral cavity,Digestive tractOf whichNasal cavityOf whichGenitourinary systemIt becomes established in such areas and becomes a resident microorganism at that site.Part ofProtozoa,ArchaeaMany of them exceptEubacteriaIs. In generalIndigenous bacteriaOften collectively referred to. Of these, in the intestinal tract, which is the lower part of the digestive tractIndigenous bacteria Intestinal bacteriaIs. When the inner surface of the intestine is widened, it is equivalent to one tennis court, but since bacteria inhabit it like a flower garden, it is also called "intestinal flora". Flora saysFlower gardenMeans[1][Reliability required verification].. Until around 1960, only Escherichia coli was recognized in the intestine, but this idea has become common today.

The intestinal environment isAnaerobicAnd 99% or more of the intestinal bacteriaAnaerobesBelongs to the obligate anaerobic bacterium. The metabolic reaction of these intestinal bacteria isReduction reactionIs mainly used, and various decomposition reactions are characteristic.[3].Anaerobic breathingTypes include anaerobic glycolysis, nitrate respiration, sulfate respiration, carbonate respiration, etc., and obtain electrons required for metabolism by reducing the substrate, for example,nitrateからNitrite,SulfateからHydrogen sulfide,Carbonic acidからmethaneThere is an example that generates.

IntestinalBacterial floraThe intestinal bacteria that make up theSymbiosisNot only do they have a symbiotic relationship with their hosts, humans and animals.The main nutrient source is the nutrients contained in the diet ingested by the host.fermentationIt proliferates and simultaneously produces various metabolites. The gas and malodorous components produced by fermentation of intestinal bacteriafartBecome part of. EnterobacteriaHerbivoreOr like a humanOmnivorous animalInDietary fiberPersistence that constitutesPolysaccharideTheShort chain fatty acidsIt is useful for maintaining the homeostasis of the host, such as supplying energy to the host by converting to the above, and playing a role of infection defense to prevent pathogenic bacteria invading from the outside from multiplying in the intestine.However, if it infects a place other than the intestinal tract,AntibioticsIf the intestinal flora is out of balance due to the use of, it can cause illness.In addition, because of the physiological effects described below, if the balance between intestinal bacteria is lost, the brain and other parts will start to work.心 臓,jointAt first glance, it has the potential to develop into diseases of all parts that seem to be unrelated to the intestine, and has a major impact on lifespan.[1].

shitAbout half of the stools are said to be intestinal bacteria or their carcasses. It acts by utilizing part of the nutrients ingested by the host humans and animals, and while maintaining a balance of numbers with other types of intestinal bacteria,Ecosystem(Intestinal flora, Intestinal resident microflora, intestinal flora) are formed. EnterobacteriaTerritoryThe bacteria that form the intestinal flora attack the invading new bacteria. For this reasonPathogenAre usually destroyed,sickPlays a role in protecting against aging[1].. The type and number of intestinal bacteria vary depending on animal species, individual difference, digestive tract site,age, There are differences depending on the content and physical condition of the meal, but most of themObligate anaerobic bacteriumIsEnterococcusな どculturePossible types are part of the whole,VNCThere are many types of. From the name, it is considered to be a representative of intestinal bacteria.E. coliIs less than 0.1% of the total.

Prebiotics and probiotics

normalIntestinal flora(Butyric acid bacteriaThere are two methods for inducing a predominant intestinal environment).Butyric acid bacteria,Lactic acid bacteriaDirectly from food (Probiotics)When,Butyric acid bacteriaThe method of ingesting ingredients that promote the growth ofPrebiotics).

Bacteria population

分析技術の進歩に伴い生息している菌の種類は増加する傾向があるが、腸内細菌は多数の雑多な菌種によって構成され、一人のヒトの腸内には100種から3000種類の細菌が100兆個から1000兆個の腸内細菌が長さ約10mの腸内に生息しており、重量にすると約1.5-2kgに相当する。一般にヒトの細胞数は60-70兆個程度と言われており、細胞の数ではその16倍に匹敵するだけの腸内細菌が存在することになる[1].. However, since bacterial cells are much smaller than human cells, the weight ratio of the whole individual does not exceed that of the host. Looking at the contents of the intestinal tract, 1 to 100 billion (1,00010-10%11Individual intestinal bacteria are present, and about half of the feces is composed of intestinal bacteria or their carcasses.

5 functions

In humans, enterobacteria have five main functions.[1].

Intestinal microbiota and its composition

Bacteria commonly found in the human large intestine[4]
FungusDiscovery rate (%)
Bacteroides GateBacteroides fragilis100
Bacteroides GateBacteroides melaninogenicus100
Bacteroides GateBacteroides oralis100
Philmictes GateEnterococcus faecalis100
ProteobacteriaE. coli100
ProteobacteriaEnterobacter sp.40-80
ProteobacteriaKlebsiella sp.40-80
ActinomyceteBifidobacterium bifidum (Bifidobacteria)30-70
Philmictes GateStaphylococcus aureus30-50
Philmictes GateLactobacillus (Lactic acid bacteria)20-60
Philmictes GateC. perfringens25-35
ProteobacteriaProteus mirabilis5-55
Philmictes GateClostridium tetani1-35
Philmictes GateClostridium septicum5-25
ProteobacteriaPseudomonas aeruginosa3-11
ProteobacteriaSalmonella enteritidis3-7
Philmictes GateFaecalibacterium prausnitzii?common
Philmictes GatePeptostreptococcus sp.?common
Philmictes GatePeptococcus sp.?common

Since the intestines of humans and animals are organs for decomposing and absorbing ingested food, they are an environment rich in nutrients necessary for living organisms to grow.For this reason, the intestine is the site with the most indigenous bacteria, both in type and number, compared to the body surface and urinary genitalia.This diverse group of bacteria competes for survival within the gastrointestinal tract, eliminating each other and building a symbiotic relationship, creating a well-balanced and balanced ecosystem.The ecosystem created in this wayIntestinal floraWe call it (Chinai Saikinso). It should be noted that in this system, not only the bacteria but also the epidermis-resident and environmental-resident bacteria are broadly defined.yeastInfects fungi and bacteria such asPhage, Etc. are also mixed to form a balance, so the terms intestinal indigenous microflora, intestinal flora, intestinal microflora, etc. are more strict, but in general, microorganisms other than these bacteria are also included. Often called the internal flora.

The food consumed by humans and animals isesophagus,stomachThroughduodenumIt reaches the upper part of the small intestine and is then delivered to the large intestine and rectum while being absorbed by the host. Therefore, the content of nutrients in the contents of the digestive tract varies depending on the location of the digestive tract. Also sent to the digestive tractoxygenThe concentration is not originally high, and intestinal bacteria that live in the upper intestine areBreatheSince oxygen is consumed by doing so, the oxygen concentration in the intestinal tract decreases toward the lower part, and by the time it reaches the large intestine, it becomes an almost completely anaerobic environment. As described above, even in the intestinal tract of the same host, the nutrition and oxygen environment differ depending on the site, so the types and proportions of bacteria that make up the intestinal flora differ depending on the site. Generally, there are few intestinal bacteria in the upper part of the small intestine,fermentationDo bothFacultative anaerobic bacteriaThe number of bacteria is high, but the number of bacteria increases toward the bottom, and at the same time specialized in an oxygen-free environment.Obligate anaerobic bacteriumWill become mainstream.

on the other hand,bile acidEmulsifies lipids and fat-soluble vitamins to aid digestion and absorptionBacteria OfCell membraneAlso has the effect of dissolving[5]Small intestineInsidebile ductIt prevents the formation of intestinal flora in the. Every day, a total of 20-30 g of bile acids are secreted into the intestine, and about 95% of the secreted bile acidsileumでActive transportIt is then reabsorbed and reused to transfer the conjugated bile acid from the intestinal tract to the liver and gallbladder.Enterohepatic circulationIs called. Most of the bile acids with bactericidal action are absorbed in the ileum, so that the intestinal bacteria arecolonIs the main activity place.

The number of human intestinal bacteria (per 1g of contents) due to the difference in the site of the digestive tract is approximately as follows. In addition, the number of bacteria is considered to be factors such as nutrients, oxygen concentration, resistance to gastric acid, resistance to bile acid, not eliminated by the intestinal immune system, and adhesion to the intestinal wall.[6].. The composition of bacteria excreted in feces is similar to that of the large intestine.

  • Upper small intestine: Approximately 1 (14)Individual.Lactic acid bacteria(LactobacillusGenus),Streptococcus(StreptococcusGenus),VeionellaGenus,yeast[7] Such. Many are aerobic and facultatively anaerobic.
  • Lower intestine: 1--10 million (1,0005-10%7)Individual. Bacteria in the upper part of the small intestine are mixed with obligate anaerobic bacteria derived from the large intestine.
  • Large intestine: 1 billion to 100 billion (1,00010-10%11)Individual. Most areBacteroides(Bacteroides),Eubacterium(Eubacterium),Bifidobacteria(Bifidobacterium),Clostridium(Clostridium) And other obligate anaerobic bacteria. 10 bacteria from the upper small intestine5-10%7About a piece.
Examples of intestinal bacterial composition in general adults[8]
Bacteroides50%
Bifidobacteria15%
Anaerobic cocci15%
Yubacterium10%
Clostridium10%

The composition of these intestinal bacteria varies greatly among individuals, and it is said that each human has his or her own flora. However, its composition is not invariable, and the composition of the bacterial flora also changes due to various changes in the human host, such as diet content and aging.

For example, in breast-fed and artificial-fed infants, the formerBifidobacteriaSuch asBifidobacteriumBacteria of the genus are the most predominant, and other bacteria are extremely small, whereas the latter is where many bacteria other than bifidobacteria can be seen. This is thought to be one of the reasons that artificially fed infants are more likely to develop bacterial infections and indigestion than breast-fed infants.

Lactobacillus is the most abundant newborn. The dominant species of intestinal bacteria in infants areLactobacillusとPhilmictes GateIt is a closely related species. One month after birth, meconium, a black sticky stool, appears, and the Philmicutes gate becomes dominant for three months after birth.[9].

As the baby grows up to eat baby food,Bacteroides (Bacteroides) AndEubacterium (Eubacterium), the number of anaerobic intestinal bacteria found in adults has increased,BifidobacteriaWill decrease.

When eating meals containing vegetables, Bacteroides will occupy about 30% of the whole[9].

As we get older and become older,Bifidobacterium (Bifidobacterium) Is decreasing and insteadLactobacillus (Lactobacillus) AndEnterobacteriaceaeBacteria,C. perfringens(Clostridium perfringens) Etc. will increase.

We investigated the composition of 12 human intestinal bacteria in 26 countries, including Japanese, and found that Japanese compared to other people.ActinomyceteBifidobacteria(Bifidobacterium),Philmictes GateClostridium classBlautia, ActinomycetesCollinsella, Philmictes GateBacillusStreptococcus(Streptococcus), unclassified Clostridium fungi (Unclassified Clostridiales) Was most often present. Also, Japanese intestinal bacteria arecarbohydrate,SeaweedKind ofDietary fiberHas a high metabolic capacity and is producedhydrogenThemethaneThan productionAcetic acidThere was a strong tendency to use it for production[10][11].

Good bacteria and bad bacteria

As an example to explain the intestinal environment in an easy-to-understand manner,"Good bacteria"と"Bad bacteria"It may be classified into. It is said that "good bacteria" contribute to maintaining the health of the host and "bad bacteria" do harm. The intestinal environment is generally likened to a fungal flower fieldIntestinal floraIt is called.

This idea came to the end of the 19th centuryIlya MetynikovIt originated in the "self-poisoning theory" published by. It was discovered that a toxic compound was produced in the small intestine, and that absorption from the intestine into the body was the cause of various diseases and aging. We hypothesized that intestinal spoilage would shorten lifespan, and thought that preventing intestinal spoilage would prevent aging. Was a long-lived country while traveling around EuropeブルガリアIt was found that yogurt was ingested in, and it was confirmed that ingestion of lactic acid bacterium (Bulgarian bacterium), which is a "good bacterium" isolated from the yogurt, reduced the amount of putrefactive substances in the intestine.

Subsequent studies gradually revealed the symbiotic relationship between the intestinal bacterium and the host human, andIntestinal floraSince it was revealed that a change in the balance of the intestine can cause infections and diarrhea, it is once again supported by the idea that changing the balance of the intestinal flora leads to improvement in human health. Became. Andcancer,Heart disease,Allergies,dementiaIt has been pointed out that it is highly associated with diseases such as[12].

What is called a good bacterium that accounts for 2% of the total intestinal bacteriaBifidobacteriaRepresented byBifidobacterium (Bifidobacterium),Lactobacillusと 呼 ば れ るLactobacillus (Lactobacillus) Bacteria etc.Lactic acid,Butyric acidな どOrganic acidThere are many things that make.

For bad bacteria, which accounts for 1% of all intestinal bacteria,C. perfringensRepresented byClostridium (Clostridium) And Escherichia coli (pathogenicity), which often produce so-called spoilage substances that cause malodor. Bad bacteriaSecondary bile acid,NitrosamineCreate a carcinogen.Pseudomembranous colitisCauses ClostridiumDifficileAnd pathogenic Bacteroides spp.FlagirisAnd so on[13].. Many bad bacteria are difficult to grow in an environment with many organic acids.

Not necessarily classified as good bacteria or bad bacteria, those that change their action under the influence of other bacteria are called opportunistic bacteria and account for the remaining 7%. However, most of them are unknown. Opportunistic bacteria account for 7% of the total,ProteobacteriaEnterobacteriaceaeE. coli (non-pathogenic), accounting for 4% of the totalBacteroides GateBacteroides(Non-pathogenic), of the PhilmictesEubacterium,Luminococcus,Clostridium(Non-pathogenic)[13].

Tokuho-approved foods have been researchedblood pressureSome products have been confirmed to have low serum cholesterol.hay feverThere are also research reports that allergic symptoms such as[14].cancerPraised the preventive effect ofhealthy foodCan be seen (violation of the Pharmaceutical Machinery Law).Research is being conducted on the action of suppressing various diseases such as cancer and allergies related to intestinal regulation.[15].. Other lactic acid bacteria that can reach the intestines alive (Probiotics), or good bacteria in the intestine can be used as a nutrient source but bad bacteria cannot be used (oligosaccharideSuch,Prebiotics) Has been devised to be used as a formulation or functional food, and many products have been developed and put into practical use.

Relationship with host

Symbiosis with the host

Breastfeeding reduces infant mortality

According to the result (1957 Tokyo) of the investigation of the dead infants (excluding newborns),BreastfeedingThe mortality ratios of the mixed nutrition and artificial nutrition methods were approximately 1:2:3 for mature infants and approximately 1:2:4 for premature infants.[16]..Bifidobacterium in particular is breast-fedshitThere are many in the stool. Bifidobacteria are predominant in the flora of normal breast-fed infants. Highly contained in breast milk to enhance intestinal bifidobacterialactose,oligosaccharideAre valid[16].BifidobacteriaDecomposes lactose and oligosaccharidesLactic acid,Acetic acidTo produce in the intestinespHSignificantly reduced[17],Good bacteriaAs well as adjusting the environment in the intestine,hay feverIt has been found that it also contributes to alleviation of allergic symptoms[18].. Mostly in infantsRotavirusHas been reported to suppress infectious enteritis[19].LactoferrinIt is,Breastmilk-涙-Sweat-salivaIron-binding substances contained in exocrine fluid such asGlycoproteinIs. Lactoferrin is known to have strong antibacterial activity.Gram positive-Gram negativeMany bacteria, regardless of鉄is necessary.TransferrinLike, lactoferrin suppresses bacterial growth by stripping away iron[20][21][22].. It is secreted in breast milk, especially in the first few days after delivery.colostrumContains a large amount of lactoferrin.BreastfeedingByImmunoglobulinLactoferrin from the mother withNewbornIs taken into. Lactoferrin cooperates with these factors to cause immaturity of the immune system.NewbornIs believed to be defending itself from foreign enemies. Enterobacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria have low iron requirement for growth, and lactoferrin does not show antibacterial activity or rather promotes growth.[21][22].

Synthesis of short chain fatty acids

Human capital OfDigestive tractIs on my ownStarch,glycogenOther thanDietary fiberMany arePolysaccharideCan not digest, but anaerobic intestinal bacteria in the large intestinefermentationBy doing,Acetic acidButyric acid orPropionic acidShort chain likefatty acidIs converted to and absorbed as an energy source. In healthy people, these three types account for 3% of short-chain fatty acids,Ulcerative colitisIn affected people, short-chain fatty acidsLactic acidThe proportion of In healthy individuals, when lactic acid is produced in the large intestine, it is rapidly metabolized by intestinal bacteria to acetic acid, butyric acid, propionic acid, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, methane, etc.[23].. Much of the dietary fiber is cellulose,celluloseThe utilization capacity is unexpectedly high, and it is said that powdered cellulose can be decomposed and utilized almost 100% via intestinal bacteria. Starch produces about 4 kcal/g of energy, while dietary fiber produces energy by fermentation degradation by intestinal bacteria, and although the value is not constant, the effective energy is considered to be 0-2 kcal/g. .. In addition, the recommended intake of dietary fiber is 19 g/day or more for adult men and 17 g/day or more for adult women.[24].. Dietary fiber is converted into a degradable product that can be absorbed by humans in the large intestine by intestinal bacteria, and has the characteristic of being absorbed as energy in the body after a long time after eating, which contributes to the leveling of energy absorption. There is.

Even if nutrients are absorbed in the small intestine, they are not diverted to the metabolism of small intestine tissue but are immediately carried away by the portal vein, and the tissues of the small intestine itself are nourished by the nutrients supplied by arterial blood. However, the short-chain fatty acids produced and absorbed by this fermentation are directly used as the main energy source for metabolism of the tissues of the large intestine, and the surplus portion is used as the energy source of the tissues of the whole body.

Short-chain fatty acids produced in the large intestine are the main energy source in horses and other herbivores, but in humans it is also low.calorieWhen eating a diet rich in dietary fiber, short-chain fatty acids produced by fermentation in the large intestine are an important energy source.

Humancolon, Especially in the second half of the colonMucosaUses butyric acid, which is produced by enteric bacteria that produce butyric acid, as the main energy source[23].. Butyric acid produced in the large intestine is preferentially used as an energy source for colon cells.[25].. Butyric acid accounts for 70-90% of the nutritional energy of the large intestine[26].

Typical butyric acid producingButyric acid bacteriaIsClostridium butyricumIt is,Obligate anaerobicsporeformGram positiveBacillus.Clostridium OfType speciesBut also. It is widely present in the environment in the form of spores, but is particularly known as a bacterium indigenous to the digestive tract of animals. in JapanMiyairiThe so-called strain is known as a useful strain of butyric acid bacteria, and spores are formulated and used as an intestinal regulator.[27][28].. Some bacteria of the genus Clostridium are known as butyric acid bacteria,picklesCause the butyric acid odor of[29].

Butyric acid acts as an intestinal growth factor, has anti-inflammatory activity, and is also involved in the repair of injured intestinal tract.[30]..Butyric acid produced by intestinal bacteriaHistonePromotes acetylation ofp21P1, a protein that stimulates genes and arrests the cell cycle in the G21 phaseColorectal cancerTheG1 periodHas been pointed out to suppress colon cancer[31][32].. High ability to produce butyric acidButyrivibrio fibrisolvensIt has been pointed out that the administration of sucrose increases the production of butyric acid, suppresses the formation of carcinogen-induced precancerous lesions of the large intestine, and may prevent or suppress the large intestine cancer.[33].. It was reported that the stools of colorectal cancer patients had a lower organic acid concentration, especially the concentration of n-butyric acid, compared to that of healthy subjects.[34].

Vitamin synthesis

Vitamin KAlong with food intake, it is also supplied by multiple gut microbiota belonging to several types.Vitamin K is also involved in blood coagulation (hemostatic), and if it is deficient, various internal bleeding and other deficiencies occur.In human adults, the supply of intestinal bacteria is usually sufficient, but newborn humansNewbornThen, since the intestinal microflora has not yet been sufficiently formed, it cannot be produced sufficiently, so intestinal bleeding (Bloody stool) Etc. are likely to occur. In addition to this,FetusAnd in newbornsbirthOn the occasionboneTo softenP450Due to bonecalciumThere is also a theory that it decomposes vitamin K, which is related to colonization, in the body.[35].. Also in adultsAntibioticsDeficiency can likewise occur when the intestinal flora is impaired by the administration of.

BiotinThe standard daily dose of (vitamin B7) is 45 μg for adults. Supplied by the intestinal flora, no deficiency occurs in the normal diet[36].Pyridoxine(Vitamin B6) Is also supplied by intestinal bacteria[37].

Dietary fiberIf you eat too much, it will be caused by intestinal bacteria.Vitamin B1The synthesis of[38].

In vivo,Niacin(Vitamin B3) isTryptophanBiosynthesized from.Human capitalIn this case, enterobacteria are further synthesizing niacin from tryptophan.

Propionic acidProducing bacteriaVitamin B12Is the main fungus that produces[39].. Vitamin B12Is specificEubacteriaas well as the ArchaeabyProkaryotesProduced naturally only by multicellular or unicellularEukaryoteNot produced by[40][41].Human capitalAnd vitamin B, which is synthesized by some intestinal bacteria in other animals12Vitamin B in the large intestine distal to the small intestine where it is absorbed12Is produced, so humans can get vitamin B made in the large intestine.12Can't absorb[42],牛,sheeplikeRuminantIs a vitamin B produced by symbiotic bacteria growing in the stomach12Is absorbed in the intestine[42].

EnterobacteriaPantothenic acid(Vitamin B5),Folic acidIt also produces (vitamin B9), riboflavin, niacin (vitamin B3), biotin (vitamin B7), vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and vitamin K.[43]. Also,yeastIt is,Vitamin B1Can be synthesized[44].

Bifidobacteria are vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin K, and others.Vitamin BGenerate a group[16].. Bifidobacterium (B. infantis,B. breve,B. bifidum,B. longumas well as the B. adolescentisのすべて)で菌体内にビタミンB1、B2、B6、B12、C、ニコチン酸(B3)、葉酸(B9)及びビオチン(B7)を蓄積し、菌体外にはビタミンB6、B12及び葉酸を産生した。ヒト(成人)の腸内の平均量のビフィズス菌の推定ビタミン産生量はビタミンB2、B6、B12、Cおよび葉酸で所要量の14-38%を占め無視できない割合と考えられる[45].

Lactic acid bacteriaVitamin CIs generated in a small amount. VegetablesfruitCannot take遊牧民Was lactic acid fermentedHorse milk liquorTake at least 1-1 liters a day[46][47].. Horse milk liquor contains 100-8 mg of vitamin C per 11 ml[48].

Metabolism of bilirubin, a degradation product of heme

In the liverGlucuronosyltransferaseByHemIs a decomposed product ofBilirubin TheGlucuronic acid conjugationReceives the water and becomes soluble in water. Most of the conjugated bilirubinbileBecome part ofduodenumSecreted by. Part of the conjugated bilirubin reaches the large intestine and is reduced by the action of intestinal bacteria.UrobilinogenIt is metabolized to, reabsorbed from the intestine, excreted as urine through the kidneys. This circulation is called the enterohepatic urobilinogen cycle. Urobilinogen isantioxidant effectHaveDPPHRadical scavengingAntioxidant(Vitamin E, Bilirubin andβ-carotene) Is higher than[49][50].. When the reabsorbed urobilinogen is oxidized in the body, it becomes yellowUrobilinIt is excreted from the urine next to it.Urobilinogen remaining in the intestine is further reducedStercobilinogenAnd then another site is oxidized and eventuallyStercobilinbecome. This stercobilinStoolIs the original brown. If bilirubin is not secreted as bile and accumulates in the body,jaundiceDevelop.

Production of hydrogen gas and antioxidant effect

Fiber that is indigestiblelactoseIntake and intestinal bacteria may cause exhalation orfartIncreases gas production and emissions to. The gas produced is hydrogenmethaneHowever, methane is not produced unless there is a methane-producing bacterium due to individual differences. The correlation between the amount of hydrogen in fart and exhaled breath is as high as 0.44[51].

α-glucosidase inhibitorIsDiabetes mellitusTherapeuticAcarboseWhen you takecarbohydrateIs absorbed and hydrogen is produced by intestinal bacteria in the large intestine, but taking acarbose may suppress cardiovascular accidents.High blood sugarIn addition to the suppression of hydrogen gas, an increase in hydrogen gas is observed during exhalation, and a mechanism for suppressing cardiovascular accidents is assumed by the antioxidant action of this increased hydrogen.[52].

The antioxidative effect of hydrogen has been reported in various studies, and enterobacteria are producing hydrogen. In an experiment on mice induced with hepatitis using concanavalin A, hydrogen produced by normal enterobacteria was compared to that in mice in which the production of hydrogen by enterobacteria was suppressed by antibiotics. Was found to suppress inflammation[53].

Maintenance of intestinal environment

Intestinal bacteria such as lactic acid bacteriaCarrierAs a result, the bacterial cells may be adsorbing and discharging intestinal waste products.[47].. Many kinds of microorganisms live in the intestines of healthy humans, and lactic acid bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are detected in the intestines of almost all humans. The number of bacteria per gram in human feces is said to be 1 billion for bifidobacteria and 100 to 10 for lactic acid bacteria other than bifidobacteria.[54].. These lactic acid bacteria are often regarded as a kind of so-called "good bacteria in the intestines", and increasing the proportion of these bacteria in the intestinal flora (intestinal flora) helps promote health. Is hypothesized. However, with regard to its effectiveness, multiple results have been obtained each of which has no relation to the experimental results that are significant, and the conclusion is not reached at present.

#Good bacteria and bad bacteriachecking ...

honeyInsidesporeFormed a pauseClostridium botulinumMay be included. Normally, even if ingested, it is excreted outside the body as it is, but if the baby ingests honey that has not been heated, it will germinate in the body and produce toxins, causing intoxication symptoms (Infant botulism), and possibly death, so caution is required. In humans with a well-developed intestinal bacterium, feeding on raw honey causes the intestinal bacterium to prevent the growth of Clostridium botulinum from its spores (see detailshoneychecking ... )[55].

Some intestinal bacteriaProbioticsStockIrritable bowel syndromeAnd chronicconstipationIt is said to be effective in reducing the symptoms of. The enterobacteria most likely to cause a reduction in symptoms include the following:

Contribution to reduction of serum uric acid level

Produced in the human body in one dayuric acidIs about 700 mg, about that1⁄3Is from food[59].. About 2/3 of the excretion of uric acid is excreted in the urine via the kidney and about 1/3 in the intestine[60].. Kidney reabsorbs 90% of uric acid and excretes approximately 10% in urine[61]..In the intestinesPurineIt has been pointed out that is may be taken up by intestinal bacteria and used for DNA synthesis to reduce purines in the intestinal tract. To humansLactobacillus gasseriIncluding PA-3YogurtAfter daily intake, the serum uric acid level decreased. It was speculated that this is due to suppression of absorption into the human body by taking up purine by the bacterial body.[59].

Possibility of prevention of Clostridium difficile enteritis

Clostridium difficile enteritisIs thought to occur due to bacterial metastasis caused by disturbance of the normal intestinal microflora due to the administration of antibiotics, etc.[62].. Disturbing the normal intestinal flora isIt's hard To give the opportunity to multiply[63].. So this disease(English edition)one of[64]. It's hard The occurrence of enteritis is an antibioticNew quinolone,Cephalosporins,ClindamycinStrongly correlated with the use of[65].Clostridium butyricumThe utility of (Miyairi) is mainly due to its ability to interfere with the growth of highly pathogenic Clostridium difficile, which is the causative agent of Clostridium difficile enteritis by antagonizing the growth of highly pathogenic bacteria.[66].

Possibility of prevention of autism

Comparing the intestinal bacteria of autistic and healthy childrenClostridiumIt has been reported that the average number of bacteria is about 10 times higher. A large amount of various types when infantsAntibioticsA case in which the composition of intestinal bacteria was destroyed by the administration of erythrocyte and autism was accompanied by the growth of Clostridium was introduced. Pointed out that it is due to a Clostridial neurotoxin that damages the young brain[67].

Pathogenic Clostridium spp.Shaw 2010) Has reported that a high concentration of 3- (3-hydroxyphenyl) -3-hydroxypropanoic acid (abbreviation: HPHPA), a substance produced by this genus, is detected in the urine of children with autism. Attention was paid to phobic action[68].

フィンランドStudy suggests that intestinal flora may help prevent autism[69][70].

Immune function

en: Gut flora # Immunitychecking ...

Allergy prevention

en: Gut flora # Preventing allergychecking ...

Absorption of iron

As for iron, trivalent iron ions exist in the natural world, but it is thought that they are absorbed after being reduced to divalent iron ions.Tokyo Institute of TechnologyUnder the same environment as in the intestine, the group of Applied Biology Department reduced the trivalent iron ion to divalent iron ion by all of the enterobacteria E. coli, butyric acid bacterium, lactic acid bacterium, and bifidobacteria. Reported that intestinal bacteria contributed to iron absorption by promoting microbial growth[71].

Diseases caused by intestinal bacteria

Production of lithocholic acid

Lithocholic acid(Lithocholic acid) isLipidTo solubilize and enhance absorptionSurfactantPlay the role ofbile acidIs a kind of.colonWithinmicroorganismBy the activity ofPrimary bile acidIsChenodeoxycholic acidからSecondary bile acidIs biosynthesized as. This reaction is possessed by some enterobacteriaBile acid-7α-dehydroxylaseProduces lithocholic acid.It has been confirmed that many strains of about 1-10% of the total number of intestinal bacteria have low bile acid-7α-dehydroxylase-producing ability.[72][Reliability required verification].. Lithocholic acid is released in humans and experimental animals.cancerIs said to bring[73].. All enterobacteria that produce secondary bile acids such as carcinogenic lithocholic acidClostridiumFor the time being, six types of bacteria belonging to the category of Sindence, Hylemonae and Hylanonis have been discovered.[74].

Reduction of nitrate nitrogen to nitrite

Nitrate nitrogenincludingfertilizerAs a result of the large amount of fertilizer applied,groundwaterIs contaminated with nitrate nitrogen, and a large amount of nitrate nitrogen remains in leafy vegetables.Including humansAnimalWhen a large amount of nitrate nitrogen is ingested, it is reduced to nitrite nitrogen by intestinal bacteria, which is absorbed by the body and is absorbed in the blood.hemoglobinCombined withMethemoglobinGenerateMethemoglobinemiaLevel 2 can cause oxygen deficiency such asAmineCombined withCarcinogen OfNitrosamineThe problem that causes[75][76].. Mainly derived from fertilizer for vegetablesnitric acidsalt,NitriteMay contain high amounts of salt. Commercially availablepicklesAmong them, there were many nitrates and nitrites, among which leaf vegetables were the highest, followed by root vegetables and fruit vegetables in that order.[77].IARC Carcinogenic Risk List"Pickled vegetables (traditional in Asia)" is listed as Group 2B (Possibly Carcinogenic chemicals, mixtures, and environment) in humans. Asian style pickled vegetables means traditional pickles in China, Korea, and Japan, and low concentrations of nitrosamines are detected.[78].

Hydrogen sulfide-producing bacteria and ulcerative colitis

Produced by hydrogen sulfide-producing bacteriaHydrogen sulfide Ulcerative colitisIt is pointed out that it may be the cause. There is an enzyme that metabolizes hydrogen sulfide in the mucous membrane of the large intestine, but it has been pointed out that exposure of the large intestine to hydrogen sulfide in excess of that amount may cause ulcerative colitis.[79].. Hydrogen sulfideMitochondriaLocated inCytochrome c oxidaseDevelops toxicity by inhibiting By being exposed to high concentrations of hydrogen sulfideApoptosisIs a related proteinCaspase 3Activation and cytochrome c release from mitochondria may induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis[80][Reliability required verification].. To control the generation of harmful substances that can damage the colonic mucosaLabiataeBy giving animal extracts of several plants centered onMethanethiolIt became clear that the occurrence of[81].. According to a survey conducted in the UK, about one third of peopleMethane bacteriaIs a methane producer.methane gasIn humans who do not make hydrogen, sulfate-reducing bacteria replace hydrogen with methane bacteria that utilize hydrogen.Lactic acidTo reduce sulfate ion to produce hydrogen sulfide[82].

Anoilinase production

Anoilinase (=Thiaminase) IsVitamin B1It is an enzyme that breaks down.ThiaminaseBracken,spring,Koi,Crucian carpSuch asFreshwater fishInternal organs of theclamIncluded in. Also, when heated, this enzyme is usually inactivated. It is said that there are several percent of humans who carry anoillinase-producing anoillinase bacteria as enterobacteria. However, even if you carry this bacterium, you still have vitamin B1 deficiency.beriberiAlmost no subjective or objective symptoms of[83].

Relationship with obesity

obesityWith or withoutWelco Microbium GateBelongs toAckermancia Mushinifila(Akkermansia muciniphila) Is said to be involved in the intestinal bacteria. The less this bacteria isBMIThe value is high. In lean people, this bacterium accounts for 4% of intestinal bacteria, and in fat people it is almost zero. This bacterium covers the intestinal wallmucusIt lurks on the surface of the layer. When this bacterium is low, the mucus layer becomes thinLipopolysaccharideIs said to easily enter the blood. In addition, lipopolysaccharide causes inflammation of adipocytes andFat cellsPrevents the formation of fat and causes excessive accumulation of fat in existing cells.In the gut microbiota of obese mice compared to the two major gut microbiota of normal miceBacteroides GateIs lessPhilmictes GateThere were many Similar results were obtained in humans. When the intestinal bacteria of normal and obese mice were transferred to germ-free mice, the same phenomenon occurred. Obese mice belong to the Philmictes phylum compared to lean miceClostridiumThere were a lot of them[84].. In the human example, a low city in ItalyDietary fiber・The stools of children with high-energy diets had many Phylmictes, and the flights of children with high-fiber and low-energy diets in Africa had many Bacteroides gates.[85].. Firmicutes prefers lipids and proteins, and Bacteroides prefers dietary fiber. Conversely, if you continue to eat high-fiber and low-energy food, the bacteria in the Philmicutes gate will decrease and you will not get fat easily.[86].. On the other hand, a 2014 study that re-analyzes previous studies pointed out that the ratio of Philmictes to Bacteroides is not consistently associated with obesity in humans.[87].

Since the 1950s, it has been recognized by US farmers that low-dose, non-medicated doses of antibiotics have been used to raise animal weight gains significantly. In addition, the administration of low dose antibiotics to experimental mice also showed weight gain. 6-month-old human infants were also associated with antibiotic administration and weight gain[88].

Aseptic animal

Aseptic animalAnd in and on the bodymicroorganism(ウ イ ル ス,Parasite(Including) is a non-existent animal (actually, an animal without all detectable microorganisms). Aseptic animals are sterile to control factors such as viruses, bacteria and parasites.IsolatorBe raised inside[89].. Aseptic animalsCecumHas a large volume[90],lifeHas a long feature. A comparison of germ-free mice and normal mice in a free-fed environment showed that germ-free mice had a longer lifespan.[91].

Enterobacteriacea has both a benefit and a detriment for large animals, but it is unclear which is greater. In the case of germ-free animals, the lifespan of ordinary animals is longer than that of normal animals, so there is a possibility that the total harm will be greater. However, in the real world, humans cannot live aseptically.

Related research timeline

The first discovery of intestinal bacteria was at the same time that the microorganisms themselves were discovered.Rawen HookMade by Lewen Hook created it from 1674 by himselfmicroscopeHe used to observe various things in the environment and discovered microorganisms such as bacteria.shitHe also observed stools and sketched intestinal bacteria.

  • 1876 Robert Koch AnthraxVarious bacteria came to be isolated by the success of the pure culture of, but in Europe at that timecholera,typhoidThere is a prevalence of gastrointestinal infectious diseases such as, and it is also present in healthy subjects who are simultaneously separated when pathogenic bacteria are separated from the patient.Often presentAs some, including E. coli (1885)EnterobacteriaceaeWere isolated and identified. However, at this time, little was known about the existence of obligate anaerobes that die when exposed to oxygen, so less than 10% of the enterobacteria could actually be cultured. Most of the rest, uncultivated obligate anaerobes, were thought to be the remains of dead bacteria.
  • 1880s A toxic compound caused by decay of undigested protein was discovered in the small intestine[92].Ilya MetynikovDeveloped as a theory of self-poisoning, assuming that toxins were absorbed from the intestine and shortened their lifespan, and became widely known by the general public in the late 19th century.[93].
  • 1899 Pasteur InstituteTissier, a researcher atBreastmilkBifidobacteria, an obligate anaerobic bacterium, were isolated from the feces of nutritional infants. At that time, it was known that the growth and mortality of newborns differ depending on whether breast milk or artificial milk is given, and that breast-fed infants are in better health. To clarify this difference, Tissier focused on intestinal bacteria isolated in the feces, succeeded in isolating Bifidobacterium by a method that was technically immature at the time, and breastfed infants with this bacteria. It was revealed that there are many. This finding has brought to the attention that enterobacteria are involved in host health, and has led to the isolation of many obligate anaerobes in the early 20th century.
  • In 1904 Ilya Metynikov became vice director of the Pasteur Institute. In 1907, he published a book called "Your Longevity Theory." this is,ブルガリアIt is a theory that there are many long-lived people, so when ingesting lactic acid bacteria, the amount of putrefactive substances decreased, so to prevent the generation of toxins (self-poisoning)Lactic acid bacteriaIt is said that if you ingest it, you will have a long life. In addition to lactic acid bacteria in Bulgaria,KefirIt is pointed out that people take lactic acid bacteria without knowing it by pickled or pickled or salted foods.[94].. Metnikov was cellular in 1908.ImmunologyAnd received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the achievement of advocating the phagocytic theory, the theory of immortality and longevity came to the limelight, although it was a study unrelated to the award.[Source required].. However, it was revealed that most of the lactic acid bacteria (Bulgarian bacteria) presented by Methnikov were sterilized in the stomach and did not reach the intestine, and at the same time, rot and various diseases were caused only by putrefactive substances in the intestine. This theory was put down because it was also revealed that the occurrence could not be explained.[Source required].
  • 1918 John Harvey KelloggIs "home addiction"[95] Based on the theory of self-poisoning, the bacteria that produce poison in the undigested meat propagate and the poison causes physical disorders.VegetarianWas recommended. Kellogg also developed cereal food,Dietary fiberAdvertised that it is important for health by shortening the time it takes to stimulate the intestines and produce poison, which has made the public aware of the importance of dietary fiber.[93].
  • Around 1950, research on the role of intestinal bacteria from the viewpoint of symbiosis with the host became popular again, and helped by the great development of anaerobic culture technology,Bacterial floraSurvey methods have been developed, and the actual situation has been elucidated.It has also become increasingly clear that the intestinal resident microflora is involved in host health.The development of preparations or health foods that try to maintain health by intervening in the intestinal bacterial balance has come to be carried out.
  • 1965 by Lily et al.ProbioticsAdvocated as[96]Since then, research has been advanced to reach the intestines with fermented foods using lactic acid bacteria.
  • 1995 As a substance that grows useful intestinal bacteriaPrebioticsThe concept is advocated[97].. Typical examples of prebiotics include dietary fiber and oligosaccharides. Foods that have both probiotic and prebiotic functions are called.

Main bacteria

Good bacteria

Bad bacterium

Opportunistic bacteria

Enterobacteria of non-human animals

Enterobacteria are present not only in humans but also in various animals having the digestive tract, but their compositions differ depending on animal species. Basically both are Bacteroides (BacteroidesGenus) etc.Obligate anaerobic bacteriumIs predominant, but humans,monkey,Guinea pigAnd so onLactic acid bacteriaAs there are many members of Bifidobacteria,pig,mouse,Dog,A horseIn Lactobacillus (Lactobacillus) Is a lot. Herbivores, such as horses and rabbits, are enlarged to store anaerobic bacteriaCecum,colonhave.Ruminant OfcowIn the rumen ofcelluloseDecomposes to produce acetic acid, butyric acid, etc.LuminococcusThere are a lot ofCiliateAlso live and probably eat the bacteria they live with[98]There are few lactic acid bacteria in cats, rabbits, cattle, etc.

In birds,ChickenHas Bacteroides and Lactobacillus. In fish,salmon,Striped bassSeawaterVibrioHas been found[98].

Lower parts such as house termitesTermiteIn the gastrointestinal tractProtozoaThe enzyme decomposes the cellulose of plant fiber and digests and absorbs it. CoexistingSuperflagellateMost of them are found only in the intestines of termites.[99].

footnote

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